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The Insider

Published by alojz.roter, 2019-06-03 04:33:00

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THE INSIDER 2018/2019


Credits Published by: Gimnazija Ravne na Koroškem Na gradu 4 2390 Ravne na Koroškem Writers: Nuša Kvasnik, 1 a Tim Zagorščak, 1 a Nika Logar, 1 c Mojca Mager, 1 c Jan Potočnik, 1 c Ema Šuler, 1 c Gaja Tušek, 1 c Naja Jelenko, 2 a Anja Mravlak, 2 b Lara Pavše, 2 b Editor: Naja Jelenko, 2 a Mentor: Milena Rečnik, prof. Proofread by: Milena Rečnik, prof. Graphic designer: Tim Zagorščak, 1 a Photos: Andraž Kugovnik Bregeš, 2 cš II


Table of contents Introduction I. School i. Erasmus ii. Stem cells iii. The fall of science iv. Petnica II. Sport i. Interview with Daša Tušek ii. Europa league final III. Literature i. Stars in a starry night IV. Entertainment i. Top 5 list ii. Unbelievable facts iii. Horoscope III


Introduction At the beginning of this school year, a group of students came up with an idea of an English newspaper called The Insider. At first we did not know what to write about or how to even start. But now we are sure everyone will find something for themselves in it. So what can you find in The Insider? Everything from interesting interviews, poems, photos, jokes to a horoscope. The articles have been written by students from first and second grades. A lot of effort was put in this newspaper and we would be happy to receive feedback on it. Our mentor is Milena Rečnik, English teacher. She supported us and gave us tips on how to make our articles better. Without her this newspaper would not be published right now. Summer is coming and our team advises you to gather the last atoms of your power and try your best to finish this school year as ‘great’ as possible. We wish you a summer that you will never forget and that you will enter a new school year full of memories and new goals. Naja Jelenko, 2 a Kugovnik Bregeš Andraž IV


V Andraž Kugovnik Bregeš


SCHOOL VI Andraž Kugovnik Bregeš


Erasmus + Six months ago I was part of a very big project Erasmus +. So, what is Erasmus+? It is a student exchange programme, where schools from different European countries collaborate and show cultures and habits of other countries. I, for example, hosted a very sweet girl from Poland. Source: Nika Logar It is unbelievable how you can get to know one person so well in just one week. We were getting along very well and I am so glad that we met. She brought some Polish dishes to Slovenia and taught me a lot of new Polish words, for example, ‘Jak te ide’, Source: http://www.gimnazija-ravne.si/files/2019/02/BEL_skupinska.png VII


‘dobranoc’ and ‘tak tak’ and we were using them all the time. The week was full of different activities and travels. On Monday we had a day trip to Ljubljana and they were all thrilled about our capital. One day we had a mine tour with the train in Mežica. For some of them this was their first time in a mine. They also presented us the whole history and even I heard some new things. Other 3 days we were staying in Ravne, where we had a town tour and went to see all the sights in Ravne. Source: https://www.facebook.com/1575375056024069/photos/pcb.2316180668610167/2316180615276839/?type=3&theater To sum up, I have to say that this was an amazing experience and I would definitely do it again. One of the reasons why I wrote this is because I want you to be part of projects like this: to travel the world, understand different cultures, be inspired by beauty everywhere. I would like to make friends all over and be a citizen of the world. Nika Logar, 1 c VIII


Stem cells What are stem cells? Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the ability to become any type of cell in the body, of course with a specific function. In the body, they serve as a system that is capable of duplicating with no limits, with the purpose of replacing damaged or destroyed cells.When a stem cell duplicates it has an option. Either to self- renew and keep on being a stem cell or it can keep on differentiating. That means that the cell keeps on forming into any other type of cell. Their features Stem cells have two typical features, which are self-renewing and potency. Self-renewal is ability, where cells can go through cyclic divisions without differentiation. That means that stem cells stay stem cells and they do NOT differentiate into other types of cells (e.g. – brain cells). I have also mentioned potency. Potency divides into three categories, which are based on differentiation abilities. We know totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent stem cells. Totipotent stem cells arise after the fertilisation of an ovum and sperm cell. We can only get them in the earliest phase of embryo development. Totipotent cells can differentiate into all types of cells. Pluripotent cells arise from totipotent cells and they can differentiate into most cells. The last ones are multipotent cells and they can differentiate only into sister cells. Types of stem cells Stem cells divide into four groups, based on where we find them in the organism. The first ones I am going to mention are embryonic stem cells. IX


