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Home Explore CU-MCOM-SEM-IV-Business finance -Second Draft

CU-MCOM-SEM-IV-Business finance -Second Draft

Published by Teamlease Edtech Ltd (Amita Chitroda), 2021-09-09 06:25:31

Description: CU-MCOM-SEM-IV-Business finance -Second Draft


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 Define the meaning and characteristics of business finance;  Explain purpose and sources of Long-Term  Explain about Liquidation and modes of winding up companies.  Explain the Procedure of Preparation of Statement of Affairs 4.1 INTRODUCTION If we follow the start of cash, there is verification to show that it is just probably as old as human existence on earth. The word finance was at first a French word. In the eighteenth century, it was changed by English talking organizations to mean \" the chiefs of money\". From here on out, it's everything except an enduring spot in the English word reference. Today, finance isn't just a word else has arisen into an academic request of more unmistakable significance. Cash is by and by facilitated as a piece of monetary angles. Moreover, the single word which can without a very remarkable stretch replace finance is “EXCHANGE. “Money is just an exchange of available resources. Cash isn't bound unmistakably to the trade and also the executives of money. A deal trading structure is similarly a sort of cash. Accordingly, we can say, Finance is a claim to fame of managing diverse available resources like money, resources, speculations, assurances, and so forth As of now, we can't imagine a world without Finance. By the day's end, Finance is the soul of our money related activities. To play out any financial activity, we need certain resources, which are to be pooled similar to cash (for instance as money notes, various resources, etc) Finances a fundamental for obtaining genuine resources, which are relied upon to perform useful exercises and passing on business tasks like arrangements, pay compensations, hold for possibilities (unascertained liabilities, and so forth Subsequently, Finance has now become a natural capacity and indissoluble piece of our regular daily existences. Today, it's everything except a word which we frequently experience on our customary timetable. 4.2 MEANING AND DEFINITION OF FINANCE Cash is the world used to portray both the money resources open to individuals, business firms, government and the chiefs of these money resources. In every practical sense, all people and affiliation get or raise cash and go through or set aside cash. Cash is the activity with the masterminding, getting, the chiefs and controlling of the affiliation's money related resources. As indicated by Experts 51 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

\"Money is a basic assignment of giving the vital assets (cash) needed by the matter of elements like organizations, firms, people and others on the terms that are generally ideal to accomplish their monetary goals.\" As indicated by Entrepreneurs \"Money is worried about cash. It is in this way, since, each deal includes cash straightforwardly or by implication.\" As per Academicians \"Money is the acquisition (to get, get) of assets and powerful (appropriately arranged) use of assets. It likewise manages benefits that satisfactorily make up for the expense and dangers borne by the business.\" 4.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF FINANCE 1. Speculation Opportunities: In Finance, Investment can be clarified as a usage of money for benefit or returns. Speculation should be possible by: -  Making actual resources with the cash (like improvement of land, acquiring commercial resources, etc.),  Carrying on business exercises (like assembling, exchanging, and so forth), and  Procuring monetary protections (like offers, securities, units of common assets, etc.). Investment openings are responsibilities of financial assets at various occasions with an expectation of monetary returns later on. 2. Productive Opportunities: In Finance, Profitable freedoms are considered as an important yearning (objective). Beneficial freedoms connote that the firm should use its available resources most proficiently under the states of vicious serious business sectors. Profitable opportunities will be a dream. It will not bring about transient benefits to the detriment of long-term gains. For instance, business continued with rebelliousness of law, deceptive methods of securing the business, and so forth, generally may bring about tremendous momentary benefits however may likewise thwart the smooth chance of long-haul gains and endurance of business later on. 3. Ideal Mix of Funds: Money is worried about the best ideal blend of assets in order to acquire the ideal and decided outcomes individually. Essentially, reserves are of two sorts, namely, 52 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 Claimed reserves (Promoter Contribution, Equity shares, and so on), and  Acquired assets (Bank Loan, Bank overdraft, Debentures, etc). The structure of assets ought to be to such an extent that it will not bring about loss of benefits to the Entrepreneurs (Promoters) and should recuperate the expense of specialty units successfully and proficiently. 4. Arrangement of Internal Controls: Money is worried about inward controls kept up with in the association or work environment. Inner controls are set of rules and guidelines outlined at the inception phase of the association, and they are modified according to the prerequisite of its business. However, these principles and guidelines are checked at different stretches to achieve the same which have been reliably followed. 5. Future Decision Making: Money is worried about the future choice of the organization. A \"Great Finance” is a marker of development and great returns. This is conceivable only with the great scientific choice of the association. Notwithstanding, the choice will be outlined by giving more accentuation on the present and future point of view (financial conditions) individually. 4.4 DEFINITION OF LONG-TERM FINANCING As the name recommends, long term financing is a type of financing that is accommodated a time of over a year. Long haul financing administrations are given to those business entities that face a lack of capital. It is unique in relation to transient financing which is ordinarily used to give cash that must be repaid inside a year. The time frame might be more limited than one-year as well. Models of long-haul financing incorporate - a long term contract or a 10-year Treasury note. Equity is another type of long-haul financing, like when an organization issues stock to raise capital for another venture. 4.5 PURPOSE OF LONG-TERM FINANCE  To back fixed resources.  To back the perpetual piece of working capital.  Extension of organizations.  Expanding offices.  Development projects on a major scale. 53 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 Give cash-flow to subsidizing the tasks. This aides in changing the income. 4.6 LONG-TERM SOURCES OF FINANCE (1) Equity-Shares: Value Shares, otherwise called common offers, address the possession capital in an organization. The holders of these offers are the lawful proprietors of the organization. They have unhindered case on pay and resources of the organization and have all the democratic force in the organization. Indeed, the chief target of an organization is to expand the worth of its value shares. Being the proprietors of the organization, they bear the danger of possession moreover. They are qualified for profits subsequent to delivering the inclination profits. The pace of profit on these offers isn't fixed and relies on the accessibility of separable benefits and the aim of the chiefs. They might be delivered a higher pace of profit in the midst of flourishing and furthermore risk no profits in the time of misfortune. Essentially, when the organization is wrapped up, they can practice their case on those resources which are left after the instalment of any remaining cases including that of inclination investors. (2) Preference Shares:Inclination share capital is another wellspring of long-haul financing for an organization. As the name recommends, these offers convey particular rights over value shares both in regards to the instalment of profit and the arrival of capital. These offers convey a fixed pace of profit and such profit should be settled completely before the instalment of any profit on value shares. Additionally, at the hour of liquidation, the entire of inclination capital should be paid before any instalment is made to value investors. (3) Ploughing Back of Profits:Another organization can raise finance just from outer sources like offers, debentures, advances and so forth Yet, a current organization can likewise produce finance through its inner sources, i.e., held income or furrowing back of benefits. At the point when an organization doesn't appropriate entire of its benefits as profit yet reinvests a piece of it in the business, it is known as furrowing back of benefits or maintenance of income. This strategy for financing is otherwise called self-financing or inner financing. Furrowing back of benefits is made by moving a piece of after charge benefits to different holds, for example, General Reserve, Reserve Fund, Replacement Fund, Dividend Equalization Fund and so on Such held income might be used to satisfy the long haul, medium-term and transient monetary prerequisites of the firm. (4) Debentures: Debentures are one of the often-utilized techniques by which an organization raises long haul reserves. Assets procured by issue of debentures address credits taken by the organization and are otherwise called 'obligation capital'. A debenture is an endorsement 54 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

given by an organization under it's anything but an obligation due by it to its holders. In USA there is a differentiation among debentures and bonds. There, the term bond alludes to an instrument which is gotten on the resources of the organization though the debentures allude to unstable instruments. Yet, in India no such qualification is made among bonds and debentures and the two terms are utilized as interchangeable. As per Section 2 (30) of the Companies Act, 2013, \"the term debenture incorporates debenture stock, securities and some other protections of an organization whether comprising a charge on the resources of the organization or not.\" (5) Loans from Financial Institutions: Monetary Institutions are another significant wellspring of long-haul finance. In India, various unique monetary foundations have been set up by the Government at the public level and state level to give medium-term and long-haul advances to the modern endeavours. Monetary foundations set up at the public level incorporate Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI), Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI), Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI), Industrial Reconstruction Corporation of India (IRCI), Unit Trust of India (UTI), Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), General Insurance Corporation (GIC) and so forth Monetary organizations set up at the state level incorporate State Financial Corporations (SFCs) and State Industrial Development Corporations (SIDCs). For instance, In Haryana, Haryana State Financial Corporation (HFC) and Haryana State Industrial Development Corporation (HSIDC) have been set up. (6) Lease Financing: Rent is an agreement between the proprietor of a resource and the client of such resource. Proprietor of the resource is called 'Lessor' and the client is called 'Tenant'. Under the rent contract, the proprietor of the resource gives up the option to utilize the resource for another gathering for a concurred timeframe for a concurred thought called the rent rental. The renter pays a fixed rental to the lessor toward the start or toward the finish of a month, quarter, half year, or year. Toward the finish of the time of rent contract, the resource returns to the lessor, who is the lawful proprietor of the resource. As the lawful proprietor, it is the lessor (and not the renter), who will be qualified for guarantee devaluation on the rented resource. Toward the finish of rent period, the tenant is generally given an alternative to purchase or further re-establish the rent contract for an unequivocal period. Renting is, in this manner, a gadget of long-haul wellspring of money. Resident gets the option to utilize the resource without getting them. His position is similar to that of the individual resource with acquired cash. The genuine situation of lessor isn't leasing of 55 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

