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Home Explore Salud Coomeva Magazine - February - March

Salud Coomeva Magazine - February - March

Published by El Colombiano, 2018-01-29 11:03:53

Description: From infancy it is necessary to instill in children the benefits of a healthy diet. The challenge is to teach them to consume fruits and vegetables through creative preparations that, at the same time, are nutritious and result in a physical and cognitive impact.

Keywords: good habits, healthy childhood, taking care of children, feeling good, being healthy


Read the Text Version ISSN 1692 - 5556 February – March 2018 - Issue 139 FUNNY MEALS1

FUNNYMEALSISSN 1692 - 5556 February – March 2018 - Issue 139 STARTING HEALTHY HABITS WHILE THEYissue 139 ARE YOUNGFebruary – March 2018 Teaching children the benefits of lea- them into stronger adults.Revista Salud Founder ding a healthy diet from when they are In an effort to protect your health andGilberto Lotero Muñoz (q.e.p.d.) young is important. The challenge is to prevent diseases, Coomeva PrivateChairman of the Board familiarize them with fruits and vegeta- Healthcare welcomes its affiliates toJosé Vicente Torres Osorio bles through creative dishes that, in adopt a healthy lifestyle along with aExecutive President Of the addition to being nutritious, also have a balanced diet, regular physical activity,Cooperativo Coomeva Business Group positive impact on their physical and positive self-care practices and activi-Alfredo Arana Velasco cognitive development. ties for improving memory and concen-CEO Coomeva Sector Salud This will help children become more tration to keep the mind active. By pro-Gilberto Quinche Toro comfortable with these ingredients as viding access to different programs andPrepaid Medicine CEO they grow and throughout the different resources that focus on comprehensiveJorge Alberto Zapata Builes stages of life, which will help them make healthcare, Coomeva PrivateNational Director of Strategy better food choices and position them Healthcare offers the tools to take onand New Business to have a restriction-free diet. Over the challenge of living a balanced life.Mauricio Castillo Pérez time, the regular consumption of grains,National Director of Marketing fruits and vegetables will transform •Because we know that “Your Health andSector SaludCamilo Ernesto Diusaba Perdomo Loving Yourself” is importantGeneral ManagerDavid Montes Canal Editorial and Graphic Direction, Magazine General Editor Journalists Commercialization prepress and printing Paula Andrea Montoya T. Isabel Vallejo Jiménez El ColombianoEditorial Committee El Colombiano Magazine Editor Ana María López de Mesa Cali: Marisol MonsalvePascual Estrada Garcés Tel.: (4) 331 5252 Natalia Estefania Botero C. María Clara Restrepo 310 544 2354National Director of Prepaid [email protected] Graphic Editor Natalia Ospina [email protected] Hugo A. Vásquez E. Paola Cardona Bogotá: Ana María EchandíaHernán Darío Rodríguez Design Photography 3183764776MEC National Director María Piedad Salazar ShutterStock - Cortesía Medellín: Mónica GómezBlanca Inés Vélez 312 202 7269National Director of Oral Health [email protected] Viviana Muñoz RodríguezDirector of Epidemiology The contents of all Salud Coomeva Medicina Prepagada S.A. magazine articles are illustrative in nature and/or for general knowledge. In no case areBertha Lucía Varela Rojas they meant to replace the advice or guidance of a physician. Readers shall not use this information in order to self-diagnose and/or perform an analysis,Jefe Nacional Auditoría Médica diagnosis or treatment of a disease or health problem without consulting with a certified physician.Martha Liliana Cifuentes The product and service offers made in the ads published in the Salud Coomeva Medicina Prepagada S.A. magazine are the sole responsibility of theCoordinadora Nal. de advertisers. Also, the company is not liable nor obligated to provide its affiliates the services, procedures or treatments described in the contents ofRelacionamiento con Prestadores articles that are not included in the coverage offered by Coomeva Medicina Prepagada S.A., nor shall they be obligated to include them in their plansJulián Villegas and services. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form or system. © 2018National Chief of RiskManagement in HealthEditorDavid Montes CanalEditorial CoordinatorMelissa Arce PérezCollaboratorsMabel Irina CaleroViviana Trujillo JiménezClaudia Alexandra GarcíaMartha Lucy Diuza

CONTENTSFebruary – March 20187 27 47 67( ) ( )( ) ( )WITHYOURMIND WITH YOUR BODY WITH YOUR WORLD CORPORATE8 Keep in mind 28 Go natural 48 Grandparents 68 Special Forgive yourself in the A creative kitchen, Zest for life Prevention is the past to live better in nutritious meals best medicine the present 52 Infographic 32 Harmony in health Administering 72 Institutional12 Little giants Warmups: The way CPR to children Medical help line Stimulus: What to avoid injury drives a child’s brain18 Trends 34 For your smile 56 For her 74 Directory Dancing: Relax Hygiene and prevention Motherhood New providers and by being active for composite fillings without losing your updated contact womanhood information20 Prevention 36 Trends 5 things you need to Cesarean or natural: 58 Go natural know about An informed decision Cooking techniques dysautonomia for a healthy kitchen24 Harmony in health 40 Prevention 60 For him Vaccines, a Staying active Hemophilia, when preventative measure at work blood does not clot 44 Focus on 62 Your generation Glaucoma Helping youth build their future

Ahora con OTZ 10 PROTECCIÓN ANTIEDAD Protección Radiación Infraroja UVA/UVBRADIA CIÓNIR Terapia preventiva a temprana edad,cLoa nrasdt iiat cuiyóne I R l Tienednelapceanpeatcraidr ad Las pieles jóvenes50% e generando hábitos de cuidado a capas más profundas son más susceptibles frente a los efectos nocivos de de la piel. al daño solar. los rayos solares.del espectro solar. Pharmaderm & skindrug

CON TU MENTE( ))WITH YOUR MIND 50% OF CASES OF ANXIETY ARE RELATED TO GENETICS. IF A PANIC ATTACK OCCURS MORE THAN ONCE, THIS IS OFTEN REFERRED TO AS ANXIETY DISOR- DER. TO TREAT IT, SEEING A SPECIA- LIST IS KEY. LEARN TO CONTROL YOURSELF During a crisis, feelings of anxiety will emerge related to thinking you are going to die or lose control, ins- tability, and vertigo, among others. ACCEPT THE SITUATION It is best if patients are familiar with the issue. Practice relaxation methods and implement slow and deep breathing techniques. IN BALANCE No one will have a heart attack during an episode, even if the symp- toms appear similar to one. Pharmaceutical treatments are the best option. 7

WITH YOUR MIND( )keep in mind FORGIVE YOURSELF IN THE PAST TO LIVE BETTER IN THE PRESENT Ho oponopono is about loving, understanding, forgiving, and thanking. It is based on healing one’s past to live a better life each day.8

