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WFTI FALL 2019 BINDER cropped

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FFAALLLL 22001199 TESTING...P. 54Serving Manufacturers of Springs, Wire Formed Parts, Wire Mesh and Rebar Products WWW.WIREFORMINGTECH.COM EMPHASIS ON HEAT TREATMENT...P. 36-38 WIRE HANDLING...P. 64 SPRING GRINDING..P. 70 Straight From The Show Reports: ...42 & 60 COMPANY PROFILES...P. 75-94


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TablTeabolefoCf Coonntteenntsts Fall 2019Fall 2007 Vol. 22V, oNl.o1.04, No. 4 www.wireformingtech.com The Heat Treatment of Steel Spring Wire by: The proper heat treatment of a spring wire is one of the Daniel H. Herring most important aspects of its successful application. It “The Heat Treat Doctor”®, President P.O. Box 884 WFTI EMPHASIS: Feature ArticlesElmhurst,IL60126-0884 USA www.heat-treat-doctor.com The HERRING GROUP, Inc. is important to know both the type of properties desired and the response of the material to either stress relief or hardening in order to predict how it will behave. Feature ArticlesThere are several choices for the spring manufac- Heat Treatment 36-38turer, purchasing pre-hardened wire or heat-treating 14 WFTI Technical Achievement Awards – Class of 2007wire that has been purchased in the soft, or annealed Dealing withTable 12. Stress Relief Temperatures and Times hydrogenfor Steel Wire. condition (Figure 1). This article explores these dif- 36 The Heat Treatment of Steel Spring Wireferences as well as the differences in properties that embrittlement Second Annual Wire Forming Technology International Technical Achievement Awards, given out may result. The following sections look at the types in spring of heat treatments. steel....20 oDfatnhieelmHraae.ntlHeantureeiaardlrllyitntootgoeeq-siuptIhtirpieinmsrgeismmnttrap,ekomsinrsatgatrenoerritlaiwetlosfiroeokrnrfoaohrcwamcreidtnshgeseoninripindergusospfitonreyrromtiniredadskeivirniddgteuosaspiplrsreriefndodgrasimcnotadrbjowetrhihrteeeacvfroheiornsmripc.eaodlndpseaevretsl.opments Heat 54 TEde1its o6tr iianlB“DSgHruetawosRff wiGno-r eEeRueqsnneusb-idlp aESmtutn a-ep gAvn itemnsdueul tpeii-tppr lrifionernroggsme hMda sEvytre xaWtrteeiginsyrpc eroet nsFioduolenterdd”m tioni nogrugorw ctha lal nfodr re turn to pr ofitability . treated spring wire the state-of-the-art in testing technology and equipment. forms ...36 20 Hydrogen Embrittlement of Spring Steel Fig. 11 — Spring Wire Forms (Photograph Courtesy of 58 Tube RBicehanrddDin. SgissMon,aJcr. h- Ainreeviefwoorf thSemphaysliclaDl mieatamlluergtyeorf hsydrogen embrittlement of Master Spring and Wire Form Company). Stress Relief Heike Ahsplerirnsg-sMteealcahloinneg swuitphpaliedirscfiullsssciounsotof mmietirgaretioqnuimreemtheondst .to bend smaller tube diameters Heating pre-hardened steel wire typically into the temperature range of 150°C to 455°C (300°F to 850°F) followed by a slow (< 22°C/h or 40°F/hour) cool opera- 23 Composition Effects in Carbon SteelTable 23. Hydrogen Bake Out Requirements for tion will relieve internal (residual) stress in the material as well as improve dimensional stability and increase with high quality, at high speed and with machine availability.High Strength Parts (per ASTM B 850-98 (2004). the yield strength of cold drawn wire (Table 1). Stress Dr. Roger N. Wright - Part 6 of the multi-part series, The Strength of Steel, dedicated to the relief can also be used to negate the effect of hydrogen Wire HmeatanlludrglyinofgspRrinog muankidnguapnd wire formed parts manufacturing. embrittlement due to plating operations provided the soak times are increased (Table 2). Drum washer for springs 6an4dThe results of the stress relieving process are depend- ent on the temperature and time which are expressed Ethde2its o4tra iatelCK-Siorottfaa-antffht Rei-n.-E aDgqrhtsuaii nmpfmoiw -re iAr net lthohsoeauk n pa2dpt1 llhiinseigtgr hsCt-epheecanrhvfonteruomrlreoaysgnpcyeoa nandndde decqotrouroiposmuiornec-nraet.lsl ifsotarnt fluoropolymer/PTFE wire formed parts...30by either the Holloman-Jaffe parameter, which is a measure of the thermal effect of the process or the Larson-Miller equation: P = T (C + log t) X 10-3 where t is the time (in hours) at temperature T (in “K) coatings for springs and wire formed parts. and the value for the composition dependent constant 70 Spotlight On Spring Grindingthe residual stresses on the inside of the spring re- 26 Stress Peening – A Practical Applicationduce the fatigue strength. These residual stresses can Wire shaping &C is calculated from a separate equation: C = 21.3 – (5.8 x % Carbon in the steel) trbrCeeeernlsViisdedifelauecanarsfdlettearsCertsrnercedSgositsihblewiysnoigtrfshettih.arsetTesaayssrtpfeeurieecfnllaociwlretlmifyio.r,eneTCd.hoTrieSfhsitemdewaemampigrpeenoeniuertdauxnethdtnuoMioetbrfeiootspnsfftiorattekrehhpsaees-eraMtiocfDnNorr.uthbEltercyotktue-erghGmharraidrnetedMdriinuüalgclleeurmtdi-liazgScarthrtineioinsdnseinv(imgsahathoimkitg)ehepreesareanhnandinrdgdinnscceuarsnpespabrlseeieesurudssltegihndrgaiinnvidnemirnieamgdkiupwncrghoeeadvueemtdloaligtsfeeurri.sinapdleuinnssgeiodn/recdouilcsepdrinwgesight. coiling line ...46As an example, when wire is coiled into a compres- 75 Co30m pHaenayt &P rSoufirflaecse: TArneantumaelnSt pReocuinadluApdvertising Section Editorial Staff - Suppliers have responded to our call for the state-of-the-art in heat sion spring, the steel on the inside of the coil is upset Columanndssurface treatment equipment. and becomes shorter due to plastic deformation and Compact22 Wire Forming Technology International/Spring 2010 mesh welding cyl- inder...36 36 More Flexibility and Versatility for the Wire Worker 26 VeeckDoHroetheaedJluinngeebslodSt -pArrainngge Wof moerslhdw®eldKinigcmkaochffineDs iisnbeninegro,ffCereAd Sto MwirIe Awonrknerus,al Holidaanyd wPheanrsteyt uipnbyDaewcelel-trmainbedewr,orSketr,rtaheudsowsnttimoe Hcaen abedlelsisntehanJ3a0nmuinautreys. Meeting Mi3ch8a elMBaancdhyin- CeAsS fMoIr NPerwosd&uEcvinengt sWUiprdea tHe angers Sonia Vitari - Versatile wire hanger forming and other wire processing machines offered New 4-slide machine 28 MatergilaoblalTlyywpitheafSterh-soaleuslsdupbpoert aCndaelnlegindeeOrinug.t by Industry Standard Name incorporates additive manufacturing ...49 Ra3n9d y DCeAFoSrMd -I ASllcThhoinlgasrSsphrinpg As wards Reach Total of US$463,000 in 2007 Excerpted from the CASMI CONNECTION, a publication of 30 IAA ACuAtSoMmI (Cohticiavgeo AInssdocuiastitorny o,f PSporitneg nMtainauflaUctuKrerRs, eIncc.e), sNsapieorvnille,, IL, USA. En44e rgWyirSet Rooradg &e CPolaatnint,gI nSucprepaliserin CgonCsooplipdaetreDs e mand Versatile system for producing Eur opeaItnsP Aercstpievcittiiveess -inK oVnerandeDzeunegllear & Columbia Diameter wire hangers....38 Jacques Anckaert - Company intends to tap the developing growth market in Latin America. max std 8\" 8\" AEv4Ge5u ryiCIdnMfooermmatatopteioarEnniaoxyflt vsPealnruToeseftooisletmthiseneingtteerAnrapStiopenlalilecscpartitniigooannndfwoirre formed parts industry. std 32 11.5\" max 48\" Length Torsion spin tester ...54 Alan Thomas - Wire Product Testing Industry Events Tech37B rSietrfaight From The Show TST - Torque Specifications 40 ChooIsmiangegs atnhdefacRtsifgromhtwiMre Saotuethreiaaslt sASfIAo2r00S7,phreildnOgcstober 16-18, 2007, in Bangkok, Thailand. Part No. Capacity Resolution 0-20% FS 20-100% FS 0.3 in-lb 0.00002 in-lb 0.0002 in-lb 025-0000-0475-00 3 g-mm 0.2 g-mm 2 g-mm 34 N-mm 0.002 N-mm 0.02 N-mm 3 in-lb 0.0002 in-lb 0.002 in-lb 025-0000-0475-01 35 g-mm 2 g-mm 20 g-mm 339 N-mm 0.02 N-mm 0.2 N-mm DepaInrtdmuesnttrsy Events 25 in-lb 0.002 in-lb 0.02 in-lb 025-0000-0475-02 288 kg-mm 0.02 kg-mm 0.2 kg-mm Next Issue: Winter 2008 2,825 N-mm 0.2 N-mm 2 N-mm 100 in-lb 0.005 in-lb 0.05 in-lb 025-0000-0378-05 1,152 kg-mm 0.05 kg-mm 0.5 kg-mm 11,299 N-mm 0.5 N-mm 5 N-mm 200 in-lb 0.01 in-lb 0.1 in-lb 025-0000-0378-06 2,304 kg-mm 0.1 kg-mm 1 kg-mm 2 Point with Rate Wire FormingCalculated Free Angle Events ..................................................4 22,597 N-mm 1 N-mm 10 N-mm TEST POINT 2 TEST POINT 1 TEST POINT 2 TEST POINT 1 500 in-lb 0.05 in-lb 0.5 in-lb 025-0000-0378-07 5,761 kg-mm 0.5 kg-mm 5 kg-mm 56,493 N-mm 5 N-mm 50 N-mm 1,300 in-lb 0.1 in-lb 1 in-lb F ERAdTE=itFθ˚orial.......................4...2......S...t.r..a...i.g...h..t...F...r..o..m......T..h...e...6Show – SMI MTeotapl PErnodguincetse orifn 2g00e7Xpo™ 2019 θ˚ 025-0000-0378-08 14,978 kg-mm 1 kg-mm 10 kg-mm RATE = 146,883 N-m 10 N-mm 100 N-mm Accuracy = ± Resolution x 2 TST - Angle Specifications FREE CALC. ...........................I.m...a.g..e..s.,..f.a..c.t.s..&...n..e..w..s...fr.o..m....S. 8MI Metal Engineering eXwpoir™e 22001098, O Pcrt.e1v-3ie, 2w019, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. ANGLE˚ FREE Resolution Deflection Wire Range 100,000° >100,000° Accuracy (±) Compensation NewsANGLE˚ 1,000,000° 0.1° 1.0° 0.2° / 3,600° (5% - 95% FS) < 0.2° Product Showcase......6...0......S...t.r..a...i.g...h..t...F...r..o..m......T..h...e.40Show – wire SoRuotuhnedauspt:A Msaitaer2ia0l1s9 Advertisers’ Index ................I.m...a.g..e..s.,..f.a..c..ts...&...n..e.w...s..f.r.o..m..6w3ire Southeast AsiaS20p1o9t,lSigehptt.:1 M8-2e0s,h2 0W19e, lBdainnggkok, Thailand. Editorial Index...........................................................64 Next Issue: Winter 2020Fall 2007/Wire Forming Technology International 3 Departments Wire Forming Events ............................................................4 wire 2020 Preview Editorial.................................................................................6 Top Products of 2019 News Wire ............................................................................8 Roundup: Rebar Processing Product Showcase..............................................................72 Spotlights: Materials • Mesh Welding Advertisers’ Index ...............................................................95 Editorial Company Index ....................................................96 Fall 2019/Wire Forming Technology International 3


