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Home Explore Food & Beverage Service-Tutorial Notes

Food & Beverage Service-Tutorial Notes

Published by Pokhara School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 2017-06-09 03:42:32

Description: Food & Beverage Service-Tutorial Notes

Keywords: Diploma in Hotel Management


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The table setting procedures for Russian service is similar to the table settingprocedures of French service except this service is little bit informal andflexible comparing to the French service.Bread and butter plates, ashtray and water glasses are often placed at thetable if it is required. However, finger bowls are not typically served inRussian service or unless the situation demands.Preparation and Serving of Food in Russian F & B ServiceThe preparing and serving of foods in Russian service are given below in stepby step procedures:  In Russian service, the food production staffs are responsible for preparing foods in the kitchen and organizing the foods delightfully on the service platters and deliver it to the servers for serving the foods to the guests. 97

 All cooking, completion of food preparation and carving are done in the kitchen except the dishing which is done at the tableside. Empty soup bowls are placed on a show plate or base plate at the table in front of the guests. The server carry soups and sauces in tureens or in small, individual bowls and place them on the table. Portioning of the soup is done with a ladle into the soup bowl. After placing the heated plates from the right side according to the clockwise direction, the servers bring the platters of food from the kitchen and introduce food to the guest standing to left side of each guest by holding the platters using left hand. The servers dish up the desired portion on the guest’s plate using a large spoon and fork from the right hand side of the guests following the clockwise direction. In Russian service a servers use the spoon to serve vegetables and other items as per guidance. The servers have to be skilled in balancing the items on the platters since they have to serve food to the guests from the platters standing beside each guest even sometimes keeping the foods only on the palm. After serving the guests, the servers return back to the remaining food to the kitchen. Hot food is to be served hot and cold food is to be served cold. The servers have to take some necessary precautions especially when serving hot foods so as to avoid any accidents while serving the guests. At the end of the meal, coffee is served with cups and saucers and poured for guests. Cream and sugar will be added if guest asks for them. After the guests have finished all their dishes, the servers clear the soiled dishes from the table as per standard 98

31. Ultimate Guide to English Food & Beverage Service StyleEnglish service is also regarded as called butler service. In English service, aspecial dinner is served for privately organized parties or a meal is served byservants in a private home. It is also followed in some clubs; however, thisservice is quite uncommon in the United States.Features of English Food & Beverage Service StyleEnglish service is characterized by the following features with their pros andcons.  In English service, the foods and beverages items are brought to the host or hostess first who then pass them down to the nearest gusts and these passing continue until F&B items are reached to the appropriate guests. This service procedure is done by the help of only one server.  English service recognized by a great deal of showmanship for a special occasion.  English service is less labor-intensive and quicker than Russian service.  Sometimes due to the nature of service procedures, this service can be very time-consuming. 99

Table Setting Procedures of English F & B ServiceIn English service, the following tables setting procedures are followed inaccordance with the standards so as to create convenience for the guest.  Knifes and spoons are placed on the right side and forks are placed on the left side. A bread knife is positioned on the bread and butter plate keeping at a right angle to the forks.  Wine glasses are provided to the left side of the water glass or goblet. Coffee cups and saucers are bought to the hostess when she will serve the coffee.  In case of one guest then dessert flatware are kept above the service plate, but if one is used otherwise desserts are plated by the hostess after being received proper serving dishes by the server.Serving Procedures of English ServiceThe serving procedures are little bit different from the other serviceprocedures. Here are the followings:  The first course is typically served on the table whilst the guests enter the dining area.  The meat or main entree is placed directly in front of the host with warm plates who serves a portion of the meat or main entrée on a plate and passes it to the nearby guests to transfer it to the hostess.  If the dish requires carving then it is done by the host and then passed to the hostess for adding vegetables and other foods and passing continues until it reaches the proper guest. Sometimes, the service associates also serve the foods after the host and hostesses have finished their respective job. Dessert is also served following this standard.  All sauces, side dishes and vegetables are served on the table to be passed by the guests among themselves.  The waiter/waitress pours the iced water and place butter or margarine on the table. Bread may not be served if it is not required or ordered.  Soup is served either by the server on individual bowls or cups, or by the host in a tureen. Host or hostess passes it to the nearby guests and the process continues until the last guests served. Salads are also 100

served in this manner. Cream and sugar are passed to the guests so that they may take their own.  In such cases the host gets the last plate but no one eats until the host starts. Sometimes the host or hostess also keeps the first plate and sets it down next to him or her.Table clearing Procedures of English Service  Soiled dishes are carried on small tables or stands on which food was served. Servers may also remove these by keeping them on a table or buffet in the dining area. 101

32. Different Types of Food & Beverage Service Styles in RestaurantChinese Food & Beverage ServiceThe concept of Chinese service isderived from Chinese familiesand was formalized for specialoccasions. This service is quitetraditional and often customizedon the basis of nature of thefoods.Features of Chinese F & B ServiceChinese service includes certainunique characteristics whichmake it traditional and sophisticated service. Here are the followings:  In Chinese service, Chopsticks are served with all foods, except soup and dessert spoons.  Foods are presented and served attractively into large platters, bowls, and other containers and brought to the table so that guests can choose food according to their taste since often there is a large selection of different foods.  Chinese service is less labor intensive but the amount of serviceware is quite extensive since foods are served in individual dishes.Table Setting Procedures of Chinese ServiceIn Chinese service, tables setting procedure is different from others servicein the following way:  In most cases, a circular wheel is placed in the table center so guests can rotate it and share food. Otherwise, for large groups a small plate (about six inches wide) is placed in the center cover.  A rice bowl along with a cup of rice is placed to the right side and a small cup of tea is set slightly on top of the rice bowl or slightly to the left above the center plate.  Chopsticks are placed on the right side of the guest keeping on a small stand. Sometimes a long handled, round spoon and bowl may be served 102

to the left of the chopsticks. Small dishes for sauces and condiments are put above the small cover plate. A small wine cup is kept with the condiment set.  Spoon and forks are also served for those guests who find it difficult to eat with chopsticks. Knives are not served in Chinese service sine the food is usually cut into bite-size pieces.  A soup cup with a porcelain soup spoon is placed on the center plate or to the left side of the guest.  Though clean folded napkins are served on the cover but tablecloths are not used in most cases.  The seating of guests are arranged in a way that can accommodate at least twelve people.Serving Procedures of Chinese ServiceServing procedures in Chinese service are followed according to the followingmanner:  Foods are elaborately dished on platters and served in the center of the table. Guests then help themselves to select their own food.  In Chinese service, sweet foods are often served at the beginning of and during the meal and Rice or soup is served at the end of the meal.  When guests complete their meal, the servers should remove the empty dish and replace it with a fresh one. Wine cups are not removed during the meal.Banquet Service StyleThe concept of Banquet service arises to serve a group of people who want tocelebrate for a special occasion or want to organize an event to honor specialguests.Features of Banquet Service 103