( )WITH YOUR MIND ADVISOR A Hawaiian healing technique basedISABEL FLÓREZ on resolving conflicts through a process of internal forgiveness and PELÁEZ reconciliation, the principles of ho opo- Technique’s nopono are to live in the here and now and take responsibility for everything that facilitator happens to us, including thoughts, words, actions and faults. (This method of healing About fifty years ago, the healer seeks to eliminate unconscious memories Morrnah Nalamaku Simeona brought the and negative emotions about a problem teachings of this practice to the West. that a person is experiencing, so that According to the theory of Nalamaku, other things can flow. “We are the sum total of our experiences, which is to say that we are burdened by that is sometimes painful, then moves on our pasts. When we experience stress or to identify any hurtful events. It continues fear in our lives, if we would look carefu- by beginning to free oneself of these events lly, we would find that the cause is actua- and let them go without resentment. This lly a memory. The subconscious associates exercise is one of intention and can also be an action or person in the present with used to manage feelings of anxiety something that happened in the past.” surrounding the future as well as situa- tions that are a part of daily family and Little by little this theory has been work life. Each person adapts the practice introduced to modern times, providing to meet the objective they have for it. people with life tools through spiritual strengthening. “I love you. I’m sorry. Please forgive me. Thank you.” These are the four key THE RELATIONSHIP WITH YOURSELF “It’s a technique to heal myself, forgive myself through love and reconciliation, and achieve peace, making things flow in a more peaceful way,” states Isabel Flórez, facilitator of the ho oponopono techni- que, which in the Hawaiian language means “to correct an error.” How does it work? It starts by acknowledging that each person has a past HIGH-VIBRATION WORDS According to the technique, repeating this mantra leads to healing and frees us of our worries, cleaning toxic information out of our conscience. By saying: ► “I love you,” this allows our energy to flow. ► “I’m sorry,” we acknowledge that something entered our mind and body that requi- res self-forgiveness. ► “Please forgive me,” we are asking God, the universe or the being we believe in to help us forgive ourselves. ► “Thank you,” we express gratitude and appreciation for what we experience in life. 9

WITH YOUR MIND( )keep in mind(According to this words that make this technique success- philosophy, everything that ful. Repeating them frequently in your happens in life is a thought or a mind during difficult times will help memory which appear before us to bring greater awareness to what you are give us the opportunity to release, experiencing and what you are trying to eliminate and erase them. let go of, leaving behind worries, stress, anxiety and any feeling that takes away from your peace of mind. “This mantra contains high-vibration words, which calm the mind and quiets the ego. They are meaningful words that you say to yourself and allow you to stay in the present, helping to draw in new things to your life,” adds Isabel. If someone wants to change an aspect of their daily life they consider to be nega- tive, the person must understand what is actually affecting them to take the plunge •necessary to achieve the transformation they seek SPIRITUAL CONNECTION Ho oponopono and neuro-linguistic pro- gramming (NLP) share a similar connection. Both help people reprogram the way they see their lives, their thoughts and their pers- pectives through messages that becomes subliminal and take over the subconscious. The theory of NLP, however, does not include the concept of spirituality that ho oponopono does, which is more of a life philosophy and about connec- tion with the self.10



( )WITH YOUR MINDEDLEESLTÍMAUPLOREESNELDMIOZTAOJREWHAT DRIVES A CHILD’S BRAIN Hasta los cinco años de edad hay un crecimiento y desarrollo en el cerebro, que no se volverá a presentar en ninguna etapa de la evolución del ser humano. The growth and development of this organ up through age five is unlike any other stage in a human’s development.ASESORA El afecto, la nutrición, el ejemplo, el Affection, nutrition, having goodANNA LUCÍA buen dormir y vivir experiencias de role models, getting good sleepCAMPOS calidad son los cinco ingredientes and having quality life experiencesNeuropsicóloga básicos para el óptimo desarrollo cerebral are the five essential ingredients to a childMEDICAL ADVISOR de un niño. Para poner en acción la rece- attaining optimal brain development. ToANNA LUCÍA ta de la manera adecuada, entonces, se get this recipe working correctly, dedica-CAMPOS requiere de padres de familia comprometi- ted parents are needed as well as teachersNeuropsychologist dos y docentes alineados con estrategias who can implement age-appropriate lear- pedagógicas acordes a la edad del infante. ning strategies. En resumen, se necesita de una socie- As explained by the expert in early dad dispuesta a formar una generación childhood education and neuroscience 13

(Es fundamental que los padres ayuden a sus hijos a crecer lingüísticamente y se involucren en su formación académica, contribuyendo con sus destrezas y ayudándo- les a fortalecer sus habilidades. 80% DEL CEREBRO DE UN NIÑO SE HA DESARROLLADO EN SUS DOS AÑOS.

mejor preparada. Así lo indica la maestra en professor, Anna Lucía Campos, the ove-neurociencias, Anna Lucía Campos, exper- rall need is a society that is willing to raiseta en educación inicial, quien complemen- a more prepared generation. Camposta que el cerebro viene genéticamente listo adds that the brain is genetically program-para aprender a través de los estímulos med to learn from the environmental sti-ambientales que recibe gracias a la audi- muli it receives from hearing, seeing andción, la vista, el olfato. De esta manera, smelling. This is how individuals begin toel individuo empieza a adquirir destrezas acquire social, motor and language skills.sociales, motoras y lingüísticas. “The brain’s developmental process is “El proceso de desarrollo cerebral es the result of a combination of genetic andresultado de un encuentro entre factores environmental factors. This is why it is sogenéticos y ambientales. Por esto es tan important for people who are around chil-importante que las personas que están dren to understand their different deve-alrededor de los niños tengan conoci- lopmental stages and be aware that whatmiento de las distintas fases de su desa- they think and how they act can affect therrollo y sean conscientes de que lo que behavior, learning process and the entirepiensan y su forma de actuar puede afec- structure of the brain that the child is justtar la conducta, aprendizaje y toda la beginning to develop,” Campos adds.arquitectura cerebral que el menor ape-nas está construyendo”, agrega Campos. IN BALANCE According to the World HealthEN EQUILIBRIO Organization (WHO), “DReading outSegún la Organización Mundial de la loud, listening to songs and giving them theSalud, OMS, “el desarrollo cerebral y opportunity to interact with musical instru-biológico durante los primeros años de ments are some appropriate ways of stimu-vida depende de la calidad de la estimu- lating their neuronal connections. Thislación que el lactante recibe de su entor- does not mean times like playing in a parkno: familia, comunidad y sociedad”. Por or enjoying an ice cream together should beesto, por ejemplo, el vínculo entre forgotten about. “It’s about having healthymadre e hijo durante la lactancia se con- experiences that allow them to contributevierte en un contacto trascendental que to society, to become a thoughtful youngEN LA CIENCIA A SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVEEl bebé nace con millones de células cere-brales o neuronas que, durante su infancia, Babies are born with millions of brainse recubren con mielina, lo que permite cells (neurons). As infants, these brainque se establezcan conexiones, conocidas cells are covered with myelin, whichcomo sinapsis. Para que estas se den es allows them to form connections, knownnecesario que el niño esté en contacto con as synapses. For this to happen properly,su ambiente, pues al recibir estímulos a tra- children must have contact with theirvés de sus sentidos se dan nuevas sinapsis. environment; as every time they sense aY es a esa capacidad que tiene de asimilar stimulus, a synapse is created. This abilitylo que recibe de su alrededor lo que se to absorb what they receive from theirdenomina como plasticidad cerebral. surroundings is called brain plasticity.

