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Home Explore (DK) The Animal Book - A Visual Encyclopedia of Life on Earth

(DK) The Animal Book - A Visual Encyclopedia of Life on Earth

Published by Flip eBook Library, 2020-01-18 07:20:26

Description: This inspiring children's reference guide welcomes you to the animal kingdom where you can meet more than 1,500 species, ranging from ants to zebras and everything in between. Stunning pictures bring you face to face with giant predators you know and love, including polar bears and tigers, as well as mysterious microscopic life, including amoebas and bacteria.

A variety of animal habitats are shown in beautiful detail, while accessible information, additional fact boxes, and amazing galleries complete the stories. A jaw-dropping spectrum of animal types - from fish and birds to reptiles and mammals - provides a learning experience like no other.

Keywords: Mushroom, Sponges, Worms, Molluscs, Fungi, Bacteria, Crustacean, Ferns, Insects, Spider, Beetles, Shark, Fish, Frogs, Birds, Snakes, Crocodiles, Alligator, Parrot, Owl, Pigeons, Reptiles, Penguins, Elephants, Orangutan, Monkey, Mammals, Ducks, Rabbit, Cats, Lions, Meerkats, Bears, Pigs, Whales, Cows, Antelope, Deer, Camel, Dolphins, Giraffe, Sheep


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Size 3.5–4.5 cm (1 ⁄ –1 ⁄ in) ❯1234Weight About 6 g ( ⁄ oz) ❯15Habitat Tropical rainforest. The bats chew through the ❯veins of Heliconia leaves, so that the two sides of the leaf hang down to form a tent. They roost inside this tent, which protects them from sun, rain, and predators. Distribution❯Lowlands of Central America. Diet Fruit ❯Breeding❯Females produce one baby in the rainy season. Males and females roost together until the young are born, then the males leave. The young suckle for 20–21 days. Predators❯Snakes and small mammals such as opossums. Conservation status Numbers have declined sharply ❯in recent years due to destruction of their habitat.

250Mammals❯ Dogs, foxes, and relativesDogs, foxes, and relativesDogs and foxes are expert hunters, although most of them also eat plants and carrion. Dogs originally developed from wolves, which people gradually learned to tame. There are now hundreds of different breeds of dog, from the tiny chihuahua , the smallest of domestic dog breeds, 1to the hardy husky , which is used for pulling sledges. 2Huskies can work in temperatures as low as -50°C (-58°F). They are the only mammals, apart from humans, that have walked to both the North and South Pole. African wild dogs live in highly organized packs, rearing young 3co-operatively and hunting together to kill animals much bigger than themselves. Each wild dog has its own coat pattern, which is as unique as a fingerprint. Coyotes come from North and 4Central America. They hunt alone, in pairs, or in packs, and B u s h d o gDhole3African wild do gR a c c o o n d o gB la c k - b a c k e d ja c k a l5 Din g o2H u s k yD a lm a t ia n4C o y o t e1C h ih u a h u aBlack face “mask” with a white muzzleLarge, rounded ears

251Mammals❯ Dogs, foxes, and relativesSCALEcan run at up to 65 kph (40 mph). Dingoes were introduced 5into Australia from Asia by humans about 4,000 years ago. They hunt small animals on their own but band together to attack kangaroos. Arctic foxes are specially suited to life 6in the far north. In winter their coat turns pure white, and they can hunt on drifting ice hundreds of kilometres out at sea. The red fox is one of the world’s most widespread predators, 7occuring throughout the Northern Hemisphere. It often lives in cities, where it scavenges leftover food from bins and rubbish dumps. The North African fennec fox is smaller 8than a cat. It pounces on rodents and insects, pinpointing them with its giant ears. The grey wolf is the biggest 9member of the dog family. It lives in packs and communicates with an eerie howl that can be heard from far away.Large ears help to lose heat8F e n n e c f o xB a t - e a r e d f o xB l a n f o r d ’sf o x7R e d f o x9G r e yw o l f6A r c t ic fo xA r c t icw olfM a n e dw o lfEthiop ia nw o lfG o ld e n ja c k a lWhite winter coat turns brown or blue in summerVery long, black-haired legsThick fur traps heat to keep body warmC r a b - eating f o x