Banquet service is characterized bythe following features:  Banquet service is basically used in hotels, resorts, country clubs, casinos, and restaurants which have conference rooms in order to organize meetings or events.  In banquet service, the menu, numbers of guests, and time of service, number of covers are preset which make this service well organized in advance and make scheduling easier.  This service offer elaborate menu, hence lots of choices are available.  Banquet service requires more area per person and more equipment.  In banquet service, guests receive very little personal attention and proper service due to the nature of the service.Table Setting Procedures of Banquet ServiceIn banquet service, the servers generally follow American settings but thetable setting could be modified according to the menu.Banquet Service ProceduresFrench, Russian, or buffet service is typically used at a banquet. The headtable is usually served first and then the rest of the tables. Water and coffeeare replenished throughout the event.After the completion of meal the table should be cleared as per standard sinceoften in banquet service guests used to remain seated for entertainment afterdinner.Banquet service does not require to present check or collect payment at theend of the meal as the banquet is paid for in advance.Family-Style ServiceFamily-Style Service is a variant service of American service and consideredas an informal service.In this service, all necessary preparations of foods are completed in thekitchen and the foods are then placed in large bowls and on platters with 104

attractive garnishing. The servers place the bowls and platters with necessaryutensils in the center of the table and the food is passed around the table bythe guests so that the guests can help themselves to the portions desired.Beverages or any others dishes are also served according to the Americanservice or as the situation demands.Features of Family-Style ServiceFamily-Style service includes the following key features:  This service does not require skilled service associates.  In most cases the guests serve themselves in taking foods which make the service fast and quick. If more service are used or numbers of guests are large then the servers are involved in serving.  Guests receive less personal attention and the platter become less attractive as guests serve themselves.  If the family style service employ all-you-can-eat feature then servers must refill serving containers as requested.  Upon completion of the guest’s meal, soiled dished are cleared from the table.Buffet Style ServiceBuffet Service allows the guests to select their meals from a complete andattractive arrangement and fresh display of food on long serving tables. Inbuffet service, the guests either help themselves or served by chefs standingbehind the buffet tables to select their items as per the courses they want.However, in stand-up buffets, guests are required to stand and take or eatfoods.To ensure the quality and the hygiene of the buffet foods, soiled tablecloth isremoved and guests are asked to use clean plates each time they return to thebuffet.Features of Buffet Service 105

Buffet service is recognized by certaincharacteristics which are as follows:  Buffet services are used in banquet halls catering to serve large number of guests.  Crockery and cutlery are stacked conveniently at the head of the buffet table and silverware and napkins so that they would be able pick up with their meals, or a complete cover (usually American) placed on the buffet table for the guests.  Rolls, butter, and condiments are usually pre-set at the dining tables.  The buffet includes normal food course of soups, salads, appetizers, hot dishes, rice, breads and desserts and the buffet has to be look appealing at all the times.  A smorgasbordis special feature of a buffet, a large selection of food with Scandinavian selections (ex- cheese and herring) from where guest can receive more food as often as they desire.  In buffet service, the job of the server may vary, for example: servers may serve only beverages and dessert, or they may serve several courses or the servers may portion the food and replenish the platters and dishes.  Buffet service required less service personnel and considered as an effective sales tool.  In buffet service, servers have to deal with many guests at one time, but guests get less personal attention than other table service.Gueridon ServiceWith Gueridon service, foods are brought to the dining area on Gueridontrolley fitted with gas burners in a row condition or partially prepared fromthe kitchen and completed at the guest’s tableside in front of the guests.Gueridon service is also termed as cart or trolley service. This service is idealfor those guests who have time to enjoy the art of cooking and can afford tobuy expensive food since Gueridon food is very costly but extremelyappetizing. The food preparation is prepared by Maitre d’hotel or Chef deRang and he is assisted by Commis de Rang. After completing the food 106

preparation the food is served tothe guest from the right hand sideas it is pre-plated.Features of Gueridon ServiceThe following features of Gueridonservice make it distinct and elegantstyle of service.  Gueridon service is used in up market restaurants and requires large area for the movement of the trolley.  Gueridon service requires experienced servers since they have to be skilled in filleting, carving and flaming the food with wine. Though the numbers of kitchen staffs are limited but the service staffs could be increased depending on the situation.  In this service, the guests choose from a special Gueridon menu.  Gueridon service is a elaborate service and offers great personal attention to the guests.  Expensive menu items of Gueridon service incurs low turnover. And the expenditure is also high due to large numbers of equipment.  More service associates are required for minimum covers. 1 service person has to cover 18-20 sq. feet while serving the guests.  In Gueridon service, an extensive training program is organized to train the employees as experienced and expert servers are required.Silver ServiceThis service is named as silver service as all the cutlery, service dishes, serviceforks and spoons are used and provided to guests are made of silver. Withsilver service, the food is portioned in the kitchen and dished into silverplates and brought to the guests for approval and then placed on thesideboard with heating burners or rechaud in order to keep the food warm.The food is then served to each guest from the left side of the guest using aservice spoon and fork. 107

Silver service is a modifiedservice of English service. Theservice procedure of Englishservice also can be provided as asilver service by using silvercutlery and service ware.Features of Silver serviceThere are no distinctcharacteristics of silver service.However the key features ofsilver service are:  In Silver service, the food is attractively presented to amplify the dining experience.  Table setting procedure of silver service includes hors d’oeuvres, soup, main course and dessert. 108

33. Tipping System in Hotel & Restaurant: Ultimate Guide (Part-1)What is TipA tip is considered as a monetary incentivewhich is given by the customers or guests forpolite, prompt and efficient service providedby service staffs.Apart from this definition there is anotherfamous definition which has given by OxfordDictionary and that is “Tip means a smallpresent of money given to an inferior”.This definition states that tip means a smallincentive of money which is given directly tosomeone for performing a proficient serviceor task.The practice of giving tips has beencontinuing from very long time andparticularly got popularity in service industries like hotels and restaurants.Tipping has become a recognized practice by the clients who tip the servicestaffs since they expect tip from their customers for their service.Why Tips are GivenGiving tip or tipping is not the policy of the hotel even it is not mandatory forthe guests to leave any tip after receiving service, but tipping is traditional.Tips are incentives for the service personnel to motivate them do a good job.Moreover, tipping is very important for a server since a server’s base pay islow. Tips add some extra earning in their low payment.However the amount of tip could vary according to the given service, forexample, if the guest is very satisfied with the service then the tip will usuallybe good and if the service is not very good or below average then the guestmay reluctant to provide any tip or give very little amount of tip. Usually, the 109

amount of the tip ranges from 10% to 20% of the total amount of the guestcheck.When Guest generally provides TipThere are no basic requirements for giving tips. Sometimes tipping is basedon the quality of food or sometimes tipping depends on the attention givenby the server to the guests even sometimes tipping also could be variedaccording to the mood of the guests. Hence, the servers not only shouldconcentrate on their service quality but also they should ensure qualitativefoods with the kitchen so that the size of their tips is not reduced. However,a good and professional server should not worry or always expects tips froma regular guest as regular guests can give the hotel/restaurant a goodrecommendation along repeat business.The servers should always provide steady and efficient service whether theguest is willing to give tips or not. But, some servers take tips for granted anddo make any effort to perform additional service for receiving tips. Thisunprofessional attitude of the servers may arise from the kind behavior ofguests who tip 15 to 20 percent of the bill regardless of the poor quality of theservice which lead the server to become apathetic about the good service.However now a day the servers have become more sensible and put extraeffort while serving the guests since the guests are becoming more concernedtoward good service and value minded and they reluctant to give any tips ifthe service is not satisfactory.How Tip is Provided in Hotel & RestaurantTipping is usually based on the total bills without tax. Although the ultimatedecision is completely depend on the guest’s decision, the minimum amountfor giving tip should be at least 10% for adequate service.Here is given a well-accepted and commonly followed guideline for tipping:  Less than 10% or 10% –Poor service or unpleasant service  15%-Average service or normal service  18–20%-Good service  More than 20%-Extraordinary service or unusually good service 110

