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Page Appendix Formatting the First Page of your Paper ● Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested. ● In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name, your instructor's name, the course, and the date. Again, be sure to use double-spaced text. ● Double space again and center the title. Do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks; write the title in Title Case (standard capitalization), not in all capital letters. ● Use quotation marks and/or italics when referring to other works in your title, just as you would in your text: Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas as Morality Play; Human Wea- riness in \"After Apple Picking\" ● Double space between the title and the first line of the text. ● Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name, fol- lowed by a space with a page number; number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor or other readers may ask that you omit last name/page num- Here are two samples of papers in the MLA style: Link 51

Page Appendix Formatting the Works Cited Page of Your Paper ● Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research pa- per. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name, page number header as the rest of your paper. ● Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page. ● Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries. ● Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations by 0.5 inches to create a hang- ing indent. ● List page numbers of sources efficiently, when needed. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250, list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as 225-250. Note that MLA style uses a hyphen in a span of pages. ● If you're citing an article or a publication that was originally issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database, you should type the online database name in italics. You do not need to provide subscription information in addition to the database name. ● For online sources, you should include a location to show readers where you found the source. Many scholarly databases use a DOI (digital object identifier). Use a DOI in your citation if you can; otherwise use a URL. Delete “http://” from URLs. The DOI or URL is usually the last element in a citation and should be followed by a period. In-text citation examples The MLA website of Owl Purdue gives step by step tutorials and examples here https:// Works cited list examples The official website for the MLA 8th edition, 2016 gives step by step tutorials and examples here 52

Page Language PolicyKCIS Mission Statement 2 2Purpose of the Language Policy 2 4Language Philosophy 5 6Language Profile and Admission Policies 7 8IB MYP Language Programmes Overview 12 Language and Literature Programmes 12 Language Acquisition Programmes Procedures for English Phase Placement and Transition to Language & Literature 14 Language Support Services 14 English Language Learning (ELL) Support Programme 14 Chinese language learning support programme 15 (To be established in the near future.) 16 Personal Projects (specific to language support) 17 17Communication to the Parents/KCIS community 17 17Review ProcessBibliographyAppendices Appendix A: MYP Language Acquisition Global Proficiency Table Appendix B: MYP Language Acquisition continuums Appendix C: ELL Instructional Plan Appendix D: PREP ELL Policy 53

KPaCgeIS54 Mission StatementKang Chiao International School seeks to provide students with the tools to communicate and to listen effectively and with empathy an understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity a desire for active involvement; socially, academically, and physically the ability to consider, question, and create solutions the skills, moral strength, and motivation to bring about personal growth and positive social changePurpose of the Language PolicyThe KCIS language policy is a working document that encapsulates the IB’s values and aims in guidingstudents to develop the metalinguistic competence vital for attaining bi-/multilingualism. In studying dif-ferent languages, students are provided with enriching opportunities to engender the principles of inter-national-mindedness and intercultural awareness and recognize their bi-/multilingual identity as a uniquequality for novel language learning spaces in authentic learning contexts. These opportunities for en-hancing students’ bi-/multilanguage development are provided through the following channels encouraging students to be Global Participants by communicating cross-culturally allowing them to be Responsible Citizens through exposure to other cultures and an awareness of multicultural issues enabling students to be Effective Communicators in a number of languages empowering students to be Active Achievers through participation in a multicultural, global socie- ty enabling students to be Thoughtful Leaders, through the ability to access multi-cultural ideas and concepts.These qualities will ensure that students are given access to knowledge and learning experiences thathave global significance and that give them the opportunity to explore the similarities and differencesshared by people of all cultures in order to consider issues from multiple perspectives. This policy is writtenin agreement by all stakeholders and to which all faculty members of the KCIS community are requiredto adhere to, so that our school can achieve its mission of cultivating successful bi-/multilingual learners. 54

Language PhilosophyPage 55KCIS recognizes language as a vital tool for our students to acquire competencies needed to beinformed and responsible global citizens. A student’s mother tongue is an expression of traditionsand culture and constitutes an essential part of a students’ identity, social development, and cogni-tive growth. The school advocates for bi-/multilingualism as it fosters international-mindedness and amulticultural perspective. Bi-/multilingualism is not limited to the acquisition of more than one lan-guage; it also promotes maintenance and development of the mother tongue. As an internationalschool, KCIS is guided by the principle that, through language instruction, the school promotesawareness and understanding of different cultures and appreciation of the diversity existing withinthe school and around the world. Thus, language learning is a lifelong process and should be mod-eled by all members of the school community. We believe all subject teachers are languageteachers.KCIS also aims to cultivate students’ ability to engage in meaningful thought processes and to artic-ulate their thinking with clarity, confidence, and creativity in at least two languages. As learningmore than one language enhances cognition, KCIS endeavors to provide the language supportnecessary to address the challenges of learning in a language other than the mother tongue.As the language policy is consistent with the International Baccalaureate and Taiwan’s Ministry ofEducation requirements, KCIS recognizes that language development incorporates Halliday’s (1985)core concepts of language learning aims to enhance basic interpersonal communication through interaction with teachers and peers, as well as through early literacy development learning through language aims to equip students with the cognitive academic language skills needed to construct new meanings and knowledge of the world learning about language aims to empower students’ metalinguistic awareness to cultivate an understanding of the relationship between language and meaning and how language works across the curriculum, often through literary analysis and critical literacy 55

PaTogep5ro6vide equitable opportunities for students to accomplish these aspects of language develop- ment and have full access to the curriculum as bi-/multilingual learners, KCIS also integrates Cum- mins’ (2007) pedagogy for language and learning, which consists of four dimensions of teaching essential for student participation and learning engagement ● activating and building background knowledge in order to engage students in the zone of proximal development and guide them to become independent learners (Vygotsky, 1978) ● scaffolding learning, with teaching supports, such as visual and practical aids, graphic organ- izers, and peer support ● extending language in the subject areas by using cognitively rich activities involving reading and writing that reflect a wide range of genres ● affirming identity by embracing and valuing the diversity of languages, cultures, and perspec- tives Furthermore, KCIS also seeks to implement the bilingual zone of proximal development to support struggling second language learners through the provision of bilingual teaching strategies (eg., contrastive analysis) needed to mediate their learning and stretch their performance (Moll, 2013). Bilingual students with high proficiency levels in both languages have been proven to reap higher academic achievement (Lindholm & Aclan, 1991). 56