252Mammals❯ BearsBearsLegendary for their size and strength, bears are some of the world’s biggest land mammals, with stocky bodies and flat paws. Most of them stay well away from people but some can be highly dangerous, particularly when they are hungry or protecting their cubs. The Asiatic black bear lives in forests from India to Japan. It spends more 1than half its life in trees and feeds on fruit, nuts, and small animals. The American black bear is slightly bigger 2but also good at climbing. Like all bears, it has a superb sense of smell, and sometimes breaks into cars or campsites to get at stored food. The brown bear is the most 3widespread, with several forms found in different parts of the world. Most famous is the grizzly bear , which lives 4in western North America. Standing up to 3 m (10 ft) tall on Strong legs allow bear to walk upright“Grizzled” hairs lighter at tip than at basePale patch gives this species alternate name “moon bear”3B r o w nb e a r2A m e r ic a n b l a c k b e a r4G r iz z lyb e a r1A s iat i c b l a c k b earSCALE

253Mammals❯ Bearsits back legs, it is strong enough to drag away a moose or a horse. It eats almost anything that it can catch or collect, including deer, fish, berries, and even moths. The Kodiak brown bear from Alaska is even bigger, but the 5polar bear is the largest of all. It is the only bear that actively 6hunts people, although seals are its usual prey. The sun bear 7 and sloth bear live in southern Asia. The sun 8bear’s tongue can protrude up to 25 cm (10 in) to extract food such as honey and grubs from holes and crevices. The spectacled bear comes from forests high up in the South 9American Andes. It feeds on fruit, plant shoots, and meat. The giant panda lives in central China, where it feeds entirely 10on bamboo. Like all bears, it has tiny cubs. They weigh only about 120 g (4 oz) when they are newly born. Long claws for breaking open termite moundsFurry soles provide good grip on ice6Pola r bea r8S lo t h b e a r10G ia n tp a n d a7S u n b earWhite fur provides camouflage in snow and iceLarge front paws used as paddles while swimming9S p e c t a c l e d b e a r5K o d ia k b r o w n b e a r

POLAR BEAR This powerful Arctic predator is the largest land-based meat-eater. Instantly recognizable by its thick white fur, the polar bear is a strong swimmer and a lethally effective hunter. Its usual prey is seals, which it ambushes as they surface through holes in the ice to breathe. The polar bear is often curious about people and can be dangerous if it comes too close to human settlements.

Size ❯ Males up to 3 m (10 ft); females up to 2.2 m (7 ft) tall, standing on their hind legs Weight Males weigh 300–800 ❯kg (660–1,760 lb); females about 150–300 kg (330–660 lb) Habitat Arctic tundra and sea ice. Spends a lot of its time ❯hunting on sea ice. Distribution Arctic Circle; Canada and ❯northern Alaska; Greenland; northern Scandinavia, Russia, and Siberia. Diet Seals, narwhals, walruses, and seabirds. ❯They may go without food for months, living off their body fat. Breeding ❯ They mate from March to May. Cubs are born from November to January. Lifespan Up to 30 years. ❯Predators❯None. Conservation status ❯ Vulnerable. Melting of ice due to climate change is reducing their habitat.