Guests also sometimes give tips for valet parking which is usually 1 or 2dollars or higher. In fine-dining establishments, Maitre d’s also receive tipsespecially if they provide any extra service to the guests.Tipping may be executed in various ways, such as: the guests may give tip inyour hand or keep the tip in the table or add the tip with the bill. If the tip ishanded to any server then he or she should thank the guest politely or if it isleft on the table then the service associate should collect the tip beforeclearing the table. Sometimes the tip is added to the charge slip by the guestor added automatically to the check by the hotel/restaurant, in such casesthe servers will have to receive it from the cashier or in his/her paycheck.How Tip is divided among ServersThe amount of tips is to be divided among the servers in some situationswhich are as follows:  When several servers share the responsibility of one table  If servers pool their tips  In some hotels or restaurants, the servers also have to share a percentage of tips with the bussers, drink runners, expeditors, and other assistants.If the servers split a tip then the tip-per should state the division. 15 to 20percent of the non tax total is often given to the captain, but some just slipthem a $10 or $20 bill.How to Increase the amount of TipServers have lots of opportunities to increase the tip or they can influence theguests to provide them a fair tip. Professional service, greater sales alongwith increased repeat business can generate higher amount of tip for aserver. 111

Listed below are someeffective steps to increasetips by ensuring pleasureand satisfaction of guests:  Serve the guest with highest level of service.  Maintain tidy and neat appearance of the surroundings.  Greet guest in a friendly and polite manner.  Provide helpful, supportive and efficient attitude.  Always serve guest with a smiling face and natural tone.  During the meal, continuously take updates of guest and ask whether the guests are in need of service by saying “Is everything all right?” or “How is your food?” If there is a problem or guest needs anything then attain and solve it immediately.  Ensure prompt service and serve order within shortest possible time.  Always serve items from the left hand side of the guest.  Serve main food items to the guest following six o’clock position.  Serve appropriate condiments with foods, such as: 1. Steak sauce with steak 2. Lemon with baked fish 3. Tartar sauce with fried fish 4. Ketchup with French fries  Make suggestions and up sell the menu to every guest through the following manner: 1. Tell guests about specialties of the menu 2. Describe food items by using mouthwatering words 3. Suggest appetizers, side orders, special beverages, and desserts 4. Serve and remove beverages from the guest’s right side 5. Inform guest about special of the day or soup of the day  Hold glassware by the stem and place it on the table carefully.  Pour water in the glasses until two-thirds full. 112

 Offer all bar beverages with a napkin and coaster. Pour water and coffee for guests when required. After completion of the meal, clear the table immediately from the guest’s right side. Collect soiled and leftover food on tray or bus pan and cover it with a napkin. Bid farewell guest properly and thank guests as they leave by saying “Thank you sir for coming and enjoy a nice day”. 113

34. Tips in Hotel & Restaurant : Ultimate Guide (Part-2)In the previous post, we have shared information on tips in hotel andrestaurant. In this post we will share some more information on how toprovide tips in hotel and restaurant.How to Report TipsEvery service associate has to report tip since it is considered as a part of aserver’s salary to the following section:  Internal Revenue Service  Restaurant manager  Social Security  Medicare taxesAn employer is required to report 8 percent tips (which are calculated afterdividing the total sales check amount by the number of guests served) foreach server in an establishment.According to federal law, all tips count as taxable income. If any server earns$20 or more in tips through credit card, cash or receive tip indirectly in anyone month then he/she must report the amount to his/her employer inwriting. The report is to be filled by the tenth day of the month following themonth when the server has earned the tips.Tips report includes the following details of the server:  Name  Address of the server  Social Security number  The total amount of tips received during that periodKeeping a record of daily tips also could be a wise idea in proving the totaltips earned in case of an audit.Modern Tip Policy 114

Tips policy has been modified andpersonalized due to certain drawbacksof this system. For example: the basicpay of the servers is reduced since themanager thought that the waiter orwaitresses got enough by the way oftips, hence, the waiters or the servicestaffs treat the customers according totheir paying capacity which graduallyweaken the service policy of theservice staffs.In order to establish an improvedtipping system, a new system oftipping is being introduced “PointSystem”. Point system is to allotcertain numbers of points to allservice personnel of particular sectionof F & B per week on the basis of their rank, experience and skills of theperson, for instance, the highest numbers of points are allotted to the topperson in the department and the least number of point is allotted for thelowest ranked person. Under this system, the tips received in the departmentare deposited in a sealed and locked box daily by all the responsible personsand at the end of each week the amount collected in the box is totaled up.And the amount is then divided by the total number of points in thedepartment to determine the point value. After that the point value iscalculated and distributed every week for each service personnel in thedepartment.ExampleIf the total amount collected during a particular week is Rs, 30,000/- thenthe total number of points in the department are 300. Then the value of eachpointy will amount to 30,000 divided by 300=Rs. 100.Under this point system, all the kitchen staffs are allotted a marginal share. 115

Though this point system is being introduced due to certain disadvantagesof previous tipping system, but point system has also some advantages anddisadvantages which are as follows:Advantages of point system  Point system ensure regular attendance of the service staffs.  This system reduces absenteeism to the minimum.  Unlike tipping system, point system is considered as an accounted system since the amount of this income is distributed among the servers.Disadvantages of point system  Sometimes the service associates can show dishonesty in depositing the complete amount of tips collected by each time.  Point system often create the mistrust among the service staffs.  Flicking of tips may lead bad relation among the service associates which affect the overall work performance.  Under this point system, the proficiency of a skilled worker is not always valued fairly.Group PollingApart from point system, another easy tipping system is group polling. GroupPolling system allow the waiters of adjacent work station to group togetherand pool together the tip amount they received and distribute it equallyamong themselves at the end of each working day. There is a less possibilityof flicking of the tip money is not frequent since each acts as a check on other.Sharing of tips ensures better team spirits and helps to build competitiveattitudes which in turn increases the work efficiency among the staffs.However, no matter what kind of tipping system one adopts or applies in hissector, each system has its own drawback, hence, some establishmentsespecially some hotel sectors have completely banned tipping from theirpolicy and made it illegal to give or receive tips which necessities theadoption or introduction of a new system “Service Charge”.Why Service Charge is being Introduced Service charge is a separate charge which is accounted to the customerand is included in the bill and collected from the guest. Service charge usually 116

ranges from 12% to 15% of the total bill amount. From this amount a fixedpercentage is given to each staff member according to his/her status, weekly,fortnightly or monthly basis. Apart from the staff’s percentage, a certainpercentage is also allocated for the following purposes:  Staff Welfare  Breakages  Other staffs beside waiting staffService charge ensures the efficiency and professionalism of the service. Theydo not serve the guest on the basis of their financial capability due todemolition of tipping system. In order to make this system efficacious,receiving tips should be declared and considered as a major misconduct andthe hotel menus and guest bills should clearly state that no tips are to be paidand allowed as service charges are in included in the bill. 117