Language Profile and Admission PoliciesPage 57 KCIS Language Profile The School At Kang Chiao International School (KCIS), English is the medium of instruction for all subjects and the channel for communication for all purposes. It is also the language of the school’s governance, man- agement, and academic committees. Faculty members all hail from English speaking countries, and support staff members are required to speak English to students. Written documents, learning plat- forms, and school websites are in English and Chinese. The adoption of English as the language of instruction has come about as the students entering KCIS do so with the intention of studying in the west, or in international universities with English as the lan- guage of instruction. As English is considered a foreign language among many KCIS Taiwanese stu- dents, it takes on the nature of a second language within the school’s context. That is, English is the internal working language, in which all operational and developmental activities take place. The Students A majority of students (over 90%) come from families whose mother tongue is Chinese. Native lan- guage speakers of Taiwanese, Hakka, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Spanish, French, and English, form the minority. Most KCIS students learn English as a second language and their mother tongue (Chinese) as a first language. That is, there are simultaneous bilingual speakers and sequential bilingual speakers with Chinese, the mother tongue, as the first language and English as a second language, as well as native speakers of English who learn Chinese as a second language. The Parents While some parents can speak English fluently, the majority are not fluent in English. Chinese is the most commonly used and preferred language for communication. Other spoken languages include, to name a few, Korean, Japanese, Thai, Spanish, French, and Russian, but only by a very few families. Letters, forms, or any communication documents to parents are in English and Chinese and communi- cated through Managebac, iSchool, or parents’ emails. Admission Policies All students are assessed upon enrollment. Fluency in English is not a requirement for admissions to our Middle Years Programme. New students will take the KEPT, NWEA MAP, Achieve3000 and write an es- say as the primary basis of their placement. For the returning students, results of the most recent MAP scores, Lexile level, grades and teacher’s feedback and recommendation serve as the criteria for English placement. Students will either be placed in the English Language Acquisition Programme or the Language and Literature Programme. Students who enroll at KCIS are required to take Chinese and are assessed for placement in either the Chinese Language Acquisition Programme (Phases to be determined) or Chinese Language and Literature Programme. Students who will need additional intensive English language support during lunch will be identified and enrolled by the ELL Specialist and/or subject teachers using available data and in-school forma- tive/summative assessments. 57

IB MYP Language Programmes OverviewPage 58Learning through inquiry is the core of IB MYP language learning. Students independently and collabo-ratively investigate, take action, and reflect on their learning, in order to develop a deep understand-ing of what it means to learn how to learn, foster a lifelong interest in language learning, and applytheir skills in all language domains (listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and presenting) viareal-life contexts.The following is an overview of language courses offered at KCIS and an articulation of phase place-ments/honors placement. In order to meet the language requirements outlined in Language andLearning in IB Programmes (2011), all students will either fulfill two different language and literaturecourse tracks or one language and literature course track and one language acquisition course track. English as a subject is taught through English Language Acquisition - Subject group 2 English Language and Literature - Subject group 1 Chinese (Mother Tongue) is taught through Chinese Language Acquisition - Subject group 2 Chinese Language and Literature - Subject group 1(Add Chinese phase placement chart in the future.) 58

Language and Literature ProgrammesPage 59KCIS currently offers language and literature courses for both Honors English and Chinese. These cours-es are for students who have successfully completed Language Acquisition studies of phase 5 or 6and/or have reached a high proficiency level and near-native English fluency or demonstrate nativeEnglish fluency in all language skill areas.English Language and LiteratureThe English language and literature programme provides students with an academically rigorous rep-ertoire of literary and non-literary texts, ranging from local, national, and global communities/cultures.This programme also engages them in honing their linguistic, analytical, and communicative skills inorder to access literature that will cultivate their critical and creative thinking skills. These skills can betransferred across all disciplines, as well as help students form a solid foundation for learning throughinquiry. As students interact with a range of literary and non-literary texts, they engender thoughtfulinsights into global issues involving morality, society, the economy, politics, and other cultural/environmental aspects.*In the long run, the language and literature programme will consist of two tracks - regular (to be im-plemented in AY 2019-2020) and honors (currently in implementation).Chinese Language and Literature (mother tongue/host language)The MYP recognizes the importance of highlighting the country’s mother tongue/host language, histo-ry, and culture. With this, Chinese courses are taught throughout each year of the programme via twocourse tracks. All students study either Chinese Language and Literature or Chinese Language Acquisi-tion depending on their levels in compliance with Taiwan’s Ministry of Education.Our Chinese Programme is communication-oriented and proficiency-based. We believe that lan-guage, including grammar and vocabulary, must be learned in the context of the target languagewhenever possible. The skill areas involving the four language domains, as well as critical and analyti-cal thinking skills, are continually developed in a student-centered classroom. Authentic materials andimmersive real-life learning experiences (eg., cultural field trips) are also integrated into the curriculumto increase cultural awareness. Students are also equipped with language learning strategies, with theintent to develop their confidence to use their newly acquired learning tools to take risks, inquire, andproblem solve when engaged in unfamiliar learning contexts. 59

PLaagne g60uage Acquisition ProgrammesEnglish Language AcquisitionThe English language acquisition programme provides sustained English language development inequipping students with the skills necessary for effective speaking, listening, reading, writing, andviewing to enable them to gather, process, and communicate information clearly. Students will al-so respond to literary and non-literary texts through the interrelated instruction of the five aforemen-tioned skills in an effort to activate students’ higher order thinking skills. That is, students will learn toread and view with understanding, listen with purpose, develop their own writing style using a varie-ty of publishing formats, speak with fluency, and acquire effective usage of English conventions.These skills will also be developed through interdisciplinary learning within some of the learning units.The English Language Acquisition Programme consists of phases 2 to 6 allocated into three levels--Phase 2, Phases 3-4, and Phases 5-6 (Phase 1 is not implemented, as student levels exceed the basicMYP requirements for an emergent communicator.) Students placed in Phase 2 are emergentcommunicators advancing to become capable communicators, and through intensive English lan-guage support, they are expected to progress to phases 3-4 by the next grade level. Most studentsplaced in phases 3-4 will have had substantial exposure and practice to all the basic skill require-ments of all language domains prescribed in phases 1-2. During phases 3-4, students undergo thedevelopmental stages of becoming critical and competent communicators through the explora-tion of literary and non-literary texts tailored to their English levels. It is also during these phases thatstudents begin to delve into linguistic, analytical, and communicative skills that require higher orderthinking skills. When students reach phases 5-6, they are expected to fully develop their critical-literacy skills in order to reach a high-level proficiency that can ensure a smooth transition to anEnglish language and literature course (Further guidance of MYP languages). In addition, grades 7-10 will also have students placed at Phase 2, Phases 3-4, and Phases 5-6, mainly due to the enroll-ment of new students with different English proficiency levels and the continual need of intensivelanguage support for Phase 2.Internal assessments used to determine students’ eligibility to progress to the next phase level in-clude evaluation of MYP formative and summative assessments and external assessments (NWEAMAP scores and Achieve3000 Lexile scores). Students (including transfer students) will also be evalu-ated through the professional judgment of English teachers using phase descriptors to determinetheir phase movement. The phase descriptors are outlined in the MYP Language Acquisition GlobalProficiency Table (Appendix A) and MYP Language Acquisition continuums (Appendix B) to appro-priately assess students for proper phase placement. In addition, the levels prescribed by these de-scriptors may be adjusted in the task-specific clarifications. When students master the skills of phase5 or 6, an indication that they are eligible to be recommended for the English Language and Litera-ture, they will go through an admission process. 60