Embryonic stem cells are totipotent cells (that means that they can turn into any type of cell and that they arise after the fertilization of an ovum and sperm). After the fertilization, they form a zygote. Cells start to divide with mitosis and they create a blastocyst. A blastocyst is an embryo only a few days old. Embryonic stem cells arise in the blastocyst, which later evolve into all cell types that our body consists of. Blood stem cells are pluripotent stem cells (that means they can differentiate into most cells and that they form from totipotent cells). They are useful in the medical industry, mostly to the purpose of healing the bone marrow. Umbilical cord stem cells are a useful source of blood stem cells. They can be kept in special banks after the birth of a newborn if its parents want to keep them for later use. For example, they can be later used if a child suffers a traumatic brain experience. That means some cells in its brain would be damaged and doctors would need to replace them, to help the treatment become more likely to succeed. They would insert the kept stem cells into the child’s brain. Inserted stem cells would then, because of their ability of becoming any cell in the body, become the wanted brain cell and would replace the damaged brain cells. The last ones are adult stem cells, which are a special kind of cells that all of us keep inside our bodies throughout our entire life. They enable renewal of our tissues and organs and we can find them in all tissues of our bodies. Their use in medical therapy Blood stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells and some adult tissue stem cells are already being used to treat different diseases. We know two ways of stem cells transplantation called autologous and allogeneic transplantation. An autologous transplantation is the X


transplantation of the patient’s own stem cells. The use of our own stem cells for transplantation has a quite bigger advantage than using strange allogeneic stem cells because at our own stem cells it does not come to a rejection reaction. Patient’s damaged cells are replaced by their own stem cells. The second way of transplantation is allogeneic transplantation. For it to happen, we need a donor. A good option is siblings, but not necessarily, because a perfect match can also be a completely different person. Source: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323343.php Nuša Kvasnik, 1 a Source:  https://www.zrss.si/bzid/geni/pdf/knezevic-clanek.pdf  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evH0I7Coc54  https://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mati%C4%8Dna_celica  http://wiki.fkkt.uni- lj.si/index.php/Biokemijske_zna%C4%8Dilnosti_izvornih_celic XI


The fall of science I admit, I’ve always liked watching the news, though I don’t know exactly why. I feel like they open up my relatively tiny world, the drama, the millions upon millions of one-hit wonders, the political squabble etc. However, far more interesting, I get to see people that have to face hardship on a daily basis, I hear about massive accidents that make me ponder how we as a civilisation still exist, how something so horrible and gruesome can happen in a presumably picturesque society. Lately I’ve noticed that watching any sort of news programme is becoming more and more depressing. I’m not certain if it is because of the increase in so called fake-news and “fast food” entertainment that journalists try to shove down our throats or because of our collective minds degenerating to the point where we accept every massive shooting as just another crazy person lashing out. Source: http://time.com/4965966/mass-shootings-las-vegas/ XII


However, what does all this have to do with science and its supposed downfall? Well, in my opinion, almost everything. I believe that our own invention backfired and is now causing as much harm as good. A Frankenstein-like monster that turned on its own creator; the internet more specifically the news (or worldwide telecommunication). Science is based on the conformation or rejection of hypotheses. For a hypothesis to be accepted it must undergo thorough testing with certain precautions (a large enough sample group, a clearly stated prediction, no biases etc.). Only after the hypothesis is tested and if necessary, tweaked, can the paper be published. Furthermore, other groups must peer-review it and test its validity, for it to be considered true or valid. Source: https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/blog/eureka-lab/understand-scientific-paper-delve-its-parts If most scientific studies are rigorously tested, why is there a problem? Scientists have not become dumber, have they? No, on the contrary, scientific research is on the rise, thousands of papers are published and new discoveries and advancements are being made every year (the first picture of a black hole, the XIII


usage of CRISPR in oncology, more funding for research on global warming). The problem arises when these discoveries are exposed to the media. Like a parasite, it consumes the source, disregards the boring long-winded sentences, which are usually the most crucial ones, and keeps the findings, the weirder the better, with no interest in any possible disclaimers. Such news articles are called “pop science”, I like to imagine a library being reconstructed into a Mc******s (can they sue the school if I write their name? (joke)). To be fair they can be useful and if done correctly (source, any problems, new hypotheses) very informative, they may even spark an interest in the field or make it more publicly known (climate change). Source: https://davidsuzuki.org/what-you-can-do/what-is-climate-change/ So again, if pop science is just shorter and more coherent than regular papers, why does it cause the collapse of modern science? It all comes back to my first thought, that the media is forcing us to watch more and more “fast food” entertainment with almost no educational content. The actual problem arises when the media releases false and misleading information to the XIV


public. Most of the time, the public doesn’t do its research and interprets these facts as truths. When enough people believe a lie, they will reject the truth when it is presented to them. Such an example is Flat Earthers, who believe the Earth is in fact not a globe, but a flat disc. Even more dangerous are so called Anti- Vaxers, who believe that vaccines are harmful and dangerous and can cause autism. Because of their belief in these “facts” (which they get of the internet…), they do not vaccinate their children, exposing them and others to deadly diseases which were almost wiped from existence. With their beliefs, they threaten the wellbeing of others, setting us back to the time when vaccines didn’t exist. If the opposition of common scientific knowledge continues, we will be forced to do something, unless we want to repeat history. The Roman Empire fell when people stopped believing in the government. Similar situations happened in India, China and the Middle East, which all once flourished in many scientific fields (maths, chemistry, astronomy, and physics), but had a massive downfall when other things took priority (warfare, trade, power…). Therefore, I believe that if the media does not change its ways of presenting information in the form of falsehoods and half-truths just to grab the readers/viewers’ attention, our civilisation will slowly but surely fall and crumble, first by destroying science and then culture. There is also the possibility that they’re doing all of this on purpose so that they get more easily fooled consumers, but they wouldn’t do that, would they… Tim Zagorščak, 1 a XV


