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Home Explore Time Sifters Archaeology Society Newsletter July 2022

Time Sifters Archaeology Society Newsletter July 2022

Published by Runjik Productions, 2022-07-13 12:59:28

Description: Time Sifters Archaeology Society Newsletter July 2022


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JULY-2022 PRESERVATION  EDUCATION  RESEARCH  INSPIRE Dear Member: We the Board of Time Sifters hope you enjoy your summer. We are taking time off to enjoy our family, friends and beautiful Florida. Personally I have two trips planned. First, we are going to upstate New York for a couple of weeks and then in August we have a three week trip to Canterbury in England. Over the summer we will be putting together the 2022/2023 Calendar. If you have any suggestions please send me an email. See you in September. Thank you for being a Time Sifters member. Darwin “Smitty” Smith, President [email protected] Archaeologists You Should Know Dorothy Annie Elizabeth Garrod Mount Carmel – Paleolithic Anthropologist By Smitty, Time Sifters Board Member. Sources: Wikipedia; Archaeology Magazine; World Heritage Encyclopedia Edition and Good Reads. Dorothy Photos: Wikipedia; University of Oxford Annie Elizabeth Garrod was Gibraltar 2 born 5 May 1892 at Chandos Street, Garrod was educated was the head of war London, England at home. In 1913, she entered hospitals, and began to to Sir Archibald Newnham College, Cambridge take an interest in the Garrod and and read history, completing local antiquities. Laura Elizabeth the course in 1916. She worked Smith. Her father was a physician. with the Catholic Women's League Returning to England, She was an English archaeologist during WWI, until she was Garrod read for a Diploma who specialized in the Palaeolithic demobilized in 1919. She then in Anthropology at the Pitt period. Garrod is undoubtedly went to Malta, while her father Rivers Museum. There one of the most influential she was taught by Robert archaeologists of her time. She Ranulph Marett graduating in broke barriers from how archaeology 1921 specializing in the archaeology of was done to who could do it. Her the Palaeolithic Age. She contin- persistence to pursue archaeology as ued studies with the French a pure science brought about many prehistorian Abbé Breuil at the changes to how archaeological Institut de Paleontologie research was performed. She held the position of Disney Continued on page 2 ... Professor of Archaeology at the University of Cambridge from 1939 to 1952 and was the first woman to hold an Oxbridge chair.

Continued from page 1 ... Dorothy Annie Elizabeth Garrod … Tabun 1 and Anthropology, she became the Disney Professor of Archaeology Photos: Wikipedia; University of Oxford at Cambridge, a post she held until 1952. Humaine in Paris. shelter, Following a recommendation including, During WWII she served in the a com- Women's Auxiliary Air Force, from Breuil, she investigated plete working in a RAF photographic Devil's Tower Cave in Gibraltar, female interpretation unit as a section officer. which was only about 1,000 feet skeleton from Forbes' Quarry, where a now After the war, Garrod returned Neanderthal skull had been found known to Cambridge and made changes earlier. In 1925 she discovered a second to be about 41,000 years old. The to the department. Previously Neanderthal skull now called results established a chronological prehistory had been considered Gibraltar 2. In 1928 she headed an framework that remains crucial to expedition in South Kurdistan the understanding of that prehistoric European in scope, Garrod that led to the excavation of Hazar period. expanded the subject to a Merd Cave and Zarzi cave. global scale. Garrod also Her crews were almost exclusively made changes to the structure of By 1929, Garrod was appointed women workers recruited from archaeology studies, turning director of the excavations at local villages. One of these women, Cambridge into the first Wadi el-Mughara on Mount Yusra, is credited with the discovery British university to offer Carmel in Palestine. This was a of the Tabun 1 Neanderthal undergraduate courses in joint project of the American skull. These excavations were prehistoric archaeology. School of Prehistoric Research and also the first to use aerial the British School of Anthropology in photography. In 1938 she continued During the summers, Jerusalem. Over the next 22 to add to her groundbreaking Garrod travelled to France months a series of 12 extensive Paleolithic discoveries, she travelled and excavated at two excavations was completed. Their to Bulgaria and excavated the important sites: Fontéchevade efforts brought to light the first Paleolithic cave of Bacho Kiro. cave and Angles-sur- evidence of Paleolithic and l'Anglin. Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age, On 6 May 1939, after holding cultures in Palestine. During 1931 several academic positions, She retired in 1952 and –32 over a dozen skeletal remains including Newnham College's moved to France, where she were found in a cave and rock Director of Studies for Archaeology continued to research and excavate. In 1958, she excavated on the Adlun headland in Lebanon. The following year she was asked to excavate at Ras el-Kelb, as a significant cave had been disturbed by road and rail construction. She returned to Adlun again in 1963, with a team of younger archaeologists. In the summer of 1968, Garrod suffered a stroke while visiting relatives in Cambridge. She died on 18 December 1968, aged 76 and is buried in Cambridge. Her 45 year career consisted of excavating over 23 sites in seven countries across two continents including: Britain, France, Gibraltar, Bulgaria, Anatolia, Palestine, Iraq and Lebanon.