( )CON TU MENTE (It is critical for parents to help their child strengthen their language abili- ties and become involved in their academic development and helping them further their abilities. marcará el resto de su vida. 80% La lectura en voz alta, escuchar can- OF A CHILD’S BRAIN IS ciones y permitirle interactuar con ins- ALREADY FULLY DEVELOPED trumentos musicales son algunas de las BY THE TIME THEY ARE TWO. herramientas apropiadas para estimular sus conexiones neuronales. Sin dejar de adult; an adult that does not settle when lado situaciones como jugar en un par- it comes to values and that engages in que o disfrutar con el pequeño de un practicing common social courtesies,” the helado. “Experiencias sanas que le per- specialist explains. mitan convertirse en un ser humano útil para la sociedad. En un joven sensi- It is therefore important to emphasize ble, en un adulto que no negocia valores that family is who is responsible for raising y se comporta de acuerdo a unas apren- affectionate children, “Especially during didas lecciones de urbanidad”, explica early childhood, the brain has a degree of la especialista. plasticity that can be molded by the stimuli and experiences it is exposed to,” Campos Por esto se hace énfasis en que la concludes. Despite the fact that the learning familia es la principal responsable en for- process of humans is complex and lasts a mar niños afectuosos: “El cerebro tiene, lifetime, this is the phase when humans sobre todo, en la infancia un nivel de acquire vital skills for adapting to their envi- plasticidad que se puede moldear a tra- ronment: skills for moving, communicating vés de los estímulos y experiencias que se and interacting with others. reciben”, concluye. Así, pese a que el aprendizaje humano es un proceso com- It is important to keep a few factors in plejo que se prolonga durante toda la mind that may inhibit the brain from deve- vida, es en esta etapa cuando se adquie- loping to its fullest: chronic malnutrition, a ren los aprendizajes imprescindibles para la adaptación al medio: moverse, •lack of stimulation or learning opportuni- comunicarse e interactuar con otros. ties, iodine deficiency and anemia Es importante tener en cuenta que algunos factores que pueden impedir el desarrollo pleno del cerebro son: la mal- nutrición crónica, la falta de estimula- •ción u oportunidades de aprendizaje, la carencia de yodo y la anemia16


( )CON TU MENTE DANCING: RELAX BY BEING ACTIVE Doing this activity regularly is beneficial for the body and mind: it strengthens the muscles and has a positive influence on mood. ADVISOR ELIANA ARCILA P., Specialist in Sports Medicine We all have times when we need “Dance involves components of pro- to release tension, reduce prioception (awareness of one’s body posi- anxiety and simply relax. tion), balance and flexibility, and can even Dancing is a great alternative for mana- incorporate muscle strength work,” Arcila ging stress and hard times. This activity adds. Similarly, it improves quality of life releases endorphins, substances that con- in different ways: it promotes creativity tribute to a positive mood, and music acti- and social interaction, brings happiness vates pleasure centers in the brain that and enjoyment, contributes to reducing intensify feelings and emotions. symptoms of depression, raises self-esteem and provides great mental health benefits. In addition to being a therapeutic acti- vity, dancing offers many benefits to the FREQUENCY IS KEY body. According to specialist Eliana One advantage of dancing is that because Arcila, while dancing every once in a it is an enjoyable activity, this lowers the while can be fun, doing it regularly (for a perception of the effort it takes to do it, mid- to long-term period) can improve which contributes to achieving greater your cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), benefits. “There is no specific time or more commonly referred to as your weekly limit to practicing it, like other “physical condition.” sports, as this depends on individual pre- ferences and conditions,” the specialist From her experience, dancing involves indicates. burning a significant amount of calories, which varies depending on the intensity According to worldwide organizations and rhythm of the music and on how long such as the World Health Organization you dance for. It can also contribute and the American College of Sports greatly to losing weight or maintaining a Medicine, the general recommendation healthy weight. The movements of its for maintaining cardiovascular health is different styles involve large muscle groups such as the upper limbs, abdomen, •to get 150 minutes a week of moderate back, gluteal muscles and lower limbs. physical activity18

( )CON TU MENTE(As a cardiovascular exercise, dance helps prevent and manage chronic, non-communicable diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and osteoporosis, among others.PERFECT FOR KIDS GETTING READYFor kids, dance is a complete exercise. It has a positive effect on ► Having comfortable athletic shoes with proper shock absorptiontheir physical condition, contributes to managing their posture, is important as well as breathable clothing that allows for move-and increases their motor skills, coordination and balance. It also ment. If you are dancing during the day outside, sunblock is aprovides them with social skills, teamwork skills, friendships and must and remember to stay hydrated!self-esteem and can also help them develop their talents in pre-paration for professional dance and other artistic expressions. ► For those who are starting a physical activity for the first time, the suggestion is to begin with sessions that are shorter than 60 minu- FOR THE ELDERLY tes and gradually work your way up depending on how your body responds and on your motivation. Senior citizens with mobility limitations can even dance while sitting in a wheelchair. Structured dance programs ► For people who suffer from heart disease, metabolic disease or have had positive results for this population. preexisting musculoskeletal conditions, get examined by a specia- list in sports medicine who can make a diagnosis and provide pro- per indications for exercise. ► If someone is experiencing chest pain, difficulty breathing, nausea, headaches or changes to their state of consciousness while dan- cing, seek immediate medical attention. 19

WITH YOUR MIND( )prevention5 THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOWABOUTDYSAUTONOMIAThe first symptoms of this condition are oftenignored and if not treated on time, they can leave anegative impact on those who experience them. ADVISOR It is normal to faint and lose conscious- could say it’s like a box that several condi- NILSON LÓPEZ ness on occasion. But when these tions fit into. Dysautonomia affects the symptoms happen more frequently autonomic nervous system, which is in Cardiologist without any apparent cause, this is a red charge of controlling blood pressure, pulse, flag; not because these are life threatening the sweat glands, and digestive and urinary situations, but because they are a poten- function, etc. Dysautonomia affects one of tial sign of dysautonomia. This term may these functions and, in most patients, be new for some, even for medical specia- manifests in the form of nausea and a loss lists. According to the experts on this con- of consciousness. This is only one way it dition, however, despite this condition manifests, however, as conditions of the being diagnosed for the first time a little autonomic nervous system and how they over two decades ago, new generations are develop depend on what is affected.” already familiar with the term. Specialists also point out that women, As cardiologist Nilson López explains, more than men, are more likely to see a doc- aside from being a disease in itself, dysauto- tor about this type of condition. For a bet- nomia is an overarching condition that can ter understanding of dysautonomia, howe- occur in association with others, “You ver, there are five things you should know.20

WITH YOUR MIND ( )THE CAUSES ARE STILL UNKNOWN In younger patients, the origin of1 dysautonomia is still very unclear. According to López, stu- dies show that some groups of families are genetically predispo- sed to develop the condition. In other cases, however, the rea- sons are more evident. “For example, there is a form of dys- autonomia in diabetic patients that manifests along with blood pressure and heart rate condi- tions. Yet there are also rare forms of this condition that are very specific and less common.”2WCTIOMHNEECNTEOISRBNITEED?The evidence is clear that dysau- tonomia can occur at any age. In its early stages, Dr. López notes the following symptoms: dizzi- ness when standing or when changing positions (from sitting to standing or lying down to sitting up), weakness in the legs, perspiration, a loss of conscious- ness, heart palpitations (tachy- cardia), and even low blood pressure. The U.S. National Library of Medicine warns that people with dysautonomia tend to feel fatigued and weak, their eyelids appear to be inflamed or droopy, and they are very drowsy and even pallid. In gene- ral, their feet and hands are always cold and their forehead tends to be sweaty. 21

WITH YOUR MIND( )prevention NOT AGE- SPECIFIC According to Dr. López, about 25% of the world’s population may have3 symptoms of dysautonomia at some point in their lives. Even once a diagnosis is made, a long period of time can go by without symptoms manifesting and then a relapse can happen. The patient must therefore learn to live with this and of course lead a healthy lifestyle. With that in mind, things like getting good sleep, eating healthy and leading a low- stress life can help keep this condi-4tion under control. HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED? This depends on the individual’s age and situation. With younger populations, dysautonomia is diag- nosed by discussing symptoms with a doctor and getting a clinical exam. Other patients will need tests such as the Tilt-table Test which attempts to simulate a situa- tion in which the patient loses consciousness. With older popula- tions, their blood pressure is taken while they are in different positions or they an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device will be used. There are also specialized tests designed exclusively for cer- tain groups of patients that are cli- nically harder to diagnose. 22