Petnica Scientists wannabe There are many ways a person can pursue one's interests, but we cannot say »the sky's the limit« due to our limit usually being around 20€. But there are better ways: If you go to Petnica Science Centre in Serbia, your options grow exponentially. That is exactly what we, two second-year students, decided to do this year. But what even is Petnica SC? It is the biggest and, probably, the oldest independent non-profit organisation for extracurricular, informal science education in South Eastern Europe. There, a person can attend seminars lasting from 6 to 10 days and work on a project in any field – astronomy, molecular or experimental biochemistry, archaeology, psychology... Depending on your interests, they admit you to a seminar which is supposed to be the best fit for you. Source: Anja Mravlak XVI


When I say going to Petnica is something special, I mean it. People there are some of the best I've ever met - all relaxed and laughing all the time, but extremely curious and serious about their work at the same time. My first big challenge after arriving there was the language. I went there thinking this would be an international seminar and we would all be speaking English, but the moment I got there I realized my mistake. I was surrounded with Serbians and definitely could not speak the language. My confusion was obvious to the other participants, so we switched to talking in English and my life was good again. I had no problems with comprehension in lectures after 3 days of being there (if things were in context and they weren't talking fast, ha ha), but talking was still a problem so I was sticking to English the whole time. Source: Anja Mravlak XVII


At this point I should probably mention which seminar I was admitted to? They put me to the seminar called »all«. Yes, »all« or in Serbian »sve«, so we were called »sveminar«. I am truly happy that I went there because this seminar combines many different fields and you can get a feel of each one. That is supposed to help you decide what really interests you the most by hearing what kinds of problems scientists work on and having a chance to talk to students and experts (and yes, it did help a bit). I got to work on two projects, one from astronomy and one in programming and due to my team having the best mentor, Marija, we learned a lot, regardless of not being able to quit joking around. My favourite part was hanging out with friends and mentors in a small cafe on the campus. That cafe was keeping us all alive with coffee, cookies and sandwiches, but there is one more thing I must mention – the heavenly cheesecake. That cheesecake is truly the best thing in the world and anyone who has ever tried it will confirm that; that is a fact. It just confuses me how they never ran out of it because we were ordering it all. the. time. Anja Mravlak, 2 b Source: http://rtv.rs/sr_lat/zivot/nauka-i-tehnologija/petnica-otvoren-godisnji-konkurs-za-srednjoskolce-u-2018._864322.html XVIII


My experience in Petnica Some of you may be thinking how privileged we must be, since we got a chance to attend a research program in Serbia. But it is not all roses. First of all, like mentioned before, we had some troubles with our applications. Not only we had to write it in English, which is not our mother language, but we missed the application deadline, but thankfully we were considered anyways. Anyhow, we were excepted onto different dates of the seminars, since we chose different topics that we wanted to research. The area which I applied for was chemistry. I encountered some problems along the way. Firstly, I had to travel a long way from Slovenia to Serbia, which I travelled without any supervision. Thankfully, I was not alone, a friend of mine was visiting the research centre in the same time period. Nevertheless, it still was scary for two inexperienced teenagers to travel all alone for 14 hours to an unknown city in the middle of nowhere, where no one speaks English and you are not able to understand any Serbian. Before I continue, I should also clarify that my Serbian is nowhere near fluent and I do not read Cyrillic. We were promised seminars would all be in English and I was excited I would get to expand my vocabulary with new chemical terms. Well, sadly I was deeply disappointed. First of all, I was one of the three foreigners on our program. Other two were from Montenegro and Croatia and had no communication issues. I, on the other hand, almost had a mental breakdown when not only I did not understand half of the lectures because of the language, but I also could not help myself with PowerPoint presentation since they were all written in Cyrillic writing. XIX


I thankfully got used to the language in a few days and started enjoying the experience. Lectures were held by Belgrade university professors and I must say at first it was very intimidating. I was surrounded by very smart students and professors, which is (as it turned out) a great learning environment. Unexpectedly I got very attached to the group and in a period of a couple of days we became good friends and we still keep in touch. By far my favourite part of the whole experience was the laboratory. The winter seminar was supposed to prepare us for the summer program; therefore, a good theoretical base was necessary. I sadly did not Source: Lara Pavše get to attend the summer program, but I still got to spend some hours in the laboratory. Without a doubt it is a true paradise for a chemist and fortunately we had the chance to experiment in it ourselves. Surprisingly nothing was blown up or burned in the process, which is a great achievement, since a group of excited teenagers was left in a laboratory. All jokes and troubles aside, the experience was brilliant and I am very thankful I was able to attend the program. Not only that I gained chemistry knowledge, but I also learned Serbian and made new friends. And although it sounds corny, I am glad I stepped out of my comfort zone, tried something new and in return I received an unforgettable adventure. Lara Pavše, 2 b XX