WIRE FORMING EVENTS Table of Contents October 7F–al9l ,20200720 Vol. 10, No. 4 January 23 – 25, 2020 WFA Winter Meeting, Jamaica SPRING WORLD 2020, Feature Articles® www.wirefabricators.org Rosemont, IL, USA Dealing with 1741 Akron Peninsula Rd, hydrogen 14 WFTI Technical Achievement AwaArdksr o–n C,laOssHo4f 24030173 USA www.casmi-springworld.orgembrittlement February 19 – 22, 2020 in spring Tel: +1 330 864 2122 • Fax: +1 330 864 5298Second Annual Wire Forming Technology International Technical Achievement Awards, given out annually to spring making or wire forming industry individuals for major technical developments ASwcWwotPwtAs.da2aw0le2p,0aA.AoZnr,gnUuSaAl M eeting wNMiourvemeInmbdabiia,eI2rn02d23i0a– 25, 2 s0te2el.0...2 0 21 06 HD“rBeHrlyueawtodse dwriGnotr oeegReeseneqsbun-l iaEp StEmtn a-me gAvn itbem,nmdrueila tteiit-tteprl rerifioanrmnlosggemeo Mdrn a stEyct rco xaeWtftse isgiSnoyrrc epireet wrssFiioufnoolwntrgermd”mP w Sainrkit .enigenwCsrggeoiw slidh ptrheirei pnnafgntsodL aorreirn mptwudirprnieP intfnooug rpcmbr tooeelfdtiitcsatpbhhailrei.ttsycr .. om [email protected] D. Sisson, Jr. - A review of the physical metallurgy of hydrogen embrittlement of March 30, 2020 – April 3, 2020 www.wire-india.com spring steel along with a discussion of mitigation methods. wire 2020, Düsseldorf, Germany www.mdna.com 23 Composition Effects in Carbon Steel SMtreinkgteh oMf StceNel,udeldtiycated to the www.wire-tradefair.com www.mdna.com Dr. Roger N. Wright - Part 6 of the multi-part series, The metallurgy of spring making and wire formed partsVmiacneufPacrtuerisnigd. ent and Editor Drum washer for springs and September 22 – 24, 2021 wire formed parts...30 24 Coatings for the 21st Century [email protected] Kirtan R. Dhami - A look at high-performance and corrosion-resistant fluoropolymer/PTFE wire Southeast Asia 2021 coatings for springs and wire formed parts. Tom Hutchinson Bangkok, Thailand 26 SDrt.rEecskesh aPrdeMeünllienr -gS –tre Ass P(shroatc) pteicenainl gAcpanpbliecuGastelidooibnnmalakSinaglaeusto Msusapennasigonecroil springs June 2 – 4, 2020 for better material utilization via higher hardness [email protected] inirreedfuocremd miantegritael cushe.dc/roedmuced weight. WAI Operations Summit Compact Wire Expo 2020 Uncasville, CT, USA www.wire-southeastasia.com mesh www.wirenet.org welding cyl- www.mdna.cominder...36 30 Heat & Surface Treatment Roundup for the sJtaitme-ofM-thea-asrat inrheat Editorial Staff - Suppliers have responded to our call and surface treatment equipment. Senior Editor September 28 – 30, 2021 36 MDoororthee eFJleunxgiebbilolidtty- Aarnandg eVoef rmseashtiwlietyld infgojmra [email protected] eWws iisirrbeee iWfnogoromfrfekrieendrgtotewcirehw.corokemrs, and when set up by a well-trained worker, the downtime can be less than 30 minutes. Metal Engineering eXpo 202 13 8 Mac hines for Producing Wire Hianntgeersrnational Sales June 11 – 13, 2020 Sonia Vitari - Versatile wire hanger forming and other wire processing machines offered Las Vegas, NV, USA CHINA globally with after-sales support and engineering. 21st China (Guangzhou) Int’l. www.metalengineeringexpo.org 39 CASMI Scholarship Awards ReachR Tinogtaiel roTf UraSd$e4M63e,0d0i0a iLnt d20. 07 Spring Industry Exhibition CExAcSeMrpIt e(Cdhfriocmagtoh eACssAoScMiaIEtCioaOnsN otNf CESCphrTiiInOngNa M,:aaVnpuuifbvalciictaautnrioenrSso,h fInacn.),gNa+p8er6vi-lle2,1IL,6U2S8A.9-5533, EXT 169 Guangzhou, China October 2021 Versatile system for producing 4 4 WItsi rAec Rtiovdit i&es C iona VtiennNge ozSurutephlpa& l&ie SrC [email protected]:sMr inaggigeiret rLadiue.+c8o 6m-20 8 732-3 316, www.springexpo.com.cn wire South America 2021 wire hangers....38 Jacques Anckaert - Company intendsEtoXtapTth9e [email protected] rininLagtiineArmtrearicdae. .com September 23 – 26, 2020 Sao Paulo, Brazil 45 Company Profiles interHnaotionnagl sKpriongnagn:d MwireikfoermHedapyart+s i8nd5u2stry2. 369 8788, ext 11 wire China 2020 Shanghai, China Information of value to the [email protected] www.wirechina.net wwwwww..wmidrnea-s.cooumth-america.c 3o7 mInSd turasigtrhyt EFrvoemntTshe SSohuothweastTASoImA 20H07u, htcelhd iOncstGoobenEr,1R6G-M1l8o,A2b0aN0l7Y,SinaBlaensgkMok,aTnhaailganedr. www.mdna.com Images and facts from wire October 7 – 9, 2021 De partments [email protected] InternationWailreCFoormninfeg rEevnenctse...o...f...t..h....e....S...p...r...i.n....g................. 4 Next Issue: WINinDtIeAr 2008 Industry, Barcelona, Spain Editorial.......................................................................6 Strategise.inToPpv Pt.rLodtdu.c,tAs bohf i2j0at07Sanghvi, Co-Founder Tel : +91-22-w6i5re262300186 5P/r6e6v,ieCwell : +91-98211 27628 www.federnverband.deNews Wire ..................................................................8 REoumnadiul p: :a [email protected] Product Showcase....................................................40 Advertisers’ Index .....................................................63 Spotlight: MeIsThA WLeYlding Editorial Index...........................................................64 Casiraghi Pubblicatá Internazionale DFailel 2g00o7/WCirae FsoirrmaingghTeic,hnOololgiyvIneterrnCatioansail ra3ghi Tel: +39 031 261407 • Fax: +39 031 261380 [email protected] JAPAN Sakura International, Ken Myohdai Tel: +81 6 6264 3900 or +81 3 5646 1160 Fax: +81 6 6264 3901 or +81 3 5646 1161 [email protected] TAIWAN Worldwide Services Co. Ltd. Robert Yu Tel: +886 4 23251784 • Fax: +886 4 23252967 [email protected] Publisher's Notice: We assume no responsibility for the validity of claims in connection with items appearing in Wire Forming Technology International magazine. Ad- dresses are given to facilitate further inquiry. Wire Forming Technology International is published in the months of February, May, August and November by Initial Publications Inc., Chip Lippincott, Pres., 1741 Akron Peninsula Rd, Akron, OH 44313 USA. For subscription info write: Circulation Dept., Wire Forming Technology International, 1741 Akron Peninsula Rd, Akron, OH 44313 USA. For changes of address, visit www.wireformingtech.com. Wire Forming Technology International is distributed with- out charge to people employed by a company or division of a company engaged in the manufacture of springs, wire formed parts, wire mesh and rebar products and the materials, tooling, machinery and control systems for making those parts. Others may subscribe at US$35/yr in the USA and Canada or US$65/yr elsewhere. Single copy price is US$20 plus shipping. Editorial reprint prices will be furnished upon request.CanadaPostInternationalPublicationsMailProduct (Canadian Distribution) Sales Agreement No. 40025486. Canadian return address: BleuChip International, PO Box 25542, London, Ontario N6C 6B2 Canada. Postmaster: Send address changes to Wire Forming Technology International, 1741 Akron Peninsula Rd, Akron, OH 44313 USA. 4 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


PTC - Pretension Control HIGH SPEED CNC COILERS INTERNATIONAL PATENT MX 15 Ø 0.010” - 0.067” MX 30 Ø 0.016” - 0.118” MI LA N O - ITALY NIMSCO LLC North American distributor 5115 B Tremont Ave. Davenport, IA 52807 Ph: 563-391-0400 Fax: 563-391-0403 [email protected]


EDITORIAL Show Business Manufacturing We just completed participation in two trades shows that Last month, about 3000 manufacturers and educational are very important to the local and global wire forming institutions in the USA opened their doors to students, industry: the SMI Metal Engineering eXpo (MEE) 2019 educators, parents and community in Pittsburgh, PA, USA and wire Southeast Asia 2019 in leaders to celebrate Manufacturing Bangkok, Thailand. Both featured outstanding exhibits Day, www.mfgday.com. Led by and wide ranging industry expertise related to making The Manufacturing Institute (MI), springs and wire formed parts. In addition, the SMI MEE the workforce and education part- event featured a great technical program and focussed ner of the National Association of training sessions. We produced detailed preview articles Manufacturers (NAM), Manufac- of each event in the last issue of Wire Forming Technology turing Day shows students what a career in modern International, and we have some nice “Straight From The manufacturing looks like. NAM has long reported that Show” reports in this issue, on pages 42-52 and 60-62. by 2028, manufacturers will need to fill 4.6 million jobs. More than half of those jobs could remain vacant due I enthusiastically endorse visits to upcoming editions of to the industry’s skills gap and misconceptions about these biennial shows in 2021, either as a visitor or exhibi- modern manufacturing. The MI and NAM aim to help tor, depending on your location and regional interests. solve the workforce crisis through efforts such as the Visit www.wire-southeastasia.com for the Thailand Manufacturing Day. Several wire forming and spring show and www.metalengineeringexpo.org for details making companies participated in this event. on SMI MEE, which moves to Las Vegas, NV, USA next time. For details on our 2020 trade show coverage, see In addition to this venture, the MI and NAM have many our 2020 plan below. good reports and resources related to manufacturing, and they are actively pushing congressional approval of 2020 Plan the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), which was agreed to last year by leaders from all three As another year comes to a close, we are looking forward countries. I agree and encourage visits to www.nam.org to our next four issues, which will be filled with spring and www.themanufacturinginstitute.org to learn more making, wire forming, mesh welding and rebar process- and join the efforts to support manufacturing. ing technology and news. Our editorial plans and trade show coverage for 2020 are now complete and detailed Interesting Words in the graphic shown below, which can be found online aTtehchttnpo:l/o/wgyiraenfdornmewinsgfotercthh.eceonmti/rEedwiitrOe fpo.ramspin.g industry... Regular readers of this page know that for a dozen years, I have railed about the danger of overspending SSUUMMMMEERR 22001199 by the USA federal government, i.e., elected officials consistently acting like unhinged spendthrifts engag- WWW.WIREFORMINGTECH.COM Wire Forming Technology International: 2020 Editorial Plan ing in perpetual deficit spending to the tune of nearly Send all editorial text and image files to $1 trillion per year. This is truly a bipartisan vice that deserves the moniker spendthrift, which is an interest- Mike McNulty, Editor, at [email protected] ing word given that second part, thrift, actually means something good: the quality of using money carefully. Serving Manufacturers of Springs, Wire Another interesting and related compound word that Formed Parts, Wire Mesh and Rebar Products is popular today due to political behavior not only in the nation’s capital, but in every corner of society is MC 50 Ø 0.039” - 0.197” Trade Show Winter 2020 Summer 2020 virtue-signalling. This word is also interesting because MC 80 Ø 0.069” - 0.315” Coverage: wire 2020 Preview SPRING WORLD 2020 Preview the first part of it is positive, but the compound one is Top Products of 2019 negative: in the rush to proclaim one’s own superiority, pages Rebar Processing Roundup wire China 2020 Preview the signaller forgets about the key virtue of humility by ...13-14 Materials Spotlight Wire Forming & Bending Roundup embracing the opposing vice. These Mesh Welding Spotlight two interesting words, aka vices, are ...20-21 Editorial deadline: February 17 Heat Treatment Spotlight related in that they both could be Ad closing: February 21 Editorial deadline: August 10 fixed by regular doses of the virtue ...34-50 Production finished: February 28 of temperance. Mail & Internet posting: March 6 Ad closing: August 14 and Production finished: August 21 Mike McNulty, Editor ...54-58 Spring 2020 Mail & Internet posting: August 28 [email protected] WAI Operations Summit & SSPPRRIINNGG 22001199 Wire Expo 2020 Preview Fall 2020 Rebuild & Upgrade Emphasis Company Profiles Serving Manufacturers of Springs, Wire WWW.WIREFORMINGTECH.COM Spring Coiling Roundup wire India 2020 Preview Formed Parts, Wire Mesh and Rebar Products Wire Handling Roundup Fence Making Emphasis MATERIALS...P. 30 Straightening & Cutting Spotlight Cleaning & Coating Roundup STRAIGHTENING & CUTTING...P. 54 Editorial deadline: April 20 Spring Grinding Roundup Testing Spotlight Wire Forming & Tube Bending..P. 62 Preview Articles Ad closing: April 24 Editorial deadline: October 19 ...48 & 66 Production finished: May 1 Ad closing: October 23 Mail & Internet posting: May 8 Production finished: October 30 Mail & Internet posting: November 6 WWIINNTTEERR 22001199 FFAALLLL 22001188 WWW.WIREFORMINGTECH.COM Read by manufacturers and SPRING GRINDING...P. 64 users of springs, wire formed parts, WWW.WIREFORMINGTECH.COM wire mesh and Serving Manufacturers of Springs, Wire Serving Manufacturers of Springs, Wire rebar products. Formed Parts, Wire Mesh and Rebar Products Formed Parts, Wire Mesh and Rebar Products TOP PRODUCTS OF 2018...PAGE 38 Subscribe and read online @ Trade Show SPRING COILING..P. 58 Coverage...pages www.wireformingtech.com 24, 44, 60 & 70 MESH WELDING ROUNDUP...P. 51 Four Issues per year COATING & PLATING...P. 50 Readers in 70+ countries TESTING..P. 58 EMPHASIS ON FENCE MAKING...P. 34-37 COMPANY PROFILES...P. 77-94 All editorial content and dates are subject to changes. 6 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


Menu + Register Login Enter keyword... “WAFIOS Webshop. Your fast lane for tool orders.” us.shop.wafios.com Order templates Fast entry You can access your order You can use article numbers templates and manage your or customer material numbers saved shopping carts here. to add articles to your shopping cart quicker than ever. Services Register now! WAFIOS Webshop. Order tools online. ORDER TEMPLATES. Access your order templates, manage saved shopping carts. FAST ENTRY. Use article numbers or customer material numbers to add items to your shopping cart. Features include: • Intuitive navigation • Accessible through both desktop and mobile devices, including tablets and smartphones • Up-to-date database • Check availability • Informative tutorial videos Detailed information and registration at.us.shop.wafios.com Engineered for What’s Next Spring Coiling & Forming Wire Bending & Forming Wire Straightening, Cutting Tube Bending & Forming Nail, Fastener & Chain Machines Machines & End Working Machines Machines Machines WAFIOS Machinery Corporation 27 NE Industrial Road, Branford, CT 06405 WAFIOS Midwest Technical Center 9830 W. 190th Street, Mokena, IL 60448 USA www.wafios.us / 203 481 5555 / [email protected] Canada www.wafios.ca / [email protected] WAFIOS Machinery Corporation is a subsidiary of WAFIOS AG