256Mammals❯ Seals and walrusSeals and walrusSCALESeals are awkward on land but fast and gracefulin the sea. All of them have streamlined bodies, and flippers instead of legs. The smallest seals are just over 1 m (3 ft) long but the biggest measure more than 4 m (13 ft) around their blubbery waists and weigh more than 3 tonnes. The Antarctic fur seal breeds on islands in the Southern 1Ocean, while the brown fur seal lives along the coasts 2of Australia and South Africa. The California sea lion is 3an expert at catching fish, and is a star performer at wildlife parks and zoos. At full speed it can swim at 40 kph (25 mph). Walruses have huge wrinkly bodies, bristly moustaches, 4and white tusks up to 1 m (3 ft) long. They live in the Arctic and feed on clams and other seabed animals, sucking them out of their shells. Steller’s sea lion from the North 5Male can inflate muzzle to look ferociousBody propped up by front flippers3C a l i f o r n i a s e a l i o n4W a l r u s5S t e l le r ’ s s e a l i o nS o u t h e r n s e a l io n2B r o w n f u r s e a lG a la p a g o sfu rs e a l1A n t a rct i c f u rs e a l

257Pacific is the biggest of its kind. Like all sea lions and fur seals it can walk on its flippers, while other seals crawl on their stomachs when they come ashore. The southern elephant seal is the largest seal and a record-breaking diver. It can 6plunge more than 2 km (1 ⁄ miles) deep to catch fish and 14squid, holding its breath for an hour and a half. Weddell seals live around Antarctica. These expert divers 7specialize in long, deep dives under Antarctic ice shelves. In the winter season, they gnaw holes in the sea ice so that they can come to the surface to breathe. Grey seals8are fish-eaters from the North Atlantic, but the Antarcticleopard seal is a ferocious killer of warm-blooded animals, 9including penguins and other seals. Unusually for a true seal, it uses its front flippers to swim and steer.Trunk-like nose in malesFlippers have short clawsStreamlined body for speedy swimmingLarge eyes for good vision in deep waterThick layer of blubber keeps body warmFront flippers used for steeringHooded seal7 Weddell seal8G r e y s e a lB a ik a l s ealB e a r d e d s e a l6Sout h e r n e lephant sealC ommo n s e a lH a r p s e a l9L e o p a r d s e a l

258CatsSleek, stealthy, and patient, cats are natural killers. Apart from lions, most of them hunt on their own, using their claws and teeth to catch their prey. They include the fastest animals on four legs as well as some of the world’s laziest predators, which snooze up to 20 hours each day. Geoffroy’s cat from South America is a typical small 1cat. It hunts at night, catching mammals, birds, and fish. The black leopard is a variety of the regular leopard, with 2unusually dark fur. The clouded leopard gets its name 3from its cloud-shaped markings. It comes from the forests of South and Southeast Asia, and often hunts in treetops. The snow leopard lives in the mountains of Central 4Asia, where its thick coat and wrap-around tail protect it from the cold. Ocelots are forest cats from Central and 51G e o f f r o y ’ s c a t4S n o w le o p a r d2B l a c k le o p a r d6L e o p a r d7J aguarExtra-long tail can wrap around the body Agile body adapted for climbingM a r g a y3C lo u d e d le o p a r d5O c e lotRetractable front claws

259Mammals ❯ CatsSCALESouth America. Night hunters, they prey on rodents but can climb trees to stalk monkeys and birds. Leopards 6 live in Africa and Asia. To safeguard their food from scavengers, they sometimes haul prey high into trees. The jaguar is 7the biggest cat in the Americas. It is a good swimmer and often feeds on turtles, crushing their shells with its powerful bite. The lion 8 is the only wild cat that lives in groups, known as prides. Although males are bigger than females, or lionesses, the females do most of the hunting and take sole charge of raising the young. The rusty-spotted cat9from India and Sri Lanka is the smallest wild cat, while tigers are the biggest and the most dangerous. Tigers are 10found from Asia’s tropical rainforests to eastern Siberia, but fewer than 5,000 are left in the wild.Dark fur with black spots9R u s t y - s p o t t e dc a t10T ig e rLong legs and large feet to knock down big prey Vertical stripes for camouflageMales have thick maneF is h in g c a t8L io n