Did You Know? The Star-Spangled Garrison Banner Permission by: Hallowed Ground, American Battlefield Trust that it was “my desire to have a flag so large the British will have no difficulty seeing it from a distance.” The commission to make the banners went to a well- respected Baltimore flag maker named Mary Young Pickersgill, who had under- taken other smaller projects set by the U.S. Army and Navy. Over the course of six weeks, Photos: Smithsonian Institution, George Henry Preble, Wikipedia For as famous as it is, the emblems would have been 37-year-old Pickersgill worked so-called Star-Spangled termed “ensigns”; as an with her daughter, Caroline; Banner is shrouded in plenty especially oversized version, two teenage nieces, Eliza and of misconceptions. Perhaps the larger one was a “garrison Margaret Young; an indentured most important is this: The flag.” In fact, before it received its African American apprentice, massive relic on display in more poetic moniker, Fort Grace Wisher, and her own the Smithsonian National McHenry’s example was mother Rebecca Young; who Museum of American History known as the “Great Garrison had taught her the art of flag is NOT the flag that flew Flag.” making, plus additional hired over Fort McHenry while it seamstresses as necessary. was under British attack. Both flags that figure into Given the foul weather during the Battle of Baltimore were The dimension of the Great the bombardment, the fort ordered by the fort’s commandant Garrison Flag dwarfed the instead flew its smaller storm in the summer of 1813. home that Pickersgill rented flag, raising the massive Although only newly arrived so to have enough workspace, version when the British from the war at the Canadian the women negotiated use of disengaged the following frontier, Major George the nearby Claggett’s Brewery morning. Armistead was confident that late into the evening after the the British forces would turn day’s production had ceased. In the terminology of the their might toward Baltimore For their labors, they were time, as national flags, both and wrote to his superiors Continued on page 4 ...

Continued from page 3 ... occasionally displayed for mising its integrity unnecessari- patriotic gatherings. During ly, in 1996, the Smithsonian Banner ... this time, as was typical began preparations to give the before any formal regulations flag a full conservation ultimately paid $405.90 for for treatment of the nation treatment. The multimillion- the Great Garrison Flag and flag were adopted, pieces of dollar project began in 1998, $168.54 for the storm flag – the ensign were clipped off to and museum visitors were able about $9,200 adjusted for use as gifts. Increasingly to watch the painstaking work inflation. concerned about the flag’s of undoing previous, well- fragility, in 1907 Armistead’s intentioned repairs – even today, Just how big was the flag grandson Eben Appleton there remain 37 visible patches flying over Fort McHenry at loaned the Star-Spangled – through a massive window. dawn on September 14, 1814? Banner to the Smithsonian Specialized techniques were It measured 30 by 42 feet, Institution, making it an used to clean and stabilize the making it reportedly the largest outright gift five years later. flag, and to protect it as the flag flown in combat up to that surrounding museum under- time. Each of the 15 red and In 1914, the Smithsonian went its own renovation. The white stripes measured two began a massive restoration, Smithsonian eventually feet across (until1818, a star as legendary embroiderer welcomed visitors to see the and a stripe were added for Amelia Fowler and a team flag “what so proudly we each state that joined the of assistants applied 1.7 hailed” in 2008, when the Union), as do the 15 stars, arrayed million patented honeycomb revitalized museum reopened. in five offset rows. The whole stiches to mount the flag to a project took about 400 yards of linen backing. fabric (English wool bunting for the stripes and blue canton, Over the ensuing century, white cotton for the stars) and the science of material weighed more than 50 conservation has evolved pounds. It took 11 men to considerably (from attempting hoist the great Garrison Flag to replicate its original to the top of its 90-foot pole. appearance to ensuring its long-term stability), and the After the war, the flag passed flag has gone through multiple into the possession of the evolutions of display. Armistead family, where it Determined to keep the relic stayed for around 90 years, on display without compro- Photos: Smithsonian Institution, National Park Service Board of Officers: Lifetime: $350 Pay online at: Directors Darwin \"Smitty\" Smith, President Individual: $25 Sherry Svekis, Vice President Family: $35 Or mail checks to: Mary S. Maisel, Secretary Student: $10 Time Sifters, Inc. Laura Harrison, Treasurer Supporting $50 PO Box 5283 Karen Jensen, Membership Sarasota, FL. 34277 Marion Almy Jean Louise Lammie Evelyn Mangie Copyright © 2022 Time SiftersArchaeology Society,Inc., All rights reserved.

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