SPORT XXI Andraž Kugovnik Bregeš


Interview with Daša Tušek Daša Tušek is a fifteen-year old swimmer. She is a member of the Slovenian national team and a national cadet champion in several disciplines. Why and when did you decide to become a swimmer? I actually didn’t decide to start training myself. I was 8 years old when I started swimming, but I didn’t have a special reason why. I guess, I had to do something with my free time and in school I got an application for swimming. My parents asked my sister and me if we would like to try and we just decided to go for it. From that moment on I have dedicated almost all of my free time to it. When did your results start to improve and did you expect that? My results started improving two years ago, because I had been swimming in a better group and have had a new coach since 2016. Practises are always hard and I have them ten times a week for 2-3 hours. It is quite logical that my results have improved. This year and last year you won the national championship in several disciplines and last year the Slovenian swimming association selected you the best cadet of the year in Slovenia. Did you have to put in a lot of work to achieve such results? I had to try very hard to achieve such results. As I said before we train every day early in the morning and in the afternoon. Even during the holiday we do not get a lot of rest. But even though it is extremely difficult I know that this is what I have to do to keep getting better so I try to do my best every time. XXII


Many people think training swimming is very hard. Do you agree with them? Why do you enjoy swimming? Of course I agree but I love swimming even though it’s hard. I also love travelling - I’ve been to Cyprus, Romania, Hungary, Serbia, Italy, Croatia, Greece, South Africa and in the summer I am going to Russia and hopefully many more countries. Is it difficult to combine school and swimming? When I come from practice I’m always very tired and it is hard to study after that. Due to travelling I will not be in school for a long time. For now I have managed to combine school and swimming and I hope I will continue to. A few months ago you went to South Africa as a member of the Slovenian national swimming team. You left your family and school for a month. Did you find this as a big challenge? I couldn’t wait to go to South Africa. I knew that I would miss my family, but it was a big chance for me so I went for the big challenge and hoped everything would go well. It was absolutely amazing to be there and it was one of the best experiences of my life. It is true, I missed my family, but we talked on the phone a lot and that month went by in no time. I feel like I made the right decision, but I do have a lot of work in school right now. Gaja Tušek, 1 c XXIII


Europa League final In the final of the Europa League we got a chance to see two of the best teams in the world face each other. Arsenal F.C. and Chelsea F.C. faced each other in a game for the Europa trophy. Source:https://en.as.com/en/imagenes/2019/05/28/football/15590766695523881559076749_noticia_normal.jpg Arsenal F.C. Arsenal have one of the best teams in the history of the team. With the summer transfer of Pierre-Emmerick Aubameyang Arsenal have one of the best attacking line-ups in the world. With strong and quick centre forwards Aubameyang and Lacazzete and one of the best German midfielders Özil this attacking trio is unstoppable in the Premier League and Europa League. They've scored a total of 40 goals of 73 Arsenal goals this season. Source: https://paininthearsenal.com/2019/02/21/arsenal-vs-bate-borisov-player-ratings-job-done/ XXIV


Chelsea F.C. Chelsea are one of the most successful teams in the world in terms of European Championships (Champions League, Europa League, …). With one of the best attackers Eden Hazard and World Cup winner N'golo Kante Chelsea are definitely the favourites of this final (in my opinion). They've beaten Arsenal many times in Premier League and I think they will probably beat them in the final of the Europa League. Source: https://chelseafclatestnews.com/chelsea-fc-squad-team-all-players/ FINAL The Final was won by Chelsea F.C. 4:1 Arsenal F.C.. All the goals were scored in the second half. The first goal was scored by Giruid (World Cup winner) in the 49' and Chelsea were in the lead 1:0.The second goal was scored by Pedro in 60' and in the 65' the third goal was scored by Hazard form the penalty spot and Chelsea were leading 3:0. In the 69' Arsenal got hope for a comeback when Iwobi scored for 3:1, but Hazard ''destroyed'' every last hope for Arsenal in 72' when he scored for final 4:1. Jan Potočnik, 1 c XXV


LITERATURE XXVI Andraž Kugovnik Bregeš


STARS IN A STARRY NIGHT i believe in sunlight and i believe in the dark fighting for each other and finding who we are seeking for an answer without a question asked waiting to forgive though we can’t forget I BELIEVE THAT WE WERE MEANT TO BE •we are dancing in a starry night thoughts are flowing through our minds all i see is you are mine holding hands and feeling love • ooohhh ov love ohhh ovvv love i think i saw the sunlight shooting from your eyes you took my breath just by standing there i said baby don’t leave tonight cause the stars are dancing in the moonlight •chorus• we were dancing through the night holding hands and feeling love you took my hearth you stole my mind we were stars in a starry night Ema Šuler, Gaja Tušek, 1 c XXVII


ENTERTAINMENT XXVIII Andraž Kugovnik Bregeš


Top 5 list BOOKS 5. SAPIENS: A BRIEF HISTORY OF HUMANKIND Fire gave us power. Farming made us hungry for more. Money gave us purpose. Science made us deadly. This is the thrilling account of our extraordinary history - from insignificant apes to rulers of the world. The book surveys the history of humankind from the evolution of archaic human species in the Stone Age up to the twenty-first century, focusing on Homo sapiens. I would recommend this book to anyone who is interested in the history and the future of humankind. Source: https://images-na.ssl-images- amazon.com/images/I/51Sn8PEXwcL.jpg 4. THE TRAVELLING CAT CHRONICLES The book is about a Japanese man named Satoru who discovers an injured stray cat and takes it on as his own. However, events turn out that Satoru is no longer able to take care of the kitty, named Nana after the Japanese number seven, and so he hits up friends and family to take care of the cat. We don’t learn why Satoru is no longer able to take care of Nana until near the end of the book, and the reason is Source: https://cdn.waterstones.com/bookjackets/large/9780/8575/9780857524195.jpg XXIX