260Mammals❯ CatsMost cats hunt after dark, creeping up on their prey and pouncing. The cheetah is different because it 11hunts by day, relying on speed to make a kill. This lean African cat is the world’s fastest sprinter. It speeds after antelope at up to 100 kph (62 mph), tripping up its victims with a swipe of its front paws. Domestic or pet cats are found all over the world, and have lived alongside people for about 10,000 years. There are many different breeds, including the fluffy Persian cat , with its long hair and short muzzle, 12and the elegant Siamese . The 13Cornish Rex has 14ultra-soft fur, while the Manx cat does not have a tail. 15Most pet cats are good hunters and they sometimes go back to living in the wild. Both domestic and wild cats are renowned for their agility. The caracal is a long-legged 16SCALETail balances legs when sprinting13 Siam e s e c a tP a l la s ’ s c a tS a n d c a t16C a r a c a lJ u n g le c a t12P e r s ia n c a t14C o r n is hR e xS p h y n xc a t15M a n xc a tLong ear tufts11C h e e t a hT a b b yc a tThin, very short fur

261Mammals ❯ Catswild cat from Africa and western Asia. A stunning acrobat, it leaps up to 3.1 m (10 ft) off the ground to knock birds out of the air. The European wild cat feeds mainly on rodents, 17but it also attacks ground-nesting birds, swallowing everything including their feathers and bones. Lynxes and bobcats have stubby tails and tufted ears. The Canadian lynx is found 18mostly across Alaska, Canada, and in a few areas of the northern USA. Its main prey is the snowshoe hare, while the North American bobcat stalks and pounces on all kinds 19of animals, from insects to young deer. The puma 20, also known as the cougar or mountain lion, is one of the most widespread cats in the world, found all the way from western Canada to the tip of South America. It is normally shy but it sometimes attacks humans and can kill. Large paws for running over snowE u r a s ia n ly n xB la c k - f o o t e d c a t20P u m aM a r b le dc a tA s i a n g o l d e n c a t17E u r o p e a n w i ld c a tIb e r ia n ly n xIn d ia nd e s e r t c a tShort, bobbed tail19B o b c a t18C a n a d ia n ly n xPowerful jaw for attacking large preyS erva lTail used for balance while climbing

LIONS Perhaps the most famous of all wild animals, lions are instantly recognizable by their size, brownish-orange coat, and the male’s bushy mane. They are renowned for their strength and ferocity. These African lion cubs are practising hunting skills, play-fighting with each other and their mother. These games may look like fun, but they teach the cubs how to stalk, ambush, and kill prey. These will be essential skills when they reach adulthood.

Size Males up to 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) long; females up to 1.7 m ❯(5 ⁄ ft) long. 12Weight Males weigh 190 kg (418 lb), females ❯126 kg (278 lb) Habitat Hot, dry grassland, scrubland, and ❯occasionally forests. Lions live in groups called prides. Males defend the pride’s territory, which can be up to 260 km 2(100 sq miles). Distribution Asian lions live in the Gir Forest ❯in western India. African lions are found in sub-Saharan Africa. Diet Antelope, zebra, and wildebeest, hunted by the females. ❯Predators None, but may be killed by rival males, hyenas, ❯and humans. Breeding Lions breed all year round. Females ❯give birth to up to six cubs per litter. Conservation status❯Lions are in danger due to hunting and habitat loss.

2644W o lv e r in eOtters, raccoons, and weaselsOtters and their relatives include many experthunters as well as the smelliest mammals on Earth. They have slender bodies and short legs, with small ears and thick fur. Most of these animals catch their food on land or in fresh water. The sea otter is the only one that lives offshore. 1It feeds on shellfish, breaking them open with a stone using its stomach as a worktop. The rare giant otter from 2South America’s rivers is longer but lighter and has a paddle-shaped tail. North American striped skunks3have an overpowering method of self-defence. If anything or anyone comes too close, they squirt a foul-smelling liquid from glands beneath their tails. The liquid smells like a mixture of burning rubber and rotting eggs and takes days to fade away. Wolverines live in northern parts of Canada, USA, 4Large webbed paws2G ia n to t t e rE a s t e r n s p o t t e d s k u n k3S t r ip e d s k u n kTail has dark ringsG r e a t e rg r is o nA s ia n sm a l l - c la w e d o t t e r1S e a o t t e rDense, warm coat can contain one billion hairsMarkings warn off attackersStocky, bear-like body