PCahgiene6s1e Language AcquisitionThe Chinese Language Acquisition Programme is designed for students who are learning Chinese asa second language. These students, who comprise less than 10% of the school population, are usu-ally foreign-born and some are raised learning two languages simultaneously or sequentially. Allthese students can speak at least English and have some level of Chinese proficiency, from basic tointermediate. To support these groups of students, a Chinese as a second language programmehas been designed.Currently, students of each grade who are learning Chinese as a second language enroll in thesame Chinese Language Acquisition classes. During the first one or two weeks, teachers evaluatetheir phases based on a placement test given at the beginning of the school year and through da-ta gathered during instruction. Due to limitations of the current scheduling structure, students inmore than two phases might be grouped together. However, it is part of the school-wide actionplan that students will be grouped together based on their Chinese phase-level proficiencies.Even though students of different phases are grouped together in the same Chinese Language Ac-quisition classes, class size always allows for individualized and differentiated teaching and learning.Teachers will assign materials and assessment corresponding to students’ phases. 61

PagWe h6e2n are students allowed to What are the criteria for transi- Who is involved in the decision transition to the next phase tion to a higher MYP Language making process for transition- within the same class? Acquisition phase? ing in MYP Language Acquisi- tion classes?Movement within the same Usage of multiple data points English Language Acquisi-classes (eg., phase 3 to 4, (quantitative and qualitative) tion Subject Group Co-phase 5 to 6) ordinators high formative/summative Within the first three weeks scores for all four criteria English Language Acquisi- (7-8) on a consistent tion teachers At the end of term 1 basis Principal At the end of term 2 Associate Principal MYP Coordinator standardized testing data English Language Acquisi- (MAP scores) tion Subject Group Co-When are students allowed to Achieve3000 Lexile scores ordinatorstransition to a different class of English Language Acquisi-a higher phase? teacher recommendations/ tion teachers feedback based on in- ELL SpecialistAcross different classes (eg., class performance andphase 2 to phases 3-4; phases phase descriptors out-3-4 to phase 5-6) lined in the MYP Lan- guage Acquisition Profi- Within the first three weeks ciency Table and con- tinuumsAt the end of term 2 Learner ProfileAt the end of the school yearNote In the long run, the goal is to lessen movement between phasesTransfer students will be consid-ered on a case-by-case basis. 62

PTraagen6si3tion from English Language Acquisition to English Language & LiteratureWhen does the school allow What are the criteria for progres- Who is involved in the decisionstudents to move from an MYP sion from the Language Acquisi- making process for transitionLanguage Acquisition class to tion class to the Language and between MYP Language Acqui-the Language and Literature Literature class? sition and MYP Language andclass? Literature?Placement for Language & Exceptionally high perfor- PrincipalLiterature for the next school mance in formative/year will be determined be- summative scores for all Associate Principalfore the end of the previous four criteria (7-8) on aschool year (usually in May). consistent basis for stu- MYP Coordinator dents placed in phases 5When are students allowed to -6 English Language and Liter-move back to Language Ac- ature Subject Group Co-quisition Phases 5-6 shall they standardized testing data ordinatornot meet the honors level? (MAP scores) English Language Acquisi-Movement will take place Achieve3000 Lexile scores tion Subject Group Coor-during the following periods dinator teacher recommendations/ At the end of the first 2-3 feedback based on in- English Language and Liter- weeks of school class performance and ature teachers phase descriptors out- At the end of the first term lined in the MYP Lan- English Language Acquisi- At the end of the semester guage Acquisition Profi- tion Phases 5-6 teachers ciency Table and contin-Notes uums There will be no move- ment in the second Written examination set by semester. the English Language Transfer students will be and Literature depart- considered on a case- ment by-case basis. A set of criteria which em- brace both Language Acquisition Phases 5-6 and Language & Litera- ture strands to assess the Language Acquisition students’ readiness for English Language and Literature courses 63

Mother Tongue SupportPage 64KCIS believes that the support of the mother tongue is valuable to students’ linguistic, academic,and cognitive development, as well as building their own personal identity, enhancing interculturalunderstanding/international-mindedness, and preserving their own cultural heritage. According tothe current school demographics, most students are mother tongue Chinese speakers. To furtherdevelop their native language in the academic setting, we offer support of the mother tongue by● providing digital school bulletin boards in the mother tongue● encouraging students to speak their mother tongue in informal situations● maintaining/updating library resources that support the mother tongue● setting up after school clubs conducted in the mother tongue● setting up local extra-curricular activities (ex., local charity programs, volunteer activities, music classes taught in Chinese, participation in music appreciation events)● extra-curricular activities/in-school events (ex. Rock Leadership Association, in-school clubs, in- school science fairs, art exhibitions)Additional support with the use of the mother tongue as a bridge language learning tool● pairing the student with a more proficient student of the same mother tongue during lunchtime tutoring support● training student tutors, who speak the same mother language as the struggling learners, to uti- lize the mother tongue as a translanguaging tool in second language learning and/or bilingual learning● utilizing translanguaging by the tutees as a language learning tool to examine their language learning process creatively and critically, as well as develop their metalinguistic awareness (García, Ibarra-Johnson, & Seltzer, 2017) 64