a heart-wrenching and sentimental one. While this is a heart- warming story it is also a book about Japan. One of the readers said that this book is a life-affirming anthem to kindness and self-sacrifice; The Travelling Cat Chronicles shows how the smallest things can provide the greatest joy. 3. THE SUN AND HER FLOWERS If you are a poetry lover I would definitely recommend this masterpiece by Rupi Kaur. If I had to describe this book I would say that it is a journey of self- love and raw observations of the world around us. The author really captured all of the emotions; love, grief, joy, shame, sadness, anger, pride… “what is stronger than the human heart which shatters over and over and still lives” - Rupi Kaur Source: https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/71Wt6UPKr7L.jpg XXX


2. THE CHOICE In 1944, sixteen-year-old ballerina Edith Eger was sent to Auschwitz. Separated from her parents on arrival, she endures unimaginable experiences, including being made to dance for the infamous Josef Mengele. When the camp is finally liberated, she is pulled from a pile of bodies, barely alive. This book is an award-winning international bestseller and it also received a lot of praises; Oprah Winfrey said that she'd be forever changed by Edith's story. Source: https://cdn.waterstones.com/bookjacket s/large/9781/8460/9781846045127.jpg 1. IN ORDER TO LIVE Source: In order to live is a horrifying (yet realistic) story https://timedotcom.files.wordpress. of life in North Korea. At the age of 13 Yeonmi com/2015/10/in-order-to-live.jpg already tasted the bitterness of living in a country with such a tough regime. Through the story we find out how she and her mother escaped North Korea and how they became victims of sex trafficking. Yeonmi walks the reader through the difficult choices that she and her mother had to make to survive, which makes In Order to Live a tough read but at the same time an inspiring one. “I am most grateful for two things: that I was born in North Korea, and that I escaped from North Korea.” Naja Jelenko, 2 a XXXI


TELEVISION SERIES 5. FRIENDS Friends is an American television sitcom that is 10 seasons long. The show revolves around six friends in their 20s and 30s who live in Manhattan, New York City. Source: We follow the story of Monica Geller, https://peopledotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/08/fri Ross Geller, Rachel Green, Chandler ends-435-5.jpg Bing, Phoebe Buffay and Joey Tribbiani. Over the course of 10 years this group of buddies goes through past and future romances, laughs, fights, tears and surprises as they learn what it really means to be a friend. 4. CHILLING ADVENTURES OF SABRINA Chilling adventures of Sabrina is an American supernatural horror television series. The series is centred on a teenage witch and notable Archie Comics character, Sabrina Spellman. The story revolves around Sabrina Spellman; as her 16th birthday nears, Sabrina must choose between the witch world of her family and the human world of her friends. Source: http://www.gstatic.com/tv/thumb/tvban ners/16309356/p16309356_b_v8_ac.jpg XXXII


3. SHAMELESS Shameless is an American comedy-drama television series based on a family living in Chicago. The series depicts the dysfunctional family of the Gallaghers who live in the South Side of Chicago. The show stars Frank Gallagher, a single father of six children. While he spends his days drunk, his six kids learn to take care of themselves through their lives. Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thu mb/3/34/Shameless_Season_1.jpg/250px- Shameless_Season_1.jpg 2. RICK AND MORTY Rick and Morty is an American animated science fiction sitcom. After going missing for nearly 20 years, Rick Sanchez suddenly arrives at his daughter Beth’s doorstep looking to move in with her and her family. Beth welcomes him with open arms, but her unremarkable husband Jerry isn’t too thrilled about the tearful reunion as Rick’s arrival serves to shake things up quite a bit around the household. Rick converts the garage into his personal laboratory and gets to work on all sorts of dangerous sci-fi gadgets and contraptions. That wouldn’t be so bad if not for the fact that Rick continues to involve his grandchild Morty and in his insane adventures. Source: https://m.media- amazon.com/images/M/MV5BMjRiNDRhNGUtMzRkZi00MThlLTg0ZDMt [email protected]_V1_UY268 _CR2,0,182,268_AL_.jpg XXXIII


1. THE HANDMAID'S TALE The Handmaid's Tale is an American dystopian drama television series. The Handmaid's Tale is the story of life in the dystopia of Gilead, a totalitarian society in what was formerly the United States. Facing environmental disasters and a plunging birth rate, Gilead is ruled by a twisted fundamentalism in its militarized \"return to traditional values.\" As one of the few remaining fertile women, Offred is a Handmaid in the Commander's household, one of the caste of women forced into sexual servitude as a last desperate attempt to repopulate the world. In this terrifying society, Offred must navigate between Commanders, their cruel Wives, domestic Marthas, and her fellow Handmaids--where anyone could be a spy for Gilead--all with one goal: to survive and find the daughter that was taken from her. Source: https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/A1dohChh0wL._RI_.jpg Naja Jelenko, 2 a https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/A1dohChh0wL._RI_.jpg XXXIV