265Mammals❯ Otters, raccoons, and weasels SCALEEurope, and Asia. Up to 1 m (3 ft 5 in) long, they are the world’s strongest mammals for their size, capable of killing a reindeer or a moose. In North America the raccoon5is a common nocturnal visitor to gardens and backyards. Intelligent and curious, it often raids dustbins for leftover food, and catches fish and frogs in ponds. The least weasel6is the smallest meat-eating mammal. As thin as a finger, it hunts mice in their burrows underground. Kinkajous7from South America feed mainly on fruit, while the honey badger from Africa breaks into bees’ nests. It has very 8thick fur, which protects it from angry bees’ stings. The Eurasian badger 9 eats plants and animals, and lives in burrow systems called setts. Some setts contain more than 300 m (984 ft) of tunnels, and can be 100 years old.Paddle-like tail for swimming 7K in k a jo uS o u t hA m e r ic a n c o a t i5R a c c o o n8H o n e y b a d g e r9E u r a s ia n b a d g e r6L e a s t w e a s e lN o r t h A m e r i can rive r o t t e rLarge eyes for good night visionE u r o p e a np o le c a tS t o a tB la c k - f o o t e d f e r r e tA f r ic a n z orillaSkunk-like stripes extend from head to tailAmerican m i n kB e e c hm a r t e n

266Mammals❯ Mongooses, civets, and genetsMongooses, civets, and genetsSCALEMongooses are famous for fighting snakes,although they eat lots of other animals, including insects, lizards, birds, frogs, and even scorpions. Alert and watchful, their quick movements protect them from getting bitten or stung by their prey. They often live in groups and are generally active during the day. The African banded mongoose 1 makes its home in old termite mounds, while meerkats use their long front claws to burrow 2underground. The Egyptian mongoose hunts in thick 3undergrowth and sometimes catches fish and crabs at the edge of streams and ponds. The Indian grey mongoose4often lives near towns and villages where it helps out by killing rats, snakes, and scorpions for food. Civets and genets are different to mongooses in that they usually feed at night Tail with brush-like tip1B a n d e dm o n g o o s eY e l lo w m o n g o o s e2M e e r k a t3E g y p t ia nm o ngoo s eR u d d ym o ngooseC a p e g e n e tC omm o n d w a r fm o n g o o s e4In d ia n g r e ym o n g o o s eW h i t e - t a i le dm o n g o o s eBushy white-tipped tail

267and live on their own. The Asian palm civet eats 5fruit and flowers as well as small animals, and stays mainly in trees. The binturong from Southeast Asia has shaggy 6black fur, tufted ears, and a prehensile tail. Masked palm civets live in forests in Southeast Asia and China. Like 7other civets they can squirt attackers with a powerful-smelling fluid, produced by glands at the base of their tails. The small-spotted genet looks like an extra-long cat 8with a slender tail. Found in southern Europe and Africa, it is an expert climber and often catches birds roosting in trees. In some areas it raids farms and is considered a pest. The banded linsang from Southeast Asia has 9a beautifully striped and spotted coat. It nests in trees and spends most of its life off the ground.A f r ic a n c iv e t8Sm a l l- s p o t t e dg e n e t7M aske d p a lm c iv e tSmall Indian civetO r ie n t a lc iv e tA f r i c a n p a lm c iv e t9B a n d e d l i n s a n g5A s ia np a lm c iv e t6B in t u r o n gLarge eyes to see in the darkSharp claws for climbing

MEERKATS These cheeky, sociable animals are related to mongooses. Meerkats live in groups called mobs. They dig burrows to protect them from the hot African sun and from predators. Mobs feed and hunt together, with some meerkats acting as lookouts, standing on their hind legs to watch for danger. If a predator approaches, the lookout gives a warning cry and the whole mob dives for cover.