PAasgfeor6t5he small population of students who speak a home language other than Chinese, KCIS hasplans for further support of their mother tongues through the following mediums● ordering books in other world languages for the library● setting up more parent communication/partnerships to determine ways to help students develop their mother tongues not offered in the curriculum (ex. Parent volunteers for translation of school information, online courses in their native language, or setting up reading groups)● creating opportunities for group reading in the same language circles or independent reading of dual language books● engaging students in contrastive analysis activities in the Language Acquisition courses between their home languages and English (cognates, linguistic features, vocabulary, etc…)● encouraging students to speak their home languages during informal class time within their lan- guage circles or during recess● allowing students opportunities to teach other classmates simple greetings or frequently used ex- pressions● providing online resources to support the mother tongue, such as audiobooks available in multi- ple languagesLanguage Support ServicesEnglish Language Learning (ELL) Support ProgrammeAs an international school, KCIS recognizes that students will be learning in English for all their academ-ic courses. Hence, these students need to acquire a proficiency in English sufficient to access themainstream curriculum and fully participate in the culture of the school. To ensure that these studentsare adequately equipped with the skills to succeed in this learning environment, the ELL Support Pro-gramme is designed to provide the language support for all content areas through a sheltered Englishimmersion approach. This approach engages ELLs in developing content-area knowledge, academicskills, and increased English proficiency through the use of a wide range of scaffolding strategies tocommunicate comprehensible input in the content and meet students’ English proficiency levels(Baker, 2011). All subject area teachers, with the assistance of the ELL Specialist, use ESL instructionalstrategies to help students access the language of each academic subject area in order to achievecontent objectives. In addition, students placed in Language Acquisition Phase 2 for all grade levelswill also receive intensive English language support in an effort to provide equitable opportunities toprogress to the next phase level.The ELL Support Programme also offers tutoring sessions that extend English language support to strug-gling learners who experience difficulties coping with the rigor of the content. These learners will beidentified using data that reflect their academic performances (ex. MAP scores, Achieve3000 reading/language use scores, in-class formative/summative scores) and interviewed individually by the ELLSpecialist to determine the types of language support that will be needed. Subject teachers can alsomake referrals of students whom they think will need the additional support to the ELL Specialist. In col-laboration with the subject teachers, the ELL Specialist will design personalized instructional approach-es and differentiated learning materials for these learners through a 3-tiered Response to Intervention 65

Pa3g-etie6r6ed Response to Intervention (RTI)Level Description of student needs Instructional strategies for interventionTier 1 Tier 1 students are identified early to pro- skills-based learning based on students’ vide interventions that help address aca- background knowledge for all aca- demic struggles caused by language demic subjects barriers. Tier 1 interventions are also ex- tended to the tutoring sessions, in which activities that capitalize on student tutors work one-on-one or in groups to strengths and interests help these learners develop approaches to learning (ATL skills) related to lan- multimedia and/or computer programs guage and academic learning. The ELL to support academic and language Specialist will work closely with subject learning teachers and provide feedback from the tutoring sessions to help these learn- small group/individualized instruction ers bridge their learning in the L2 (English) from the L1 (mother tongue Chi- mother tongue support nese) so to prevent language learning difficulties from intensifying. modification of assignments personalized multimodal learning environ- ments studying and learning strategies to sup- port classroom work, homework, and other projects Tier 2 students require more intensive focused and targeted language instruc- and targeted interventions to meet their tion in all four domains (speaking, lis- learning needs. The ELL Specialist may tening, reading, writing) delivered by need to work one-on-one with these stu- the ELL Specialist dents on a more frequent basis. explicit instruction that focuses on im-Tier 2 portant features of English learning, such as oral skills, vocabulary acquisi-Tier 3 Tier 3 students include those who have tion, interaction, phonemic aware- received supports from Tier 1 and Tier 2 ness, comprehension strategies, writ- but still do not respond well. These stu- ing strategies--all of which will be dents experience significant language needed for academic learning barriers and will need the support of the SEN Specialist to determine any lan- Tier 2 interventions guage disabilities and/or other learning difficulties/disabilities focused and targeted instruction deliv- ered by the SEN Specialist and the ELL (See SEN Policy). Specialist explicit instruction with the following as some strategies: use of assistive tech- nology for word recognition, focusing students’ attention in a clutter-free environment, repetition of instructions, allowing additional time for comple- tion of assignments/assessments, structured scaffolding of activities for different types of language learning difficulties and/or disabilities, in- creased sensitivity to students’ frustra- tion levels 66

PKaCgIeS i6s7planning to expand on the 3-tiered RtI model by allocating more time for each tier so that alllearners can be supported on a more personalized basis. An ELL Instructional Plan (Appendix C) is usedto guide the process and track/monitor student progress. Specific procedures for preliminary/ongoingassessments are outlined in the PREP ELL Policy (Appendix D). More information about learning English asa second language pedagogies, assessment processes, professional development, and tutoring sup-port can be accessed at the following website - ELL & SEN Support.Chinese language learning support programme(To be established in the near future.)Personal Projects (specific to language support)Language support will also be provided for the Grade 10 personal projects. Students are given the op-portunity to choose the language, English or Chinese, to present their projects.Students are exempt from the Secondary Program for external IB moderations, as they only participatein English classes with the students in the Overseas Program.Communication to the Parents/KCIS communityThe parents of students who receive tiers 1-3 RtI English Learning services are informed of their children’sprogress through the following channels: ● Regular Coffee with Principal events ● ELL/SEN Support website ● EL progress reports and report cards to inform parents of their students’ performance within English Learning classes ● Annual identification of service for EL students ● MAP/Achieve3000 scores sent home annually ● Observed and monitored reports conducted and shared twice each year (one per semes- ter)Review ProcessThis policy was first developed and written by the Curriculum Coordinator and the ELL specialist in2017/2018. It has been further updated by the policy review committee composed of KCIS’s academicadministrators and teaching staff. The policy will be reviewed and updated on an annual basis with ref-erence to the IB documents.Committee membersDana Strong, Tiana Sexton, Derick Lourens, James Brown, Alex Hutten-Czapski, Galileo Liu, Apolina Lin,Jeremy Peterson, Carol Chen, Sherry Lee 67