resource however loaning of money and consequently rent financing is, as a result, an agreement of loaning cash. The tenant is allowed to pick the resource as per his prerequisites and the lessor is really the agent. 4.7 MEANING OF LIQUIDATION Liquidation of organization alludes to a cycle where an organization's presence is brought to an end. On liquidation the issues of an organization are twisted up and its name is struck off from the Register of the Registrar of Companies and this reality is distributed in the Official Gazette. \"Liquidation\" has been supplanted by \"Wrapping up\" came about the term liquidation has not been utilized anyplace in the Companies Act, 2013. It is \"wrapping up\" which has been utilized in this Act. It is worth focusing on that the interaction of liquidation is legitimately named as \"Ending up\" of organizations. 4.8 DEFINITION OF WINDING-UP OF A COMPANY As per Section 2 (94A) of the Companies Act 2013, Winding-up means winding up under this Act or liquidation under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016, as applicable. Ending up of an organization is unique in relation to its disintegration. Twisting up is the interaction of shutting or completing an organization. During this cycle, the organization legitimately exists. It implies that subsequent to twisting up and before disintegration the lawful element or presence of the organization remains all things considered and accordingly it very well may be sued in a courtroom. If there should arise an occurrence of ending up of an organization or liquidation of an organization, the organizations are not permitted to proceed with its business. Yet, notice here the principal differentiation between these two issues is that for liquidation of the organization or indebtedness of the organization its aggregate responsibility ought to be more prominent than its complete resources (TL> TA) while if there should be an occurrence of liquidation it's anything but mandatory that its all-out obligation ought to be more noteworthy than its complete resources. It might occur in both the circumstance i.e., (TL>/< TA). As per Section 270 of the Companies Act 2013, the procedure for winding up of a company can be initiated either: (a) By the tribunal or, (b) Voluntary. 56 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

4.9 MODES OF WINDING-UP A. Ending up of a Company by a Tribunal (Compulsory Winding-up): According to segment 271 of the Companies Act 2013, an organization can be ended up by a court in the accompanying conditions: 1. If the association has by exceptional objective settled that the association be wound up by the chamber. 2. If the association has acted against the interest of the uprightness or significant nature of India, security of the state, or has demolished any kind of all-around arranged relations with pariah or bordering countries. 3. If the association has not recorded its financial reports or yearly returns for going before 5 progressive money related years. 4. In case the gathering utilizing all means finds that it is essentially and fair that the association should be contorted up. 5. If the association in any way is appreciated misleading activities or some other unlawful business, or any individual or the leaders related with the advancement of association is viewed as reprehensible of deception, or any kind of offense. Documenting of Petition for Winding Up: Segment 272 gives that a wrapping up appeal is to be recorded in the endorsed structure in 3 sets. The request for mandatory twisting up can be introduced by the accompanying people: • The association; or • The banks; or • Any contributory or contributories • By the central or state govt. • By the recorder of any individual endorsed by central govt., thus The wrapping up advance should be went with a Statement of Affairs. The board ensuing to hearing the solicitation can pardon it or to make a break demand as it would speculate fitting or it can choose the impermanent outlet of the association till the passing of wrapping up demand. 57 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

B. Intentional Winding Up of a Company The organization can be twisted up intentionally by the shared understanding of individuals from the organization, if: 1. The association passes a Special Resolution communicating about the winding up of the association. 2. The association in its extensive social affair passes an objective for winding up as a result of expiry of the hour of its term as fixed by its Articles of Association or at the occasion of any such event where the articles oblige breaking down of association. Part's Voluntary Winding Up under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code,2016 The Procedure of Voluntary Winding up of dissolvable organization area 304 is currently excluded from the Companies Act, 2013. Along these lines, making area 59 of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 appropriate from first April, 2017. Some Key highlights of segment 59 of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code,2016 are as per the following: Shifting of Powers from Official Liquidator to Insolvency Professional. • Jurisdictional Authority has been moved from High Court to National Company Law Court (NCLT). • Timeline for finishing the Voluntary Winding up measure under the Insolvency and Unit 11 Code is of a year. • The moving of Jurisdictional Authority from High Court to NCLT will result into faster execution as Insolvency Professionals have been depended with powers of wrapping the wrapping up cooperation and offering an explanation to NCLT. • With the passing of special objective at the Members meeting and declaration of dissolvability, the association can start with the wrapping up techniques. Steps for Voluntary Winding-up Process of Company according to Section 59 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016: 1. Disclosure of Solvency appropriately checked by an Affidavit by Majority of Directors of the Association. Pledge to be joined by: (I) Audited Financial Statement of ongoing years/Since Incorporation whichever is later. (ii) Records of Business Operations of ongoing year/Since Incorporation whichever is later. 58 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

(iii) Report by the Registered Valuer about the valuation of the resources of the Organization. (iv) Latest Financial Position of the Company, assuming any. 2. Inside about a month of Declaration of Solvency, Voluntary Winding up of the Company will occur and there will be an arrangement of Insolvency Professional to go about as Outlet subject to the endorsement of the Members in General Meeting and lenders owing 2/third of the Value of the Debt of the Company through Special Resolution inside 7 days of endorsement of liquidation of Company. Implication of the equivalent must be made to the Registrar of Companies. 3. Organization needs to imply Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) in regards to commencement of Voluntary Winding up inside 7 days of endorsement of liquidation of Organization/ensuing endorsement by the lenders. 4. Inside 5 days of Appointment of Insolvency Professional as Liquidator: (I) A Public Announcement to be made in one English Newspaper and one Territorial Language Newspaper having wide flow where the enlisted office and the foremost office assuming any, of the Company is arranged. (ii) Public Announcement to be refreshed on site of the Company, assuming any. 5. Vendor needs to open a Bank Account in the Name of the Company followed by the words \"in deliberate liquidation\" in a planned bank inside one month of passing of Extraordinary Resolution. 6. The Income Tax Department inside One month of passing goal with respect to Deliberate Winding up of the Company and to get NOC for the equivalent. 7. Set up a Preliminary Report to be submitted inside 45 days from the initiation of the liquidation cycle comprising subtleties of: (I) Capital Structure of the Company (ii) Estimates of resources and liabilities as on the liquidation initiation (iii) Any further request identifying with advancement/development/lead of the business (iv) Proposed strategy by outlet including the course of events inside which he proposes to do it and the assessed liquidation costs. 8. The vendor will check the cases submitted inside 30 days from the last date for receipt of cases and may either concede or dismiss the case. 59 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

9. Seller needs to design summary of accomplices inside 45 days from the last date for receipt of cases and besides needs to stay aware of Particulars/Minutes about any direction with Stakeholders. 10.Liquidator necessities to regard and sell the assets in the manner and mode upheld by the Organization and need to store proceeds of spread in Bank Account. 11.Liquidator necessities to scatter the Proceeds to the accomplices inside a half year from the receipt of aggregate. 12.Liquidator requirements to stay aware of addresses liquidation period and direct audit for something very similar 13.The entire cycle to be done inside a year from the date of start of liquidation. 14.If the liquidation cycle connects for longer than a year, the merchant will – Within 15 days from the completion of a year hold meeting of contributories and present a Yearly Report illustrating: (I) Settlement of List of Stakeholders (ii) Details of Assets actually waiting be sorted it out (iii) Distribution made to the accomplices 15.To arrangement Final Report with nuances of Audited Accounts of Liquidation and send it to: (I) The Registrar of Companies (ii) The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (iii) The Adjudicating Authority, i.e., NCLT (National Company Law Tribunal) 4.10 CONTRIBUTORY As per the Companies Act a contributory is \"each individual responsible to add to the resources of an organization in occasion of its being twisted up, and incorporates a holder of completely settled up shares and furthermore any individual claimed to be contributory\". In case of liquidation of an organization, the vendor plans two arrangements of contributories: Rundown 'A': This rundown comprises of those people who are individuals from the organization on the date of the twisting up. In straightforward, List 'A' contributories is the rundown of the current individuals from the organization. They are obligated to contribute the 60 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