VIDEOGAMES 5. FAR CRY: NEW DAWN It is an action-adventure first-person shooter. The game is a spin- off of the Far Cry series and a narrative sequel to Far Cry 5. The game is set in an open world environment which the player can explore freely on foot or via various vehicles. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Far_Cry_New_Dawn 4. THE WALKING DEAD It is an episodic adventure game video game. It takes place in the same fictional world as the comic, with events occurring shortly after the onset of the zombie apocalypse in Georgia. The game does not emphasize puzzle solving, but instead focuses on story and character development. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Walking_Dead_(video_game) XXXV


3. RESIDENT EVIL 2 It is a survival horror game. Players control police officer Leon S. Kennedy and college student Claire Redfield as they attempt to escape from Raccoon City during a zombie apocalypse. It is a remake of the 1998 game Resident Evil 2. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resident_Evil_2_(2019_video_game) 2. ACE COMBAT 7: SKIES UNKNOWN It is a combat flight action video game. An entry in the long- running Ace Combat series, it was released for the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One. Aircraft featured are either licensed real-world planes or completely fictional. Over the course of the single player campaign, the player earns an in-game currency to purchase additional aircraft and equipment. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ace_Combat_7:_Skies_Unknown XXXVI


1. APEX LEGENDS It is a free-to-play battle royale game. It was released for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One. The gameplay fuses elements from a variety of video games, including Titanfall series, battle royale games, class-based shooters, and those with evolving narratives. Approximately sixty players are pitted against each other on an island in squads of three, with one player controlling where their squad lands. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apex_Legends Ema Šuler, 1 c XXXVII


FILMS 5. FIVE FEET APART Five Feet Apart is a romantic drama film directed by Justin Baldoni. In the film, Haley Lu Richardson and Cole Sprouse play two young patients with cystic fibrosis, who try to have a relationship despite always being forced to stay a certain distance away from each other. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Feet_Apart 4. AFTER After is a romantic drama film directed by Jenny Gage. A young woman falls for a guy with a dark secret and the two embark on a rocky relationship. The film is based on the novel by Anna Todd. 3. AVENGERS: ENDGAME Source: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt4126476/?ref_=fn_al_tt_1 Avengers: Endgame is a 2019 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics superhero team the Avengers, produced by Marvel Studios. After the devastating events of the previous film Avengers: Infinity War, the universe is in ruins. With the help of remaining allies, the Avengers assemble once more in order to undo Thanos' actions and restore order to the universe. Source: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt415479 6/?ref_=nv_sr_1?ref_=nv_sr_1 XXXVIII


2. CAPTAIN MARVEL It is a 2019 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Carol Danvers. It’s set in 1995, the story follows Danvers as she becomes Captain Marvel after Earth is caught in the centre of a galactic conflict between two alien civilizations. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captain_Marvel_(film) 1. THE CURSE OF LA LLORONA The Curse of La Llorona is a supernatural horror film directed by Michael Chaves. It is based on the Mexican folklore of La Llorona, the film follows a mother in Los Angeles 1973 who must save her children from a malevolent spirit who is trying to steal them away. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Curse_of_La_Llorona Mojca Mager, 1 c XXXIX


Unbelievable facts  The longest game of Monopoly in a bathtub lasted for 99 hours. Ready to break the record? Source: https://steamcdn- a.akamaihd.net/steam/apps/562810/ss_0ffbcbc5391d9ed50b673b9adcee4a3d5b3bf9b8.1920x1080.jpg?t=1505464874  In the morning we are about one centimetre taller than in the evening.  Every day is about 55 billion of a second longer than the one before. Source: https://www.gannett-cdn.com/-mm-/dc5b990db220b11a655954daad45d8388b6b444d/c=0- 261-5133-3161/local/-/media/2018/05/04/USATODAY/USATODAY/636610343961500870- GettyImages-508896288.jpg?width=3200&height=1680&fit=crop  We usually yawn for six seconds.  The first food an Astronaut ate in space was a purée. XL


 They found four thousand years old popcorn in a cave in New Mexico in the USA. It probably did not look as good as the one you eat. Source: https://www.twosisterscrafting.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/perfect-popcorn- main.jpg  The more focused you are, the less you blink.  You cannot tickle yourself.  If you eat too many carrots your skin can colour orange. Source: https://www.jessicagavin.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/glazed-carrots-14-1200.jpg If you were blown away by those facts you should look for more in National Geographic junior book Weird but true, where you can find the unbelievable facts you just read about and many more. Gaja Tušek, 1 c XLI