NEWS WIRE Waelzholz México those from finance and logistics. dialogue, have always been the Reil explains the reason, “We basis for successful collaboration. Supplying Steel Strip The company says it wants to already have a strong presence strengthen this collaboration even By founding the sales company with our customized material further. Therefore, Schlatter’s sales Waelzholz México, headquar- solutions and engineering ser- operations will now be handled tered in Mexico City, Mexico, the vices. Our goal, however, is to by the responsible Area Sales company, Waelzholz Brasmetal, further increase the local service Managers of the parent company is responding to the growing im- level, which will in turn make Schlatter Industries AG based in portance of the Mexican market. us more attractive for companies Schlieren, Switzerland. Due to the fact that the automotive that we haven’t yet been able to industry and its suppliers have es- reach. As a result of founding The company’s Area Sales tablished operations in Mexico in Waelzholz México, we can now Managers have vast experience recent years, Waelzholz Brasmetal offer a complete local logistics in their respective fields and have says Mexico is now regarded as solution for the entire Waelzholz established an excellent network. North America’s manufacturing product range—from handling Thanks to their extensive travel- hub. Mexico wants to become the the import process to local storage ling, Schlatter is confident that world’s fifth-largest automotive and demand-oriented delivery. the company can keep in regular manufacturing location by the The new office in Mexico City is contact with you and thus improve year 2020. As such, it makes sense another milestone in Waelzholz’s its business relationship with you for Waelzholz to strengthen its lo- internationalization strategy.” even further. cal presence. This will create real added Your previous contact persons “Mexico is a market we’ve been value for customers, as it means in the Service Support and Spare interested in for a long time,” they will receive the customized Parts Sales departments will of reports Andreas Reil, who, as solutions that Waelzholz is known course remain at your disposal as CEO of Waelzholz Brasmetal, is for, with respect to both its prod- well. www.schlattergroup.com responsible for establishing the ucts and services. new sales office. “At the present Outokumpu Fagersta time, the industries in Mexico are Omar Stainless Inaugurates still strongly focused on the USA Chávez Modern Rolling Mill market, but this will change due to the many free trade agreements.” If you’re looking for the right Outokumpu Oy has completed cold rolled steel strip supplier for a major modernization investment In fact, one third of the goods your Mexican business, please in its Fagersta Stainless mill in exported by the Waelzholz plant in contact Omar Chávez from Wael- Sweden. The investment amount- Brazil today are already destined zholz México. blog.waelzholz.com ing to €8 million, enables Fagersta for Mexico. In addition to this, to expand its product portfolio steel materials from the company’s Schlatter Reorganizes into new high value-added special other locations are also shipped to Wire Weaving & Mesh products, it improves the working the Latin American country. Weaving Divisions environment for the employees and helps to reduce carbon emis- According to Reil, “We sup- Schlatter Industries AG of sions of the mill. ply our entire range, from cold Switzerland is pleased to inform rolled steel strip to coated and the industry about the reorganiza- The mill was recently inau- stainless steel grades to electrical tion of its sales operations in the gurated by the Swedish Foreign steel strip. No other manufacturer wire weaving and mesh weaving Trade Minister, Anna Hallberg, of cold rolled steel achieves this divisions, which took effect as of Outokumpu’s CEO, Roeland Baan in such variety. In this context, November 1, 2019. and Johan Wiklund, Managing our customers include both local Director, Outokumpu Fagersta companies and international key In the past, Schlatter’s busi- Stainless. accounts.” ness relationships were based on excellent personal contact. This “The mill in Fagersta, together Due to its importance, Wael- personal contact as well as direct with our wire rod mill in Shef- zholz is specifically developing the field, makes Outokumpu a lead- Mexican market. Under the leader- ing stainless steel wire rod and ship of Reil, a project team from wire producer in the world. The different locations that include investment is part of our vision employees from Mexico, Brazil, to become the best value creator America and Germany is involved. in stainless steel industry by 2020 The team not only includes sales and materials specialists, but also 8 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


NEWS WIRE through customer orientation and based on the ability to customize All of us at North American efficiency,” says Outokumpu’s stainless steel in various forms for Spring Tool are proud to support CEO, Baan. almost any purpose. The company technical education, because we aims to be the world’s best value (like so many of our fellow manu- In the rolling mill, heated steel creator in the stainless steel in- facturers) are always in need of billets are rolled to a specific di- dustry by 2020 through customer highly trained, skilled workers. mension and then sent on for final orientation and efficiency. Our local schools and community processing, with outcome of wire colleges are doing a wonderful job in diameter between 5 and 18 mm. Stainless steel is durable, resis- teaching these vital skills—and we Through the new optimized pro- tant and designed for permanence. are happy to do whatever we can cesses heat is retained in the billets In addition to using stainless to support them and to help set and higher rolling temperatures steel for the basic structures of up their students for success. enable lower energy consumption society and famous landmarks, www.naspringtool.com and greater efficiency in the mill. Outokumpu customers use it to manufacture products for both Leggett & Platt Reports “Our new rolling mill enables domestic and industrial use. Outo- Executive Promotions & the processing of special products, kumpu has 10,000 employees in New Segment Structure i.e., different types of alloys which over 30 countries, headquarters we could not roll in the past. The in Helsinki, Finland, and shares Diversified manufacturer, investment also provides environ- listed on Helsinki’s Nasdaq. Leggett & Platt, Carthage, MO, mental improvements including www.outokumpu.com USA, announced executive pro- reduced gas consumption, result- motions and a revised segment ing in our lower carbon emissions. North American Spring structure that will be effective At the same time, we can decrease Tool Donates Tool Kits January 1, 2020. our production costs with im- & Boxes to Students proved return, which will improve Karl Glassman, the company's our competitiveness. In addition, North American Spring Tool, President and Chief Executive we have recruited more produc- a division of Sirois Tool, recently Officer, will become Chairman of tion staff to deliver increased donated tool kits and boxes to the Board and will maintain his production volumes and to further the students in the spring coiling current position as Chief Executive strengthen our capabilities,” says program at Bristol Tech. Officer (CEO). Wiklund. NESMA, Naugatuck Val- Mitch Dolloff will assume the The installation of the mill ley Community College and role of President and will maintain was an intensive project. Some Bristol Tech put together this his current position as Chief Oper- 100 contractors and Outokumpu Spring Coiling Training Program. ating Officer (COO). He will serve employees were working on the North American Spring Tool’s as President of the new Bedding project to construct the rolling mill own Cheryl DiPinto and Andre Products segment until a successor during the past year. Nadeau, pictured here with the segment President is appointed. spring coiling class, visited the Dolloff will also join Leggett’s “This is a notable milestone in school on October 15, 2019, to give Board of Directors. Fagersta Stainless’ history and it each student their own compli- has naturally been gratifying to mentary kit. Steve Henderson, Vice Presi- have been part of the project. I dent and President of Leggett’s want to thank everyone who has As you can see in the photo Automotive Group, will become helped and contributed to make below, these tool kits are designed this possible. Now our focus is ful- to give the students a start with ly on safely utilizing the mill’s full the basic tools they will need as potential and delivering what our they start their careers. Once they customers want,” says Wiklund. complete the program the tools will be theirs to keep. Outokumpu Fagersta Stainless manufactures stainless steel wire rod and wire. Capacity is about 65,000 tons of wire rod annually, of which some 10,000 tons are further processed into wire. Fag- ersta Stainless has 270 employees and is part of Outokumpu’s Long Products business area. Outokumpu is a global leader in stainless steel. Its position is 10 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


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NEWS WIRE Executive Vice President and Pres- year we have announced sev- potential for future expansion ident of the Specialized Products eral changes within the leadership and the flexibility to adapt to new segment as well as the new Furni- team and among the Board of Di- production requirements in the ture, Flooring & Textile Products rectors. Through these changes we years ahead. It houses production, segment. have added capabilities, expanded administrative offices, a laboratory diversity and strengthened gov- and a warehouse. Glassman joined Leggett & Platt ernance, all while preserving the in 1982 in Bedding Group sales and important elements of our culture “With the completion of the served in various positions of in- that have contributed to Leggett’s new site, the ultramodern chemi- creasing responsibility within the long-term success. Our vision is cal plant will enable us to produce Bedding Group over the following to build an organization to ensure a comprehensive surface treat- 17 years. He was appointed Senior a sustainable, long-term future.” ment portfolio such as Oxsilan®, Vice President and President of the our eco-friendly and multi-met- Residential Furnishings segment With the changes in executive al pretreatment process,” said in 1999, Executive Vice President officer leadership, the company’s Markus Wittig, Director, Global in 2002, Chief Operating Officer management organizational struc- Supply Chain and Operations, in 2006, President in 2013, and ture and all related internal report- Surface Treatment, BASF. Chief Executive Officer in 2016. He ing will change effective January 1, joined the Board in 2002. Glassman 2020. As a result, the composition “Chemetall has been present in will succeed Ted Enloe, who will of the company’s segments will China since 1995. Today, we are become Lead Director. Enloe has also change to reflect the new serving customers from various been Board Chair since 2016 and structure beginning January 1, market segments including, but joined Leggett’s Board in 1969. 2020. The modified structure will not limited to, automotive OEM consist of three segments, seven and components, coil, general Dolloff joined the company in groups and 15 business units. industry, cold forming, aerospace, 2000 in the Mergers & Acquisitions www.leggett.gcs-web.com aluminum finishing and glass. The department and then served as surface treatment site in Pinghu President of the Tubular Products BASF Constructs New will provide a strong manufactur- Division. In 2007, he assumed Surface Treatment Site ing base for our business to further the role of Director of Business for Chemetall in China strengthen our supply position in Development for the Specialized China,” added Hui Jin, Managing Products segment. Dolloff was The Surface Treatment global Director, Shanghai Chemetall appointed President of the Au- business unit of the Coatings di- Chemicals Co., Ltd. tomotive Asia Division in 2011 vision of BASF, operating under and President of the Automotive the Chemetall brand, has started The Coatings division of BASF Group in 2014. He became Senior construction of its surface treat- is a global expert in the develop- Vice President and President of ment site in the Dushan Port ment, production and marketing the Specialized Products segment Economic Development Zone of of innovative and sustainable in 2016 and was appointed Execu- Pinghu, Zhejiang Province, China. automotive OEM and refinish tive Vice President and President The new surface treatment site is coatings, decorative paints as well of the Specialized Products and expected to commence operation as applied surface treatments for Furniture Products segments in in the first quarter of 2021. metal, plastic and glass substrates 2017. Dolloff assumed the role of in a wide range of industries. Chief Operating Officer in 2019. “Our growth and investment www.chemetall.com plans go hand in hand with our Henderson joined Leggett & customers’ expansion plans. The New Spring Making Platt in 2017 and serves as Vice new facility is the largest invest- Capabilities at Advanex President and President of the ment in Chemetall’s history. It Automotive Group. He joined the will meet the growing needs of our Advanex, Southwell, UK, re- company after more than 30 years customers in China for reliable, cently unveiled its latest, innova- in a variety of leadership positions high-quality and sustainable sur- at Dow Automotive Systems, most face treatment products and sys- recently as Business President— tem solutions,” said Christophe Automotive Systems since 2009. Cazabeau, Senior Vice President, In this role he was responsible Surface Treatment, BASF. for the global business including profit and loss, business strategy The new site is designed in and organizational health. a highly energy-efficient and sustainable manner, offering the President and CEO, Karl Glass- man commented, “Over the past 12 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


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NEWS WIRE tive machinery that will revolu- open at the websites below: USDOC Initiates tionize precision spring manu- www.wirechina.net Inquiry into Imports facturing. These latest machines www.tubechina.net of Rebar from Mexico handle the entire production process from raw material to pack- From September 23 to 26, 2020, The U.S. Department of Com- aged springs ready for delivery. over 1700 exhibitors merce (USDOC) has recently from 30 countries will announced the initiation of a The new machines have been showcase their products circumvention inquiry into the designed/produced as part of the to more than 48,000 do- imports of steel concrete reinforc- firm’s Continual Development mestic and international ing steel bar from Mexico, in order Program. Using materials includ- visitors at the Shanghai New to determine if imports of rebar ing a range of high-grade stain- International Expo Center in that are bent at one or both ends less steels, the automated spring Shanghai, China. circumvent the existing antidump- manufacturing process includes ing duty (AD) and countervailing coiling, transfer to heat treatment, Shanghai Fastener and Tech Show, duty (CVD) orders. prestressing and automatic pack- launched in 2016, will be held con- ing into trays ready for delivery. currently, offering an ideal stage USA law provides that Com- for fastener makers and relevant merce may conduct a circum- New automated spring manu- industry professionals. Together, vention inquiry when evidence facturing machines designed and the three shows will provide a suggests that merchandise subject built by the Advanex engineering multi-industry overview and one- to an existing AD/CVD order un- team bring a range of benefits stop procurement platform. dergoes a minor alteration, bring- to Advanex and its customers, ing the product outside the scope which include increased produc- In addition to mainland Chi- of that order. tion outputs of up to 150%, faster nese brands, many companies production rates, increased part from Germany, Italy, North Amer- In 2018, imports of rebar from consistency, improved quality, ica, Austria, France, South Korea, Mexico were valued at an esti- reduced scrap rates, reduced labor Japan and China Taiwan will mated US$51 million. costs of up to 90%, reduced operat- participate in dedicated pavilions. ing costs and increased response to This circumvention inquiry was varying demands/requirements. Exhibit categories at wire China initiated in response to requests 2020 will include cable, wire from USA domestic producers of Ian Beardsmore, Managing manufacturing and finishing rebar including Nucor Corpora- Director said, “Advanex leads the machinery, fasteners and spring tion, Gerdau Ameristeel U.S. Inc., way with precision component manufacturing machinery, auxil- Commercial Metals Company, manufacturing across the globe. iary processing machinery, aux- Cascade Steel Rolling Mills, Inc., Our latest machines are cutting iliary process technology materi- Byer Steel Group, Inc. and Steel edge and let us offer our custom- als, finished wire, wire and cable Dynamics, Inc. er’s cost-effective, added-value and raw materials and auxiliary parts. This is an integral part of our materials as well as measurement If Commerce preliminarily growth strategy as we develop in a and control technology and test determines that circumvention is range of market sectors including engineering. Shanghai Fastener occurring, it will instruct Customs medical devices, aerospace and and Tech Show 2020 will focus on and Border Protection to begin automotive.” www.advanex.co.uk fasteners, the main end product collecting cash deposits on rebar of cold-twisted wires known also from Mexico that is subject to wire & Tube China as “industrial rice”. the inquiry. These duties will be 2020 On-Line Exhibitor imposed on future imports and Registration Open Products on display at Tube Chi- on any unliquidated entries since na 2020 will include raw materials, the date on which Commerce initi- Exhibitor registration for wire pipes and fittings, tube making ated this circumvention inquiry. China 2020 and Tube China 2020 is machinery, rebuilt/reconditioned www.commerce.gov machinery, process technology tools, auxiliary machinery and SMI MEE Heads to pipeline and OCTG technology. Las Vegas in 2021 When last held in 2018, the SMI Metal Engineering eXpo shows attracted 45,120 visitors 2021 takes place September 28 to from 91 countries and regions. Or- 30, 2021, at the South Point Resort ganizers expect more than 48,000 & Casino in Las Vegas, NV, USA, attendees in 2020. www.wirechina.net The Metal Engineering eXpo www.tubechina.net (MEE) is the premier, global event www.fastenertradeshow.cn 14 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