Page Inclusion/SEN PolicyKCIS Mission Statement 2 2Purpose of the Language Policy 2 4Language Philosophy 5 6Language Profile and Admission Policies 7 8IB MYP Language Programmes Overview 12 Language and Literature Programmes 12 Language Acquisition Programmes Procedures for English Phase Placement and Transition to Language & Literature 14 Language Support Services 14 English Language Learning (ELL) Support Programme 14 Chinese language learning support programme 15 (To be established in the near future.) 16 Personal Projects (specific to language support) 17 17Communication to the Parents/KCIS community 17 17Review ProcessBibliographyAppendices Appendix A: MYP Language Acquisition Global Proficiency Table Appendix B: MYP Language Acquisition continuums Appendix C: ELL Instructional Plan Appendix D: PREP ELL Policy 68

Page AppendixSchool’s Mission StatementOne overarching principle of Kang Chiao International School (KCIS) is to recognize each student’suniqueness, especially to appreciate their differences and diversities. Moreover, with enriching, multi-cultural backgrounds of Taiwan context, KCIS aims to bolster students, in an inclusive surrounding, toreach their full potentials.We believe that all students should be empowered through providing opportunities to learn from multi-ple perspectives and with collaborative and differentiated approaches to teaching and learning. KCISfocuses on creating and maintaining a learning community that values and recognizes the individualstrengths and experiences of each member, while simultaneously challenging and holding all studentsto high expectations. We believe that all students should be included in “decisions about their learn-ing, [having] the opportunity to develop the attributes of the learner profile and to understand them-selves as learners” (IBO, 2016). Kang Chiao International School adheres to all local, city and nationalregulations regarding students with special needs.*Students take part in decisions about how they should be supported. The school acknowledges that:● students have different educational and learning needs, abilities and profiles;● students gain knowledge and skills at different rates through different means; all students are ca- pable and unique;● students are lifelong learners and should be helped;● the school welcomes all students*Inclusion/SEN refers to learners with disabilities, as well as those who experience significant languagelearning difficulties, that could make it harder for them to learn than their peers of the same age.Goals of the Inclusion/Special Educational Needs (SEN) ProgramThe goals of Kang Chiao International School’s Inclusion/Special Educational Needs programs are asfollows:● all students, including those who need support for learning disabilities and intensive language support services, receive equitable opportunities in their experience of the programme● to provide a positive and engaging environment to all learners with specific needs, recognizing and building up on differences and diversity● to provide all students a relevant and challenging curriculum through inclusion and differentiat- ed instruction● to monitor student success as shown through their performance portfolios, and communicate with all stakeholders about students, their progress, and their learning needs● to guide all students to reach and balance their capacities, interests, and aptitudes 69

KCIS follows an inclusion model to provide support for all SEN students. Students with special educa-tional needs are provided access to the curriculum in the least restrictive environment. Teachers andspecialists frequently assess the students to determine each child’s individual needs and provide anyspecial services, modifications, accommodations, and/or materials they require to access the curric-ulum and achieve their highest potential.For students demonstrating academic talents in a particular area, teachers address those needsthrough classroom differentiation. Regardless of the type of need, teachers collect and analyze data,monitor progress, set and update goals with the students. Families are involved in this process. KCISadheres to national regulations governing the education of students with special needs. Furthermore,SEL strives not only to grant equal access to students with disabilities, but also to provide additionalspecial education services and procedural safeguards.Differentiation in KCISAll teachers at KCIS collaborate to discuss the possible ways to differentiate instruction to meet theschool’s learning diversity. Differentiation can take place through content, process, product, andlearning environment. Focusing on both the IB Learner Profile (See Appendix 1) and Approaches toLearning skills (See Appendix 2) opens up many channels for multifaceted learning for students withspecial needs. They receive regular workshops provided by the SEN specialist on effective differentia-tion strategies in the classroom.Students with Inclusion/Special Educational Needs (SEN)These students may include, but are not limited toGroup 1 Students who have an active Individualized Education Program (IEP) in progressGroup 2 Students who are in need of counseling support or social welfareGroup 3 Students with medical or health (physical or mental) issues which are registered in the National Special Education Transmit NetGroup 4 Students who are gifted/talented or over-achievingGroup 5 English learners, categorized in the Tier-3 Response to Intervention model, who experiencesignificant language barriers in the English language (See language policy - Language Support Ser-vices)Group 6 Chinese learners who experience significant language barriers in the Chinese language 70

*Types of Special Educational Needs in Group 1 (check how many)1. Communication or language disabilities Either receptive or expressive (e.g. Autism spectrum).2. Concentration difficulties Either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or attention deficit Disorder (ADD).3. Executive functions Includes difficulties in understanding, plan- ning and organizing.4. Hearing impairments Includes both hearing loss and deafness, ei- ther congenital or acquired due to illness/ injury5. Visual impairments Used to describe the consequence of an eye condition or disorder. The degree of impair- ment ranges from mild to severe.6. Literacy and language difficulties Affects the learning process in one or more areas such as reading spelling and writing (for example, dyslexia and dysgraphia).7. Numeracy(Math) difficulties Refers to learners who might struggle with tasks related to numeracy and mathematics competency (for example, dyscalculia).8. Mental health issues (Emotional/behavioral Includes depression, anxiety, selective mut-disturbance) ism, etc. and can range from mild to severe. Learners can also have more than one men-9. Other physical or neurological impairments tal health problem, or combine with other adjusting disorders. congenital or acquired – for example, mus- cular dystrophy or traumatic brain injury – that can range in severity. Neurological im- pairment may not be visible. 71

Standard Procedures for Delivering inclusive/SEN Services (integration of the Multi- tiered System of Supports model)Group 1 SEN students with a working IEPIdentification If the SEN Team observes, or gets referred from related faculty/professionals that current place- ments/interventions are not benefiting a student’s progress, the information is sent to the school’s Special Ed. Specialist, Dr. Galileo Liu. A meeting with the student’s parents/guardians will subse- quently be scheduled to discuss the student’s current learning and social needs as well as the pos- sibility of an updated evaluation. The evaluation may include but is not limited to the following ● interviews with the parents/guardians about their concerns, the student’s strengths and weaknesses, and the student’s medical or health conditions ● intellectual test (verbal or nonverbal; standardized or customized) ● academic/achievement/subject test ● communication/speech testing ● sensory/motor test ● social/ emotional/ behavioral rating scales ● observations in the classroom ● transition testing Further action The Special Ed. specialist, then, sends an Evaluation Notice/Agreement back to the parents/ guardians, describing the specific assessments that will be conducted. Once permission (with signature) is returned to the school, the Special Ed. Specialist will initiate the evaluation/ intervention. The results of the evaluation/intervention will be used to determine the types of special education services. Then the special education services will be examined and dis- cussed in a case/IEP meeting. Re-evaluation After the initial evaluation, students’ continuing needs are determined by conducting a Certificate Renewal/ Reevaluation at least every three years (under the Special Education Law and Regulations of Taiwan). A Special Ed. Specialist will lead a physi- cal or verbal meeting with the student’s SEN/IEP team to discuss the responding edu- cational services● interviews with the parents/guardians about their concerns, the student’s strengths and weaknesses, and the student’s medical or health conditions● intellectual test (verbal or nonverbal; standardized or customized)● academic/achievement/subject test● communication/speech testing● sensory/motor test● social/ emotional/ behavioral rating scales● observations in the classroom● transition test 72