35. Waiter’s Role in Catering BusinessAdvanced life style and busy schedule often leadpeople to eat away from home. So to make thecatering service smooth and easily available thehotels and restaurants or other cateringestablishment are continuously working on thedevelopment of their catering service. And thewaiter or waitress plays a vital role to makecatering service successful since he/she is theonly person who has to make direct contact withthe guest. Hence, a skilled waiter is essential toensure the success and development of this catering industry as well as forpresenting the image of the hotel to retain their reputation.A waiting staff not only serves food, but also plays role as a salesman of foodthrough merchandising and suggestive selling.Guests will come to a hotel, restaurant or café where when they will besatisfied and highly pleased by courteous approach, qualitative food, andhonest suggestion from the available dishes.Career Progress in Hospitality SectorThe efficiency of the waiter will also help the waiter to build his own career.Many of today’s most successful hoteliers, head waiter, maitre d’hôtel, orrestaurant managers started their career as a waiter but their hard work,good performance and honesty towards work, training and experience havehelped them to come to this position. However, the efficacy of the waiteroften depends on the nature of the hotel, the success of the hotel orrestaurant or catering establishment.Apart from the waiting staff, efficient and effective management andproduction staffs are also necessary to make a catering establishmentsuccessful. This catering industry will offer all the waiters and waitresses acareer with full of interest and variety, a chance to meet with people from 118

different background and an opportunity to employ their creative thoughtsand ideas.So, every waiter should remember that professional attitude and goodperformance will not only help the hotel to make their reputation but alsowill help themselves to get opportunities for promotion.Working ConditionConditions of the work for the waiter in the catering industry must be welllighted, carpeted, clean and comfortable since they have to carry food fromthe kitchen to their serving area. Or if the food has to be carried upstairs ordownstairs then the lift or elevator should be non-slippery and cleaned andthe waiting staff must be careful so as to avoid any unwanted situation.The working hours for a waiter may vary according to the establishment. Forexample, in a hotel the waiting staffs are always assigned on shift basis, onthe other hand, in canteens and restaurants, or in department stores orsimilar establishments, the waiters work from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. 5 days or 6days in a week.The salary or wage of waiters also depends on the nature and quality of theestablishment. In canteens or snack bars the waiters are generally appointedwith a fixed amount. However, in hotels and restaurants the salary of waitermay be weekly guaranteed sum with the addition of tips.Even the status of waiter often varies, for example, the waiter may be non-resident or resident. Moreover in many large hotel or restaurant most ofwaiters live out whereas the waitresses live in.Number of StaffsThe number of staff and the allocation of duties often vary according to thesize and exclusiveness of the restaurant or catering establishment. Generallyin any large restaurant of any hotel, a non-residential establishment orwithin industrial catering, there must be one person in charge for handlingand managing of whole catering system and for assigning the task among theassistants.And in a small restaurant the person in charge often termed as restaurantmanager, maitre d’hôtel or head waiter and his assistant may all be called as 119

“waiter”. However, in most of the largest catering industries, theclassification of possible staffs as follows:Restaurant Manager: Responsible for all the restaurant service and incharge of staffs. A restaurant manager particularly quotes prices for dailymenus and also may make arrangement for banquet and private parties inabsence of banquet manager.Head Waiter: A head waiter is in direct charge of either the entire of a smallrestaurant or part of larger one. The duties a head perform are:  Supervising service  Greeting and seating guests  Take orders from guests  Passing the orders to the station waitersIn large establishments often there are subordinates or assistant headwaiters under the head waiter to take phone bookings and to receive guestsand direct them to a table.Station Head Waiter: A station head waiter is responsible for managing aparticular section of the restaurant carrying out similar functions in his ownarea to those of the maitre d’hôtel.Station Waiter: A station waiter generally is in charge of group of about 5tables or 20 guests. A station waiter performs the following functions:  Taking guest’s orders  Serving the guest  For managing neatly arranged service area  For ensuring proper service of each dish in the right sequenceJunior Station Waiter: Duties performed by junior station waiter arequite similar to that of station waiter but a junior station waiter basicallyworks in a smaller station and often assigned alone.Assistant Waiter: An assistant waiter may be responsible for various taskswhich are as follows:  Assisting the station waiter  For passing food checks into the kitchen  Bringing dishes to side tables  Clearing used guest’s items from tables  Returning used plates and dishes to the service area 120

 Attending and aiding the station waiterTrolley Assistant Waiter: Works as an assistant waiter for takingresponsibility of a trolley of hors d’oeuvres or patisserie.Clearing Assistant Waiter: A clearing assistant waiter is the most juniorassistant waiter for clearing soiled guest servicewares as per standard.Intern: Apprenticeship or internship is very much common and highlyanticipated by hospitality world. Generally hotel management students getchance for short term to work as intern in hotel or restaurant. Generally theywork as a helper of senior waiters, do all types of day to day work mostly doneby junior waiters. In continental hotels such intern or young waiters areknown as piccolo.Wine Butler or Wine Waiter: A wine butler or wine waiter is assigned totake order for wines, spirits, beers and soft drinks and serves them to guestswith or without the help of his assistant wine waiter.Apart from all these a waiter also plays significant roles in restaurant, forexample, as restaurant cashier for making out the bill. 121

36. Taking Care of Service wares of RestaurantIn our today’s article we would like to share how totake care of different serviceware of restaurant. Thisarticle will give you good overview on differentserviceware as well.CondimentsCondiments of any hotel include the followingitems:  Salt  Pepper  Mustard  Oil  Vinegar  Proprietary sauces  Sugar preservesFor any hotel condiments are very important parts of service and to providehygienic and clean service neat arrangement of condiments are veryessential. So to keep the condiments always clean and ready for servicefollowing recommendations are needed to be followed:  Cruets, bowls, bottles and other containers of condiments and table commodities always should be neatly arranged and in clean condition.  Salt and pepper containers are to be refilled and wiped daily. And they also need to be emptied and washed weekly basis or whenever they become lumpy or damp.  Always ensure the metal caps of glass salt cellars are free of any sign specially the sign of verdigris.  The sugar bowls are to be refilled and wiped as per standard and emptied and thoroughly cleaned on a weekly basis.  English mustard is to be emptied, washed and replenished for each meal course.  Necks and mouths of chutney jars, bottled sauces and other containers are also needed to be wiped and cleaned between meal periods. 122

 All items of condiments should be cleaned and kept properly after each day’s service.SliverwareSilverware mean thesliver plates that areused in hotel whileserving the guests.Though silverwareare designed for longlasting performancehowever since theseare very thin soproper care andregular cleaning canmake your silverwareusable for many years. Here are some tips that you can follow to ensureshinning and durable silverware:  No items should be cut on silverware dish since any attempt to cut can leave spot on the silver.  The large silver are attended by the plate room staff and other special silverware should handled by the waiting staff.Here are given some methods which are used for silver cleaning according tothe size and class of establishment:  Burnishing machine- A burnishing machine is a revolving drum with a safety shied which is used for small articles of silver.  Polivit-A polivit is an aluminum metal sheet consisting of holes which is used to clean enamel or galvanized iron bowl and larger pieces of silver.  Plate Powder-Pink powder which works best with the adding of little methylated spirit to make the silverware shiny and maintain its bright condition.  Silver Dip-silver dip is a pink colored liquid which must be used in plastic bowl. 123