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NEWS WIRE for springmakers, metal stampers, from your cellphone, to provide “The registration figures for wire formers and suppliers to the a wealth of information at your wire 2020, very promising so far, precision spring manufacturing fingertips. RK Trading didn’t just confirm that our exhibitors refuse industry. It’s not just a show of update the look of its website, the to be influenced by global econom- equipment, the event is also a company completely redesigned it ic fluctuations in this industry,” unique opportunity to explore the in order to serve your better. explained Daniel Ryfisch, Deputy expert education and resourceful Director Metals and Flow Tech- community that exists as part of From tooling and parts to an- nologies at Messe Düsseldorf. the Spring Manufacturers Insti- swers about frequently asked tute (SMI). questions, you'll find what you wire 2020 will have technical need faster, so you can get on with innovations in Halls 9 to 17 on The Metal Engineering eXpo the work at hand. You’ll also dis- currently 662,600 ft2 of exhibition symposia delivers both technical cover how RK Trading supports space—a good result six months and practical business content that you throughout the life of your ahead of the fair. wire 2018 occu- will help you make better business machine, with useful tools like a pied 702,000 ft2 net. wire 2020 will decisions and potentially change pre-start checklist and required display machinery and equipment the way your company conducts operational guidelines, ways to ex- for wire manufacturing and finish- business. tend your investment and more. ing, process technology tools and www.rktradingusa.com auxiliaries, raw materials, glass Additionally, a comprehensive fiber technologies, special wires exhibit hall introduces you to the wire 2020 Heading for and cables as well as measuring latest equipment, technology, New Exhibitor Record and control equipment and inspec- services and supplies designed to tion engineering. Mesh welding improve business efficiency. Messe Düsseldorf North machinery will be in Hall 15, America, Chicago, IL, USA, re- spring making technology as well And engaging with the SMI ports that six months before the as fasteners and finished products members at MEE connects you start of the wire 2020 and Tube will be on show in Halls 16 to 17. to the leading authority that edu- 2020 trade shows, which are the www.wire-tradefair.com cates, advances and empowers the two internation- www.mdna.com precision spring manufacturing al number one industry. trade fairs for Stable Investment the wire, cable, Las Vegas is a spectacular des- tube and pipe Atmosphere at wire tination with easy access to every industries, the amenity you could hope for. Come level of exhibi- South America 2019 for the trade show and enjoy top tor registration notch entertainment and dining is very strong. At the recent staging of wire while you’re at it. As global information and busi- www.metalengineeringexpo.org ness platforms for the key players South America and TUBOTECH in in these industries, wire and Tube New Website attract over 2500 exhibitors from Sao Paulo, Brazil, 186 exhibitors for RK Trading all over the world. presented innovative machinery, Equipment supplier, RK Trad- The wire 2020 and Tube 2020 ing, Elk Grove Village, IL, USA, events will take place from March equipment/services on 53,800 ft2 of invites you to “Spring Into Action” 30, 2020 to April 3, 2020, at the fair- with the company’s new website grounds in Düsseldorf, Germany. exhibit space. About 13,000 trade (listed below). RK Trading has completely redesigned its website Exhibitor registration for wire visitors took part in the trade fairs, and says it can’t wait for you to vis- 2020 is very positive at this early it. The new site is a useful, easy-to- stage, already exceeding final ex- with 95% traveling from Brazil, navigate tool that also works well hibitor numbers of 2018. Strong exhibitor increases from Turkey, 5% from regional neighboring India and Taiwan have been re- corded. Also, solid participation countries such as Chile, Colom- from traditional exhibitor nations Italy, Spain, Germany, Austria, bia, Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Switzerland and central and east- ern Europe points to new record Mexico, Peru and Uruguay as well exhibitor figures for next year. as from India, Canada and China. Organized by Messe Düssel- dorf and Grupo CIPA, the events offered a meeting platform for re- gional and international industry experts from the wire, cable and pipe industries. Messe Düsseldorf is renowned as the organizer of the world’s number one trade fairs for the sectors—wire and Tube held in Düsseldorf, Germany, every two years. Continued... 16 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


As the leading regional trade NEWS WIRE 10th International fairs for their sectors, wire South America and TUBOTECH show- the QCC “cross flow”, a compact Congress of Spring cased technology highlights from quick color change system mak- the fields of metalworking and ing possible extremely fast color Industry in Hamburg processing, welding technology, change swapping inner and outer the wire and cable industry as insulation layers. From September 26 to 28, 2019, well as trends and technologies the international spring industry from tube production, finishing Cross flow QCC is a must on as well as representatives of the and processing, tube accessories automotive wire extrusion lines supplier industry met at a confer- and tube trading. And or the first where color changes are frequent. ence in Hamburg, Germany. This time, the new exhibition Hall 1 was Moreover, it pays for itself in a was arranged by the European occupied. short time thanks to the substantial Spring Federation (ESF) and or- time and material savings. ganized by the association of the German spring industry (VDFI). The typical color change time The 160 participants came from 24 when running a 1.80 x 0.93 mm (71 countries from around the globe. x 37 mils) core at 500 mpm (1640 Fifteen exhibitors used the oppor- fpm) is less than four seconds. tunity to enter into a discussion with participants. Visitors were also interested in Microdia’s modular by-passes, manual, pneumatics or hydraulics, time saving devices during color or material changes, simple, easy to maintain and long lasting. A complex combination of steel grades and surface treatments guarantees no leaks without any seal even when at high extrusion pressure. The interest of national and The next staging of wire South Plenum at the 10th international con- international companies in the America and TUBOTECH is sched- ference of spring industry in Ham- South America market and to in- uled for October 2021 in Sao Paulo, vest in machinery and equipment, Brazil. For further information burg, Germany, Image: VDFI. remains high even during difficult about wire South America 2021 economic conditions on the South and TUBOTECH 2021, contact Tomi Parmasuo, President of American continent. A total of Messe Düsseldorf North America the ESF, moderated a tight pro- 106 companies from 15 countries (MDNA), Chicago, IL, USA. gram of more than 20 talks. As the participated in wire South America www.wire-south-america.com key speaker, Tomas Hedenborg, 2019, while TUBOTECH featured www.tubotech-online.com President of Orgalim, spoke about 80 exhibitors from 11 countries. www.mdna.com EU industry politics 2030. Chal- lenges are global geopolitical and The products exhibited at the economic developments such as two trade fairs are crucial, espe- for example, global power shifts. cially in the fields of infrastructure, China will be the largest economic energy, automotive technology power in the world by 2050, and and agriculture. Trade visitors poor trade and low investments came primarily from the oil and are the result because of pro- gas sector, the automotive indus- tectionism. Further challenges try, the construction sector, metal are economic and technological construction and mining. development. When it comes to artificial intelligence (AI), the EU Switzerland-based Microdia is strongly behind, and social and reports that wire South America societal developments such as for 2019 was a good wire show for example an aging society (in the the company. Visitors from Brazil year 2030 Europe will be the oldest and neighboring countries ex- region of the world) and the lack pressed great interest in Microdia- of qualified employees. Last but exhibited products particularly in not least, naturally also climate and environmental threats belong among the greatest challenges. 18 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


Goals would be foreseeable here, NEWS WIRE of the spring industry will take as well as stable legal framework place from October 7 to 9, 2021, in conditions in order to lead the The joint dinner in the building Barcelona, Spain. European industry to a climate- of the town hall, a part of the www.federnverband.de neutral economy by 2050. Hanseatic tradition in the inner city of Hamburg, presented the Lee Spring Acquires Following this were short talks opportunity to exchange ideas. Longcroft Engineering from the countries of China, the The conference ended successfully Czech Republic and Slovakia, and with a good mood on Satur- Lee Spring, Brooklyn, NY, France, Germany, India, Italy, day after a harbor tour and lunch USA, a global leader in stock and Japan and from the northern in the Elbe Philharmonic Hall. European countries of Denmark, The next international conference Finland and Sweden as well as Po- land, South Korea, Spain, Switzer- TIeLncehDDaniodsoueclbrolsgey land, Turkey, the UK and the USA on each’s respective economic Jack and Jeff Shoemaker, second and third generations situation in the spring industry. continuing the tradition at Anchor Abrasives. In the afternoon Shigeo Aiba, President of Togo Seisakusyo Corp., reported on the interna- tional standardization activities of the ISO/TC 227 “Springs”. Prof. Dr. Ulf Kletzin, Technical University Ilmenau, presented for the VDFI research projects that have been implemented on the topic of creep and relaxation behavior of spring steel wires in coil springs. Dr. Uwe-Peter Weigmann, WAFIOS AG, reported on the industry 4.0 uses in the wire and spring industry. Pablo Capellán presented the metal additive manufacture (3D printing) of optimus3D. Alexander Busse, research association on automotive engi- neering, presented on the topics “E-mobility – Quo vadis? Perspec- tives of future drive systems”. The talks are ready for down- load on the homepage of the ESF. Certified to ISO 9001 since 1994. At Anchor Abrasives we specialize in the design and manufacture of resin, epoxy and oxychloride bonded nut inserted discs and cylinders...plus centerless and rollwheels. Today, in our modern manufacturing facility, we are ready to continue our tradition of innovative quality products and unmatched customer service. For more information contact Anchor Abrasives Company, 7651 West 185th Street, Tinley Park, IL 60477 U.S.A. Phone: 708-444-4300; Fax: 708-444-1300. Tomi Parmasuo, President of the www.anchorabrasives.com ESF, Tomas Hedenborg, President of Orgalim and Paul-Bernd Vogtland, Fall 2019/Wire Forming Technology Internationa8l/16/1179 8:37 AM President of the VDFI (from left to right), Image: VDFI. 145821 ANCHR_DiscTechAd.indd 1


NEWS WIRE custom springs, has announced world’s largest reactors. pact on a lot of people.” the acquisition of Longcroft Engi- Employing 31 people across Alloy Wire International is one neering., which is a manufacturer of custom springs operating in sites in the West Midlands and of the UK’s leading manufacturers Todmorden, Lancashire UK. Yorkshire, the company is on of round, flat and profile wire. It course to hit £1 million of sales for has over 200 tons of EU/DFARS- Steve Kempf, CEO of Lee this industry for the first time in 73 approved stock available at any Spring, commented, “The acquisi- years, and the management team one time, with its 60-strong range tion of Longcroft Engineering ex- believes its ability to fulfil orders including Inconel 600, Inconel 718, pands our capabilities to support in three weeks is a big factor in Inconel 750, Nimonic 80A and continued growth within the UK this increase. Nimonic 90—all materials suited and across the greater European to nuclear applications. market. Longcroft Engineering It also pointed to the way a has been a key strategic partner of lot of the nickel alloy wire in its The firm’s Emergency Manu- Lee Spring for many years, with a range can be treated with a special facturing Service, which involves complementary skill set that is a process that can offer the critical wire being produced and deliv- natural fit for the enhancement of performance required to operate ered within a few days, has also our global operations. They are a in one of the most demanding been in high demand, up nearly talented team with broad spring business arenas in the world. 15% on the same period last year. manufacturing experience and particular expertise in short-run “We have been supplying into This underlines the fluctuating prototyping of complex springs this sector for a long-time and requests being placed on spring made from both wire as well as our track record for manufactur- makers supplying into nuclear flat materials. ing quality is well known with and the importance of being able customers in both the UK and to access material quickly to meet “Longcroft Engineering will overseas,” explained Mark Ven- sudden spikes in usage. continue to serve customers from ables, Managing Director of Alloy its existing facility in Todmor- Wire International. “The last nine Venables continued, “Invest- den, plus it will now also have months have definitely been our ment in our manufacturing ca- access to a wider range of capa- busiest time to date and we are pabilities and our technical team bilities through Lee Spring’s global supplying wire that is going into allow us to offer this unique manufacturing operations. This both existing plants and also new service and we have spent over acquisition enhances the offering projects taking shape across the £250,000 already this year in the available to Lee Spring custom- globe. acquisition of 560 mm single block ers worldwide with expanded and 200 mm multi-block drawing manufacturing operations located “Companies need to know machines. This has increased our in the UK.” the material they’ve ordered will capacity to be able to take on even withstand harsh temperatures and more nuclear work as we look to Lee Spring is a global manufac- corrosion, and is manufactured build on a record year in this sec- turer of mechanical springs and in accordance with strict quality tor.” www.alloywire.com related products. Lee Spring car- controls. With the world relying ries a line of 25,000+ stock springs on nuclear power more than ever, New Aqua Grinder and manufacturers custom springs any type of disruption would im- at European Springs made to customer specifications. & Pressings Established in 1918, Lee Spring is an ISO 9001:2015-certified com- The recent acquisition of a pany and has multiple facilities in Bennett Aqua Grinder at the Re- the USA as well as locations in the druth site of European Springs UK, Germany, Mexico, China and & Pressings has revolutionized India. www.leespring.com the grinding capabilities of the Cornish factory. Nuclear Boost Powers Alloy Wire Expansion The new eight-headed, water- Alloy Wire International (AWI) of the UK has seen a 10% surge in orders for its specialist wire, which is being used within components for the sector and critical seals and springs found in many of the 20 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


cooled grinder has not only en- NEWS WIRE to his continued success.” hanced large wire grinding qual- Gritton has served as Presi- ity, predominantly in the automo- served as SSW’s CEO since 2000. tive sector, but has also increased Kara will continue to serve as dent of SSW since October 2016 grinding production by 400%. Chairman of SSW. and was previously Senior Vice President of Sales, Marketing & Critically, the new system de- “It has been a privilege to serve Product Development for the livers a higher quality of finish as the CEO of SSW and I am ex- company. During his time with with a near mirror finish, offering tremely proud of what our com- SSW, Gritton has helped advance the customer an exceptional level pany has accomplished together,” the company’s growth strategy of manufacturing excellence and said Kara. “I know Mark is com- through leadership in sales, mar- an improved level of service. mitted to lead our exceptionally talented team and I look forward Michael Gibbs, Managing GQ wire guide Director of the Cornwall factories says, “Adding the aqua grinder AL6 AL12 feeder to our infrastructure of grinding production systems has raised ASM-ADM AS-AD our performance across multiple wire straightener wire straightener platforms. The quality of finish is exceptional and we’re delighted complete range of equipments for the to be able to strengthen the level processing of wire of delivery we offer our customers and increase production alongside Via Cabella Lattuada 41 23841 demand.” Annone Brianza Lc Italy +39-0341-263090 The new grinder is an integral [email protected] part of a new performance plat- form, centered on prioritizing lean www.cometo.ws manufacturing and production targets, across Cornwall’s two Fall 2019/Wire Forming Technology International 21 factories. www.europeansprings.com Marik Gritton Named CEO of SSW Holding SSW Holding Company, LLC, Fort Smith, AR, USA, has an- nounced the promo- tion of Mark Gritton to Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the company, effective immediately. In addi- tion to assuming the leadership of SSW as CEO, Gritton, a 25-year company veteran, will continue to serve in his current position of President. Gritton has succeeded Paul Kara, who has