sum staying neglected on the offers held by them if the sum is expected to make instalment to lawful inquirers. The holders of completely settled up shares are additionally treated as contributories despite the fact that they are not needed to contribute anything to the organization. This is vital in light of the fact that in such a case, the court will know, the individuals who will contribute as well as who will share the excess, assuming any. Rundown 'B': This rundown comprises of those people who were the individuals from the organization during a year going before the date of twisting up. On the off chance that the resources of the organization are not adequate to pay the liabilities of the organization in case of organization's wrapping up vendor can ask List 'B' contributories to contribute towards the resources of the organization, subject to specific conditions. Be that as it may, their responsibility is limited to the sum not called up when the offers were moved 4.11 LIQUIDATOR The individual delegated for directing the liquidation procedures of the organization is called 'Vendor'. (If there should be an occurrence of Voluntary ending up an Insolvency Professional). The organization should submit an assertion of undertakings to the vendor. The overall obligations of the outlet are to take into his care all the property of the organization and significant cases and make the instalments according to the request laid down in the Companies Act. Preferential payments: Preferential creditors are those creditors who are paid in priority to creditors having a floating charge and other (non-preferential) unsecured creditors. As per Sec. 326 of the Companies Act, 2013, preferential creditors include the following: 1. All incomes, charges, cesses and rates because of the Central, State Government or to a nearby authority which have gotten due and payable inside a year prior to the date of wrapping up request. 2. All wages or pay rates of any representative not surpassing ' 20,000 for each petitioner, in regard of administrations delivered to the organization and due for a period not surpassing four months inside the said a year prior to the date of wrapping up request. 3. All sums due in regard of commitment payable during a year under the Representatives' State Insurance Act, 1948 or some other law. 4. Pay due under Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923 in regard of death or disablement of any worker of the organization. 5. Any sum because of any representative from fortunate asset, benefits reserve, tip store for the government assistance of the representatives kept up with by the organization. 61 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

6. Accumulated occasion compensation getting payable to the representative or if there should arise an occurrence of his demise, to some other individual in his right, on end of his work previously, or by the impact of the twisting up. 7. The costs of any examination held in compatibility of Sec. 213 or 216 to the extent that they are payable by the organization 4.12 PROCEDURE OF PREPARATION OF STATEMENT OF AFFAIRS For the preparation of Statement of Affairs, the following points are to be followed: 1. Most importantly, take all resources which are not explicitly promised. These resources are taken at them feasible qualities. It could be noticed that brings falling behind financially are likewise treated as a resource not explicitly swore to the degree of evaluated feasible sum, however uncalled capital isn't displayed as a resource. 2. Add to the feasible worth of the resources not explicitly promised, any excess from resources clearly cursed. 3. From the all out as acquired by adding (1) and (2) first remove the measure of particular leasers, then, at that point the measure of lenders having a skimming charge (e.g., debentures) and the result will be excess or inadequacy as respects debenture holders. 4. Deduct the measure of unstable lenders from the figure as acquired in (3) over; the resultant figure will be either excess or inadequacy as respects unstable lenders. 5. Deduct the measure of settled up share funding to the figure as gotten in (4) over; the outcome will be either excess or inadequacy as respects individuals or contributories. 6. Any unrecorded resources or risk ought to be shown both in the Statement of Affairs and the Inadequacy or Spare Account to make twofold passage complete. 4.13 LISTS TO BE ATTACHED TO THE STATEMENT OF AFFAIRS Following lists are attached to the Statement of Affairs: List A gives a total rundown of resources not explicitly swore forgot leasers. Banks having a gliding charge on the resources are considered as having resources not explicitly promised with them; so, such resources are remembered for the rundown. List B gives the rundown of resources which are explicitly promised for completely gotten and incompletely got leasers. List C gives the rundown of special leasers. 62 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

List D gives the rundown of debenture holders and different banks having a gliding charge on the resources. List E gives the names, locations and occupations of unstable banks and the sum due. List F gives the names and number and worth of offers held by different inclination investors. List G gives the names and possessions of value investors. List H shows how Deficiency or Surplus in the Statement of Affairs has been shown up at, i.e., it clarifies the reasons liable for the excess or inadequacy. As per the law, the period covered by Deficiency or Surplus should initiate out on the town at the very least 3 years prior to the wrapping up request, or if the organization has not been consolidated for the entire of that period, the date of joining of the organization, except if the authority Liquidator in any case concurs. 4.14 SUMMARY  Money needed by business to build up and run its activities is known as business finance. No business can work without satisfactory measure of assets for undertaking different exercises. The assets are needed for buying fixed resources (fixed capital prerequisite), for running everyday activities (working capital prerequisite), and for undertaking development and extension plans in a business association. The sources that give assets for a period surpassing 5 years are called long haul sources. The sources that satisfy the monetary prerequisites for the time of more than one year yet not surpassing 5 years are called medium term sources and the sources that give assets to a period not surpassing one year are named as transient sources. The wellsprings of assets accessible to a business incorporate held income, exchange credit, considering, rent financing, public stores, business paper, issue of offers and debentures, credits from business banks, monetary establishments and global wellsprings of money.  The part of the net profit of the organization that is not conveyed as profits is known as held income. The measure of held profit accessible relies upon the profit strategy of the organization. It is by and large utilized for development and extension of the organization. Calculating has arisen as a well-known wellspring of transient assets lately. It is a monetary assistance whereby the factor is capable for all credit control and obligation assortment from the purchaser and gives assurance against any awful obligation misfortunes to the firm. There are two strategies of calculating — response and non-plan of action considering. A rent is an authoritative understanding whereby the proprietor of a resource (lessor) allows the option to utilize the resource for the other party (tenant). The lessor charges an occasional instalment for leasing of a resource for a few determined periods called rent lease. 63 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

4.15 KEYWORD  Asset- Something of value owned by a person or company.  Bankrupt- A person who has been placed in bankruptcy.  Insolvent- When a person or company is unable to pay their debts when they are due for payment.  Liquidator- The insolvency practitioner appointed to administer the liquidation of a company. 4.16 LEARNING ACTIVITY 1. Define contributory. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. Define Winding-up of a Company ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 4.17 UNIT END QUESTIONS A. Descriptive Questions 64 Short Questions 1. What are the characteristics of finance? 2. Define Liquidation. 3. Explain the purpose of long-term finance. 4. What do you mean by ideal mix of funds? 5. What do you mean by contributory? Long Questions 1. Explain preparation of Statement of Affairs 2. Explain the modes of winding up of companies. 3. What are the characteristics of Finance? CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

4. What are the lists to be attached to the statement of affairs? 5. Explain the procedure for preparation of Statement of Affairs B. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Pay due under Workmen's Compensation Act, __________in regard of death or disablement of any worker of the organization. a. 1925 b. 1923 c. 1936 d. 1956 2. The individual delegated for directing the liquidation procedures of the organization is called ___________. a. Vendor b. Cost c. Organization d. Institution 3. Jurisdictional Authority has been moved from High Court to ________ 65 a. Day b. Week c. Month d. NCLT 4. Proprietor of the resource is called_________ a. Funds CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

b. Finance c. Lessor d. Environment 5. Monetary Institutions are significant _________of long-haul finance a. Procurement b. wellspring c. Compensation skill d. Managerial skill Answers 1-b, 2-a, 3-d, 4-c, 5-b 4.18 REFERENCES  Anthony, Robert N., and John Dearden. Management Control Systems: Text and Cases. Illinois: Richard D. Irwin Inc., 1976. Print.  Broyles, Jack, eds. Financial Management Handbook. 2 ed. England: Gower, 1983. Print.  Bryson, Jo. Effective Library and Information Centre Management. England: Gower, 1990. Print.  Cloutier, Claudette. “Setting Up a Fee-based Information Service in an Academic Library”. Journal of Academic Libraries 22.14 (2004). Print.  Evan, G. Edward. Management Techniques for Libraries. New York: Academic Press, 1976. Print. 66 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