FATIGUE: ( )WITH YOUR MIND A VISIBLE SIGN 23 People with dysautonomia may appear to be weak and lazy, as they will feel the need to lay down for long periods of time. This is due to the symptoms of fatigue this condition causes.5KEYS TO TREATING IT “Drink plenty of liquids between 2 to 3 liters of water a day and increase your salt intake. When you drink a lot of water, the body’s normal response is to release this liquid and urinate frequently. When this happens in conjunction with a higher salt intake, the kidney exchanges a molecule of salt for a molecule of water, which helps retain the water to eliminate the extra salt. This increases the volume of blood in the blood vessels and reduces susceptibility to low blood pressure,” Dr. López indicates. Doing exercise daily is also recommended. As a final suggestion, do not postpone meals; to avoid symptoms from •manifesting, try to eat smaller amounts more frequently

WITH YOUR MIND( )harmony in healthMEASUREVACCINES, A PREVENTATIVEAdhering to children’s immunizationschedules helps prevent the development ofdiseases and reduces mortality rates. ADVISOR The vaccines (or vaccinus in Latin) of IVÁN DARÍO VÉLEZ, today exist thanks to cows (vacca). In specialist in infectious diseases 1778, British physician Edward Jenner realized that amidst a smallpox epi- demic that was storming through Europe, the only people that did not get the illness were those who woke up every morning to milk the cows. A study was then conducted on the pustule a cow had on its utter, and it was the same strain of smallpox, except it was found on cows. The strain was then processed to treat an eight-year-old child who was able to be cured. A synthetic form of the vaccine was made, and it became the only way to fight the disease. Dr. Iván Darío Vélez, Director of the Program for the Study and Control of Tropical Diseases at the University of

Antioquia, recounts this story to explain (Not completing a vaccine’sthat after this achievement —“one of the series poses a significant health threat tomost important scientific breakthroughs children, putting them at risk.of humanity, as it is how vaccines started”it saved the lives of many native Latin The most common form to administerAmerican people, as the Spanish broughtthe vaccine to treat indigenous people a vaccine is through an injection.who were dying from European smallpox. Infectious disease doctor María a complication is less than 1%; this is For Dr. Vélez, the few adverse effects Angélica Maya affirms that it is very risky nothing if you compare it to the thou-of vaccines are not enough to discredit to not vaccinate children or to not com- sands of children that die every day fromthem. “This would be like saying that plete a series, as this can be life-threate- the pneumococcus bacteria.”because planes crash, flying is bad for ning: “Social networks are common placespeople. This anti-vaccine movement has for misleading claims to become viral. We As Dr. Vélez says, prevention is the bestbeen going on for years. In the United have to begin to educate people so that medicine, “Vaccinations are not guessingStates, there are entire communities that they don’t just get their information from games. They prepare the body for poten-prohibit people from getting vaccinated. what they read on social networks. We tial diseases that can be fatal. So, it is bestOf course, there have been cases of have to go deeper. Anyone that researches to be informed instead of relying on mes-adverse effects because nothing is 100% expert information on the topic is going sages found in social networks, which areeffective in medicine, but the exception to realize that the risk of a vaccine causingdoes not prove the rule.” •often founded on presumptions and notA PREVENTATIVE MEASURE real scientific research”In Colombia, according to the NationalGovernment’s Open Data webpage, IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULEimmunization rates are good as 94.6% offive-year-old children have received all Every country has an immunization schedule that is designed to meet to thetheir vaccines. region’s specific epidemiological situation. The Colombian Ministry of Health has established the following schedule for children ages 5 and under: According to the World HealthOrganization, each year, vaccines prevent Newborns: Tuberculosis – Hepatitis Bbetween 2 to 3 million deaths related to 2 months: Pentavalent – Polio - Rotavirus – Pneumococcaldiseases such as diphtheria, tetanus, who- 4 months: Pentavalent – Polio - Rotavirus – Pneumococcaloping cough (pertussis) and measles. 6 months: Pentavalent - Polio“Globally, vaccination coverage has hit a 7 months: Seasonal fluplateau in the last few years. If it impro- 12 months: MMR vaccine (Measles, Mumps and Rubella),ved, this would prevent another 1.5 Chicken pox – Pneumococcal – Hepatitis A,million deaths. In 2016, 86% of children 18 months: seasonal flufrom around the world (about 111.6 5 years: DPT (Diphtheria – Whooping cough – Tetanus)million) received the three doses of the 9 years: Polio –Yellow fever – Meningococcal (Meningitis)combined diphtheria, pertussis and teta- DPT – Polio – MMR vaccine.nus vaccine (DTP3), which protects chil- HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)dren from serious infectious diseases thatcan lead to serious disorders and disabili-ties, and even death.”

WITH YOUR MIND( )life todayKNOW MORE CELL PHONE USE CAN INCREASECAN DREAMING ANXIETYBE BENEFICIAL? ► While using smartphones to con-Researchers from the University of nect with others can initially redu-Cambridge found that daydreaming ce anxiety, over time it can endactivates the same part of the brain up raising it.that is used when we do an “autopilot”activity. The study, published in ► Instagram and Snapchat are theProceedings of the National Academy social networks that most raise theof Sciences, found that the “default concern people have for theirmode network” allows us to change to body image and that most increasean automatic mode when we are fami- people’s anxiety. These findingsliar with a task. This finding may help were the result of a study conduc-people who suffer from mental illnesses ted by the Royal Society of Publicsuch as depression, obsessive compul- Health and the Young Healthsive disorder or addiction and people Movement, which surveyed 1,500who may have automatic thought pat- youth between ages 14 and 24.terns that lead them to repetitive orharmful behaviors. ► Sending text messages to seek approval or gain self-confidence as 1 a response to a stressful situation causes dependency and reduces OF EVERY 10 PEOPLE WITH AUTISM one’s ability to be self-sufficient. HAVE SOME DEGREE OF EXCEPTIONAL COGNITIVE SKILL. (KEEP IN MIND)HIGH INTELLIGENCE Exposure to the artificial light ofAND ENVIRONMENTAL mobile devices or other electronicSTIMULI devices before going to sleepAn IQ higher than 130 may be connected to a THE FEAR OF SPIDERS affects sleep quality.greater risk of mental illness such as anxiety. This AND SNAKES IS INBORNconclusion came from a study conducted by thePsychology Department at Pitzer College which Researchers from the Max Planck Instituteinterviewed 3,715 people with these cognitive for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciencescharacteristics. The analysis found that 20% of studied a group of babies who watched apeople with this IQ suffer from an anxiety disor- set of images of spiders and snakes andder, while this figure among the general popula- other set of images of flowers and fish.tion was only 10%. This finding suggests that Upon seeing the first group of images, thehighly intelligent people are more sensitive to babies’ pupils expanded, indicating a higherthe stimuli of their environment. level of stress.26

CON TU CUERPO ( ))WITH YOUR BODY 150 CALORIES ARE HOW MANY CALORIES A SWEETENED REGULAR 12-OUNCE (355 ML) BEVERAGE CONTAINS.A GOOD WAY TO AVOID EXCESS CALORIES AND LEAD A HEAL-THY DIET IS TO KEEP TRACK OF THE FOODS YOU EATTHROUGHOUT THE DAY.ELIMINATE CRAVINGS ALTERNATIVES TO FRIED FOOD DRINK WATERReplacing rosquillas (a Colombian bakery Frying food adds unhealthy calories This is the most recommended way toitem) in the morning, or brownies or a and saturated fats. Instead of chicken metabolize fats and replace sugarypackage of potato chips at lunch, with or fried fish, try grilled, roasted or drinks. It also helps eliminate toxins andother foods will save you between 250 baked alternatives. relieves constipation.and 350 calories or more. 27