Care of CutleryUse of cutlery is must for any hotel for serving the guests. If the cutleryremain unhygienic or unclean then it brings huge disappoint in guest’s mind.So presentation of shining and sparking cutlery can make your guest satisfiedand always ensure highest level of service and you can do it by performingthe following cleaning actions:  The soiled cutlery should immediately be cleaned after finishing of each course by the plate room staff, however but they are not recommended for immediate re-use.  To get the perfect shiny look and spotless cleaning the cutlery should be re-dipped in very hot water and are to be polished quickly but ensure that the water should be remain hot.  At the cutlery becomes tarnished through contact with eggs, sharp sauces, curries or from non-usage.  To make the cutlery free of grease, all tarnished cutlery must be soaked in boiling water with soda and wiped properly.  Knives should never be mixed with the other cutlery. The knives can be cleaned in two ways, for example, the knives can be placed in the cleaning solution separately or the handles can be polished by the plate powder method.GlasswareAll glassware are needed to be handled with delicacy so as to avoid anyaccident and cleaned regularly to ensure crystal clear glasses so that yourguest can become sure that all glassware are neatly arranged and cleanedproperly. The following suggestions can be followed to bring smile on guest’sface:  Glasses and glassware are to be washed in warm water and rinsed in clean hot water and wiped with a dry clean linen cloth.  Glassware should be kept in metal sink so as to keep them in good and bright condition. Wood sink is a good option to keep the glassware from breakage.  Water jugs can be washed in normal way. However special treatment may need to be taken in case of stubborn dirt but be careful to avoid any scratch. 124

ChinawareTwo main methods are basically used to clean the chinaware to make themspotlessly clean. Here are the followings:  Manual (tank) dish-washing method-Under dish- washing method, to clean the soiled chinaware manually, they are needed to be placed into a tank of hot water with a soap detergent. After completing washing, the chinaware are to be placed into wire racks and dipped into a second sterilizing tank holding clean hot water with 75 degree temperature which will make the china automatically dried. This method is considered as more hygienic and widely used cleaning method. After drying, the chinaware should be kept orderly and neatly placed.  Semi Automatic dish-washing method-Under this semi automatic dish-washing method the chinaware have to free of any debris and then placed into wire racks. After that the racks will be passed through the machine which will lead the chinaware to be washed, rinsed and then sterilized in turn. After performing this action the chinaware are to be kept for draining for two or three minutes and then stacked and placed on shelves for next use. This method does not require drying with tea cloths; automatic conveyor and the flight conveyor are required here.The waiter also can perform the following cleaning tasks to ensure their goodcondition:  To make the chinaware dried thoroughly they should be wiped and polished properly with a moist cloth instead of washing it since washing often can leave the chinaware dull and streaky.  A dry cloth should be applied on any chinaware to remove any mark. If any chinaware still has particles of food then it needs re-washing.  All cups should be carefully inspected and thoroughly cleaned before serving.  Remember that cracked or chipped chinaware never be used or served.TraysIt may seem that trays are not a very important part of service, hence regularcleaning of trays is not essential. But in hospitality industry each and every 125

item of serviceware is needed to be cleaned on regular interval and trays arevery important parts of serviceware. Some commonly followed practices forcleaning trays are:  Metal trays should be polished with metal polish. Use plate powder to clean silver salvers.  Stainless alloy trays can easily be cleaned by only normal washing and polishing, however, the wooden trays need to be cleaned with a damp cloth and will be polished only with a dry cloth. The bakelite trays should be cleaned with metal polish.  Always remember that aluminum alloy trays should be never be cleaned in the soda tank and they need to handled sensitively to avoid any spot.Some other miscellanies items:Here some more cleaning tasks are given for items that are also used whileserving the guests.  Ice should be always rinsed before serving it with drinks.  The Pantry including shelves should be cleaned and the required items that are kept here should be neatly organized and put in order.  The floor and shelves should be washed regularly.  The steel hot plate should be cleaned with emery paper, the aluminum plates should be washed normally.  The kitchen sinks, walls should be washed weekly. 126

37. Wine in Hospitality Industry: Characteristics & TypesWine is the fermentedjuice or beverage made offreshly gathered ripegrapes. During thefermenting process theyeast transforms thesugars in the fruit toalcohol and carbondioxide and also extractthe flavor of the fruit.Wines are not refined.Aging process of winealways ensure the improvised flavor of wines. Basically after processing ofwine, all wines are aged in the cask for a year and then they are sent forbottling and then again aging can continue.Wine also could be produced from other sugar containing fruits, such asblackberries, cherries, or elderberries.Characteristics of WineOne wine is distinguished by color, body, bouquet, taste, name, and vintagefrom another wine. For example, wine can either white or red according toage, grape variety, and the length of aging time.The outer part (body) of the wine bottle will often tell the thickness orthinness of the wine. For example, a light wine flows quickly when it isswirled whereas a full-bodied wine flows slowly if it is swirled. With the helpof tongue the light-bodied or full-bodied quality also can be understood.Wine always comes with distinct flavor ranging from very dry (not sweet) tovery sweet. Dry wine is produced after performing a complete fermentationprocess and when the fermentation process is intermittent then sweet wineis produced.How Wines Are NamedAll Wines are named on their labels considering the following 3 factors: 127

 By the predominant variety of grape used (varietal). (Ex- wines with varietal names are Pinot Noir and Chardonnay). By their generic names or named after the geographic region where the grapes are grown. (Ex- wines with generic names are Burgundy and Champagne.) By proprietary names or brand names named by the bottler for sales purposes.Types of WineWines are usually classified into the following areas:Sparkling WineSparkling wine is very popular wine for parties or wedding or any specialoccasions and produced in different countries and regions mainly in theUnited States. Sparkling wine generally comprises 8 to 14 percent alcohol.The sparkling wines sparks after the addition of carbondioxide produced. The carbon dioxide is added in thewine in two ways, either naturally fermented or maymechanically instilled into the wine.Champagne, sparkling white wine, and sparkling rosewine are fallen into the category of the sparkling wines.Among all sparkling wines champagne is the mostpopular due to its large adaptation in the occasion of any celebration andhappiness.However this wine is especially produced in the Champagne region ofFrance. Even in most countries sparkling wine is known as Champagne.The level of sweetness of sparkling wine canrange from very dry “brut” styles to sweeter“doux” varieties.Fortified WineFortified wines are regarded as those wineswhich are combined with wine alcohol speciallybrandy so as to produce an exclusive taste and to 128

increase the alcohol content to 17 to 22 percent. But they areusually sweeter than other regular wines.Sherries, ports, madeiras and marsalas are classic examplesof fortified wines. Each of the fortified wine comes under agroup along with a variety of subgroups flavored withenormous tastes and aromas.But the two main verities are apéritif wines and dessert wines.Aperitif wines are usually served before a meal. Vermouthsfrom Italy and France are examples of aperitif. Vermouthscan be either sweet or dry. And dessert wines are servedafter dinner since they are sweet and rich in taste. Port,sherry, and Madeira are some common examples ofdessert wines.Aromatic WineAromatic wines are fortified wines containing 15 to 20percent alcohol. These wines are seasoned with herbs,roots, flowers and berks. These wines can be vary fromsweet to dry. These wines are also called as aperitifs sincethey are served before meals as digestive stimulates andthey are also served in combination with other alcoholicbeverages as cocktails. Examples includes, Dubonnet Red(sweet), Dubonnet White (dry), vermouth red (sweet),vermouth white (dry), Byrrh (sweet), Lillet (sweet), Punt eMes (dry), St. Raphael Red (sweet) and St. Raphael White(dry).Still Table WineWhite, red or rose table wines are considered as still table wine. These winesare produced in a variety of growing regions around the world. Basically allunfortified white and red wines that normally served with a meal are knownas table wines. Table wines are also called still wine since they arenonbubbling or still. Burgundy and Bordeaux are two popular varieties oftable wines. Table wines are produced following the natural fermentationprocess by extracting the sugar from grape juice. The amount of alcohol in 129