UNIT – 5 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR 67 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE 5.0 Learning Objectives 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Meaning and Definitions of Strategy 5.3 Nature And Characteristics of Business Strategy 5.4 Strategic Management Process 5.5 Strategic Management Framework 5.6 Strategic decision making 5.7 Mintzberg’s Modes of Strategic Decision Making 5.8 Approaches to Strategic Decision Making 5.9 Conflicts of interest. 5.10 Summary 5.11 Key words 5.12 Learning activity 5.13 Unit end questions 5.14 Reference 5.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, you will be able to:  Define strategy and understand its meaning;  Explain the nature, characteristics and features of strategy;  State the Strategic management process CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 Know approaches of strategic decision making and conflicts of Interest. 5.1 INTRODUCTION The top administration of an organization is worried about choice of a course of activity from among various choices to meet the authoritative targets. The measure by which targets are planned and accomplished is known as vital the executives and system go about as the way to accomplish the goal. Technique is the great plan or a generally 'plan' which an association picks to move or respond towards the set destinations by utilizing its assets. Procedures frequently dedicate an overall program of activity and a suggested sending of accentuation and assets to achieve comprehensive targets. An association is considered proficient and functionally viable on the off chance that it is described by coordination between destinations and systems. There must be addition of the parts into a total design. System assists the association to meet its unsure circumstances with due constancy. Without a system, the association resembles a boat without a control. It resembles a drifter, which has no specific objective to go to. Without a fitting technique adequately carried out, what's to come is consistently dim and subsequently, more are the odds of business disappointment. 5.2 MEANING AND DEFINITIONS OF STRATEGY Dissimilar to the unadulterated sciences which have their establishment in trial research, the board anticipates draw upon the functional encounters of chiefs in portraying ideas? Business strategy is established in the act of the executives and has passes through specific stages prior to taking its state of key the board. The idea of technique is without a doubt the most critical idea in business strategy and key administration. The idea of system is gotten from military standards. In military setting, the system is a game plan to win a conflict. Here military distinguish the quality and amount of assets to be prepared and utilized at the most fitting time in appropriate and helpful way to win a war. In business speech, there is no clear significance of methodology and exploited for number of things like preparing and conveying assets methodically and accomplish hierarchical objective or the example of ongoing idea identified with the association's exercises which are gotten from the approaches and targets and objectives. It is identified with seeking after those exercises which move a suggestion from its present situation to wanted future state. It likewise identifies with assets vital for carrying out an arrangement or following a course of activity. 68 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Methodology exacting importance is \"fully expecting adversaries move, planning one's own specific manner of activity\". As it has extraordinary understandings and truly hard to know what methodology implies. So, we can infer that it is the way to accomplish graded objective. Following is some of the definitions with which we will be able to understand the meaning of strategy. According to Alfred D. Chandler “Strategy is the determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise and the implementation of the course of action and the allocation of capitals necessary for carrying out these goals.” According to Lawrence R. Jauch & William F. Glueck. “A strategy is a unified, inclusive, and integrated plan that tells the strategic advantages of the firm to the challenges of the environment. It is designed to ensure that the basic objectives of the enterprise are achieved through proper execution by the organization.” 5.3 NATURE, CHARACTERISTICS AND FEATURES OF BUSINESS STRATEGY Nature of Business Strategy: Key Management can be characterized as the craftsmanship and study of defining, executing, and assessing, cross-useful choices that empower an association to accomplish its destinations. Key administration nature is not quite the same as different parts of the board. An individual supervisor is frequently needed to manage issues of functional nature. He by and large spotlights on everyday issues like the effective creation of merchandise, the administration of a business power, the checking of monetary execution or the plan of some new framework that will work fair and square of client care. Vital administration includes components designed for a company's drawn-out endurance and accomplishment of the board objectives. Characteristics: 1. Top administration inclusion Key administration identifies with a few spaces of a company's tasks. In this way, it requires top administration's inclusion. 69 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

For the most part, just the top administration has the point of view expected to comprehend the expansive ramifications of its choices and the ability to approve the fundamental asset portions. 2. Prerequisite of a lot of assets Key administration requires the responsibility of the firm to activities throughout an all- inclusive timeframe. Along these lines, they require generous assets, like actual resources, 20 labour and so on Model: Decisions to grow topographically would have huge monetary ramifications as far as the need to assemble and uphold another client base. 3. Influence the organizations long haul flourishing When a firm has conceded to a specific system, its picture and upper hand are attached to that technique; its success is subject to such a methodology for quite a while. 4. Future-arranged Vital administration envelops estimates, what is expected by the supervisors. In such choices, the accentuation is on the advancement of projections that will empower the firm to choose the most encouraging vital alternatives. In the tempestuous climate, a firm will succeed just on the off chance that it takes a proactive position towards change. 5. Multi-practical or multi-business outcomes Key administration has complex ramifications for most spaces of the firm. They sway different vital specialty units particularly in regions identifying with client blend, cutthroat centre, and authoritative construction and so on This load of regions will be influenced by assignments or redistributions of duties and assets that outcome from these choices 6. Non-self-generative choices business outcomes While key administration may include settling on choices somewhat inconsistently, the association should have the readiness to settle on essential choices anytime of time. That is the reason Ansoff calls them \"non-self-generative choices. Following are the features of strategic management. 70 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

1. Objective. 2. Future oriented. 3. Availability and allocation of resources. 4. Influences of Environment. 5. Universal applicability. 6. Levels of strategy. 7. Review. 8. Classification of strategy. 1. Objective Oriented: The business systems are destinations situated and are coordinated towards hierarchical objectives. To define systems the business should know the targets that are to be sought after. For instance, in the event that any business needs to accomplish development, it needs to set the accompanying destinations. a) To build piece of the pie. b) To build clients fulfilment. c) To upgrade the generosity of the firm. 2. Future oriented: Procedure is future arranged arrangement and planned to achieve future situation of the association. Consequently, methodology empowers the board to contemplate the current situation of association and chooses to achieve the future situation of the association. This is conceivable on the grounds that methodology answer question identifying with the accompanying angles. a) Prosperity of the business in future. b) The benefit of the business in future. c) The extension to create and fill in future in various businesses. 3. Availability and allocation of resources: To carry out methodology appropriately there is need of sufficient assets and appropriate portion of assets. On the off chance that it is finished, business can achieve its targets. There are three sorts of assets needed by business in particular actual assets, i.e., plant and apparatus, monetary assets i.e., capital, and human assets i.e., labour. On the off chance that these assets are appropriately inspected/assessed and 71 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

discover its solidarity and shortcomings and arrange well then administration can improve system execution. 4. Influences of Environment: The ecological elements influence the plan and execution of system. The specialty unit by investigating interior furthermore, outside climate can discover its solidarity and shortcomings just as promising circumstances and dangers and can detail its system appropriately. 5. Universal applicability: Procedures are all around material and acknowledged regardless of business nature and size. Each specialty unit plans procedure for its endurance and development. The presence of procedure keeps business moving right way. 6. Levels of strategy: There are organizations that are working in various business lines with respect to items/administrations, markets, or advancements also, are overseen by a similar top administration. For this situation, such organizations need to outline various systems. The systems are executed at three distinct levels, for example, – a) corporate level b) Business level c) Functional/functional level Corporate-level systems are the all-encompassing game plans covering the different capacities that are performed by various SBUs (strategic specialty unit, which associated with a sign line of business) the arrangement manages the targets of the organization, portion of assets and co-appointment of SBUs for best execution. Business level technique is an exhaustive arrangement coordinated to achieve SBUs destinations, distribution of assets among practical regions and coordination between them for giving great commitment for accomplishing corporate-level destinations. Utilitarian level system is confined to a particular capacity. It manages allotment of assets among various activities inside that practical region and planning them for better commitment to SBU and corporate level accomplishment. 7. Review: Systems are to be evaluated intermittently as during the time spent its execution certain progressions will happen. For model while executing development technique there could be lack of assets as a result of restricted sources or downturn during the period so conservation methodology ought to be thought of. 8. Classification of strategy: 72 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Strategies are classified into four major categories known as – a) Stable growth strategy b) Growth strategy c) Retrenchment strategy d) Combination strategy. 5.4 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS Key administration is a powerful cycle .it is constant, advancing, iterative interaction. it implies that it can't be an unbending, stepwise assortment of few exercises masterminded in a successive request Maybe it is a persistently developing mosaic of important exercises. Supervisors play out these exercises in any request dependent upon the circumstance they face at a specific time. Also, this is to be done once more and again throughout the time as the circumstance requests. There are four significant periods of vital administration measure which are as under: A) Establishment of strategic intent. B) Formulation of strategies. C) Implementation of strategies. D) Strategic evaluation. A. Establishment of strategic intent: It is an initial phase in essential administration Process. It includes the progressive system of goals that an association set for itself. For the most part it incorporates vision, mission, business definition and destinations setting up the pecking order of vital purpose which incorporates – 1. Making and imparting a dream. 2. Planning the statement of purpose. 3. Characterizing the business. 4. Receiving the plan of action. 5. Setting targets. 73 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