WITH YOUR BODY( )go naturalA CREATIVE KITCHEN NUTRITIOUS MEALS Getting children to eat their fruits and vegetables isn’t impossible. Parents can choose to surprise them with different meals and dishes every day. ADVISOR It is a well-known fact that for children MAGNOLIA ESCOBAR to eat their vegetables, parents must do so too. Vegetables should be an CASTRILLÓN everyday part of home life and it should be Nutritionist and apparent that adults enjoy them and inclu- Dietitian, practitioner at de them in their meals. It is also crucial for Coomeva Medicina vegetables to be introduced to children in fun and different ways; allowing children Prepagada to touch them, identify the difference bet- ween their flavors, learn about their colors and even help to prepare them. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) clearly states that fruits and vegeta- bles are a fundamental part of nutrition due to the vitamins and minerals they contain, which perform a series of func- tions in the body. Vitamin A, for examp- le, helps maintain eye health and helps fight infections. B vitamins are necessary to transforming food into energy. Vitamins C and E have antioxidant pro- perties that protect cells from carcinogens; and vitamin C, alone, can increase cal-28

( )WITH YOUR BODYcium absorption, which is an essential “It shouldn’t always have to be carrotmineral for bone and dental health. soup. Vegetables, for example, can be ser- ved in the form of a salad. This is how Vegetables also contain high amounts they will begin to learn to vary their dietof fiber, the digestion of which helps to and develop a love for theseeliminate potentially harmful substances. dishes…Teaching them, in your own lan-In addition to all of this, as the World guage, that they are important for theirHealth Organization emphasizes, consu- growth and development.”ming enough vegetables could save up 1.7million lives a year. The WHO also Vegetables are best consumed freshrecommends eating at least five servings and careful attention should be paid to(400 g) of fruits and vegetables a day. washing them. Be sure to use plenty of water, and even use products available on Magnolia Escobar Castrillón nutritio- the market that help get them extra clean.nist, dietitian and Master of Public Healthstates that parents can include fruits and PART OF THEIR DIETvegetables in the three main meals of the All vegetables are rich in nutrition, “Andday and in snacks. She also reemphasizes the variety and regularity of what they areleading by example, as it is often common given is what make children eat well. Youfor parents to tell their children to eat have to be consistent.”vegetables, yet not eat them themselves, orscold them for drinking soda even when As the nutritionist explains, parentsthey always drink it with lunch. must be creative with motivating children. When children resist eating vegetables, It is therefore important to modify the parents need to insist, but should usemethods used to prepare meals and for their imagination, “If you can’t get yourthe meal’s presentation to be a surprise, 29

WITH YOUR BODY( )go naturalchild to eat their lunch, the recommenda- “Planning meals for six to eight daystion is to wait a few days to serve it to is another alternative. Make a grocerythem in a different way.” list of the ingredients that are needed and involve children in preparing One excuse that you hear from some food, teaching them why theyparents is that they don’t have enough are used and including vege-time to think of different meals and tables, preferably raw, thatdishes. However, as Escobar says, “It is not can be eaten alone or mixeda problem to slice a few carrot sticks. It’s in,” states Escobar. The ideaabout taking on the commitment of good is to get them familiar, littlenutrition from when they are little.” by little, with the wide world of vegetables; one Playing around with different types ofdishes, aromas, flavors, colors and textu- •that is varied, nutritiousres is another key, especially when itcomes to packing a lunch. and delicious(Try packing a lunch that has a sandwich with tomatoes and lettuce or throw in some carrot sticks to get them to eat something natural and crunchy. This will introduce them to the world of vegetables.CREATIVE COLOR STEERING THEM AWAYLUNCHES IS THE KEY FROM JUNK FOODSome ideas for including vegetables: The FAO stresses the importance of eating Red PaPaz, a nonprofit organization that advo- foods that are different colors, which repre- cates for protecting the rights of children and► With chicken: Oven-baked chicken sent different combinations of nutrients. adolescents in Colombia, has developed a cam- strips, rice with vegetables, a serving Here are some ideas: paign called, “Enough! Don’t buy into any more of fruit and water. ► Red: Beets, cherries, red guava, strawbe- lies, or give them to your kids. Let’s keep junk food advertisements out of their world,” (¡Basta!► With beef: Meatloaf, mashed pota- rries and tomatoes. No comas más mentiras ni se las des a tus hijos, toes, vegetables or a salad (let the ► Orange / yellow: Carrots, mangoes, saquemos la publicidad de comida chatarra de child choose), fruit and water. su mundo). The campaign warns of the need to melons, oranges, papayas, pineapples, avoid this population’s exposure to advertise-► With pasta: Macaroni and cheese, pumpkin and yellow corn. ments on products that are ultra-processed and peas and carrots. Don’t forget fruit ► Green: Avocados, broccoli, cucumbers, high in sugar, sodium and saturated fats as a and water! kiwi, peas and spinach. step forward in the fight to stopping and redu- ► Blue and purple: Blueberries, eggplant, cing the growing rates of being overweight and► Other ideas: A sandwich with tomato grapes, passion fruit and plums. obese. More information is available on the and lettuce, and peas for eyes to ► White: Garlic and onion. webpage make it fun.30


( )WITH YOUR BODY AVOIDWARMUPS: THE WAY TO INJURY It is all too common for people to jump back into playing a sport after a period of inactivity, or to start one without the right training. This sets people up for injury. ADVISOR Saying “yes” to exercise is important, the Obesity, Metabolism and Sports Unit JORGE IVÁN PALACIO URIBE but it should be well done. Sound at the Las Américas Clinic. obvious? Not always, especially for Sports Medicine Doctor those who want to leave their sedentary In cases like these, most doctor’s visits lifestyles behind, and haphazardly get out are the result of joint, muscle and tendon on the street or go to the gym without a pain. Consider the following example: a plan or clear idea of what they should do patient begins to jog because he or she or how to begin. The consequences of this was told to exercise, but had never exerci- will not take long to arise, and what is sed before. When beginning the routine, worse, they will be very painful. the patient starts to feel pain, “This happens because the person does not have “What you often find with patients enough strength, which puts too much that play sports as beginners, is that they weight on the unfit muscle. So even if rush too fast into activities like walking, they are going for a light jog, they end up bike riding or jogging. The problem is injuring themselves.” that these people have not been active for many years, and so they begin, but their Those that choose to play soccer may muscles are ill-fit for the exercise,” states pull their muscles or get tendonitis if they Jorge Iván Palacio Uribe, physician with do not have the physical condition to play. Even more serious, they may get knee32