Table wine is ranges from 8 to 14 percent. Still table wines are very popularwine and they are usually pricy even when young. 130

38. Learn How to Pair Food with WineThere is no hard-and-fast rule to determinewhich wine goes wellwith a particular food.Foods and wines aredefined by their uniquetexture and flavor. Theperfect combination oftexture and flavor isthe key to make foodand wine a pleasure toenjoy since a goodpairing between the food and wine can bring out the joyous moment for theguests.There it is very much important to find a good match of wine and foodconsidering the time, tradition, and culture we can choose the right food tocomplement the wine. If the server will be aware and informed about thecorrect pairing of food and wine which is traditionally acceptable then he/shecan suggest the guest while taking order which is also a good mark of a hotel.But if the guest asks for a different paring then the server should nevercriticize guest’s selection and serve according to guest preference becauseeveryone has different individual taste.Here given some common practices and traditions that are followed in hotelwhile serving wine with food:  The dry, light wines are served as an appetizer or beginning of the meal and medium-dry wines are served with the main course.  White wine is best complemented by white meat (ex-pork, turkey, chicken, veal, fish, and shellfish.)  Red wine goes well with red meat (beef, lamb, duck or game).  If a dish is cooked in wine then it is best to serve the food along with wine of that variety.  Any regional food is great combination for wine of the same region. 131

 The full bodied wine should be served with rich and heavier food. Champagne is basically served throughout the course of meal. Cheese dishes always complemented by port and red wine. Dessert wines is best served with dessert and less acidic fresh fruits. Wine should never be served with salads with vinegar dressings or curries since the tastes will be overpowering. Sweet wines are always served with those foods which contain less sweet. List of Wines and Foods that Complement Each OtherFoods Name of WinesBeef Barbera, Barolo, Burgundy, Cabernet Sauvignon, Proprietary Red,Tempranillo, Pinot Noir, MerlotCheese Dishes Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Riesling (but the cheese should be fresh to uphold the flavour of wine).Chicken Chablis, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Riesling, Loire, Proprietary White,Sauvignon BlancClams Chablis, Chardonnay, Proprietary WhiteCrab Chablis, Non-Vintage ChampagneDuck, Goose Barbera, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Rhone, Blush, ZinfandelFish Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Alsace WhiteHam Blush, Gewurztraminer, Zinfandel, BeaujolaisHamburger Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Chianti, ZinfandelLamb Chianti, Pinot Noir, Rhone, Zinfandel, TempranilloLiver Beaujolais, Merlot, Rhone, ZinfandelLobster Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, RieslingOmelettes Chenin Blanc, Riesling, Proprietary White, Blush, ZinfandelOysters Chablis, Chardonnay, Muscadet, Sauvignon BlancPheasant Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo, Riesling, Pinot Noir, RhonePizza Any foodPork Zinfandel, Chenin Blanc, Alsace WhiteQuiche Sauvignon Blanc, or a young RedScallops Chablis, Chardonnay, Sauvignon BlancShrimp Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, GewurztraminerSpaghetti Barbera, Barolo, Chianti, Proprietary Red, ZinfandelTurkey Chenin Blanc, Riesling, Loire, Sauvignon BlancVeal Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel, Chardonnay, Riesling 132

39. Beer Service & Types in Hotel & RestaurantBeer Service in Hotel & RestaurantBeer is considered as one of mostwidely consumed and popularalcoholic beverage. Beer isproduced by brewing andfermenting malted barley, yeast,water and other starchy cereals,and flavored with hops (forpleasant bitter flavor) and othernatural ingredients adding with analcohol content ranging from 2 to15 percent.Special yeasts are needed toproduce different kinds of beers.Beer contains more than 90 percent water, and the Excellency of the beeroften recognized by the stems from the water.Beer are basically served in mug, pilsner, schooner, tumbler, shell, stein, orhourglass tumbler, in a variety of glasses, or in a bottle accompanied by aglass. When serving, be sure to wipe the bottle before bringing it to the tableBefore serving beer, the waiter must ensure that all beer glasses and beerbottle are wiped and spotlessly clean, and without lubricant.Types of BeerThe term beer is basically a general term which can take on thousands ofinterpretations. Among them most popular terms that are used for beer are:  Lager a clear light bodied refreshing beer which is used when the beer is aged and brewed as sparkling beverage. All lager beers are aged by keeping for several months before putting them into bottles, cans, or kegs. Most lagers hold 3to 4 percent alcohol.  Ale is another generic form of beer that differs from lager beer since it is fuller bodied beer and bitter. Ale is flavored with more strong flavor of hops and added with higher range of alcohol content than that of lager beer. Ale always should be served at a warmer temperature. 133

 Stouts is dark ale with a sweet, strong, malt flavor and colored by barley and contain high range of alcohol about 6%.  Porter is also a range of dark ale comes in black, fruity-dry, top fermenting style. The volume of alcohol is similar to stouts.  Malt is another type of beer which is dark and sweeter in taste and flavored with malts. Malt can be both light and full bodied.Steam beers, dry beers, and ice beers also some popular types of beer.These variations of beer also come with their distinct characteristics. Suchas, pilsner is a lager beer (most popular style of beer) with a light, goldencolor flavored with hops containing alcohol 4 to 5 percent. Light beer whichis also lager beer particularly brewed in order to decrease the proportion ofcarbohydrates and calories and light beer is another popular style of beer dueto having lower amount of alcohol. And Amber a very versatile and fullbodied beer, Amber could be either lager or ale. Blonde ales are clear andcrisp beer which come in light color and taste in low-to-medium bitterness.Procedures for Serving BeerBeer is a popular beverage item served in restaurant. Accordingto Wikipedia, Beer is the oldest and most widely used alcoholic beverage andafter tea and coffee, most popular drink in the world. So, if you are workingin hotel or restaurant then you should have sound knowledge on how to servebeer properly. Let’s learn the trick:How to Avoid Foam:  First proceed to the table to serve beer. When filling the glass with beer pour it at a slow steady pace and endeavor to pour the beer to flow down on the opposite side wall of the glass.  If the beer glass is already full and there is still some more beer remaining in the can/bottle then leave the can/bottle on the right side of the beer glass.Things You Should Consider:  Ensure to open the top of the can/bottle beer before approaching to the guest and you have one glass prepared for each beer ordered.  Place the glass down on the right hand side of the guest. 134

 Ask the guest politely, “Would you like me to pour your beer for you sir/madam.” If they say no, place the beer can/bottle on the right hand side of the glass a 3:00 o’clock position. If the guest says yes, proceed with the following steps. Bring the beer can/bottle of the drink tray with your right hand and begin to pour the beer very slowly (ensure that the can/bottle does not touch the rim of the glass). Whilst pouring the beer slowly on the opposite inside wall of the glass, watch the glass filling with beer (if the beer starts appearing to have too large amount of head, stop for a few seconds, until the head subsides, then proceed. Stop pouring beer when the glass is already full. There should only be approximately 2-3 cm volume of head in the glass (though some guests may prefer a larger head). If there is some remaining beer in the can/bottle place it on the right hand side of the glass at 3: 00 o’clock position. Remove empty can/bottle with your right hand from the guest’s right hand side and place it on your tray and return it to the Bar or Back- of-House. When the beer glass has only 1/3 of beer remaining politely ask the guest if he/she would care for another beer. E.g “Excuse me Sir/Madam would you care for another beer?” 135