The progression of vital aim establishes the framework for vital administration of any association. The essential aim clarifies what the association rely on. In the progression, the vision aim effectively states what the association wishes to accomplish over the long haul. The mission relates the association to society. The business definition clarifies the organizations of the association as far as client needs, client gatherings and elective advancements. The plan of action explains how the association makes income. Furthermore, the targets of the associations state what is to be accomplished in a given timeframe. B. Formulation of strategy: Formulation of strategy is relating to strategic planning. It is done at different levels i.e., corporate, business, and operational level. The strategic formulation consists of the following steps. 1. Framing of mission statement:Here the mission expresses the way of thinking and motivation behind the association. And all most all business outlines the mission proclamation to keep its exercises the correct way. 2. Analysis of internal & external environment:The administration should direct an examination of the interior and outside climate. The inward climate comprises of labour, machines, and different sources which dwell inside the association also, effectively alterable and movable. These sources uncover the strength and shortcomings of the association. Outer ecological factor incorporates government, rivalries, shoppers, and mechanical turns of events. These are not customizable and controllable and identifies with associations openings and dangers. 3. Setting of objectives:After SWOT investigation, the administration can set targets in key outcome regions like showcasing, finance, creation, and HR and so forth While setting objectivities in these regions the destinations should be reasonable, explicit, time bound, quantifiable, and simple feasible. 4. Performance comparison: By embraced, hole examination the board should analyse furthermore, break down its current exhibition level with the ideal future execution. This empowers the administration to discover the specific hole between the present and future presentation of the association. On the off chance that there is a satisfactory hole then, at that point, the administration should consider key measures to overcome any issues. 5. Alternative strategies: Subsequent to making SWOT examination and hole investigation the board requirements to get ready (outline) elective procedures to achieve the authoritative goals. It is essential as certain methodologies are to observe and others to be carried out. 6. Evaluation of strategies:The administration should assess the advantages and expenses of every elective system as far as deals, portion of the overall industry, benefit, altruism, and the 74 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

expense caused with respect to the methodology in terms of creation, organization, and appropriation costs. 7. Choice of strategy: It is beyond the realm of imagination to any association to carry out all methodologies in this way the board should be particular. It needs to choose the best system relying upon the circumstance and it needs to consider as far as its expenses and advantages and so on. C. Strategy Implementation: When the methodologies are formed the following stage is to execute them. The essential arrangement is set in motion through six sub-measures known as undertaking, procedural, asset designation, underlying, conduct, and useful execution. The venture execution manages the setting up of the association. Procedural execution manages the various parts of the administrative system inside which associations need to work. Asset assignment identifies with the obtainment and responsibility of assets for execution. The underlying part of execution manages the plan of authoritative constructions what's more, frameworks and rearranging to coordinate with the construction to the requirements of technique. The conduct angles think about the authority style for executing systems and different issues like corporate culture, corporate governmental issues, and utilization of force, individual qualities and business morals, and social duties. The practical perspectives identified with the approaches to be defined in various practical regions. The functional execution manages the efficiency, cycles, individuals, and speed of carrying out the procedures. For any methodology execution, there are five significant advances. For example, 1. Formulation of plans. 2. Identification of activities. 3. Grouping of activities. 4. Organizing resources. 5. Allocation of resources. D. Strategic Evaluation: Vital assessment evaluates the execution of procedures and measures hierarchical execution. The input from the essential assessment is intended to practice command over the vital administration measure. Here the chiefs attempt to guarantee that essential decision is appropriately executed and is meeting the targets of the firm. It comprises of specific components which are given beneath. 75 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

1. Setting of guidelines: - The specialists need to set principles, focuses to carry out the systems. it ought to be as far as quality, amount, expenses, and time. The standard ought to be unmistakable and satisfactory by representatives just as ought to be reachable. 2. Estimation of Performance: - Here genuine exhibitions are estimated as far as quality, amount, cost, and time. 3. Correlation of Actual Performance with Set Targets: - The real execution should be contrasted and principles and find out varieties assuming any. 4. Dissecting Deviation and Taking Corrective Measures: - If any deviation is discovered then higher specialists attempt to discover the causes of it and in like manner according to its temperament makes remedial strides. Here some time authority may re-put out its objectives, goals, or its arranging, strategies, and guidelines. 5.5 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK The fundamental organization framework gives an ordered layout of the technique cooperation embraced by various affiliations. This construction segregates the framework cycle into three certain level activities: portraying vision and mission, characterizing philosophy and executing system. Stage 1: Vision and Purpose (or Mission): The chief activity that ought to be done when following the Strategic Management Framework is the creation of a progressive vision and mission. The affiliation's vision and mission then continue to be a consistent point of view all through the remainder of the affiliation's technique communication. Stage 2: Strategy Formulation: The second phase of this system takes an association through the way toward defining a methodology. This is done in a few sub-stages. Investigation: The underlying fragment of method plan is an assessment of the current status. It's hard to choose and make an approach if you don't understand the lay of the land, so taking apart a wide extent of factors is the chief period of the fundamental cycle. At this stage, affiliations consider and analyse an extent of components including the broader economy, their industry, and their own specific limits, characteristics, and weaknesses. There is a wide extent of essential assessment gadgets that can help with this period of thinking. 76 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Methodology Formation: At the point when an affiliation appreciates the current status and has a point-by-point examination of their present condition, their industry, and themselves, they can start to look progress and consider the odds and perils that they may defy. With this joined cognizance of the current status and some future assessment, it becomes time to start thinking about what unequivocally the affiliation will do. At this stage, the affiliation starts to focus in on how it will battle in its picked business focus or environment. Objective Setting: The last piece of the philosophy plan period of the Strategic Management Framework is to make destinations and targets relating to the affiliation's described strategy. It's mind boggling to acknowledge what you will do at a verifiable level, yet for your method to be useful, it needs to join unequivocal detail to direct towards. To help with this, various affiliations use Balanced Scorecards. Stage 3: Implementing your methodology The third phase of this system centres around the execution of procedure, which is considered to have two sub-stages. Fundamentally, these activities are the making of the affiliation's technique. Executing an essential construction: In this stage, the association guarantees it is adequately organized to follow through on its system. The speculation here is that before you proceed to accomplish something, you need to have every one of your pieces in the ideal spot. At a useful level, this implies that to be ready to begin conveying your methodology viably, you need to have the right chiefs and people in your association, you need to have the right specialty units, you need to have the right legitimate designs, you need to have the right cycles and strategies and capital resources and you need the right essential ventures arranged to assist you with conveying. When these pieces are set up, you can press the enormous Controlling your essential conveyance: The last piece of this model considers the need to effectively control and pass on your objections. At the point when you have the suitable pieces set up and you press the \"start\" button on your procedure, you need to screen and control your show reliably. Normal adjusting is expected to ensure a positive result and information expects to be a critical part in this. 77 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

5.6 STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING Key arrangements with the since a long time ago run eventual fate of the whole association and have three qualities: 1. Unprecedented Strategic decisions are abnormal and ordinarily have no point of reference to follow. 2. Significant Strategic decisions submit critical resources and solicitation an uncommon plan of duty 3. Request key decisions set precedents for lesser decisions and future exercises all through the affiliation 5.7 MINTZBERG’S MODES OF STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING As per Henry Mintzberg, the most run of the mill approaches or methods of key dynamic is enterprising, versatile and arranging. Accomplices are individuals and social occasions who can impact by the fundamental outcomes achieved and who have enforceable cases on an affiliation's show. Accomplices can uphold the effective key organization of an affiliation. Accomplice's relationship the board Partners can be divided into: 1. Inside Stakeholders • Shareholders • Employees • Managers • Directors 2. Outer Stakeholders • Customers • Suppliers • Government • Banks/leasers 78 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

• Trade associations • Mass Media Accomplice's Analysis: • Identify the accomplices. • Identify the accomplice's suspicions advantages and concerns • Identify the cases accomplices are most likely going to make on the affiliation • Identify the accomplices who are by and large critical as indicated by the affiliation's perspective. • Identify the fundamental troubles drew in with managing the accomplice relationship. Settling on better essential choices: 1. Assess current execution results 2. Audit corporate administration 3. Output the outside climate 4. Investigate key components (SWOT) 5. Produce, assess and select the best elective procedure 6. Execute chosen systems 7. Assess executed systems 5.8 APPROACHES TO STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING Key arranging apparatuses have grown immensely in the course of recent years. Such methods as the development/share network and the experience bend are in inescapable use, and other arranging methods permit the administrator to assess the effect of elective methodologies on the stock cost of the organization. The executives counselling firms offer vital anticipating an item premise, and any new M.B.A. comes furnished with no less than one strategy for growing such plans. Sadly, the instruments for executing techniques have not created as fast as the apparatuses we use for arranging. The aftereffect of this inconsistency—bombed designs and deserted arranging endeavours—is generally very apparent: 79 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