Size Up to 60 cm (24 in) long. Males are slightly larger ❯than females. Weight Up to 1 kg (35 oz) ❯Habitat Open ❯plains, dry, hot grasslands, and savanna. Distribution❯Southern and southwestern Africa Diet Insects, birds and ❯birds’ eggs, lizards, rodents, and fruit. Lifespan 5–15 years ❯in the wild. Breeding Meerkats breed all year round, but ❯more so in warmer months between August and March. Usually only the dominant female breeds. She may have up to four litters a year, with two to four young per litter. Males and siblings help raise the young, teaching them hunting and survival skills. Predators Hawks, eagles, and jackals. ❯Conservation status Not currently in danger. ❯

270Mammals❯ Rhinos and tapirsRhinos and tapirsAfter elephants, rhinos are the world’s largest land animals, with barrel-shaped bodies and thick, folded skin. They have few natural enemies but most rhinos are threatened by illegal hunting for their horns. The African black rhino1weighs up to 1.5 tonnes. Notorious for its poor eyesight and bad temper, it feeds on leaves and twigs using its flexible upper lip, and does not like being disturbed. They eat twigs and leaves, which they grasp with their flexible upper lips. The Javan rhino and 2Sumatran rhino are found in the forests 3of Indonesia. Javan rhinos have a single horn, and are some of the rarest mammals in the world, with fewer than 50 left in the wild. Sumatran rhinos are also critically endangered. They have two horns and are born with a wiry coat of brown fur. Smallest of all rhinos, they can still grow to a height of 1.5 m (5 ft). The 3Sum t ar a n r h in o c e r o s5M o u n t a in t a p irLong front hornThree-toed feet1A f r ic a n b la c k r h in o c e r o s2J a v a n r h in o c e r o s4In d ia n r h in o c e r o s

271Mammals ❯ Rhinos and tapirsIndian rhino is the biggest Asian species, with a single 4horn and armour-plated skin. It lives in tall grasslands, and almost became extinct in the early 1900s, when fewer than 200 were left. About 3,000 live in India today, protected by armed guards. Tapirs are distant relatives of rhinos, with long noses like miniature trunks. They eat fruit and leaves and find their food mainly by smell. The mountain tapir 5, Baird’s tapir , and 6South American tapir come from Central 7and South America. The largest of all, the Malayan tapir8is the only Asian species, and the only one that is black and white when fully grown. The African white rhino is the 9giant of its family. It has two horns and can weigh almost 3 tonnes. Despite its colossal size, it is astonishingly quick and agile, galloping at nearly 50 kph (31 mph).Thick, grey protective skin9W h it e r h in o c e r o s8M a la y a n t a p ir6B a ir d ’st a p ir7S o uthA m e r ic a n t a p irSquare mouth for grazingLong, flexible snout to grasp leaves overheadSCALE

272Mammals❯ Horses and relativesHorses and relativesThe horse family contains some of the fastest and best-known mammals in the world. They live in herds and have very good eyesight and hearing. At the first sign of danger they quickly gallop away. Zebras are wild animals and so are most asses, but donkeys and horses were tamed thousands of years ago. The plains zebra1is the biggest wild member of the horse family, with narrow stripes and a white underside. It lives in East Africa, and is in danger of dying out, with fewer than 5,000 alive in the wild. Grant’s zebra also comes from East Africa. It is 2the smallest zebra, growing up to 1.4 m (4 ⁄ ft), and has thick 12stripes and a black upright mane. The Somali wild ass3lives in the rocky deserts of northeast Africa. It is the ancestor of the donkey , a sure-footed animal used by humans to 41P la in s z e b r a2G r a n t’sz e b r a4D o n k e y5P e r s ia n o n a g e r6P r z e w a l s k i ’ s h o r s eK h u rK ia n gStripe pattern is unique to each animalUpright mane3S o m a l iw i ldassStriped legs