NEWS WIRE keting, new product development year (sunset) review. help serve customers by offering and management of SSW’s Mexico The Commission’s public re- more manufacturing options and facilities. capabilities from two very experi- port Steel Wire Garment Hangers enced companies.” Before joining SSW, Gritton from China (Inv. No. 731-TA-1123 served in general and manufac- (Second Review), USITC Publica- Lee Spring is a global manufac- turing management roles for 15 tion 4945, August 2019), will con- turer of mechanical springs and years with Crucible Materials tain the views of the Commission related products. Lee Spring car- Corporation, Cooper Industries, and information developed during ries a line of 25,000+ stock springs Federal-Mogul Corporation and the review. and manufacturers custom springs General Electric Appliances. made to customer specifications. The report is available and can Established in 1918, Lee Spring is Founded in 1946 and based in be accessed on the USITC website. an ISO 9001:2015-certified com- Ft. Smith, AR, USA, SSW designs www.usitc.gov pany and has multiple facilities in and manufactures engineered the USA as well as locations in the steel and glass components for Lee Spring UK, Germany, Mexico, China and the food preservation, cooking, Acquires Kirk-Habicht India. www.leespring.com home comfort and construction industries. The company’s diverse Lee Spring, Brooklyn, NY, Akron Mayor Tours product portfolio includes glass, USA, a global leader in stock Akron Rebar Company wire and sheet metal refrigeration and custom springs, recently an- shelving, wire freezer baskets, nounced the acquisition of The Earlier this summer, to cele- oven racks, stove grates, air con- Kirk-Habicht Company. Kirk- brate the company’s multi-million- ditioner fan and coil guards and Habicht, founded in 1907, and a dollar investment in cutting-edge concrete reinforcements. manufacturer of custom springs, equipment, Akron’s Mayor, Dan www.sswholding.net operates in Rosedale, MD, USA. Horrigan, visited Akron Rebar, Akron, OH, USA, and toured its USITC Determination Steve Kempf, CEO of Lee facility. Spring, commented, “Kirk-Hab- in Review of Wire icht is a great fit for Lee Spring. When Mayor Horrigan and The company has a dedicated Akron’s entrepreneur expert, Hangers from China and talented group of employ- Heather Roszczyk, heard of the ees that are cross-trained, and a growth of Akron Rebar, they were The U.S. International Trade modern facility that will expand thrilled to visit the space and see Commission (USITC) has deter- our manufacturing capacity in the the company’s newest technology mined that revoking the existing United States. Lee Spring recently as well as hear plans for additional antidumping duty order on im- celebrated our 100th anniversary future growth. ports of steel wire garment hang- and Kirk-Habicht has over 112 ers from China would be likely to years in business, so it is exciting “On a recent visit to Akron lead to continuation or recurrence to have these two long-standing Rebar, I was impressed with their of material injury within a reason- companies moving into the future commitment to growth through ably foreseeable time. together. innovation,” noted Mayor Hor- As a result “This combination is great for of the Commis- both companies and for our cus- sion’s affirmative tomers. Kirk-Habicht’s employees determination, will remain in their current facility, the existing an- which allows for them to continue tidumping duty to provide the same excellent sup- order on imports port to their customers. But they of this product from China will will now also have access to a wid- remain in place. er range of capabilities through Chairman David S. Johanson Lee Spring. This acquisition will and Commissioners Irving A. Wil- liamson, Meredith M. Broadbent, Rhonda K. Schmidtlein and Jason E. Kearns voted in the affirmative. This action comes under the five-year (sunset) review process required by the Uruguay Round Agreements Act. See the website below for background on this five- 22 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


rigan. “Particularly in a legacy NEWS WIRE recently in Verona, Italy. Held Oc- manufacturing company like tober 21 to 22, 2019, at the Palazzo Akron Rebar, the strategic choice delivers custom, multi-radius Della Gran Guardia, the event to explore and adopt new tech- bending—making it the first of its was envisioned as a “technical nologies will keep Akron at the kind in the United States. conference forefront in the industries of the of collabo- future.” “These fully-automated sys- ration & in- tems offer such dramatic flexibil- novation” Akron Rebar is a state-of-the-art ity that we can literally offer an intended to serve as a venue to steel rebar fabrication company infinite number of bend options. further industry knowledge and founded in January of 1978 with The investment significantly in- foster discussions between manu- the purpose of supplying con- creases our capacity, efficiency facturers and suppliers. struction contractors in the north- and service, while maintaining our east Ohio region. Since then, Ak- competitive pricing, positioning us Against the captivating back- ron Rebar has evolved to become a for tremendous growth,” explains drop of Verona, 235 industry major supplier in the commercial, President and CEO, Michael B. professionals participated in the precast, residential and retail mar- Humphrey II. conference, which included pre- kets throughout the midwest. www.AkronRebar.com sentations, table-top exhibits, a The fuel for its growth includes Wire & Cable Verona technology from MEP, an Italian- Italia Technical based manufacturer known for Conference Report its efficient and innovative manu- facturing solutions. Now, Akron The Wire Association Interna- Rebar will have two complete and tional (WAI) Inc., Madison, CT, fully automated cut-and-bend sta- USA, and the Italian Machinery tions for processing stock rebar. Manufacturers Association (ACI- MAF), Milano, Italy, concluded In fact, one of the machines their jointly organized conference Fall 2019/Wire Forming Technology International 23


gala dinner and two plant tours. NEWS WIRE per, aluminum, plastic, equipment The technical program featured 11 and the economy in general.” ferrous and nine nonferrous pre- tive economic growth and that this sentations by speakers represent- commitment must be deployed Brian Burr of Sumiden Wire ing nine countries. Additionally, in all the components of the com- Products Corporation, said, “The 32 companies presented products pany’s activity, from research and Wire & Cable Verona Italia 2019 and services at a table-top exhibit product development, to quality event was an unqualified success. adjacent to the conference rooms. controls, to sales strategies, just The two educational tracks ad- to mention a few aspects,” stated dressed a wide range of technical ACIMAF President, Ferruccio Bellina. topics with many diving deep into Bellina, led off the event by ob- the area of Industry 4.0 as well as serving that the global economy Bellina said that Wire & Cable continuous improvement.” remains delicate, and that times Verona Italia was designed to ad- are challenging for many indus- dress such needs, so operators can Guests were given a choice be- trial sectors. access new innovative proposals tween ferrous and nonferrous wire and have unique possibilities of plant tours to Pittini Group’s Ac- “It is our conviction that these communication and interaction, ciaierie di Verona, and Mondini moments require even greater on a truly international level. Cavi, respectively. commitment than periods of posi- Two WAI Board Members in at- tendance shared high praise of The gala dinner was held at the the conference. Kurt Breischaft of SDI LaFarga, said, “The Ve- rona event was another solid WAI-ACIMAF offering: excellent presentations on the state of the industry, in-depth plant tours and many networking opportunities. The nonferrous program was well balanced with something for cop- ANBAO STEEL WIRES Galvanized wire,Redrawn wire,Stainles steel wire,Copper coated wire Bright wire etc.on kinds of spools,such as DIN125,DIN160,DIN200 DIN250,BB20,BB25,MP100 etc. www.witels-albert-usa.com ANBAO CORP. 24 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019 Add: No.33 Qinhuangxi Street, Qinhuangdao, P.R.Chin, 066000 Tel: +86-335-3893600 Fax: +86-335-3870760 Email: [email protected] Website: www.anbao.net


stunning Palazzo Verita Poeta. NEWS WIRE Carbide quickly became an in- The event partners included the dustry leader. In the year 2018, Italian Ministry of Economic grinding as well as profile and Chris Throwe and Andy Cowell Development and the Italian surface grinding, Northeast Car- purchased Northeast Carbide, Trading Agency (ITA). The event bide, Inc. has been able to support Inc. and continue to build on the was supported by Expometals and these industries with wire forming company’s rich history with a fo- industry organizations, Comité rolls and turks-head rolls as well cus on investment, modernization Européen de la Tréfilerie (CET), as with spring tooling, which and growth. International Wire & Cable Ex- is produced under the Spring hibitors Association (IWCEA), Manufacturers Supply Company Looking to the future, North- and the International Wire & (SMSC) brand. east Carbide and Spring Manu- Machinery Association (IWMA). facturers Supply Company will www.wirenet.org In the company’s early years, grow its partnerships with indus- www.wirecable19.com Northeast Carbide, Inc. experi- try associations including SMI, enced rapid growth and quickly NESMA, CASMI and WAI. Northeast Carbide outgrew its original location in Celebrates 50th Meriden, CT, USA. The companies’ customers will Anniversary continue to benefit from North- In 1977 a new facility was east Carbide’s engineering and Founded in 1969, Northeast built at 525 West Queen Street in manufacturing expertise, along Carbide, Inc. was established to Southington, CT, USA. Northeast with personalized customer ser- fulfill the requirement for preci- Carbide remains in this location vice. Northeast Carbide thanks its sion grinding with a focus on the today. Through partnerships loyal customers for making this wire forming and spring manufac- with loyal customers, Northeast milestone possible. For more infor- turing industries. mation about Northeast Carbide, Inc., please contact Andy Cowell Through the use of ID/OD at [email protected] www.nectools.com AWT Machinery offers CNC Jig Welder sales, service and support Exclusive Sales Agents of automated wire machinery including, CNC JIG welders, straightening & cutting machines, buttwelders, and mesh welders. Wire straightening & cutting machine www.awtmach.com Buttwelder [email protected] +1(815)708-2223 Illinois USA Fall 2019/Wire Forming Technology International 25


CASMI News & Events Update by: Chicago Association of Spring Manufacturers, Inc. Michael Bandy Chicago Association of Spring Manufacturers, Inc. (CASMI) 218 Glorieta Drive St. Augustine, FL 32095 USA www.casmi-springworld.org Veeck Headlines SpringWorld® Strauss to Headline January Meeting Kickoff Dinner CASMI’s January 15, 2020, Membership On October 17, 2019, the Chicago Association of Spring Manufacturers, Inc. (CASMI) hosted its Dinner Meeting will feature William A. SpringWorld® 2020 Kickoff Dinner at Maggiano’s Lit- tle Italy in Schaumburg, IL, USA. It was attended by Strauss, a Senior Economist and Eco- nearly 70 CASMI members, SpringWorld exhibitors and potential exhibitors. This biennial event signals nomic Advisor in the economic research the beginning of the year leading up to SpringWorld, which takes place October 7 to 9, 2020, at the Rosemont department at the Federal Reserve Bank Convention Center in Rosemont, IL. USA. of Chicago. His chief responsibilities in- William A. clude analyzing the current performance Strauss of the midwest economy and the manu- facturing sector. He produces the monthly Chicago Fed Midwest Manufacturing Index and organizes the Bank’s Economic Outlook Symposium. Strauss has taught as an adjunct faculty member at Loyola University and Webster University in Chicago. He currently teaches at DePaul University Kellstadt Graduate School of Business and at the University of Chicago Graham School. His research papers include analysis of the manufacturing sector, the midwest re- gional economy, the trade-weighted dollar, business cycles and Federal Reserve payments operations. William A. Strauss is a regular contributor to CASMI events, having provided his economic outlook for the CASMI Board and staff members provided an over- membership for several years. Details are available at view of the upcoming trade show, which is already the website below. 82% sold. www.casmi-springworld.org WFTI In addition to networking, dinner and CASMI was founded in 1944 as an independent, not-for-profit trade association dedicated to the development of good business show announcements, Mike Veeck, practices, and sharing of technical information through ongo- Visionary & Co-Founder, Fun Is Good, ing communications among the job-shop spring manufacturers presented “Creating Joy & Passion in in the Greater Chicago area. While membership is predomi- nantly located in Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin, the organi- Your Workplace and Career”. Mike Veeck zation provides support to spring manufacturer and supplier members throughout the USA. Companies interested in exhibiting at Although CASMI works closely on several issues with the SpingWorld 2020 should contact CASMI at +1 630 359 Spring Manufacturers Institute (SMI), a national organiza- 4273, or e-mail [email protected] tion, both organizations are independent of one another, with unique missions, programs, services, and members. CASMI Annual Holiday Party in December CASMI sponsors the SPRINGWORLD® Trade Show every CASMI will hold its Annual Holiday Party on Thurs- two years. New technology presented at this event brings thou- day, December 11, 2019, in a private dining room sands of people to the Chicago area from all over the world. at Cooper’s Hawk in Arlington Heights, IL, USA. Since the first show in 1959, SPRINGWORLD has become the Members will participate in an informal evening of largest gathering of the spring manufacturing and wire form- networking and great food. Each member and guest ing industry anywhere at one time. Nearly 100 exhibiting com- is asked to contribute a US$5 donation at the door, panies - participating in 30,000 net ft2 square feet of exhibit with the proceeds to be given to the Mercy Home for space - demonstrate machinery, show raw materials, test equip- Boys and Girls to assist the less fortunate during the ment, software and other products and services. Holiday season. www.casmi-springworld.org Details are available on the CASMI website listed be- low, or by calling the office at +1 630 359 4273. 26 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