PT(ehavegeeSn7E3NwiTtehaoumt will carry out assessments within 14 days of the recognition of the emerging needs written consent from the parents/ guardians) . The team has 30 school days to com-plete the reevaluation.If students continue to qualify for special education services, their needs will be reviewed and dis-cussed regularly. Based on those needs, annual and semester goals will go through ongoing modifica-tions/adjustments in their Individualized Education Program (IEP).Group 2 Students who need counseling support Identification Students who need counseling support are identified in a number of ways, including: ● Teacher referral ● Parent referral ● Social Security and Welfare institutions ● Special education Referral ● Student self-advocacy ● Recommendation from a mental health professional who has worked, or is currently working, with the studentFurther action & Re-Evaluation The reason for counseling support may be academic, social, emotional, and/or behavioral. In any case, parent permission is needed for continuous counseling services.Group 3 Students with medical or health issues Identification & Further action & Re-evaluationIn the beginning of every academic year, the SEN team collects and renews student health forms toidentify students who have a health concern or medical diagnosis. The Ministry of Education in Taiwanand the New Taipei City also overlook students’ Health Plans. Students with a medical/ health issuemust receive a diagnosis from a licensed medical practitioner. Students who have a diagnosed anddocumented health issue will be provided with an adapted IEP plan, which will be written by the SENteam. This team may include the DSA and the school nurse’s aide. At the same time, students mayalso be identified through the IEP process, teacher observations and concerns, as well as KCIS’s annu-al vision and hearing screening. The SEN team will then look into the situation and communicate theconcern with the student and his/her family, possibly recommending a visit to a medical practitionerfor diagnosis of the issue and treatment options. 73

Group 4 Gifted and talented/over-achieving students (to be updated) Identification High achieving or gifted students are identified through a combination of standardized test scores such as WISC, MAP, TONI, etc., subject-specific formative and summative as- sessments results, performance portfolios, and teacher recommendation.Group 5 English learners who experience significant language barriers Identification Struggling students, who are experiencing significant language barriers and may also be af- fected by other learning disabilities, are identified and interviewed individually by both the SEN Specialist and ELL Specialist to determine the types of supports needed. These students are categorized in the tier 3 response to intervention model in the language policy (See language policy) and will receive interventions related to strategies for responding to significant lan- guage disabilities and/or other learning disabilities (in Group 1) impeding students’ ability to learn effectively. Further action & Re-evaluation Any students identified with learning disabilities, along with experiencing significant language barriers, will go through procedures same as Group 1.Group 6 Students who speak Chinese as their second language Identification & Further action & Re-evaluation Before every academic year starts, the Department of Academic Affairs office (DAA) identifies students who speak Chinese as their second language and put them into corresponding lan- guage classes. They receive comprehensive and extensive support in their Chinese classes as those are usually under 10 students. However, since they are placed in regular homerooms where the majority of the students are native Chinese speakers, they need additional help in non-academic aspects. Currently, we don’t have an intervention model established for this group of students. Chinese Language Acquisition Subject Group Coordinator will determine further actions on a case-by-case basis in coordination with other relevant staff. 74

Support SystemsA) CollaborationSupervised by the academic leadership team, Special Education teachers, General Educationteachers, academic affairs staff, and guidance counselors collaborate by working together to im-prove all types of curriculum offered for all students. This provides subject area teachers with strategiesthey can use to better meet the needs of SEN students in all of their classes throughout the day.B) Support within an inclusive, general education (GE) classroomGE classroom can take many forms. GE teachers use the strategies learned from collaboration, aswell as modifications and accommodations listed in students’ IEPs, to differentiate the curriculum andreach each SEN student. They receive regular workshops provided by the SEN specialist on effectivedifferentiation strategies in the classroom.In addition, students who have been identified (within their IEPs) as needing extra assistance in theGeneral Education classroom receive support from the special education service throughout theday. These staff members help make the content/materials accessible to the students through theuse of various strategies to increase student comprehension/performance, and the use of modifi-cations or accommodations listed in their IEPs. Meanwhile, in the General Education classroom,the SEN team also utilizes differentiating instruction to support SEN students. Some commonlyadopted strategies are as follows: ● Members of the SEN team will check in with individual SEN students and provide redirec- tion on academic processes, as needed, while the subject teacher instructs the class as a whole. ● The Special Education staff member re-teaches parts of the lesson to one or more SEN students, while the subject teacher works with the larger group.C) Pull-out instruction/ Resource classroomSpecialized instruction is generated in a separate setting from the classroom. In this setting, the SENspecialist(s) provides small group and/or individual instruction to SEN students (including the giftedand talented learner) based on their IEP goals, assessment reports, modifications, and accommoda-tions for their primary learning needs. SEN teams most commonly work with students in the subject ar-eas of reading, writing, mathematics, or social/behavioral/emotional needs.Students with other compound disabilities, such as speech/language, sensory, or deaf/hard of hear-ing, will be referred to receive outside services.D) Counseling servicesThe Student Counseling Department (DSC) works with students individually and/or in small group set-tings to reach their academic, social, emotional, and/or behavioral goals. The frequency with whichschool counselors meet to work with individual students varies. Counselors may meet with studentsweekly, monthly, as needed, or as indicated on an IEP. In severe cases, outside counseling servicesmay be brought in to support students. 75