40. Types of Menu in Hotel & RestaurantA menu is a presentation of detailed lists of food items that are servedin restaurant or hotel. A menu in any food service organization is consideredas the most important planning control tool to run a food service operation.If a menu is developed with appropriate planning following foodtrend and featuring best possible options for the food lovers then the menucan contribute in all sectors of hotel. A well planned menu also can ensureproper utilization of hotel resources (ex-food, labor, equipment, andfacilities).A menu usually varies in respective to any business’s particular mission andfood service nature. But whatever the type of food service establishments,every menu must be formed with careful planning and implementation ofthose planning in order to meet the guests’ needs and to achievecompetitive advantage within the budgetary restrictions of the food serviceoperation. TYPES OF MENUEven though menu could be offered in different ways in different food serviceorganization, but traditionally 2 types of food menus are offered in foodoperation: the table d ’ hôte and the à la carte.Other menus are usually adaptations of these of 2 types of menus. 136

Here all types of menus are discussed that are served in any food serviceoperation.Table d’ hôte MenuTable d’ hôte is a French word which means food from the hosts’ table. Atable d’ hôte menu offers a complete meal at a fixed price for the guests nomatter how much food has been consumed. This menu can includeappetizers, soups and salads, entr´ees, and desserts. Table d’ hôte menualways ensureminimum wastage offood and easy foodoperation.A Table d’ hôte menucan be described as: 137

 A classified menu.  This menu presents a selection of small number of courses.  Presenting restricted choice within each course.  All the dishes offered from the menu have to be prepared at a set time.  A fixed selling price which always provides the assurance of quality of food.  Easy to produce and popular food items are generally offered by this menu.  Due to limited number of dishes less Mise – en – place and labour are to be needed.  Table d ’hôte menus can be offered for breakfast, lunch and dinners.  Less kitchen space and service equipment are required.Their many adaptations are used for the following ranges of foodserviceoperation:A. Banquets:A banquet menu offers a selection of fixed items given at a set price.However, in some special occasions the food can be served according toguest’s preference.B. Buffets:Buffet menu can be categorized as a form of table d ’ hôte menu due to limitedofferings of food items at predetermined set price. The dishes presented inthe buffet menu are available at a set time. However the food items in Buffetmenu usually vary depending on the occasion and the operational cost.C. Coffee houses:A coffee house menu is also considered as a varied form of table d ’ hôtemenu for the following reasons: I. Coffee house menu is a set menu which offers food often for twelve to eighteen hours of the day. II. The dishes in this type of menu are individually priced.III. Coffee house menu often offers a limited choice of food (ex-snacks, light meals, lunch or dinner) and which usually require little preparation time and quick to cook. 138

IV. A simplified form of service is basically offered by the coffee house menu, for example plate service, counter service, etc.D. Cyclical menu:Cyclical menu offers specific food items which repeat in cycle for a set period(normally 7, 10, 14, or 28 days). This menu refers several menus that areoffered in rotation. Cyclic menu is basically offered in four-cycle for a wholeyear. After the completion of the cycle, a new set of menu is introduced onthe basis of seasonal availability of dishes. Apart from these practices of tabled’ hôte menu, this menu is also used for Guest House, Flight catering,Institutional catering, Welfare catering, Combo Meals and Thali Meals.À la carte MenuÀ la carte menu is a very popular type ofmenu. The term À la carte is a Frenchword which means “According to the Cardor Customer’s Order”. À la carte menuoffers a free and greater choice of fooditems from the card or menu of arestaurant which are individuallypriced. The basic characteristics of `A lacarte menu are as follows: 1. This menu is broader menu than a table d ’ hôte menu since more Mise – en – place is required to be done to prepare food from the À la carte menu. 2. À la carte menu offer wide choice in food and beverages within each course and in categories. 3. Every item in this menu comes with a short narration underneath to explain the dish. 4. Food items from the `A la carte menu are prepared after the order has been taken hence always fresh foods are served. 5. Each dish has a particular preparation time. 6. Dishes are more expensive than the food items of table d ’ hôte menu and needs more space and kitchen utensils. 139

7. Usually offer colourful and high cost seasonal foods. 8. All entrees, dishes, salads, and desserts are ordered separately. 9. This menu is offered in all types of food and beverage establishments except banquets, flight catering, institutional catering and welfare catering.À la carte menu generally comprises of large selection of food items hencemay resulted in increased check averages. The large size and the unknowndemand of each item of `A la carte menu often make difficult it to controland ensure less wastage of food than the typical table d ’ hôte menus. Styleof À la carte and semi À la carte menu are also followed in the followingmenus:A. Breakfast Menu:Almost all breakfast menus are developed comprising both à la carte andsemi à la carte segments. The à la carte segment in the breakfast menu offersjuices, fruits, cereals, eggs, meats, pancakes, French toasts, waffles, bakerygoods, side dishes, and beverages. And the semi à la carte segment offers anextensive variety of combinations of food.Typically the breakfast menu comes with the following features:  Though in some high-end restaurants and large hotels the prices of breakfast items could be costly, but generally the breakfast menu offer food at reasonable price.  Most of the breakfast items offered by the breakfast menu are prepared after the order has been taken.  The breakfast menu always required skilled chefs since the foods are to be cooked quickly.  American Service is mainly followed for Breakfast service where waiter/waitresses takes the order and serves it to the guest table.B. Luncheon Menu:Unlike breakfast menu, A LUNCHEON menu will be either à la carte or semià la carte. À la carte section in the Luncheon menu generally offer appetizers,salads, cold and hot sandwiches, entrées, desserts, and beverages. And thesemi à la carte segment includes entrées with salad, vegetables, potato, orrice. The following characteristics can be observed in a Luncheon Menu: 140

 The Luncheon menu basically offers daily specials of any food service organization.  The food items in the luncheon menu are served in smaller portion.  The prices of food offered by the luncheon menu often varied according to the type of food and food operation, and the location of the food service organization.  The items in the luncheon menu always require a professionally equipped kitchen since various food processing method are followed for the Luncheon items, such as: baking, grilling, broiling, frying and so on.C. Dinner Menu:A DINNER menu presents both à la carte and semi à la carte items. A dinnermenu offer more appetizers and entrées than a luncheon menu. American,French, or Russian service is followed while offering dinner menus.D. California Menu:California menu is used only in the California restaurants where food itemsare available regardless of the time of the day whether it breakfast or lunchor dinner. California menu can be offered as separate menu for each meal,such as, breakfast, lunch, dinner.E. Ethnic Menu:Ethnic menu can be semi à la carte or à la carte. An ethnic menu offers fooditems that are representative of the particular cuisine from a particularregion or country. The food price can be ranged from moderate to high.F. Specialty Menu:A SPECIALTY menu is a amalgamation of both à la carte and semi à la carteitems.G. Room Service Menu:The menu follows à la carte, semi à la carte, or prix fixe style. Guests usuallyordered items from the room service menu through guest room telephone.The items listed on the room service menu can be more expensive than thatof original menu. Food items offered from room service menu must bemaintained proper hot and cold holding qualities.H. Lounge Menu: 141