All Things by: Randy DeFord, Engineering Manager Springs Mid-West Spring & Stamping 105 Etna St. Material Type Should be Called Mentone, IN 46539  USA Out by Industry Standard Name E-mail: [email protected] www.mwspring.com Blueprints are created for one sole purpose—to communicate clearly and accurately the param- that states “Material per ASTM A228”. As accurate eters of a spring for manufacture. And, since most and precise as this callout may be, it still lacks the springs are made from a single material type, that most important ingredient. What is the material? material type should be called out by its industry An experienced engineer knows that this material standard name. This is especially critical since the is Music wire. But, many other people in the chain material type is THE bill of material for most spring such as buyers, salespeople, QA inspectors, floor designs. operators and purchasers may not have that knowl- edge, either dedicated to memory or with access It’s nothing new to a Design Engineer to see a to the specification themselves. customer preferred material listing on blueprints or specifications in cryptic form. For instance, “MW” The requirement should have read “Music wire per or “spring steel” or maybe nothing at all. Given that ASTM A228”. Now we know precisely what the carbon and alloys can have different moduli and material is and any details that are needed can tensile, and the material is the only BOM, material be accessed with the ASTM A228 specification. type is critical to the springmaker. A vague material I do not have to access the specification itself to requirement opens up room for assumption, and know what is required. I have even seen “whatever therefore, error and rejection. is available” as a material callout. That is not the stuff of an engineered product. Clearly defining the That said, my point is that a material type should material type should always be the first callout, and be called out as the first order of business, clearly then followed by the specification that can provide and noncryptically. Stating the obvious should be the details of chemistry, tolerancing and the me- the rule. If the material is Music wire, then state chanical properties. “Music wire” before listing the specification. This may seem I’m mentioning something that is quite Even a callout of “carbon steel” at least points to rare, but it’s not. I see it frequently. There are many a class of material and the engineer can then as- potential material callouts such as those listed in sign a type that best suits the application and can the SMI Encyclopedia of Spring Design as well as handle the calculated stresses. Calling out only a UNS, ASTM, SAE/AISI, AMS, SAE, MIL, FED, reference that will have to be accessed and read, JIS, DIN, BS and beyond. Then, there is also only increases the quote time, and worse yet, may countless customer specifications that must be require an assumption that turns out to be wrong. retained and updated to be sure the material is to In this case, one word such as “Music” can remove customer needs. At the quoting stage, the Design all doubt and makes the whole process of quoting Engineer needs to see exactly what type of mate- more efficient and a time-saving endeavor. And, rial is needed in clear description before referenc- it only takes a few seconds to include the word, ing a detailed material specification for chemistry, “Music”, and minimal ink from the toner. tolerancing and tensile strength. Calling out the material type by industry standard But, it’s not uncommon to see a material listing name is a win-win scenario, which only requires one or two words. Okay, enough said. www.mwspring.com WFTI Randy DeFord is the Engineering Manager at Mid-West Spring & Stamping, a custom spring manufacturer that offers custom spring design, stock springs and metal stamping services. The company is multi-plant spring manufacturer and leading supplier of auger springs and metal stampings. For more information, call +1 574 353 7611, Ext. 231, fax to +1 574 353 7388, email to [email protected] or visit www.mwspring.com. The company is also the home of Landrum Performance coil and leaf springs for racing applications, call +1 866 703 3154 or visit www.landrumspring.com. 28 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


Thinking Big? Think All Around Spring Machine Manufacturer Wire and Strip Forming High speed wire forming to 8.0+mm (~ .3218) - Super high speed forming Okuno Machine Co. - Wire or strip Because… - 0.4mm to 8.0+mm (~.0156\" to ~.3218\") One of the most respected names in spring making Wave Springs and Wave Washers and wire forming. With over 45 years supplying Wave Springs and Wave Washers the industry and over 300 to 200mm (~9\") diameter innovative patents. - Patented Okuno forming process - Wave springs - Single and multi-turn wave washers Flat and Round Wire Rings Round, flat and shaped wire rings 300mm² (~ 0.5²) wire to 480mm (~19.0”) ring diameter - Round - Flat and Shaped wire CNC Coiling - Round and oval rings CNC Coiling to 25+mm (~1.0 “) diameter wire - Wire cross section 0.4mm to 300mm2 - High Precision - CNC Coiling from 0.05mm to 25+mm (~.002\" to ~1.0\") - Variety of end cut shapes - Very high production rates - Independent servo control on each axis - High Speed Orchestra Control (Pat.) - New EZ Set controller with self correcting artificial intelligence Outstanding Sales and Service in the Americas: 106 Ninth Street North Okuno Machine Co., LTD Brigantine, NJ 08203 USA 48-2, Sakamoto-cho, Izumi-city Tel: (609) 266-0200 Osaka, Japan 594-0052 Fax: (609) 266-9079 Tel: 81 (725) 43-7111 www.MaguireMachinery.com Fax: 81 (725) 45-3111 [email protected] www.Okunomc.co.jp


European Perspectives by: Potential Recession for UK Manufacturers Dipl.-Ing. Konrad Dengler Industrial Journalist Brexit uncertainty, the slowdown in major markets Finkenweg 6 and trade wars could plunge Britain’s manufacturers D 91091 Grossenseebach into recession, according to the British manufactur- Germany ers association Make UK and the advisory firm BDO [email protected] LLP. The technical magazine “The Engineer” wrote in September 2019, that the Q3 Manufacturing Outlook • IAA & Automotive Industry • Potential UK Recession survey, which garnered opinions from 292 companies, • Energy Storage Plant • Increasing Copper Demand also shows that export orders are down despite prices falling, indicating that overseas customers are not buy- The IAA Reflects the Situation ing British goods even though they are 6% cheaper of the Automotive Industry than this time last year. The International Automobile Exhibition IAA in Frank- furt/Main, Germany, was in the past one of the leading Seamus Nevin, Chief Economist of Make UK, said: “In- trade fairs for the automobile world. The most recent dustry is facing a perfect storm of factors, compounded IAA, which took place in September 2019, was marked by a hard Brexit, which could not be coming at a worse by a crisis-ridden sector and looked more like a nation- possible time. In normal circumstances, a global slow- al German show, summarized Fabian Wanke, analyst down on its own would be enough, but add trade wars of the ARC Advisory Group, Düsseldorf, Germany. and the biggest shock to our economy since the War Peugeot, Mazda, Volvo, Toyota and many other car and there seems little doubt that, barring a remarkable manufacturers were not exhibiting, the only “big” Asian turnaround, the sector may be heading for recession.” exhibitors were Hyundai and Honda. But even more serious, the year 2019 has so far been marked by bad “A cliff-edge decision on a deal or no-deal Brexit will news for the whole automotive industry. The declining mean a double whammy of continuing weaker demand sales in China, the world’s largest automotive market, for products and fundamental disruption to supply has hit companies hard, and other markets are also chains,” added Tom Lawton, head of manufacturing at weakening. At the same time, companies have to in- BDO. “The impact on supply chains will be particularly vest huge sums in future technology. felt in the UK automotive sector where car parts are sourced from different European countries and deliv- In the first half of 2019, car production fell by 5% year- ered on a just-in-time basis before being finally assem- over-year to 46 million units (48.4 million units in 2018). bled in the UK. Already suffering from a fall in output for 14 successive months, car assembly—the jewel in the 2018 was a turning point for the Chinese automotive crown of UK manufacturing—would be particularly hit market and the Chinese industry. After continuous hard by a no-deal Brexit. The government must strain growth in the last 28 years, the market began to shrink every sinew to reach a Brexit deal that protects UK for the first time in the middle of last year, resulting in manufacturing.” a decrease of 5.8% for 2018 as a whole. And this situ- ation continued in 2019. The market contracted by an- According to the survey, the total order balance other 13% in the first half of 2019. As a result of the dropped to +2% in Q3, which is down from +8% in Q2 strong decline in sales, the most important automobile and +16% in Q1. At the current trend, this will almost manufacturers significantly reduced their investments, certainly turn negative in the final quarter of the year which also had a negative impact on the automation barring a remarkable turnaround in the economy. market. Output fell to +4% from +17% in Q2, indicating there is But not only the Chinese automobile market is strug- little, if any, evidence that stockpiling is building. This is gling. The global automotive industry is experiencing leaving companies far less prepared for ‘no deal’ than a sales and profit crisis, due mainly to the current eco- they were earlier this year. nomic situation. These and other negative headlines in recent weeks have dampened the anticipation of the After two quarters where they were below domestic IAA. There is no shortage of topics. orders, export orders (+6%) have returned to a level above domestic orders which have turned negative The trade and currency dispute between the USA and at -6%. Such weakening cannot be explained by the China are just as much of a problem for the industry as poorer global outlook alone, especially as UK and ex- the worries concerning the unsolved issues around the port prices are down by 8% and 6%, respectively, since impending Brexit. this time last year. https://www.arcweb.com/blog/iaa-long-established- automotive-industry-under-pressure Investment and recruitment intentions have also weak- ened significantly, with the latter continuing the decline witnessed for the last four quarters. Furthermore, in- 30 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


vestment intentions, which have been paralyzed for copper are electric vehicles, renewable electricity gen- the last year, have now entered negative territory for eration and the construction sector. the first time since Q3 2016. The development of electric vehicles, which rely on The survey found also that confidence in the overall copper, is being enhanced by increasing vehicle per- economy is down by almost a half compared to the last formance and reducing battery costs as well as use quarter. If Britain avoids a ‘no deal Brexit’ then Make regulation by governments around the world. Individual UK forecasts manufacturing growth of 0.1% in 2019 country targets to bring all greenhouse gas emissions (down from 0.2%) and 0.6% in 2020 (down from 0.8%). to net zero will contribute to the rapid uptake of electric GDP is forecast at 1.1% in 2019 and 1.4% in 2020. vehicles, alongside the rise of charging points and bat- https://www.theengineer.co.uk/brexit-recession-manu- teries systems, which also depend on copper. facturers/ In the energy sector, several future trends correlate Plans to Build Europe’s with increased copper demand, due to the materials Largest Energy Storage Plant exceptional conductive properties. Renewable elec- tricity generation is growing fast, particularly solar and A cryogenic energy storage plant with a total capacity wind farms, which use much larger volumes of copper of 50 MW/250 MWh should be built at a decommis- than conventional thermal power generators. The elec- sioned thermal power station site in northern England, tricity grid, which is forecast to be restructured to ac- wrote Stuart Nathan, Author at the technical magazine commodate newly available energy storage, will also “The Engineer”. The project is to be realized by the rely on copper for greater levels of efficiency. cryogenic energy storage pioneer, Highview Power, a past winner in “The Engineer Innovation Award”, and Metra Martech’s report reveals that the global middle should support the National Grid and also be the larg- class is set to grow to 5.6 billion in 2030, a 4% increase est energy storage plant in Europe. The cryobattery per annum, creating significant new demand for bet- plant will use technology demonstrated at a pilot plant ter equipped housing using more domestic electrical in Slough and developed further at a demonstration goods and systems. In the developed markets, there is plant in Manchester, both UK. growing use of copper in the construction industry as it looks to develop more intelligent buildings—which rely Highview’s technology uses excess energy such as on copper for IT systems and energy efficiency. that generated by renewable sources, to liquefy air and store the liquid until the electricity is needed and Peter Gorle, Metra Martech said, “Our research has can be distributed. At this point, the liquid air is allowed shown interesting trends within all major industries that to evaporate and expand through a turbine, where its will lead to increasing copper demand. Many of the latent energy of vaporization is converted into elec- trends we observe are related to pressure to cut green tric current. Highview claims that the technology uses houses gases and drive increased efficiency, both ar- only environmentally friendly materials, has no carbon eas where copper has a significant role to play.” emissions and no impact on water usage or quality. The cryobattery plant can store energy for weeks, rath- Colin Bennett, Global Manager, Market Analysis and er than hours or days, as is the case with current bat- tery technologies. According to Highview Power, cryo- Outreach, ICA, noted, “Metra Martech’s research dem- battery technology can deliver from 20 MW/80 MWh to more than 200 MW/1.2 GWh and has a lifespan of onstrates the ubiquitous nature of copper within the 30 to 40 years. The new plant could be in operation by 2022. https://www.theengineer.co.uk/highview-power- global economy. Copper’s ability to be recycled repeat- energy-storage/ edly without any loss of performance makes it an es- sential material in the future circular economy.” https://industryeurope.com/future-mega-trends-to-in- crease-copper-demand/ WFTI Increasing Copper Demand Dipl.-Ing. Konrad Dengler is an industrial journal- ist and specialized translator serving the wire/cable A research, conducted by the market research consul- technology, tube technology, materials and produc- tancy Metra Martech, London, UK, on behalf of the tion technology and quality testing industries. International Copper Association (ICA), reveals forecasted trends across several industries which will He can be reached by telephone at +49 9135 6982 contribute to significant increases in global copper de- or by email at [email protected] mand. As the industrial magazine “iE Industry Europe” writes, three of the most important growth areas for Fall 2019/Wire Forming Technology International 31


Wire by: Product Alan Thomas, Marketing Department Testing ZwickRoell Limited Southern Avenue A Guide to Extensometer Leominster Selection for Every Herefordshire HR6 0QH Materials Testing Application United Kingdom www.zwickroell.com In materials and component testing, the range of appli- cations where extensometers are used is extremely di- aging the specimen itself. verse. As a result, the technical requirements for these devices are multifaceted, and this means that there is Very thin specimens such as foils can be sensitive to no single device which satisfies all needs. As a pioneer clamping forces, while very small wire specimens do and global leader in modern extensometry, the Zwick- not provide enough visible area for reliable non-contact Roell Group can offer its customers the widest range measurements. A high stiffness in the initial extension of technical advice, products and solutions. range, followed by high plasticity traditionally requires more than one extensometer. The first measures small Specimen Properties Which strains (typically up to 5 mm) very accurately in the elas- Influence the Choice of Extensometer tic range, and the second measures very high exten- sions (typically 500 mm). Specimens with very smooth The requirements for an extensometer are determined surfaces, or made of transparent materials, are not suit- primarily by the characteristics of the material to be able for non-contact measurements without first fixing tested. This includes its shape and dimensions, test measuring marks onto the surface of the specimen. One requirements and the formal Standards, which must very important consideration is the behavior when the be met. These define the gauge length, accuracy, test specimen fails. Metals and hard plastics will slip through sequence and environmental conditions. the knife edges of a contact extensometer without dam- aging them, and rotatable knife edges should be used to further reduce the risk of damage even if the surface of the specimen is particularly rough. High extension or flexible specimens can damage or destroy the knife edges and even the extensometer itself due to whip- lash, splintering or de-lamination of specimens (for ex- ample steel rope). For these applications non-contact measurement is highly recommended. Typical selection process for extensometers. Criteria for Accurate Measurements: The optimum choice of extensometer cannot be limited Measurement travel (range) and gauge length to the basic material characteristics such as specimen dimensions, stiffness, strength and plasticity alone. It With contact type measuring extensometers, the meas- is also necessary to decide whether an extensometer urement travel is normally an engineered and fixed can be connected directly to the specimen without in- value, which is dependent upon the range of the meas- fluencing the load measurement or mechanically dam- urement transducer, and with fulcrum hinged sensor arms, the leverage ratio. The initial gauge length is set manually with fixed steps or automatically over a de- fined range. Non-contact extensometers that use a vid- eo camera must have the field of view larger than the required range plus the initial gauge length. Since the specimen portions which are outside the gauge length and the machine components themselves deform in the direction of loading, the position of the measuring marks on the specimen changes during the test. For extension and/or gauge lengths, which are expected to be outside of the field of view, then the objective lens must be changed or the distance between the specimen and the video camera must be increased. All these actions decrease the measuring accuracy, and in addition, every changed measurement configuration must be adjusted and calibrated. 32 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