When determining topics for group sessions, the Student Counseling Department creates surveys sostudents can give input as to the areas in which they need support. Group sessions are based onthese requests and any needs that arise throughout the year. Group sessions may include: ● Grief groups to support students who have experienced loss, personal trauma or any inci- dents. ● Anger groups to help students process their feelings and express them appropriately ● Girls’ groups to help young ladies avoid harassment by creating a network of friends ● Bullying awareness group that prevent all kinds of bullying behaviors in the campus. ● LGBT Awareness Lectures that help ensure that all students feel safe and supported.E) Health Monitoring RoutinesThe SEN team checks in periodically with each student who has a medical/ health issue to discusshis/her medical treatment and progress, as well as any related questions he/she may have. In addi-tion, the SEN team talks with the student to determine the impact his/her medical/ health issuesmay be having on his/her academic, social, emotional, and/or behavioral goals. The team alsocommunicates with families regarding their students’ medical/health issues and possible out-of-campus resources, when available, to aid families in supporting their students’ needs. Examples ofaid include, but are not limited to the following: ● Pamphlets and brochures about illnesses ● Vaccination/Medication information ● Access to no-cost vision exams and eyeglasses/Relevant educational technological assistanceThe SEN team provides information and resources for teachers to use when working with studentswho have medical, social/emotional or health-related issues. Teachers adjust curriculum, instruc-tion, and assessments to meet students’ medical, social/emotional and health-related needs.F) Enrichments and DifferentiationSupport for high achieving or gifted students may be provided through recommendations from theMYP Subject Group Coordinators or individual classroom teachers. Support for these students cantake several forms: Differentiated formative tasks, such as enrichment and individualized projects, to pro- vide students with appropriately challenging and rigorous tasks Summative assessment: case-by-case meetings including the relevant teachers providing accommodations Honors classes for MYP grade levels 7-10 in English Language & Literature, and MYP grade levels 8-10 in Mathematics, Sciences, and Individuals & Societies 76

Communicating the Inclusion/Special Educational Needs Policy with parentsIn order to form a cohesive support team for students, it is necessary to keep parents well-informed.A) Special education servicesThe families of students with special education needs receive communication about the following: ● IEP meetings (translation services are provided during the meeting as needed) ● Goal updates for students with special education needs (sent home after the IEP is writ- ten) ● IEP progress reports ● Special Education Documentation such as: Evaluation/Test taken Notice, Reevaluation Notice, IEPs, updated IEPs, Record of a Team Meeting, Announcement of a MeetingB) English language learners servicesThe parents of students who receive tier-3 RTI English Learning services due to significant English lan-guage learning difficulties stay informed through the following: ● Regular school communication ● ELL/SEN Support website ● EL progress reports and report cards to inform parents of their students’ performance with- in English Learning classes ● Annual identification of services for EL students with significant language learning difficul- ties ● MAP/Achieve3000 reports sent home regularly ● Observed and monitored reports conducted and shared twice each year (one per se- mester)C) Counseling ServicesThe parents of students who need counseling support receive communication on an as-needed basisfrom the Counseling Department. Communication may be regarding confidential information abouttheir student, or seeking parent permission for counseling services.D) Health and other medical issuesThe parents of students who have medical/ health issues are informed on an as-needed basis fromthe Licensed School Nurse. Communication from the SEN team includes information about conta-gious diseases and immunization records 77

Referral ProcedureStep 1The following groups of students will be assigned to classes. For the first four groups, guidance will begiven on how to assist them in advance. For the fifth group, if a student is identified with a learning dis-ability and is also in need of English language support, both the SEN and ELL Specialists will work to-gether to determine types of supports for teachers. Any further queries will be directed to the SEN orthe ELL team. Group 1 Students who have an active Individualized Education Program (IEP) in progress Group 2 Students who are in need of counseling support or social welfare Group 3 Students with formally diagnosed medical or health (physical or mental) issues which are registered in the National Special Education Transmit Net Group 4 Students who are identified by the SEN team to be gifted/talented Group 5 English learners, categorized in the Tier-3 Response to Intervention model, who experi- ence significant language barriers in the English language (See language policy - Language Support Services) Group 6 Chinese learners who experience significant language barriers in the Chinese lan- guageStep 2If teachers recognize a student who might be in any of the groups, fill out the referral form.Step 3After the SEN team receives the referral form, they will gather information about the student fromteachers. If necessary, teachers will attend a meeting with the team.Step 4The SEN team communicates the results to the teachers and takes appropriate action. Teachersmight be asked to make accommodations for the student.Monitoring and Revision of the PolicyThis policy was first developed and written by the SEN specialist and the ELL specialist in 2017/2018. Ithas been further updated by the policy review committee composed of KCIS’s academic administratorsand teaching staff. The policy will be reviewed and updated on an annual basis with reference to the IBdocumentsCommittee members: Galileo Liu, Carol Chen, Alex Hutten-Czapski, Sherry LeePresent in the meeting on May 17th, 2018: Galileo Liu, Carol Chen, Alex Hutten-Czapski, Sherry Lee 78

Monitoring and Revision of the PolicyThis policy was first developed and written by the SEN specialist and the ELL specialist in 2017/2018. It hasbeen further updated by the policy review committee composed of KCIS’s academic administratorsand teaching staff. The policy will be reviewed and updated on an annual basis with reference to theIB documentsCommittee members: Galileo Liu, Carol Chen, Alex Hutten-Czapski, Sherry LeePresent in the meeting on May 17th, 2018: Galileo Liu, Carol Chen, Alex Hutten-Czapski, Sherry LeePresent in the meeting on June 14th, 2018: Galileo Liu, Carol Chen, Alex Hutten-Czapski, Sherry Lee 79

Page Appendix Appendix 1 IB Learner Profile 80

Page AppendixAppendix 2 MYP ATL skillsCommunication Exchanging thoughts, messages and information effectively through interactionI. Communication skills Give and receive meaningful feedback Use intercultural understanding to interpret communicationHow can students Use a variety of speaking techniques to communicate with a variety of audiencescommunicate Use appropriate forms of writing for different purposes and audiencesthrough interaction? Use a variety of media to communicate with a range of audiences Interpret and use effectively modes of non-verbal communication Negotiate ideas and knowledge with peers and teachers Participate in, and contribute to, digital social media networks Collaborate with peers and experts using a variety of digital environments and media Share ideas with multiple audiences using a variety of digital environments and mediaHow can students Reading, writing and using language to gather and communicate informationdemonstrate communi-cation through lan- Read critically and for comprehensionguage? Read a variety of sources for information and for pleasure Make inferences and draw conclusions Use and interpret a range of discipline-specific terms and symbols Write for different purposes Understand and use mathematical notation Paraphrase accurately and concisely Preview and skim texts to build understanding Take effective notes in class Make effective summary notes for studying Use a variety of organizers for academic writing tasks Find information for disciplinary and interdisciplinary inquiries, using a variety of media Organize and depict information logically Structure information in summaries, essays and reports 81