( )WITH YOUR BODYinjuries and tear their anterior cruciate stretches and other movements to gain fle- 1%ligament (ACL) or damage their menis- xibility. Cooldowns are often not imple-cus. Those that dust off their bikes and go mented because people think they are not OF THE MUSCLE MASS OFall out from the start may develop tendi- necessary. PEOPLE THAT DON’T EXERCISEnopathies due to a lack of strength, cau-sing knee pain or pain behind the leg. One of Dr. Palacio’s tips is for people IS LOST EACH YEAR AFTER to be wary of fitness trends. “Many pop-up AGE 30. Athletes that exercise more regularly, CrossFit gyms are bringing us many inju-yet are not high-performance athletes, may ries… It’s a problem because some peopleoverexert themselves. “They do not have a just see this as a business and don’t carespecific plan and overdo themselves all about people’s health.” In cases like this,the time because they saw something on spine and shoulder injuries are commonthe internet, a friend told them about when people lift heavy items, such as tiressomething or they follow someone on or weights, without proper networks that gave a recommenda-tion. This is how the body becomes fati- Dr. Palacio also warns of another issue:gued,” states Dr. Palacio. any time you begin to feel pain, you should stop and see your physician. “Let’sPREVENTION say a patient has Achilles tendinitis andPrior to beginning physical activity, it is has to take anti-inflammatories and doimportant to see a specialist to plan how physical therapy. They take the medica-you will retrain yourself and return to the tion, the pain goes away and then theysport of your choice the right way. think they do not need physical therapy. They go back to doing the exercise again, A good warmup is key: “For those that as if nothing ever happened. The painjog, walk briskly for 5 to 10 minutes befo- starts again, but the patient ignores it andre starting. For those that play soccer, continues. Suddenly, at a game, they feelbegin with a light jog and do joint move- an intense pain: they weren’t careful, theyments. Warmups increase your body tem- pull their tendon, the injury is now moreperature to prepare these muscles and ten- serious and they end up in surgery.”dons to work.” So, the cure is not worse than the Part of your routine should also inclu-de a cooldown, which generally consists of •disease. Stay active, but take necessary pre- cautions and get the right advice THINGS TO REMEMBER1 Prior to beginning a sports acti- 2 3As people age, osteoarthritic Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis, or vity, seek medical advice to be changes may occur and joints patients who have degenerative disc sure your muscles are in the and muscles may undergo dege- disease resulting from a back injury, right condition and that you have enough strength and flexi- nerative processes. When routi- should follow exercise routines that are bility to engage in the activity. nes are recommended, this appropriate for their condition in order to should be part of the analysis. avoid new conditions from developing. 33

WITH YOUR BODY( )for your smileHYGIENE AND PREVENTION FORCOMPOSITE FILLINGSThis material, which is a replacement alternative foramalgam fillings, is used to preserve the tooth’sappearance and is very similar to dental tissue;however, along with a proper brushing, it requiresadditional care. ADVISORS Before composite fillings were intro- (incisors and canine teeth) as it has been DIANA URIBE, Oral Rehabilitation Specialist duced for tooth restoration, amal- perfected, achieving greater resistance. gams (commonly referred to as sil- ÁNGELA M. JIMÉNEZ, Dentist ver fillings) were used. Despite their As a material, composite fillings were advantages, the ease of creating them and introduced to dentistry in 1962 by Dr. their resistance, they gave the teeth a Rafael Bowen, recounts Diana Uribe, oral metallic appearance. According to the rehabilitation specialist, “He combined Colombian Association for Cosmetic acrylic resins with epoxy resins, a thermo- Dentistry (SCOE, Sociedad Colombiana setting polymer that hardens when mixed de Odontología Estética), amalgams were with a catalyst, or ‘hardener’, creating this a successful good alternative, but their synthetic material.” It is used to restore cycle has come to an end and they have the appearance of the tooth when it is paved the way for more aesthetic and fractured, has a cavity or is used to close equally effective solutions. the spaces between them. While amalgams (a mixture of shavings The traditional uses of this material of silver and mercury) require making a include sealing teeth (cavities and dental cavity opening that is big enough to place fissures), cementing crowns or inlays, recons- a layer of material that can allow for reten- tructing teeth destroyed by cavities or fractu- tion and prevent fracturing, composite res, and supporting a final restoration. fillings require removing less tissue, pro- tecting the healthy tissue. Sealants, on the other hand, are thin films of resin used to prevent cavities that As the SCOE indicates, the material are applied on the chewing surfaces of used in amalgams has some aesthetic molars and premolars. Resins used for disadvantages that limit their use in the cementing function as adhesives for front teeth. Composite fillings, however, setting laboratory manufactured restora- can be used both for front and back teeth tions and allow for dental structures to be permanently attached.34

PREVENTION ( )WITH YOUR BODYDr. Ángela María Jiménez suggests having 35very good hygiene and avoiding the con-sumption of dark foods and beveragessuch as sodas, tea and coffee, as they canpigment (stain) fillings. She also recom-mends staying away from hard or toastedproducts such as chicharrón (Colombianpork rind), arepas and ice, as the pressureon the material may cause a fracture. Another tip is specifically for smokers,as smoking pigments fillings faster. Ifnecessary, fillings can be repaired or repla-ced which generally occurs between fiveand ten years after they are initially pla-ced; exceptions to this occur if they areshowing signs or symptoms of deteriora-tion beforehand, however. The SCOE recommends being awareof potential fractures, fissures or changesin color in the first days after a procedure,as specialists should be promptly infor-med about this. Fillings can cause a stran-ge sensation in the teeth the first few daysafter they are completed, as there isnothing separating them from the tooth.As our medical specialists explain, this isnormal and disappears quickly. Another recommendation they offeris to visit your dentist every six monthsbecause once the fillings are stained, theborder between them and the tooth canbecome visible, which is aestheticallyunpleasing. The dental professional mayalso assess how the filling has adapted tothe tooth’s surface in relation to theopposite (superior or inferior) andsurrounding teeth. Consult with your dentist aboutrecommended mouthwashes, as somemay change the color of the filling. Also,use dental floss every day; if it tears or getscaught on the tooth’s surface, it is not•going between the teeth adequately

WITH YOUR BODY( )trendsCESAREAN OR NATURAL:AN INFORMED DECISION The decision of how to give birth should not be taken lightly, nor is it something that should be influenced by a trend. ADVISOR ARTURO CARDONA OSPINA, OB-GYN and Maternal-Fetal Medicine Specialist It is a big decision. The choice of how to In the opinion of OB-GYN and mater- give birth depends on each person’s nal-fetal specialist Arturo Cardona situation and on an analysis of condi- Ospina, the ideal situation is to deliver tions; it is one that is reached after discus- vaginally. But Cardona believes that a lot sing with family members and doctors, after of education is needed for people to becoming well-informed and after receiving understand the benefits and risks of diffe- the results of tests taken during the preg- rent types of deliveries: “When patients nancy. More importantly, it is a decision must make a decision as patients and doc- that should be made with conviction to tors together we can base them on what is identify what is best for mother and child. best for their situation.” According to a statement by the World In this vein, receiving proper prenatal Health Organization (WHO) issued in care is critical. “When a woman who has 2015 on C-section rates, these procedures been informed during her pregnancy of are effective for saving the lives of mothers the two forms of delivery comes to a medi- and infants only when medically neces- cal facility to have her baby, it’s not the sary. “For 30 years, healthcare professio- same as when she decides based on what nals from around the world consider that she heard or read on the internet,” the ideal rate for Caesarean sections explains Dr. Cardona, medical advisor to should be between 10-15%.” Despite this, the WHO/PAHO on perinatal morbidity as the WHO registers, C-sections are beco- and mortality. ming more common in both developed and developing countries. OTHER ISSUES TO CONSIDER As the OB-GYN states, infants that come into this world with a vaginal delivery experience less respiratory and infectious diseases as well as brain bleeding disor- ders. This occurs because during the deli- very process, the baby is in contact with bacteria that is normally present in the birth canal for a significant amount of time, and, “When the baby is exposed to these substances, their immune system36