Measurement accuracy and removal systems. “Accuracy” is a commonly used, qualitative term. To Feeler arm extensometers offer the major advantage qualify the integrity of a measured signal Standards of automatic operation and a large measurement range use quantitative terms such as ”resolution”, ”devia- with high measurement accuracy and are suitable for tion” or ”uncertainty” and definitive values are given many different applications. Precision designs with a for these. Requirements for the accuracy of extension very smooth and balanced mechanical operation ap- measurements are normally given in application spe- ply minimum loading to the specimen (as little as the cific test requirements and International Standards. measurement marks used for non-contact extensom- Many test Standards, for example, tensile test on met- eters). Since the feeler arms are in contact with both als and plastics refer to Standards for calibration of sides of the specimen, superimposed bending strains extension measurement systems and the required ac- are largely compensated. curacy classes. Clip-on and feeler arm extensometers are in direct me- chanical contact with the specimen via knife edges, The required measuring points for the calculation of which are perpendicular to the gauge length. The ex- Elastic Modulus for metal and plastic shown in com- tremely small contact force from the knife edges can parison with a human hair, highlighting the accuracy cause a microscopic indentation into the specimen surface, which gives a light form-fit and thereby a pre- requirements for extensometers. cisely positioned contact point. This is an important factor for the large measurement accuracy and small Ergonomics and economy scatter band width of the measured values. Because Devices which are easy to set-up and sequences which of the direct contact with the specimen, feeler arm ex- can be automated reduce personnel time and effort and tensometers can be damaged or even destroyed by at the same time improve the quality of the test results whiplash at the failure point of high elasticity/high ex- because subjective influences are minimized. Higher tension specimens. initial acquisition costs can be quickly amortized, espe- cially when the extensometer can be used for a wide Combination of fully automatic feeler arm range of applications. When using a video extensom- extensometer with dual averaging and eter, the time and costs for marking the specimen must transverse strain extensometer. also be considered as well as any potential human error introduced in attaching or aligning the marks. Non-contact extensometers (video) The main advantage of non-contact video extensom- Contact Type Measurement Extensometers eters is that they can be used up to break without dam- Clip-on extensometers are, as the name implies, age even when testing specimens that exhibit whip- mounted directly onto the test specimen. The mechan- lash. They require measurement marks to be attached ical parts which transfer extension, via knife edges, to the specimen, which are optically distinct from the from the specimen to the internal transducer are short surrounding area of the specimen. and stiff. There is practically no relative movement The measurement marks are clipped, tacked or glued between the specimen and the extensometer and for onto the specimen, or the specimen is marked with a this reason the measurement accuracy is exception- colored pen. In every case, this introduces additional ally high. The range of a clip-on extensometer is lim- sources of error as the marks can become indistinct, ited to a few millimeters and it applies a load directly to move or fall off the specimen surface as it deforms dur- the specimen. Some extensometers are available with ing loading. The application of the measurement marks counter-balance weight, and double-sided measuring systems are used to compensate for superimposed bending stresses. The application and removal is nor- mally manual. However, to minimize setting errors, cer- tain products are equipped with motorized application Fall 2019/Wire Forming Technology International 33


Wire Product Testing ...continued is also an additional process by the operator and can Schematic dia- introduce higher costs as well as inaccuracies to the gram showing the test results. The position of the measurement marks operating principle on the specimen is evaluated by software algorithms, which determine a certain area around an Optical of various exten- Center Point. This becomes the gauge length and as someters. the specimen is loaded the movement of the marks is converted to extension values. Special lighting for sur- face or background illumination of the specimen opti- mizes the contrast to the measurement mark. During the deformation of the specimen, the lighting changes on the measurement marks as well as specimen and surrounding influences (reflections, etc.) can influence the optical center point. This is often the cause of scat- ter in the test results. Non-contact extensometers (laser interferometry) The ZwickRoell laserXtens, is a non-contacting de- vice, which does not require measurement marks. It uses the unique structure of a specimen’s surface as a “fingerprint” to generate a virtual measurement mark. Laser light directed on these measurement positions is reflected in various directions corresponding to the surface structure and creates a specific pattern of speckles. Selected measurement points are constantly followed and converted to direct extension values. The change in the surface structure, which is the basis of the speckle pattern, is continuously evaluated during specimen deformation. tive to notching knife edges or when the extensometer might be damaged at specimen break. In short, there is no such device as a universal extensometer. The large range of applications demands various devices with different functions and characteristics, and the exten- someter must be selected for each application. For further discussion on the testing of wire products, contact the author at ZwickRoell Limited in the UK or visit: www.zwickroell.com WFTI ZwickRoell laserXtens non-contact extensometer ZwickRoell is a global leading supplier of materials and com- operating without specimen marks. ponent testing systems. The company supplies both standard and tailor-made solutions for the most demanding require- Summary ments – in R&D, production and quality assurance – across more than 20 industry sectors. Privately held, the company’s Contact type extensometers measure extension ex- consistent focus on innovation and commitment to outstanding tremely accurately and are very cost effective. Howev- quality has supported its growth in markets worldwide. Addi- er, clip-on extensometers require much more manual tional information about the ZwickRoell Group may be found intervention and without care can introduce scatter in at: www.zwickroell.com the test results. Feeler arms extensometers offer ex- tremely high accuracy, excellent repeatability and ease For further information regarding this article, please contact: of use due to fully automatic operation, which includes Alan Thomas, Marketing Department the setting of variable gauge lengths. Non-contact ex- tensometers are required when the specimen is sensi- E: [email protected] Tel: +44 1568 615201 Mob: +44 7710 196684 34 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


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The Heat Treatment of Steel Spring Wire by: The proper heat treatment of a spring wire is one of the Daniel H. Herring most important aspects of its successful application. It “The Heat Treat Doctor”®, President is important to know both the type of properties desired The HERRING GROUP, Inc. and the response of the material to either stress relief or P.O. Box 884 hardening in order to predict how it will behave. Elmhurst, IL 60126-0884 USA www.heat-treat-doctor.com There are several choices for the spring manufac- Table 12. Stress Relief Temperatures and Times turer, purchasing pre-hardened wire or heat-treating for Steel Wire. wire that has been purchased in the soft, or annealed condition (Figure 1). This article explores these dif- ferences as well as the differences in properties that may result. The following sections look at the types of heat treatments. Fig. 11 — Spring Wire Forms (Photograph Courtesy of Table 23. Hydrogen Bake Out Requirements for Master Spring and Wire Form Company). High Strength Parts (per ASTM B 850-98 (2004). Stress Relief the residual stresses on the inside of the spring re- duce the fatigue strength. These residual stresses can Heating pre-hardened steel wire typically into the be decreased by stress relief. The magnitude of the temperature range of 150°C to 455°C (300°F to 850°F) residual stresses that are formed is dependent on the followed by a slow (< 22°C/h or 40°F/hour) cool opera- tensile strength of the steel wire. The amount of stress tion will relieve internal (residual) stress in the material relief after coiling is a function of temperature for a as well as improve dimensional stability and increase CrV and CrSi wire. Typically, CrSi wire exhibits ap- the yield strength of cold drawn wire (Table 1). Stress relief can also be used to negate the effect of hydrogen embrittlement due to plating operations provided the soak times are increased (Table 2). The results of the stress relieving process are depend- ent on the temperature and time which are expressed by either the Holloman-Jaffe parameter, which is a measure of the thermal effect of the process or the Larson-Miller equation: P = T (C + log t) X 10-3 where t is the time (in hours) at temperature T (in “K) and the value for the composition dependent constant C is calculated from a separate equation: C = 21.3 – (5.8 x % Carbon in the steel) As an example, when wire is coiled into a compres- sion spring, the steel on the inside of the coil is upset and becomes shorter due to plastic deformation and 3262 Wire Forming Technology International/FSaplrlin2g0129010


WFTI EMPHASIS: Heat Treatment proximately 40% greater residual stress levels than CrV Fig. 22 — Residual stress in valve springs of CrV and CrSi wire. Residual stress can be expressed as a function wire subject to different heat treatments1. of distance from the surface after hardening or stress relief (Figure 2). In addition, it has been reported that Fig. 34 — Tensile strength versus hardness— the negative effects of residual stresses due to coiling hardened and tempered spring steel. can be eliminated, yielding increased residual tensile stresses and improved fatigue strength. position and grain size. When evaluated by hardness testing, hardenability is defined as the capacity of the Hardening material under a given set of heat treatment conditions to harden “in depth”. In other words, hardenability Austenitizing followed by quenching and tempering is concerned with the “depth of hardening” or the is used on a variety of high carbon and high carbon hardness profile obtained, not the ability to achieve alloy steels to develop higher hardness (Figure 3). The spring steel is heated above the materials upper SprFinagll 20109/Wire Forming Technology International 2337 critical temperature (Ac3) so that the crystal structure will convert to austenite (g-iron). The wire must be held at this temperature long enough for the structure to completely transform, approximately 72 seconds for each 0.040\" (1 mm) in a furnace or 30 seconds in a salt or lead bath. Quenching must be rapid enough to form martensite and can be done in air, oil, polymer or water. The quenching process should be fast enough to achieve the maximum amount of martensite for the car- bon level present with a minimal amount of retained austenite (Figure 4 on next page of this article). Finally, when steel is cooled rapidly, or is severely cold worked, a high magnitude of internal stress may develop. This stress can be high enough to cause the steel to crack or break spontaneously, or at least to warp or distort. Tempering is used to reduce hardness, improve toughness and ductility and improve dimen- sional stability. During tempering, the microstructure changes (carbide decomposition and the martensite alters somewhat) allowing hardness (strength) to de- crease and ductility to increase. Properties of Metals6 Understanding the various properties that can be achieved in spring wire is another important issue. Knowledge and understanding of the uses, strengths, limitations, and other characteristics of the material is vital to proper application. The use of unsuitable materials can readily erase the finest craftsmanship. The various concepts can be explained as follows: Hardness—Hardness refers to the ability of a material to resist abrasion, penetration, cutting action, or per- manent distortion. Hardness may be increased by cold working and, in the case of steel, by heat treatment. The ability of the material to resist plastic deformation depends on the carbon content and microstructure of the steel. Therefore, the same steel can exhibit differ- ent hardness values depending on its microstructure, which is influenced by the cooling (transformation) rate. Hardness and strength are closely associated properties of metals. Hardenability—Hardenability describes the heat treatment response of steels using either the concepts of hardness or microstructure. In contrast to hardness, hardenability is a material property, independent of cooling rate and dependent only on chemical com-


The Heat Treatment of Steel Spring Wire ...continued material is exposed. Elasticity—Elasticity is that property that enables a metal to return to its original size and shape when the force that causes the change of shape is removed. This property is extremely valuable because it would be highly undesirable to have a part permanently dis- torted after an applied load was removed. Each metal has a point known as the elastic limit, beyond which it cannot be loaded without causing permanent distor- tion. This property is highly desirable in spring steel. Brittleness—Brittleness is the property of a metal that allows little bending or deformation without shatter- ing. A brittle metal is apt to break or crack without change of shape. Because structural metals are often subjected to shock loads, brittleness is not a very desir- able property. Conductivity—Conductivity is the property that enables a metal to carry heat or electricity. The heat conductivity of a metal is especially important in weld- ing because it governs the amount of heat that will be required for proper fusion. Conductivity of the metal, to a certain extent, determines the type of jig to be used to control expansion and contraction. Thermal Expansion—Thermal expansion refers to contraction and expansion that are reactions produced in metals as the result of heating or cooling. Heat applied to a metal will cause it to expand or become larger. Cooling and heating affect the allowable design tolerances. In Conclusion The proper heat treatment of a spring wire is one of Fig. 45 — Percentage martensite as a function of carbon content and hardness. the most important aspects of its successful applica- a particular hardness value. When evaluated by tion. It is important to know both the type of proper- microstructural techniques, hardenability is defined as the capacity of the steel to transform partially or ties desired and the response of the material to either completely from austenite to some percentage of martensite at a given depth when cooled under known stress relief or hardening in order to predict how it will conditions. behave. Strength—One of the most important properties of a material is strength. Strength is the ability of a material www.heat-treat-doctor.com WFTI to resist an applied force that would create deformation of the material. Strength is also the ability of a material References: to resist stress without breaking. The type of load or stress on the material affects the strength it exhibits. 1 Master Spring and Wire Form Company (www.masterspring.com). Ductility—Ductility is the property of a metal that permits it to be permanently drawn, bent, or twisted 2 Canale, Lauralice C. F., George E. Totten, Antonio C. Canale, into various shapes without breaking. This property is and Maria Regina Gasparini, Overview of Factors Contributing essential for metals used in making wire and tubing. to Steel Spring Performance and Failure, Int. J. Microstructure Ductile metals are greatly preferred because of their and Materials Properties 2007, Vol. 2 No. 3-4, pp. 262 – 309. ease of forming and resistance to failure under shock loads. Ductility is similar to malleability. 3 Herring, D. H., Bake Out Cycle After Plating, The Experts Speak Blog, Industrial Heating (www.industrialheating.com), Toughness—A material that possesses toughness will in preparation. withstand tearing or shearing and may be stretched or otherwise deformed without breaking. Toughness 4 Spring Steel Types Used in Spring Making is a desirable property in any application involving (www.spring-makers-resource.net). shock loading or sudden impact. Toughness will vary as a function of the temperature at which the 5 Herring, D. H., H-Band and RH-Band Steels, Industrial Heat- ing, March 2009. 2348 WWiirreeFFoorrmmiinnggTTeecchhnnoollooggyyIInntteerrnnaattiioonnaall//SFparliln2g0210910 6 McKenna, Patrick, D.H. Herring and Craig Darragh, How to Communicate Heat Treating Requirements to Your Heat Treater, Industrial Heating, May 2010. This article first appeared in the Spring 2010 issue of Wire Forming Technology International.