Page AppendixAppendix 2 MYP ATL skillsSocialII. Collaboration skillsHow can Working effectively with othersstudentscollaborate? Use social media networks appropriately to build and develop relationships Practise empathy Delegate and share responsibility for decision-making Help others to succeed Take responsibility for one’s own actions Manage and resolve conflict, and work collaboratively in teams Build consensus Make fair and equitable decisions Listen actively to other perspectives and ideas Negotiate effectively Encourage others to contribute Exercise leadership and take on a variety of roles within groups Give and receive meaningful feedback Advocate for one’s own rights and needsSelf-managementIII. Organization skillsHow can stu- Managing time and tasks effectivelydents demon-strate organi- Plan short- and long-term assignments; meet deadlineszation skills? Create plans to prepare for summative assessments (examinations and performances) Keep and use a weekly planner for assignments Set goals that are challenging and realistic Plan strategies and take action to achieve personal and academic goals Bring necessary equipment and supplies to class Keep an organized and logical system of information files/notebooks Use appropriate strategies for organizing complex information Understand and use sensory learning preferences (learning styles) Select and use technology effectively and productively 82

Page AppendixAppendix 2 MYP ATL skillsSelf-management Managing state of mindIV. Affective skills Mindfulness Practise focus and concentrationHow can stu- Practise strategies to develop mental focusdents manage Practise strategies to overcome distractionstheir own state Practise being aware of body–mind connectionsof mind? Perseverance Demonstrate persistence and perseverance Practise delaying gratification Emotional management Practise strategies to overcome impulsiveness and anger Practise strategies to prevent and eliminate bullying Practise strategies to reduce stress and anxiety Self-motivation Practise analysing and attributing causes for failure Practise managing self-talk Practise positive thinking Resilience Practise “bouncing back” after adversity, mistakes and failures Practise “failing well” Practise dealing with disappointment and unmet expectations Practise dealing with change 83

Page AppendixAppendix 2 MYP ATL skillsV. Reflection skills (Re)considering the process of learning; choosing and using ATL skills Develop new skills, techniques and strategies for effective learningHow can stu- Identify strengths and weaknesses of personal learning strategiesdents be reflec- (self-assessment)tive? Demonstrate flexibility in the selection and use of learning strategies Try new ATL skills and evaluate their effectiveness Consider content What did I learn about today? What don’t I yet understand? What questions do I have now? Consider ATL skills development What can I already do? How can I share my skills to help peers who need more practice? What will I work on next? Consider personal learning strategies What can I do to become a more efficient and effective learner? How can I b e co m e m o re flexible in my choice of learning strategies? What factors are important for helping me learn well? Focus on the process of creating by imitating the work of others Consider ethical, cultural and environmental implications Keep a journal to record reflections 84

ResearchVI. Information literacy skillsHow can students Finding, interpreting, judging and creating informationdemonstrate infor-mation literacy? Collect, record and verify data Access information to be informed and inform others Make connections between various sources of information Understand the benefits and limitations of personal sensory learning preferences when accessing, processing and recalling information Use memory techniques to develop long-term memory Present information in a variety of formats and platforms Collect and analyse data to identify solutions and make informed decisions Process data and report results Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on their appropriate- ness to specific tasks Understand and use technology systems Use critical-literacy skills to analyse and interpret media communications Understand and implement intellectual property rights Create references and citations, use footnotes/endnotes and construct a bibliog- raphy according to recognized conventions Identify primary and secondary sourcesVII. Media literacy skillsHow can students Interacting with media to use and create ideas and informationdemonstrate me-dia literacy? Locate, organize, analyse, evaluate, synthesize and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media (including digital social media and online net- works) Demonstrate awareness of media interpretations of events and ideas (including digital so- cial media) Make informed choices about personal viewing experiences Understand the impact of media representations and modes of presentation Seek a range of perspectives from multiple and varied sources Communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats Compare, contrast and draw connections among (multi)media resources 85

ThinkingVIII. Critical-thinking skillsHow can students Analysing and evaluating issues and ideasthink critically? Practise observing carefully in order to recognize problems Gather and organize relevant information to formulate an argument Recognize unstated assumptions and bias Interpret data Evaluate evidence and arguments Recognize and evaluate propositions Draw reasonable conclusions and generalizations Test generalizations and conclusions Revise understanding based on new information and evidence Evaluate and manage risk Formulate factual, topical, conceptual and debatable questions Consider ideas from multiple perspectives Develop contrary or opposing arguments Analyse complex concepts and projects into their constituent parts and synthesize them to create new understanding Propose and evaluate a variety of solutions Identify obstacles and challenges Use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues Identify trends and forecast possibilities Troubleshoot systems and applicationsIX. Creative-thinking skillsHow can students Generating novel ideas and considering new perspectivesbe creative? Use brainstorming and visual diagrams to generate new ideas and inquiries Consider multiple alternatives, including those that might be unlikely or impossible 86 Create novel solutions to authentic problems Make unexpected or unusual connections between objects and/or ideas Design improvements to existing machines, media and technologies Design new machines, media and technologies Make guesses, ask “what if” questions and generate testable hypotheses Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products or processes Create original works and ideas; use existing works and ideas in new ways Practise flexible thinking—develop multiple opposing, contradictory and complemen- tary arguments Practise visible thinking strategies and techniques Generate metaphors and analogies

X. Transfer skills Using skills and knowledge in multiple contextsHow can students Use effective learning strategies in subject groups and disciplinestransfer skills and Apply skills and knowledge in unfamiliar situationsknowledge across Inquire in different contexts to gain a different perspectivedisciplines and sub- Compare conceptual understanding across multiple subject groups and disciplinesject groups? Make connections between subject groups and disciplines Combine knowledge, understanding and skills to create products or solutions Transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies Change the context of an inquiry to gain different perspectives 87

References References From principles into practice. International Baccalaureate Organization, May 2014.Learning diversity in the International Baccalaureate programmes: Special educational needs within the International Baccalaureate programmes. International Baccalaureate Organization, August 2010.Meeting student learning diversity in the classroom. International Baccalaureate Organization, May 2013. 88

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