A significant broadened producer presumed that a constant flow of new items was the main factor in working on the stock cost, at this point the presentation measures and the board reports forced on the division heads pressure quarterly benefit. Thus, division directors don't make the drawn-out speculation needed for fruitful new item advancement. A main shopper merchandise organization subscribed to vital arranging and constructed the staff of more than 30 organizers, numerous with M.B.A.s, and involvement with counselling firms. Unfortunately, the normal advantages of preparation neglected to emerge; in under two a long time, the division was disbanded and arranging duty got back to the working units. As of late, business journalists have started to focus harder on the issues of technique execution. Corporate culture is currently broadly recognized as a significant power in the achievement or disappointment of undertakings; investigations of Japanese administration rehearse call attention to the adequacy of participative techniques in getting earnest obligation to new systems at all levels of the association. Notwithstanding this interest, three basic inquiries stay unanswered: • How would executives be able to be more powerful in setting picked techniques in motion? • How can the arranging cycle be overseen so the procedures which arise are sensible/as far as the commercial centre, yet additionally as far as the legislative issues, culture, and ability of the association? • Research shows that supervisors don't investigate openings thoroughly previously making a move; rather, they shape technique through a proceeding with stream of person choices and activities. How might we accommodate the static scholastic authoritative opinion, \"First define system, then, at that point execute it,\" with the powerful truth of administrative work? 5.9 CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Irreconcilable circumstance in business is an all-around very normal involvement with the corporate world, and an issue that proprietors and chiefs should be ready to manage and act to the greatest advantage of the organization. The broadest meaning of an irreconcilable circumstance in the business world is the point at which a worker puts their own advantages before those of the association, and thusly imperils the activity, benefits or even proprietary innovations of the association. It makes possible issues of trust between the individual and the business, particularly if the individual opens the 80 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

business to expected legitimate activity or makes a poisonous air in the work environment that can seriously injure worker spirit. Models include: A worker has loyalties that are at chances with the activity or mission of the business, like working for a contender on low maintenance or independent premise. An individual can't be trusted to settle on impartial business choices because of individual connections, for example, an administrator who was dating a collaborator and should gauge their headway against the presentation of a similarly qualified worker. A representative chooses individual addition over the presentation of the business, like when a worker gets blessings in return for choosing one bidder over another. The most widely recognized arrangement when an irreconcilable situation is identified is to have that worker eliminated from any example where the contention could influence dynamic or, sometimes, fire the representative. In extreme cases, it very well may be shrewd for the executives to counsel a lawyer experienced in business law to ensure that representative rights are not disregarded and the organization frees itself up to lawful activity. 5.10 SUMMARY  Technique is the cognizant and reasonable administration practice that includes characterizing and accomplishing an association's - targets and embedding its main goal. Technique is a significant game-plan, a mix of inner and outside factors and is specific to a particular circumstance. It is subject to ecological factors and is cutting edge in nature. The methodology has been abused with terms like arrangement, strategies, projects and techniques, and rules. It is separated with this load of ideas. Procedure is functional at three levels - Corporate level, Business level, and Functional level. There might be a fourth level referred to as the Operations level too. Methodologies are the backbone of business exercises.  Key administration works with an association to settle on its choices dependent on long haul expectation. It additionally permits the foundation to make activity at a beginning phase of recent fad and consider the lead-time for successful administration. The investigation of vital administration focuses on the observing and assessing of outside promising circumstances and dangers in the perspective on an organization's qualities and shortcomings to make and execute creative key bearing for organization. 81 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

5.11 KEYWORD  Strategy: A unified, comprehensive and integrated plan that relates the strategic advantage of the firm to the challenges of the environment.  Strategic management: It is a set of managerial decisions and action that determine the long-term performance of a company.  Levels of Strategy: There are different levels of strategic decision making and strategic management in the organization i.e., corporate-level strategy, business- level strategies and functional level strategy.  Strategists: There are individuals or groups who are primarily involved in the formulation, implementation and evolution of the strategy. They perform key activities related to various aspects of strategic management. 5.12 LEARNING ACTIVITY 1. Define Strategy. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. What do you mean by Strategic decision making? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 5.13 UNIT END QUESTIONS A. Descriptive Questions Short Questions 1. What do you mean by Formulation of strategies? 2. What do you mean by Strategic Evaluation? 3. Explain the Strategic Evaluation. 4. What do you mean by conflicts of interest? 5. Explain the nature of business strategy. Long Questions 82 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

1. Explain the features of business strategy 2. Explain the approaches to strategic decision making. 3. List the important characteristics of strategy. 4. Explain strategic management process. 5. Explain the Mintzberg’s Modes of Strategic Decision Making. B. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Request key decisions set _________for lesser decisions and future exercises all through the affiliation a. Incidents b. Precedents c. Residents d. President 2. The second phase of this system takes an association through the way toward defining a _________ a. Methodology b. Cost c. Organization d. Institution 3. The business systems are destinations situated and are coordinated towards ___________objectives. a. Daily b. Weekly c. Monthly 83 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

d. hierarchical 4. Establishment of ___________is an initial phase in essential administration Process. a. Funds b. Finance c. Strategic Intent d. Lessor 5. _______________level system is confined to a particular capacity a. Procurement b. Utilitarian c. Compensation skill d. Managerial skill Answers 1-b, 2-a, 3-d, 4-c, 5-b 5.14 REFERENCES  Ghosh, P.K., I.C. Dhingra, N. Rajan Nair and K.P. Mani. (1997). \"Advanced Management Accounting Strategic Management \", Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi.  Kazim Azhar. (2002). \"Business Policy and Strategic Management\", Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co, Ltd., New Delhi.  Mamoria, C.B., Mamoria, Satish and Rao, P. Subba. (2001). \"Business Planning and Policy \", Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai.  Prasad, L.M. (2002). \"Business Policy: Strategic Management \", Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi. 84 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 Srivastava, R.M. (1 999) \"Management Policy and Strategic Management: concept, Skills and Practices, Himalaya Publication House, Mumbai. 85 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

UNIT - 6THE AGENCY PROBLEM: MEASURES AND ITS OVERCOMES STRUCTURE 6.0 Learning Objectives 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Meaning and Definition 6.3 Agency Costs 6.4 The Law of Agency 6.5 Agency Law and Challenging the Actions of Directors 6.6 Concepts In Agency Theory: The Agency Relationship 6.7 The Agency Relationship 6.8 Agency Conflicts/Problems 6.9 Causes 6.10 Solutions To Agency Problems 6.11 Types Of Agency Problems 6.12 Agency Conflicts in Other Types of Organisations 6.13 Summary 6.14 Keyword 6.15 Learning activity 6.16 Unit end questions 6.17 References 6.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, you will be able to: 86 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 State the concept of agency costs and law of agency.  Know the agency relationship.  Know the agency conflicts/problems.  Explain the causes and solution to agency problems. 6.1 INTRODUCTION Until around 1870, the executives and responsibility for were vested in a similar individual, the capital supplier (Lambrechts 1992:27). The development of enormous endeavours, particularly the public organization as a type of endeavour, was notwithstanding described by a shift to division between the executives and responsibility for big business. Proprietors choose proficient chiefs to deal with their organizations. It is this detachment between possession also, the executives which shapes the premise of the purported organization hypothesis. The investors' job become progressively more latent while the executives have a sensibly free hand to seek after objectives that may not really relate with those of the investors of the firm. The organization issue is a situation of an irreconcilable circumstance which is inborn in all relations wherein one gathering is expected to work to the greatest advantage of another gathering. In the field of corporate money, the organization issue for the most part focuses the irreconcilable circumstance among the organization's partners and the administration of the organization. The troughs, who go about as the investors' representatives, are entrusted with the duty of settling on choices that will expand the abundance of the investors in spite of them acting to their greatest advantage to upgrade their own fortune. 6.2 MEANING AND DEFINITION The office issue can be better characterized as a contention occurring when the specialists who are depended with the obligation of taking care of the interests of the directors decided to utilize the force or authority for their own advantages and in corporate money, it tends to be clarified as an irreconcilable circumstance occurring between the administration of an organization and its investors. It is an exceptionally normal issue and it tends to be seen in pretty much every association independent of the way that whether it is a congregation, club, organization or any administration foundation. It is an irreconcilable situation occurring that happens when 87 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