( )WITH YOUR BODYproduces others that help protect them 10%and are greatly beneficial during their firstmonths of life.” TO 15% IS THE IDEAL RATE THAT C-SECTIONS SHOULD BE Also with this type of delivery, the PERFORMED IN THE WORLD,patient is less likely to hemorrhage afterbirth, “The patient recovers faster. Some ACCORDING TO THE WHO.studies have even shown that breastfe-eding is easier, as babies born vaginallylatch better.”FITTING THE NEED centa detaches from the womb), requiring for diabetic patients or for patients withCertain conditions of the fetus also deter- the physician to do a surgical procedure. high blood pressure or heart disease. “Themine whether a C-section will be perfor- Another possibility is for the birth to not more diseases or risk factors a patient has,med: if the head is up and buttocks are progress and the patient may have to the better it is to have a vaginal birth. A C-down (referred to as a breach presenta- undergo surgery, referred to as an emer- section is also a condition we are addingtion); if an ultrasound determines the gency C-section. to the patient; it is an added wound. Andfetus has an approximate weight of over so the patient has to expend their immu-4,000 grams; and if there are any fetal “C-sections happen in specific situa- ne system, their ability to coagulate andgrowths conditions. Of course, “Not all tions. But something that is happening is scar, and their energy as well, on a woundbabies that do not grow enough or are when people have more financial resour- that we are creating.”underweight are delivered with a C-sec- ces, they are quick to ask for a C-sectiontion. It is important to understand that because they believe that that it will be bet- As the doctor affirms, reclaiming thewhen a baby is underweight, their doppler ter. But this must be thoroughly analyzed.” vaginal delivery is a global trend and thereechocardiography will influence whether is a need to provide education on it to thea C-section or vaginal birth will be perfor- One of the risks of a C-section is infec- public. When it comes to making a deci-med,” the specialist indicates. tion at the incision. Dr. Cardona insists that certain ideas about C-sections need •sion, make a conscious one, keeping the When the patient has already had two to be dismantled such them being betterC-sections, a third birth will also have to health of mothers and babies in mindbe performed this way. “There are othertypes of conditions in this field that alsorequire C-sections, such as having twins.” When the decision is made to have aC-section, there is the added benefit thatit eliminates the risk of certain injuries tothe vaginal canal, which are unlikely innatural births if they take place at an ade-quate medical center in a correctmanner,” the specialist specifies. There isalso the benefit where the mother doesnot have to endure several hours of labor.POTENTIAL COMPLICATIONSUnforeseen events may also cause plans tochange and what was originally anticipa-ted to be a natural birth may turn into aCaesarean. During labor, the condition ofthe fetus may become unstable or a pla-cental abruption may occur (when the pla- 37

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WITH YOUR BODY( )prevention STAYING ACTIVE AT WORK Spending eight hours or more sitting in an office without moving poses a serious problem. A few simple exercises can provide great benefits, however.40

( )WITH YOUR BODY ADVISOR As the World Health Organization inactive are twice as likely as people who DAVID LONDOÑO confirms in a report, at least 60% are physically active to have a cardiovascu-MUÑOZ, Specialist in of the world’s population does lar event. not perform the physical activity neces- Sports Medicine sary to obtain health benefits from it. So why are we so immobile? Staying The title of the report is shocking seated for long periods of time is just as enough: “Physical Inactivity: A Global bad as not doing physical activity, “In Public Health Problem.” other words, even if I go to the gym for a half hour or an hour a day which is the These worrying statistics do not end worldwide recommendation, to be active here, however. According to the WHO, for at least 150 minutes a week if I spend approximately 3.2 million people die a a lot of time sitting at work, the benefits year from physical inactivity, and people will not be the same as if I were constantly who do not engage in enough physical moving,” Londoño states. activity are to 20% to 30% more likely to die as the result of any cause of death. FREQUENT BREAKS As Dr. Londoño recommends, it is As David Londoño Muñoz adds, a spe- important to limit sedentary periods to cialist in sports medicine at the no longer than two continuous hours. Complutense University of Madrid, accor- Ideally, active breaks should be taken ding to recent studies, regular exercise can every hour that involve brief stretching reduce cardiovascular mortality by about sessions or short walks lasting at least five 50%. In other words, regardless of other minutes, the doctor states. “In order to sit risk factors, individuals who are physically7.000TO 10,000 STEPS A DAY IS HOW MANY STEPS A PERSON SHOULD TAKE TO BE HEALTHY. 41

WITH YOUR BODY( )prevention EXERCISES TO DO AT THE OFFICE FOR THE KNEES STANDING QUADRICEPS STRETCH Bend your knee and bring your heel towards your buttocks until your hand can reach the top of your foot. Hold for 10 to 30 seconds and release. (1 set of 5 repetitions). FOR THE CERVICAL SPINE (NECK) ISOMETRIC LATERAL BEND With your chin angled slightly towards the floor and one hand on the side of your forehead, try to push your head aiming your ear towards your shoulder while pro- viding resistance with your hand. Hold for 5 to 10 seconds. (3 sets of 5 repetitions). FOR THE LUMBAR SPINE (LOWER BACK) SEATED LUMBOSACRAL STRETCH Bend your neck and torso down until your hands reach your feet. Hold for 10 to 30 second and return to your initial position. (1 set of 4 repetitions). FOR THE SHOULDERS POSTERIOR CAPSULAR STRETCH Bend your elbow to 90 degrees, bring your arm across your chest and rest your hand on your shoulder. With your other hand, push your elbow towards you. (1 set of 4 repetitions).42

(Employees can be more pro- ( )WITH YOUR BODY ductive if they are more active; this improves their physical condition 43 and their health, which results in less illness and absence in the workplace. for the least amount of time possible, pla- ces like architectural firms and professio- nal offices for people that illustrate or write are even incorporating standing desks…The problem is that we sit, and we commute, and on top of that we get home and sit in front of the television or computer. All of this sedentary behavior is actually what is killing us.” The goal is to be more active during the day: commute to work by walking or riding a bike; if you use public transporta- tion, get off a few stops early so that you have to walk; if you drive, park your car as far away as possible; and if you do not suffer from hip or knee problems, take the stairs instead of the elevator. In the office, small activities can be done: walking directly to deliver a messa- ge instead of sending an e-mail; doing as much as possible to make it more difficult to access the items you need to work (such as having to go to another floor or office to use the printer); holding meetings where attendees must stand (which is healthier and makes meetings more suc- cinct, so they finish sooner); or going for walks when talking on a cell phone. “If I am very concentrated on a project, I should set an alarm that goes off every hour to remind me to get up and move,” the doctor adds. Some simple exercises to do at work include moving your joints (head, arms, and feet); contracting the muscles in your legs; stretching your elbows, shoulders and arms; and doing •squats against the wall: “Because each movement and each step counts”

FOCUS ON GLAUCOMAThis group of conditions is the main cause of irreversible blindness in the world. It is estimated that 11 million( )people will have it by 2020. ADVISOR LUCAS SALDARRIAGA FRANCO Ophthalmologist Learn more about glaucoma at