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TECH BRIEF Choosing the Right Materials for Springs Airedale Springs Ltd., West York- industry and require springs that can resistance to fatigue, though they can shire, UK, publishs an online blog, withstand corrosion from saltwater, crack due to stress. and here is a recent post: then stainless steel can be a fantastic choice, as it won’t rust or weaken This is a very popular and ver- Springs are everywhere. They even in very moist environments. satile alloy for springs, and is used are used in a variety of industries, in a variety of markets and sectors from engineering and automotive to The lifespan of the spring will including architecture, art, aerospace, aerospace and retail, and the different also play a key role. Springs that are chemical processing, food and trans- types of springs that can be manufac- expected to be used thousands or portation. tured are almost as diverse as their millions of times over their life cycle uses—the same is true of the materi- need to be able to withstand normal High-arbon Steels: This is also a als from which springs are made. wear and tear. For instance, if a spring very popular alloy used in the manu- is part of an engine in a car, then facture of springs. Carbon steels Both the type of spring and the it will be in use fairly often, which have a carbon content of up to 2.1%. materials chosen will depend on the means it needs to be hard-wearing And the higher this percentage, the project being worked on and the ap- and durable. stronger the alloy. The properties of plications of the product. It’s impor- this material make it sought-after for tant to choose the material that offers So having the right spring mate- springs, as it can offer great hardness the properties your project demands. rial is crucial to the manufacture of a levels and resistance to wear and tear. product that will meet the demand- Hard drawn wires for low-stress ap- How do you decide which spring ing requirements of your project and plications come at a low cost, while materials are right for your project? of the industry, and that will stand higher tensile materials are best Below, we’re taking a look at differ- the test of time. So which metals are suited for high-stress applications ent metals and their properties as commonly used in springs and why? and are more expensive. well as to which applications they are best suited. Different Metals High-carbon steels are less ductile for Different Springs and more brittle than metals like What Determines the steel, which means they won’t be Right Material for a Spring? Stainless Steel: Commonly used suitable for environments where for springs, this material is ideal for flexibility is a concern. As spring manufacturers, we’re settings where higher corrosion or aware of just how complex spring heat resistance is a necessity. This Nickel Alloys: Nickel is a versatile design and spring manufacturing can steel alloy has a minimum of 10.5% material that will alloy with many be. So before creating your spring, we chromium content and a maximum different metals, making it ideal need to know precisely what it will of 1.2% carbon content. Stainless steel for a range of environments where be used for, as this will help us create comes in several different grades, resistance to corrosion and high the product to your exact specifica- each with its own properties as well temperatures is a requirement. Nickel tions. We need to be aware of factors as types: austenitic, martensitic and alloys also tend to offer a high level that may impact how the springs will precipitation hardening. of strength and durability and remain perform such as temperature and reliable even in the most demanding corrosion. Austenitic stainless steels are of environments like chemical plants hardened by cold work and are use- or oil rigs. Nickel-based alloys are For instance, if the spring will ful for applications where resistance also commonly found in below-zero need to perform optimally even at to corrosion is required. Martensitic temperature applications and their incredibly high temperatures, then stainless steels also have good resist- nonmagnetic properties allow them this will help to determine the ma- ance to corrosion and are strongly to be used in indicating instruments terials we’ll choose. Inconel alloys, magnetic, although they have poor and gyroscopes. which have a chromium-nickel base, electrical conductivity. And pre- are great for extreme environments, cipitation hardening stainless steels Cobalt-nickel alloys are often since they still retain strength even have high tensile strength and great chosen when stainless steel is not when temperatures exceed 800°C. enough. These alloys have high Also, if you work in the oil and gas strength, durability, a great degree of ductility and optimum resistance to corrosion and wear. Airedale Springs is a leader in custom spring design. Our team has many years of experience and the knowledge to always create high- quality springs at very competitive prices. We’re committed to excellent service, so contact us to learn how we can help your next project. WFTI www.airedalesprings.co.uk 40 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


Plan now to participate in SpringWorld® 2020! Join your colleagues at the industry’s premier event. SpringWorld provides a unique opportunity to network with other spring manufacturers, wire formers, and OEMs. • The premiere spring show since 1960. • One-on-one discussions with others who share your concerns offering new insights • A global showcase for suppliers to the spring and wire for your business. form industry featuring attendees from 18 countries. • Attend free educational seminars offered by • See the newest technology available to improve your exhibitors and industry experts. productivity, quality and service. We’ll see you at presented by www.casmi-springworld.org SpringWorld® 2020 October 7-9 Donald E. Stephens Convention Center Rosemont, IL


Straight From The Show Images and news from SMI Metal Engineering eXpo™ (MEE) Photos courtesy SMI MEE. 42 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


Steel City Welcomes SMI eXpo By Gary McCoy, Managing Editor, Springs It was only appropriate for an industry that works with “Whether you were an exhibitor or vendor, the diverse steel daily to make its way to Pittsburgh, PA, USA, educational tracks were informative and instructive to “The Steel City,” for the 2019 SMI Metal Engineering all participants,” added Fazio. “The show was a true eXpo™ (MEE), October 1 to 3, 2019, at the David L. Lawrence Conven- culmination of the many contributions tion Center. The 2019 eXpo marked from SMI, its trade show partner, the third time the event has been held, Tradeshow Logic, and the commit- featuring exhibits from leading suppliers to the spring ment from the exhibitors, sponsors and metalforming industry. and to all those folks that traveled and supported the “The SMI eXpo in Pittsburgh was a great success for the show; all of this combined to make Pittsburgh a valuable association and incredibly valuable for both Lee Spring and knowledge-filled event.” as a company, as well as for me personally,” said SMI President Steve Kempf, who is the CEO of Brooklyn, Providing a Spark for New Attendees MY, USA-based Lee Spring Company. “With more com- panies represented than ever before, and with the key The eXpo regularly attracts many first-time attendees, decision makers from those companies in attendance, including Jennelle Carlier, Production Manager at S3 the eXpo provided broad exposure for the exhibitors.” Wireform in Swift Current, Saskatchewan, Canada. Planning for the 2019 eXpo was led by chairs Chris M. Fazio, General Manager, Pittsburgh plant, Diamond “What I was first blown away by was the openness and Wire Spring; Kelley L. Christy, Director of Sales/Mar- sharing of information from other springmakers,” Carlier keting and I.T., Diamond Wire Spring; and Daniel Pierre commented. “We all have common problems and shar- III, President of JN Machinery in East Dundee, IL, USA ing solutions in a competitive industry was really great “This was the first time the eXpo was held in a location to see.” where there were not as many nearby springmakers,” explained Pierre. “We were happy to see operators “We brought six people to the show and they were im- from the local companies and show them features of pressed with the technology on display,” said first-time our machines, but the majority of the attendees were attendee Matt Kennedy, NPD Engineer in Corry, PA, definitely CEOs and upper management.” USA for Associated Spring. “We work closely with our suppliers, but we don’t often get to see their latest Pierre said this type of attendee allowed his company projects because we’re too busy working on day-to-day to focus its discussions on where they are heading in issues.” terms of new machinery and new features. Kennedy said it is important to stay up-to-date, to know “It also provided an opportunity to learn what our cus- how improvements in CNC equipment and software are tomers’ future needs are,” said Pierre. “JN will take this changing the industry. “Because of the show and the information to plan for the future.” strong offerings of the equipment suppliers, we know who to call when we have a customer problem to solve.” The event provided opportunities to network with indus- Carlier agrees that the eXpo is a great way to see first- try colleagues during the opening night reception spon- hand how automated machines can improve efficiency, sored by SMI October 1, and during the off-site event to meet suppliers face-to-face and to discover new at the Senator John Heinz History Center October 2. products. “The 2019 eXpo was a showcase of advancements in technology, machinery and software,” said Fazio. “There She also appreciated the value of the technical sympo- was plenty of interaction and networking, which allowed sia. “The sessions in the morning were very informative for folks to make new contacts while strengthening exist- and got the wheels turning,” said Carlier. “The network- ing business and personal relationships.” ing in the evening was a perfect way for a newcomer to be welcomed and introduced to other members. I Education in the Spotlight definitely felt included.” Kempf said the technical symposia, already a highlight 2021 eXpo Heads to Las Vegas of the eXpo, attracted an even larger audience than the events in Charlotte and Hartford. More than 20 sessions The 2021 SMI Metal Engineering eXpo will be held were held on business trends and best practices, manu- September 28 to 30 at the South Point Resort and facturing technology and innovation, and materials and Casino in Las Vegas, NV, USA. The facility consists of testing. Sessions took place in the morning prior to the a 24-story hotel tower, casino and 90,000 ft2 conven- start of the eXpo Wednesday, October 2 and Thursday, tion center, located on a 60-acre site along Las Vegas October 3. Boulevard, just 10 minutes from the Las Vegas Strip. For more information and to access presentations from the 2019 eXpo, visit www.metalengineeringexpo.com. More news and images on the following pages... Fall 2019/Wire Forming Technology International 43


Straight From The Show News and Images from SMI Metal Engineering eXpo™ (MEE) Photos courtesy SMI MEE except for sidebar boxes. 44 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


Alloy Wire International (AWI): The next SMI will be held in Las Vegas! This will be a Spring Into Life great opportunity for AWI to meet with its west coast customers, who are currently servicing high-tech Alloy Wire International (AWI) has enjoyed one of its industries such as aerospace, motor sport and oil and most successful SMI Metal Engineering eXpos to date, gas. We expect this show to be impressive and lively… taking its proven global track record to Pittsburgh, PA, we look forward seeing you there! www.alloywire.com USA. Scores of potential and existing customers visited their strikingly lit exhibition stand that was located in the center of the show, with the main message being “keep on doing what you are doing, it’s great to work with a consistently reliable supplier”. The discussions focused on AWI’s ability to maintain a three-week lead time for orders placed from all over the world, with a number of clients continuing to express surprise at our ability to offer spring wire up to ¾\" in diameter. “SMI is a focused show, targeting the spring making and metal forming markets – two of our strongest sectors,” pointed out Michelle Nichols, who is a key figure in growing AWI’s business in North America. “The Technical Symposiums held during the three days provoked a lot of conversation, while at the same time, highlighted key concerns facing companies and how we, as a supplier, can support them to achieve the performance and quality they need. “Lead time, flexibility and our ever-increasing range of alloys continue to impress the marketplace and this is something we will look to invest in going forward. It was great to connect with many customers and to receive so much positive feedback.” Continued... Fall 2019/Wire Forming Technology International 45


Straight From The Show News and Images from SMI Metal Engineering eXpo™ (MEE) FENN’s Latest Innovations Wire shaping and coiling line. With a continued dedication to improving product lines into a Torin FZ-11 spring coiler. FENN’s ability to integrate and providing customers with equipment that meets machinery enables users to shape wire and coil springs with their evolving needs, FENN exhibited some of its latest a single line. The line produced clutch springs with square innovations at the SMI show in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. The wire, however a variety of spring applications, which require two new products shown were the “all-in-one” solution to shaped wire can be coiled using this line. The line increases shaping and coiling wire and the newly re-designed Gen. 2 productivity by removing secondary processes. The Turks FZ-10 Torin spring coiler. These newly upgraded products Head is just one method of shaping wire. FENN wire lines kept FENN’s booth staff busy during the show, with many are not limited to the rolling of natural edge flat wire. Square, new companies and contacts in attendance. In addition to a trapezoid, half round and many other shapes can be rolled wide range of standard product offerings, FENN is proud to with the proper selection of equipment. There are several offer customized metal forming solutions to suit the unique other metal shaping methods available from FENN. production requirements of machine shops, metal formers, end users and laboratory testers across the globe. “SMI presented a unique opportunity to interface with a variety of customers, while providing them with visibility The debut of the newly re-designed Gen. 2 FZ-10 Torin to our various product lines,” said Sales Manager Craig spring coiler was well received and FENN has been busy Watterson. “From our display of FENN’s customized coiling building more to keep up with the demand for our in-stock and shaping line, to standard, redesigned and upgraded quantities. With an attractive price tag, the Gen. 2 FZ-10 Torin coilers – we’ve diversified our equipment as the metal boasts a smaller footprint than the first generation FZ-10, forming market has evolved.” In an industry where process making them an ideal size for an addition to any spring innovation is key, FENN continues to provide a one-stop- shop. While in the engineering phase of the re-design, shop for engineering, designing and manufacturing the FENN’s in-house engineering team created the coiler with a metal forming equipment necessary to stay competitive in new motor allowing for greater torque to inertia ratio – which today’s market. Contact FENN at [email protected] enables faster production rates while keeping the consistent or visit www.fenn-torin.com. accuracy expected from a Torin. The new streamlined design not only looks great, but also includes integrated guarding for operator safety and comes standard with FENN’s FZ Software. With technology constantly evolving, FENN has equipped the Gen. 2 FZ-10 with updated, faster computer processing to accommodate a diverse range of coiling requirements. Although the machine is physically smaller than its predecessor, wire size capabilities still range from 0.008\" to 0.028\" making it a great machine for smaller wire and spring applications. FENN’s wire shaping and coiling line provides an “all-in- one” solution to in-house wire processing. The line included a FENN 3U-HP power-driven Turks Head, feeding directly FZ-10 spring coiler. FZ-115 spring coiler upgrade. 46 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


Continued... Fall 2019/Wire Forming Technology International 47


Straight From The Show News and Images from SMI Metal Engineering eXpo™ (MEE) Photos courtesy SMI MEE except for sidebar boxes. 48 Wire Forming Technology International/Fall 2019


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