individuals who are keen on obligations abuse their position and force for individual advantages. It tends to be settled just if the associations will settle it. 6.3 AGENCY COSTS Office costs are the expenses of having a specialist to settle on choices for the benefit of a head. Applying this to corporate administration, organization costs are the costs that the investors cause by having administrators to run the organization as opposed to running the actual organization. - Agency costs don't exist when the proprietors and the chiefs are by and large something very similar people. - Agency costs begin to emerge when a portion of the investors are not additionally heads of the organization. - Agency costs are possibly extremely high in enormous organizations, where there are various investors and enormous expert administration. Organization expenses can in this manner be characterized as the 'esteem misfortunes to investors that emerges from the uniqueness of interests between the investors and the organization's administration. I. The expenses of checking: The proprietors of an organization can set up frameworks for observing the activities and execution of the board, to attempt to guarantee that administration is acting in their wellbeing. An instance of observing is the prerequisite for the chiefs to introduce a yearly report and records to the investors, setting out the monetary execution and monetary situation of the organization. These records are reviewed, and the evaluators present a report to the investors. Planning accounts and having them examined has an expense. ii. Lingering Loss: Agency costs likewise incorporate the expenses for the investor that emerge when the chiefs take choices that are not to the greatest advantage of the investors (but rather are in light of a legitimate concern for the actual administrators). For instance, office costs emerge when an organization's chiefs choose to get another auxiliary and pay more for the procurement than it is worth. The supervisors would acquire by and by from the improved status of dealing with a bigger gathering of organizations. The expense for the investors comes from the fall in share value that would come about because of paying a lot for the procurement. 88 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

iii. Holding costs: The third part of office costs will be costs that may be caused to give motivating forces to administrators to act to the greatest advantage of the investors. These are in some cases called holding costs. These expenses are planned to diminish the size of the office issue. Chiefs and other ranking directors may be given impetuses as free offers in the organization, or offer alternatives. Also, chiefs and ranking directors may be paid money rewards if the organization accomplishes certain predefined monetary targets. The compensation bundles for chiefs and ranking directors are consequently a significant component of office costs. 6.4 THE LAW OF AGENCY A specialist is an individual who follows up for the benefit of someone else, the head, in managing other individuals. For instance, a selling specialist follows up for the benefit of a head, a producer of products, to sell merchandise for the producer's benefit. Likewise, a stock dealer is a specialist who follows up for benefit of a customer (the head) to purchase or sell shares for the customer's sake. The specialist follows up on the name of the head, and submits the head to arrangements and exchanges. In organization law, the chiefs go about as specialists of the organization. The governing body all in all, also, singular chiefs, have the position to tie the organization to legally binding concurrences with different gatherings. Since the vast majority of the forces to follow up for the benefit of the organization are given to the leading group of chiefs, the chiefs (and the administration of an organization) have broad forces in choosing what the organization ought to do, what its destinations ought to be, what its business procedures ought to be, the manner by which it ought to contribute and what its objectives for execution ought to be. The incredible situation of the chiefs brings up issues about the utilization of this force, particularly where the proprietors of the organization (its investors) and the chiefs are various people: - How can the proprietors of the organization ensure that the chiefs are acting in the best interests of the investors? - If the chiefs act in manners that the investors disagree with, what can the investors do to make the chiefs act in an unexpected way? Fiduciary Duty of Directors: As specialists of the organization, chiefs have a guardian obligation to the organization. A guardian obligation is an obligation of trust. A chief should follow up for the benefit of the organization in all out great confidence, and should not put his own advantages before the interests of the organization. In the event that a chief is in penetrate of this guardian 89 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

obligation he could be held responsible in law, if the organization were to make a legitimate move against him. Legitimate activity by an organization against a chief for break of guardian obligation would regularly be taken by the remainder of the top managerial staff or, perhaps, a greater part of the investors acting in the name of the organization. 6.5AGENCY LAW AND CHALLENGING THE ACTIONS OF DIRECTORS It is undeniably challenging for investors to utilize the law to challenge the choices and activities of the organization's chiefs. On the off chance that investors accept that the chiefs are not acting in the wellbeing of the organization, their capacity to take care of the issue is confined. - The investors can cast a ballot to eliminate any chief from office, however this requires a greater part vote by the investors, which may be hard to acquire. - In a courtroom, investors would need to show that the chiefs were really acting against the interests of the organization, or against the reasonable interests of specific investors, to convince the court to take legitimate measures against the chiefs. In rundown, despite the fact that there is a legitimate connection between the governing body and their organization, the investors can only with significant effort utilize the law to control the choices or activities that the chiefs take for the benefit of the organization. 6.6CONCEPTS IN AGENCY THEORY: THE AGENCY RELATIONSHIP While organization law manages the legitimate connection between an organization and its chiefs, the hypothesis of organization manages the connection between: i. an organization's proprietors; and ii. its administrators (chiefs). Organization hypothesis depends on the possibility that when an organization is first settled, its proprietors are generally additionally its supervisors. As an organization develops, the proprietors name directors to run the organization. The proprietors anticipate that the managers should run the organization to the greatest advantage of the proprietors; consequently, a type of office relationship exists between the proprietors and the supervisors. 90 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Numerous organizations get, and a huge extent of the drawn-out capital of an organization might come from different wellsprings of obligation capital, for example, bank credits, rent money and security issues (debentures, credit stock, etc). Significant banks additionally have a premium in how the organization is overseen, on the grounds that they need to be certain that the organization will actually want to reimburse the obligation with interest. 6.7THE AGENCY RELATIONSHIP Organization hypothesis was created by Jensen and Mackling (1976). They proposed a hypothesis of how the administration of an organization depends on the irreconcilable situations between the organization's proprietors (investors), its chiefs and significant suppliers of obligation finance. Every one of these gatherings has various interests and targets. i. The investors need to expand their pay and abundance. Their advantage is with the returns that the organization will give as profits, and furthermore in the worth of their offers. The worth of their offers relies upon the drawn-out monetary possibilities for the organization. Investors are in this manner worried about profits, yet they are even more worried about long haul productivity and monetary possibilities, on the grounds that these influence the worth of their offers. ii. The chiefs are utilized to run the organization in the interest of the investors. In any case, if the administrators don't possess shares in the organization, they have no immediate interest in future returns for investors, or in the worth of the offers. Supervisors have a work contract and acquire a compensation. Except if they own offers, or except if their compensation is connected to benefits or offer qualities, their principal advantages are probably going to be the size of their compensation bundle and their status as organization directors. iii. The significant suppliers of obligation have an interest in strong monetary administration by the organization's administrators, so the organization will actually want to cover its obligations and on time. Jensen and Mackling characterized the organization relationship as a type of agreement between an organization's proprietors and its directors, where the proprietors (as head) name a specialist (the administrators) to deal with the organization for their benefit. As a piece of this plan, the proprietors should appoint dynamic position to the administration. The proprietors anticipate that the agents should act to the greatest advantage of the proprietors. Preferably, the 'contract' between the proprietors and the directors ought to guarantee that the administrators consistently act in the best interests of the proprietors. Nonetheless, it is difficult to orchestrate the 'wonderful agreement', in light of the fact that choices by the chiefs (specialists) influence their very own government assistance just as the interests of the proprietors. This brings up a major issue. How might chiefs, as specialists of their organization, be incited or convinced to act to the greatest advantage of the investors? 91 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

6.8AGENCY CONFLICTS/PROBLEMS Organization clashes are contrasts in light of a legitimate concern for an organization's proprietors and chiefs. They emerge severally. a. Moral peril: The possibility that a gathering protected from hazard may act uniquely in contrast to the manner in which it would act in case it was completely presented to the danger. A supervisor has an interest in getting profits by their situation as a chief. These incorporate every one of the advantages that come from status, like an organization vehicle, a private driver, utilization of an organization plane, snacks, participation at supported games, etc. Jensen and mackling proposed that a director's impetus to get these advantages is higher when he has no offers, or a couple of offers, in the organization. The most serious issue is in enormous organizations. b. Exertion level: Managers may buckle down than they would in case they were the proprietors of the organization. The impact of this 'absence of exertion' could be lower benefits and a lower share cost. The issue will exist in an enormous organization at centre degrees of the board too as a senior administration level. The interests of centre administrators and the interests of ranking directors likely could be unique, particularly if senior administration is given compensation motivators to accomplish higher benefits, yet the centre chiefs are not. c. Profit maintenance: The compensation of chiefs and ranking directors is frequently related to the size of the organization, instead of its benefits. This gives administrators an impetus to develop the organization, and increment its business turnover and resources, as opposed to build the gets back to the organization's investors. The executives are bound to need to re- contribute benefits to make the organization greater, as opposed to deliver out the benefits as profits. At the point when this occurs, organizations may put resources into capital speculation projects where the expected productivity is minuscule, and the net present worth may be negative. d. Hazard avoidance: Executive chiefs and ranking directors typically procure the vast majority of them pay from the organization they work for. They are consequently intrigued by the strength of the organization, since this will secure their work and their future pay. This implies that the board may be hazard opposed, and hesitant to put resources into higher- hazard projects. In contrast, investors may need an organization to face greater challenges, if the normal returns are adequately high. Investors regularly put resources into an arrangement of various organizations; thusly it makes a difference less to them if an individual organization faces challenges. 92 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