Horoscope ARIES: DATES: between March 21 and April 19 TRAITS: Spontaneous, daring, energetic, impatient, enterprising, possessive, courageous... RULING PLANET: Mars ELEMENT: Fire Source: COMPATIBLE SIGNS: Leo, Sagittarius, Gemini, Aquarius https://cdn1.iconfinder.com/data/ icons/zodiac/100/Aries-512.png YEARLY HOROSCOPE: There’s no holding back this year. In 2019 you get to show the world exactly who you are and what you can do. Your ruler is powerful Mars and you start the year with it going full speed ahead in your sign. This gives you an incredible power boost and sets a great tone for the rest of the year regarding goals and ambitions. By early October however Mars loses some of its power, so you might not feel as spontaneous and driven. In the end of April there’s no shame in showing the world the pure version of you. It’s easy to get tripped up on your words and say the wrong thing in March, July and late October (especially when it comes to your feelings). TAURUS: DATES: between April 20 and May 20 TRAITS: practical, artistic, trustworthy, loyal, generous, indecisive, possessive, stubborn... RULING PLANET: Venus ELEMENT: Earth COMPATIBLE SIGNS: Virgo, Capricorn, Cancer, Pisces Source: http://chittagongit.com/icon/taur us-icon-20.html YEARLY HOROSCOPE: In 2019 you might get a break in the dominant areas in your life that your ruling planet rules: love and money. At the end of January you should look forward to easygoing energy. Uranus enters your earth sign in the beginning of March and turns retrograde in August. This isn’t the best pairing because Uranus likes change and you like things to stay the same. In this time of the year you’ll have to be willing to keep a much more open mind than usual. At the start of May new relationships and projects will launch. XLII


GEMENI: DATES: between May 21 and June 20 TRAITS: cheerful, tactful, enthusiastic, diplomatic, witty, sociable, good communication skills... RULING PLANET: Mercury Source: ELEMENT: Air https://cdn1.iconfinder.com/data/ icons/zodiac/100/Gemini-512.png COMPATIBLE SIGNS: Libra, Aquarius, Leo, Aries YEARLY HOROSCOPE: Relationships rule and rock your world in 2019. Jupiter moved into your partnership zone late last year, and he’ll spend the next 12 months bringing major expansions to your one-to-one alliances. Mercury, your chatty planet, has three retrograde periods this year in March, July and November and it spends most of its retro time in emotional water signs. Because water signs are highly intuitive, it will benefit you to use your gut instincts when you’re confused or unsure of how to proceed. The sun spends time in your sign in late May and into June, so you’re super sociable and curious in these summer months. CANCER: DATES: between June 21 and July 22 TRAITS: intuitive, sympathetic, sensitive, home-loving people, creative, emotional, moody, pessimistic... RULING PLANETS: Moon ELEMENT: Water Source: COMPATIBLE SIGNS: Scorpio, Pisces, Taurus, Virgo https://cdn1.iconfinder.com/data/i cons/zodiac/101/Cancer-3-512.png YEARLY HOROSCOPE: This is your year to own it. If you feel like you haven’t been in control of your own destiny, it’s time to take back your power and show the world what you’re capable of! You’ll feel much less exposed and more confident when the sun spends time in your sign between the end of June and the end of July, especially since you enjoy the summer months. This could be the summer you have some very interesting romantic developments to look forward to. Moody Pluto heads direct in autumn, hopefully putting to rest some of the suspicions you had for the past several months. XLIII


LEO: DATES: between July 23 and August 22 TRAITS: kind, energetic, optimistic, loyal, headstrong, egoistic, impatient... RULING PLANET: Sun ELEMENT: Fire Source: COMPATIBLE SIGNS: Aries, Sagittarius, Gemini, Aquarius https://cdn1.iconfinder.com/data/ icons/zodiacs/96/Leo-512.png YEARLY HOROSCOPE: You will have an optimistic year, as you will be filled with confidence and enthusiasm which will reflect on your everyday execution of work. Although your previous year was not fruit-bearing, this year will see a drastic change in your situation, a positive one. In spite of the overload of your work, your devotion, urge and your energetic persona will not dull you down, but will rather make you push yourself more towards accomplishing more. You will have to be quite wary and careful of any health issues that may take place this year, as prevention is always better than cure. VIRGO: DATES: between August 23 and September 22 TRAITS: intelligent, practical, reliable, overcritical, dedicated, wise, witty, perfectionists... RULING PLANET: Mercury ELEMENT: Earth Source: COMPATIBLE SIGNS: Taurus, Capricorn, Scorpio, Cancer http://chittagongit.com/icon/virg o-icon-4.html YEARLY HOROSCOPE: You may witness both good and bad experiences, but do not worry as you can always hold on to the good ones, and learn something from the bad ones. The time period between September and December will give you a lot of opportunities to grow and learn but there are other things that may try to pull you down and make you dissatisfied. A lot of students may face problems with their studies, where they either may not be able to score well, in spite of working hard or, concentrate efficiently while studying. Also, have good control over your temper as it will affect you negatively and take very good care of your health between May till July. XLIV