A LOUNGE menu is offered either in à la carte or semi à la carte style. Loungemenus are generally served in hotels, inns, and spas where customers canorder selective item that require easy preparation and less costly in thedining room.Other Types of MenuA. Static MenuStatic menus are widely used menus offered by those restaurantsthose offer same dishes all year long. Fast-food restaurants and dinersusually offer static menus and separate the menu items into groups such asappetizers, soups and salads, entrees, desserts, etc.B. Du Jour Menu:This menu is extensively named as a plat du jour or ‘specialty of the house’section. This menu usually offers one dish for the particular day which isprepared and changed daily. The food item offered by this menu mainlyprepared on the basis of seasonal items and combination of both à la carteand table d’hôte menus. Du Jour Menu is also known as “chalkboard menus”because day’s special often written on chalkboards.C. Wine Menu:The wine menu is developed only with the extensive selection of wines. Thewine menu offers a variety of types and selections of wines ranging from lowto high. A wine menu generally includes the details description of wine, forexample: the name, country of origin, the year of the vintage, its price, andthe bin number. This menu also can describe the style, taste, flavor, and thenames of food that are paired with any particular wine.D. Dessert Menu:Dessert menus offer particular list of dessert that are offered by anyestablishment. The dessert tray or a dessert cart presentation also can beused along with the dessert menu. It helps the guests to choose restaurant’ssignature desserts. Dessert menus are typically served if dessert items arequite pricey. Some dessert menus also offer a list of special coffees, teas, andafter-dinner drinks. Coffee or tea suggestions also can be offered separately. 142

41. 50 Deadly Mistakes of Restaurant Menu DesignA menu can play a vitalrole for ensuring profitfor any food serviceestablishment throughdrawing attention of thecustomers. A menualways states the imageand theme of the foodoperation that anyhotel or restaurant possesses. The menu can be defined as the sales makersince it’s well planned and striking food presentation can be a magnet for theguests to spend their money to avail the food listed on the menu. (Do readour tutorial on different kinds of menu in hotel and restaurant ) Therefore any menu of any hotel or restaurant should enlist the food items in an easy to view way and an informative way to boost up the sales otherwise a disorganized menu can turn into a worst sales maker foryour establishment. Since often sophisticated guests again visit the hotel or restaurant regarding the food listing and availability of the menu.A food service organization should always be careful about the menupresentation and ensure the availability of the food items that are listedon the menu. There are certain common factors which can trigger guests’dissatisfaction ( Read How to Handle Guest Complaint in Hotel & RestaurantProperly & How to handle difficult guest with professionally ) and affect thetotal profitability of hotel. Hence these factors must be taken intoconsideration and work on to ensure highest level of service. Here are thefollowings:Poor Presentation of the MenuThe first thing that a guest sought after in the restaurant is the physicalappearance of the menu, so if the menu is not presented well then the firstimpression will never be impressive in the guest’s mind. The food 143

presentation should be stimulating and appealing so that the guests set theirmind to enjoy service of the organization.Difficulty in Reading MenuIf the guests cannot understand the name of the food items that are listed onthe menu then how will they order any food? A menu should always bedeveloped and printed with easy to read and large font to make it readablefor everybody. Moreover the paper and ink colors that have used on the menuwill must be of better quality. Be observant to guest while the guest is readingthe menu so that you can beware of any sign of difficulty and solve itaccordingly.Disorganized MenuIf the menu will be developed with unfamiliarterms and does not maintain the sequence offood offering (ex-list of entrees is appearedbefore the appetizer items) then the menu willnot be understandable which may lead guestdissatisfaction. A menu must have to beorganized and comprehensible to make theguests repetitive.Updating Menu with Handwritten ChangesThe menu can be updated any time for somereasons, for example, to change the year ofvintage on wine lists. If the menu is changed or updated with handwritinginstead of printed version then the menu may lose it professional look. Sowhenever the menu is updated then the changing or editing should be donein more clear and newer version so that guests become happy with thechange.Serving Yesterday’s Food ItemsOffering expired or yesterday’s specials are very disgraceful actions in thefood operation. Always discard your expired items from your pantry andoffer fresh items in the daily specials as the name suggests. Every kitchenstaff in the food service establishment must be briefed to see everything inthe restaurant from guest’s point of view. 144

Unreadable Daily Special’s BlackboardRestaurant uses blackboard to list specials of the day which often boost thesales and generate profit. If guests can understand anything on theblackboard then they will not be able to order anything. However thedescription in the blackboard must be in an easy to view location with neatand easily readable handwriting so that the guests can read what is on theboard.Lengthy Narration of Daily SpecialsSometimes too much narration for daily special might be irritating for guests.Hence daily special should not be lengthy and presented in short yetcomprehensible way. Always first give a small verbal presentation and thenserve a short menu on day’s specials to the guest so that guest can easilydecide.Inappropriate Size of the MenuMenu is a written form of food offerings that are served by any restaurant orhotel. The size of the menu can be different in respective to the number offood offerings. However if the menu is bigger in size then the menu must bedeveloped in better quality material to prevent them from folding orbreaking. If any large menu is made of inferior quality then the guest mayfind it difficult to hold it properly which can lead guest dissatisfaction.Photocopied Version of the MenuThe menu always should be clear and easily readable. Photocopied versionmay not bring the professional look regardless of good service and foodquality.Misspelled or Grammatically Incorrect MenuHaving spelling mistakes or grammatically incorrect food description is themost awful thing. This shows negligence and unprofessional attitudestowards service. So before getting final printed version, the menu must bechecked and verified properly to avoid any kinds of mistakes.Use of Unfamiliar terms in the MenuGuests always prefer the items about what they are familiar. If they will notunderstand any terms then they may not be interested about that food 145

offering. Unidentified or unfamiliar items in the menu can make lower salesmaking of that food.A well planned menu ought to list popular and identified terms, even if theyhave to add any new item then a small description must be added for guest’sbetter understanding.No English translationsIt will be discourteous for any guest if the menu is not presented in the nativelanguage. But every menu also should have English translations in thesubtitles for English-speaking guests to show common courtesy.Lack of Coordination between the Theme and Food OfferingYour menu presentation and food offering always ought to match with yourtheme of the restaurant. Otherwise guests would be misinterpreted with theservice nature of the restaurant and their expectations will not be fulfilled.Presenting Soiled or Wrinkled MenuWrinkled or soiled menu always gives unappetizing impression to guestswhich lead the meal off to an appalling start. Even an unclean or stainedmenu can raise question about the hygiene standard of the hotel orrestaurant in guest’s mind.So always check all menus and ensure that are in good condition beforeserving.Absence of Daily Special In the MenuA well planned menu with attractive lists of food offerings always higher yourservice quality and ensure guest satisfaction. An incomplete menu neverenthuse the guests to come again in the restaurant. If a menu lacks anyparticular course or daily special mistakenly then it will not be a sign ofprofessional service and creates an annoyance for guests. Every menu shouldbe checked duly so that any food item would not be misplaced or left behind.And if any menu is updated or if any item is inserted then the respectivepersonnel are always to be sure that new items are inserted correctlymaintaining the right sequence.Inability and Particular Time Frame for Food ServingGuests become highly irritated if they order any item from the menu but therestaurant is unable to provide the item. All food service establishments 146

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