Even though this condition is silent they all cause permanent damage to the eye cavity through the pores that at first, presents no symptoms and optic nerve. surround it. This condition occurs when is unperceived by patients, it can too much fluid is produced or when thebecome very aggressive as it progresses. To help understand this condition, drainage pores are temporarily or perma-Once it has taken over the eye, the dama- Saldarriaga compares the eye to a ping nently obstructed, thereby increasing thege it causes can be irreversible if it is not pong ball: it is an enclosed sphere with eye’s internal pressure.controlled in a timely manner. an internal pressure that is measured in millimeters of mercury that ranges bet- There are two types of glaucoma: open- This is the description of the impact ween 10 and 21 mm Hg (determined by angle glaucoma (the most common) andglaucoma can have given by ophthalmo- specialists with a tool called a tonome- closed-angle glaucoma (the most severe).logist Lucas Saldarriaga Franco. ter). The body produces up to two micro- Early detection is key to avoiding seriousGlaucoma is a group of conditions that liters of fluid inside the eye per minute. side effects, which is why it is important tohave one characteristic in common: This same amount then drains out of the be seen by a specialist.INITIAL WARNING SIGNSSYMPTOMS People with closed-angle glaucoma mayIn the beginning stages of open-angle glau- experience intense pain at night, suddencoma, which is the most common form, vision loss and ocular pressure higherpeople will not feel or experience a pro- than 50 or 60 mm Hg. While this type ofblem with their vision, even though there is glaucoma is less common, it is moreone. However, with the risk levels of the serious and aggressive.pressure in the eye, patients will experiencered eyes, visual field loss, blurry vision and 35 mlsensitivity to light.At this state, it is irreversible. It can be con- OF MERCURY. WHEN OCU-trolled, however, with eyedrops and medi- LAR PRESSURE REACHEScations that reduce the production of fluid ABOVE THIS AMOUNT, Ain the eye and help prevent further nerve PERSON BEGINS TO HAVEdamage. Depending on the level of pressu-re in the eye, surgical procedures or laser may be needed. 40 RISK FACTORSTO 50 YEARS IS THE Glaucoma can be inherited from parents and AVERAGE AGE IN siblings. Also, due to genetics, it is more preva- lent in patients with myopia (near-sightedness),WHICH GLAUCOMA hypermetropia (far-sightedness) and in people BEGINS. with African origins as the eye’s internal draina- ge system of these groups (called the trabecu- lar meshwork) is impaired.

WITH YOUR BODY( )together ANTIBIOTICS 95% The practice of using antibiotics to self- Antibiotics are medications that resto- OF THE BODY’S BAC- re the balance of microorganisms in TERIA ARE FOUND IN medicate, which are not THE DIGESTIVE designed to treat specific the body in order for it to be healthy TRACT. and protected from infections. illnesses, can lead to serious health problems. Consulting with your physician will help you know what type of antibiotic Find out why. you need, and how often and for how ADVISOR long you should take it. Taking them MARÍA AGUDELO PÉREZ too often can be harmful to different Specialist in Pharmacology organs in the body such as the liver, the organ that is most affected by this. and Infectious DiseasesWHAT HAPPENS? ANRETISBISIOTATNICCEMICROORGANISMSWhen the microorganisms that beco- 100 The human body is a compendium ofme active during an infection come microorganisms that are responsible forinto contact with antibiotics, as a BILLION BACTERIA ARE carrying out processes that help ourresult of this, some develop survival THE APPROXIMATE NUM- bodies develop. Some of these bacteriastrategies. This makes the condition are good and some are not. The skin andcompletely untreatable, causing BER OF BACTERIA THAT intestine are colonized by bacteria;serious health problems. For example, LIVE IN DIFFERENT PARTS however, bacteria should not be found inif a person develops bronchitis and organs such as the heart or in placesthe antibiotic does not work, without OF THE BODY. such as cerebrospinal fluid, boneadequate medical attention, this could marrow, or the lower respiratory tract.develop into pneumonia.46

CON TU MUNDO ( ))WITH YOUR WORLD76%OF COLOMBIANS PRE-FER TO BUY LOCALLY-GROWN VEGETABLES,ACCORDING TO ASTUDY BY NIELSEN IN2016 ON BRAND ORIGIN.LOCALLY-GROWN FOODS CAN NOW BE MORE EASILY ACCESSEDDIRECTLY FROM WHERE THEY ARE GROWN, WHICH SUPPORTS THEREGION’S PRODUCTION AND SHARING ECONOMY.IN THE CITY A WIDE VARIETY A GROWING PRACTICELocal plazas or farmer’s markets are an Choose from nuts, seeds, vegetable This trend supports a more justopportunity to buy natural and organic pro- oils, artisanal breads and pastas, and market and also benefitsducts that have greater nutritional values, are plant-based milks such as almond, soy the environment and the notionfresher and are sold at an affordable price. and rice milks. of sustainability. 47

WITH YOUR WORLD( )xxxxxxxxx ZEST FOR LIFE Old age should be the most complete, productive and creative time of life. It is the opportunity to do what you’ve always wanted. ADVISOR Population changes, advances in or even until nearing the time of their CARLOS medicine and the natural evolution death, now have at least another 20 or 30 MONCADA of society have all led to greater life years ahead of them after they retire. Geriatrician expectancies. We now have a population that lives longer and is healthier than ever. A lot of people wonder about how to People that use to work until they were 65 fill this time. Greater priority has therefo- re been given to addressing concepts such48

(Most people can can expect to ( )WITH YOUR WORLD live at least to age 80. As the WHO grandparents explains, increasing life expectancy is 49 not only important to the elderly and their families, but to society as well. as the one developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) called “active aging,” a process of, “…optimizing the opportunities for health, participation and security to improve the quality of life as individuals age.” We often picture aging as a something complicated and not as an opportunity: a chance to study again, do what you always wanted, learn that language you never had time for, make new friends, fall in love… LEAVE THE MYTHS BEHIND One of the myths of aging revolves around the idea that it is too late to adopt a healthy lifestyle. As geriatrician Dr. Carlos Moncada encourages, however, in addition to being the longest phase of life, it is also the period in which people have accumula- ted all the knowledge, skills and habits they have learned and developed throughout life. It is a period in which each individual has established their own culture that represents how their life has evolved. Old age should therefore represent a time in which people can feel most complete. While you can never turn back the hands of time, aging is an inherent part of time passing, biological age can vary depending on each person’s physical and mental condition, and their wellbeing. The body of the 70-year-old who stays in shape may be similar to that of a 30-year- old who is physically inactive and has poor eating habits. Beyond being just a vacant period of time, this open period is actually a phase

( )WITH YOUR WORLD 18% when you can live without attachments, of hiding and attend the storytelling without worrying about social or work classes you always wanted. Or, why not IS THE PERCENTAGE OF THE pressures, or about that thing that little write your own book? It is the time for ELDERLY POPULATION OVER AGE by little, life imposed upon us… In the the gardener to spend their days taking words of Moncada, it is “the period in care of plants and growing their own gar- 60 LIVING IN MEDELLÍN. life when you can dare to be bold.” Now den. It is the time to reassert the “self” MEDELLÍN IS THE THIRD CITY that you do not have to continue your and let it be seen. daily routines, you have the time to crea- IN LATIN AMERICA WITH te, and your brain is free to think of good Old age therefore becomes an opportu- THE GREATEST ELDERLY ideas. It is the perfect time to awaken nity to be courageous, try new things, and your creative work. take advantage of the knowledge acquired POPULATION. from the four previous stages of life to deve- So, what is there to do after you retire? lop your creativity. For this to work, howe- The first thing is to fill your time with ver, there is one requirement: autonomy interesting activities, especially those that the ability to continue making decisions you wanted to do in life, but couldn’t and implement the corrections necessary because the circumstances didn’t allow it. to achieve what you want. “Personal free- dom is an achievement that shouldn’t be “In Colombia, most people who have wasted,” Moncada emphasizes. worked, have taken whatever job has come their way, not what they actually After age 60, creative work can be wanted to do, not what they like, but found in areas such as the sciences, eco- what they have to do,” Dr. Moncada sta- logy, politics, the arts or in more personal tes. As the specialist explains, this is the time for the novelist in you to come out •spheres such as family, the body itself and in exercising appreciation for the world50

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