LIBRA: DATES: between September 23 and October 22 TRAITS: diplomatic, charming, insecure, selfish, balanced, it’s difficult for them to say no, they avoid arguments... RULING PLANET: Venus Source: ELEMENT: Air https://cdn1.iconfinder.com/data/ COMPATIBLE SIGNS: Aquarius, Gemini, Leo, Pisces icons/zodiacs/96/Libra-512.png YEARLY HOROSCOPE: Libra in 2019 may have a blend of both rises and falls of situations and outcomes. You may see an increase in your level of reputation in the society, due to the effect of Jupiter. You're ruled by lovely Venus, so it's nice to know she and you won't have to endure any retrograde periods in 2019. When she's in your sign in the middle of September, everything feels balanced (just the way you like it). You're comfortable in your skin and feel at home in the world, and nothing really gets to you. There's a full moon in your sign that marks the spring equinox at the end of March, and it puts your close personal relationships in the spotlight. Focus on strengthening current bonds or rebuilding old ones that are in disrepair. SCORPIO: DATES: between October 23 and November 21 TRAITS: focused, brave, faithful, ambitious, jealous, secretive, resentful, manipulative... RULING PLANET: Pluto ELEMENT: Water Source: COMPATIBLE SIGNS: Cancer, Pisces, Capricorn https://cdn3.iconfinder.com/data/icon s/horoscope-2/30/scorpio-512.png YEARLY HOROSCOPE: Some of your dreams could come true in 2019. A major advantage you have is that Mars, your forceful co-ruler, stays direct all year, so you don't have to worry about losing any of the incredible drive that it provides. Disciplined Saturn is at home in hardworking Capricorn all year, so that's another huge check in the \"win\" column. This placement ensures that your integrity is intact as you work toward personal and professional goals. Feeling overly stressed and rigid could be a result of this strict pairing, though, so take a couple extra yoga classes or schedule regular massages to keep your mind and body healthy and happy. You might experience slowdowns during Pluto's yearly retrograde cycle from late April until October, so use any downtime to solve outstanding issues that didn't get dealt with the first time they came around. XLV


SAGITTARIUS: DATES: between November 22 and December 21 TRAITS: optimistic, straight forward, philosophical, adventurous, impatient, inconsistent... RULING PLANET: Jupiter ELEMENT: Fire Source: COMPATIBLE SIGNS: Leo, Aries, Gemini https://cdn4.iconfinder.com/data/icon s/horoscope-symbols/128/9-512.png YEARLY HOROSCOPE: Expansive Jupiter, your home planet, is in your outgoing sign until early December, so you can look forward to a harmonious mix of fun and open- mindedness most of the year. Be aware of Jupiter retrograde from early April until the beginning of August because you'll be more reflective during this time. Go over what it is you truly believe in and think about whether you've been living your life according to your personal moral code. There's a full moon in your sign in mid-June. This is a good time to put what you've learned into practice and be aware that a lesson you've been taught has a very specific purpose. If life's been feeling chaotic lately, this full moon will calm your nerves and help you see that everything happens for a reason. Don't ignore what the lessons from the past are trying to teach you now. CAPRICORN: DATES: between December 22 and January 19 TRAITS: ambitious, wise, disciplined, patient pessimistic, stubborn, detached, moody RULING PLANET: Saturn ELEMENT: Earth Source: COMPATIBLE SIGNS: Virgo, Taurus, Scorpio https://cdn1.iconfinder.com/data/ic ons/zodiac/96/Capricorn-512.png YEARLY HOROSCOPE: In 2019 pay close attention to the universe when it gives you the green light (or warns you to hold off). Your ruler Saturn is also in your sign this year, which indicates some great opportunities to succeed in all areas of your life. You like to take your time and sort out all the details before proceeding because getting it right is more important than being the first one done. Be aware of Saturn's retrograde from late April until mid-September, when slowdowns will probably sideline your forward progress. Ask for extended deadlines or help if necessary. XLVI


AQUARIUS: DATES: between January 20 and February 18 TRAITS: friendly, independent, loyal, unpredictable, detached RULING PLANET: Uranus ELEMENT: Air Source: COMPATIBLE SIGNS: Gemini, Libra, Virgo https://cdn1.iconfinder.com/data/i cons/zodiac/100/Aquarius-512.png YEARLY HOROSCOPE: Uranus, your home planet, is making a big change this year. Note its retrograde period beginning in mid-August and finishing out of the year. Too many attempted outer changes result in the need for inner change. Take time off from your busy schedule to reflect on the lessons you may have missed recently. Saturn is in Capricorn for the year, indicating a strong work ethic and the need to get serious about some things. Its retrograde period from late April to mid-September is a reminder to not get too lost in your head. Beating yourself up over past mistakes is likely, but not everything is your fault. PISCES: DATES: between February 19 and March 20 TRAITS: kind, sensitive, selfless, idealistic, over-sensitive, pessimistic RULING PLANET: Neptune Source: ELEMENT: water https://cdn0.iconfinder.com/data/icons/astronomical- COMPATIBLE SIGN: Cancer, Scorpio, Taurus signs/16/Pisces_zodiac_sign_symbol_horoscope_astrol ogy-512.png YEARLY HOROSCOPE: The big thing for you this year is that your ruler, illusion-filled Neptune, is in your sensitive sign for all twelve months, which means you're mostly a trusting, giving soul who cares about others almost more than you care about yourself. Neptune is retrograde between June and late November, exposing the harsh realities that you work so hard to avoid. When the truth first comes out, you might not be so happy, but eventually you'll benefit from the chance to grow from what you learn during this brutally honest time. The sun will be travelling through your deep waters between late February and the end of March, when you think of the glass half full instead of half empty and you tend to give everyone the benefit of the doubt. Naja Jelenko, 2 a Source: https://www.horoscope.com/us/horoscopes/yearly/2019-horoscope-overview.aspx XLVII


XLVIII Andraž Kugovnik Bregeš


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