e. Time skyline: Shareholders are worried about the drawn-out monetary possibilities of their organization, on the grounds that the worth of their offers relies upon assumptions for the long-term future. Conversely, administrators may just be keen on the present moment. This is part of the way since they may get yearly rewards dependent on transient execution, and halfway in light of the fact that they probably won't anticipate being with the organization for in excess of a couple of years. Supervisors may in this manner have a motivation to expand bookkeeping return on capital utilized (or profit from venture), while investors have a more noteworthy premium in long- term esteem as estimated by net present worth. 6.9CAUSES There can be different reasons for office issues. These causes vary from the situation of a person in the organization. The underlying driver of these issues is something similar in all cases that are bungle or irreconcilable circumstance. At the point when the plan of the investor conflicts with different gatherings then the office issue is certainly going to occur. On account of representatives, the explanation would be the disappointment of investors to live up to workers' desires regarding compensation, motivators, working hours, and so forth On account of clients, the reason would be the disappointment of investors to live up to clients' desires like the offer of low-quality merchandise, helpless stockpile, high-estimating, and so on account of the board, the reasons for organization issues could be the misalignment of objectives, partition of possession and the executives, and so forth 6.10SOLUTIONS TO AGENCY PROBLEMS The organization issues existing between the investors and the administration of the organization can be settled through offering stock bundles or commission to the choices taken by the administration and their results on the investors. The organizations can attempt to determine these issues that can exist between its investors and the executives/loan bosses/different partners (representatives, clients, society, local area, and so forth) through taking establishing measures like intense screening instruments, offering of motivating forces for great execution and conduct and similarly punishing for lacklustre showing and awful conduct, etc. Nonetheless, it isn't feasible for an association to get totally recuperated from office issues since the expenses related tend to offset the all-out results eventually. 93 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

6.11 TYPES OF AGENCY PROBLEMS Each association has its own arrangement of long haul and transient objectives and goals that it wishes to accomplish in a pre-decided timeframe. In this unique situation, it should likewise be noticed that the objectives of the administration may not really line up with that of the investors. The administration of an association may have objectives that are probably determined with the rationale of amplifying their own advantages while then again, the investors of an association are undoubtedly keen on their abundance amplification. This difference between the objectives and targets of the administration and investors of an association may frequently turn into a reason for organization issues. Absolutely talking there are three sorts which are examined underneath: 1. Investors versus Management – Large organizations may have countless value holders. It is consistently vital for an association to isolate the administration from proprietorship since there is no justification them to frame a piece of the executives. Isolating proprietorship from the executives enjoys unlimited benefits as it doesn't have any ramifications upon the normal business tasks and the organization will employ experts for dealing with the critical activities of the equivalent. However, employing untouchables may become problematic for partners. The directors recruited may take out of line choices and may even abuse the investors' cash and this can be a justification the irreconcilable circumstance between the two and subsequently, organization issues. 2. Investor’s v/s Creditors – the investors may get unsafe tasks for making more benefits and this expanded danger may hoist the necessary ROR on the organization's obligation and subsequently, the general worth of the forthcoming obligations may fall. In the event that the undertaking sinks, the bondholders will apparently need to take part in misfortunes and this can bring about office issues with the investors and the loan bosses. 3. Investor’s v/s different Stakeholders – The partners of an organization may have an irreconcilable circumstance with different partners like clients, representatives, society, and networks. For instance, the workers may be requesting a climb in their pay rates which whenever dismissed by the partners then there are probabilities of office issues to happen. 6.12 AGENCY CONFLICTS IN OTHER TYPES OF ORGANISATIONS Agency relationship in the public sector: Directors are likewise specialists representing administrators in open area associations so by and by there is potential for office clashes. 94 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

- The directors in this relationship are the citizen and the electorate (regularly one and the same) and are probably going to be worried about incentive for cash. There are issues related with making an appraisal of whether an association is undoubtedly offering some benefit for cash. - The directors are a heterogeneous gathering comprising of an enormous number of people. The gathering probably won't concur what really establishes an incentive for cash or regardless of whether the assistance is needed by any means. The public authority should unveil political choices concerning how cash ought to be spent such that they accept is best for the country. Residents in a majority rules system then, at that point have a chance to cast a ballot against an administration in case they are unsatisfied with its presentation in settling on these choices. - Another issue in the administration of public area associations is the manner by which to build up vital goals and afterward screen the accomplishment of the public area association in accomplishing these. It isn't unexpected in many nations to have a restricted review of public area associations to guarantee the trustworthiness and straightforwardness of their monetary exchanges, yet this doesn't generally reach out to a review of its exhibition or 'readiness for reason'. Agency relationship – Charities: Directors are likewise specialists representing chiefs in causes so by and by there is potential for organization clashes. Good cause frequently fund-raises by getting gifts from general society. This implies that contributors are key directors. A significant administration issue is whether gifts are utilized for the expected reason and not squandered, misled or stole? Approaches to lessen this office issue include: i. A prerequisite for the cause to be controlled by a directorate supervised by an advisory group of trustees (here and there called lead representatives). For this situation, the board deals with the cause and the trustees go about as a control on the board to guarantee that the board is conveying worth to the benefactors what's more, are acting towards the expressed and concurred kind-hearted points. ii. Open and complete monetary exposure. iii. Necessity for reviews both monetary and of adequacy in accomplishing the beneficent reason. 95 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

6.13 SUMMARY administration/leasers/different partners (representatives, clients, society, local area, and so on) and its investors which may eventually bring about an irreconcilable circumstance. It is exceptionally vital for organizations to resolve the basic issues to guarantee that its customary business tasks are not getting affected. This sort of issue can exist anyplace whether it is an organization, club, church or even government foundations. The three sorts of office issues are investors v/s the board, investors v/s bondholders/lenders, and investors v/s different partners like representatives, clients, local gatherings, and so forth It very well may be settled by organizations with the assistance of measures like contribution motivations for great execution and conduct and similarly punishing for horrible showing and awful conduct, extreme screening systems, etc. It is practically outlandish for organizations to totally kill office issues yet it can in any case limit the ramifications of the equivalent. 6.14 KEYWORD  Agency costs): the costs incurred by a principal when its agent does not act on its behalf but rather in the agent’s own interest.  Bondholder: 1) the owner of a bond; 2) any lender or creditor whose loan is secured by a bond.  Counterparty: the other party to a contract like a derivative or loan. 6.15LEARNING ACTIVITY 1. What do you mean by Agency problem? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. What is Agency cost? ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6.16UNIT END QUESTIONS A. Descriptive Questions 96 Short Questions: 1. Distinguish between Investor’s v/s different Stakeholders CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

2. What do you mean by agency relationship? 3. What are the causes of agency? 4. What is Agency relationship in the public sector? 5. What are the solutions to agency problems? Long Questions: 1. Explain about Agency theory. 2. Explain the types of agency problems. 3. Explain about agency conflicts. 4. Explain about Agency relationship with Charities. 5. Explain about the uniqueness of interests between the investors and the organization's administration. B. Multiple Choice Questions 1. A ___________has an interest in getting profits by their situation as a chief. a. Planning b. Funds c. Controlling Supervisor 2. Managers may ___________down d. than they would in case they were the proprietors of the organization. a. Buckle b. Market Risk c. Credit Risk d. Liquidity Risk 3. The directors are a ____________gathering comprising of an enormous number of people. 97 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

a. Homogeneous b. Independent c. Heterogeneous d. Hydrogenous 4. ___________don't exist when the proprietors and the chiefs are by and large something very similar people. a. Funds b. Agency costs c. Markets d. Environment. 5. Necessity for reviews both ___________-and of adequacy in accomplishing the beneficent reason. a. Procurement b. Capital budgeting c. Computation d. Monetary Answers 1-d, 2-a, 3-d, 4-b, 5-d 6.17 REFERENCES Reference’s book  Miller, G. (2005). Solution to Principal-Agent Problems in Firms.  Nwidobie, M. (2013). Agency conflict and corporate dividend policy decisions in Nigeria, Asian Economic and Financial Review, 3(8), 1110–1121.  Kim, Y. A. (2016, April 16). The Agency Problem m of Lehman Brothers’ Board of Directors. 98 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 Chen, J. (2018, March 20). Agency Problem. Retrieved from Investopedia 99 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

UNIT – 7 JUST IN TIME 100 STRUCTURE 7.0 Learning Objectives 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Meaning 7.3 Jit – Background and History 7.4 Significance of JIT Concept 7.5 Advantages Just-In-Time Systems 7.6 Elements involved in JIT 7.7 Objective of JIT 7.8 Inventory Management 7.9 Difference between Business Risk and Business Finance 7.10 Summary 7.11 Keyword 7.12 Learning activity 7.13 Unit end questions 7.14 References 7.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, you will be able to:  State the concept of JIT  Know the History and Significance of JIT.  Explain the objective of JIT.  Know about Inventory management and Techniques. CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

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