273Mammals❯ Horses and relativescarry burdens in many parts of the world. The Persian onager is a wild ass from Asia and is now found only in 5Iran. Przewalski’s horse from Mongolia is the last true 6wild horse in the world. It almost died out in the 20th century, but is slowly recovering thanks to the work of conservationists. The mule is a hybrid, or mixture, between a male donkey 7and a female horse. However, there are also more than 1,000 pure horse and pony breeds. The Shire horse , bred 8in Britain, is one of the biggest and the best at pulling loads. The heaviest Shire horse on record, born in 1848, weighed more than 1.5 tonnes. Today, Shire horses are quite rare, but some are still used in forestry. Arab horses are the fastest 9breed, and are used in horse racing. The most valuable can fetch a price of more than $10 million.H in n y7M u leE x m o o r p o n y8S h ir eh o r s eP a in th o r s e9A r a b h o r s eFurry or “feathered” legsSCALETrailing mane

PLAINS ZEBRAS They may look like peaceful creatures, but zebras can be vicious when it comes to defending themselves or their territory. Males sometimes fight for a chance to breed with females, kicking out and biting at each other. Even predators such as lions and cheetahs have to be careful around zebra herds, as they can be injured or even killed in battles with large males.

Size Up to 1.4 m (4 ⁄ ft) tall ❯12Weight ❯ Males weigh around 360 kg (794 lb); females around 320 kg (705 lb)Habitat Grasslands and open savannas. They usually ❯keep close to water holes. In the dry season, they move in huge herds to find food and water. Distribution Southern ❯Africa Diet Grass, occasionally shrubs. ❯Breeding Plains ❯zebras breed all year round. Foals are often born in the rainy season, and can walk within an hour of being born. Lifespan 15–20 years in the wild. ❯Predators Lions, ❯cheetahs, leopards, and hyenas. Zebras may team up with each other or even with other species such as wildebeest, for protection against predators.

276Mammals ❯ Cows, antelope, and sheepSCALECattle and their relatives all have hooves, and special stomachs for digesting leaves and grass. Some of them live on their own, but most keep together in herds. The gaur is the largest kind of wild cattle, weighing up to 20 1times as much as an adult man. It comes from the forests of tropical Asia and has few natural enemies apart from tigers and crocodiles. Domesticated cattle such as the Texan longhorn can be almost as big. This breed has some of 2the world’s biggest horns, measuring an incredible 3 m (10 ft) from tip to tip. The yak comes from the mountain pastures 3of Central Asia, while the American bison , or buffalo, is 4a grassland animal from the Great Plains in Canada and the USA. At one time there were more than 50 million of these massive grazers, but after years of hunting only about 500,000 Long hair for keeping warmHorns are hollow, with a bony base Thick winter coat falls off in summerCows, antelope, and sheep1G aurL o w la n da n o aJ e r s e ycow2 Texan lo ngho r n4 American biso n3Y a k

277Mammals ❯ Cows, antelope, and sheepare left. Antelope live in Africa and Asia. The African common eland is one of the biggest kinds. It is a gentle animal and 5is sometimes farmed. Gemsboks live in the deserts of 6southern Africa. Like most antelope, both males and females have horns. The common waterbuck 7 lives in grassland and woods but runs into lakes and swamps when threatened. The African buffalo 8 is one of the biggest and most dangerous grassland animals. Adult males can even kill lions and demolish cars. Wildebeest are some of the 9commonest African antelope, migrating in huge herds that follow the yearly rains. Each migration involves up to 1.5 million wildebeest and thousands of other animals including zebras. The klipspringer lives on rocky outcrops in eastern and 10southern Africa. Its rubbery hooves give it a good grip.Feet have two main hoovesStripes provide camouflage8A f r ic a nb u f f a lo5C om m o n e la n dN i lg a iG r e a t e r k u d uA d d a x6G em s b o kS a b lea n t e lope7C o m m o n w a t e r b u c kH a r t e b e e s t10Klips p r i n g e r9W i ld e b e e s tZ e b r ad u ik e rB o h o r r e e d b u c kS i t a t u n g aHorns have knobbly rings

278Mammals❯ Cows, antelope, and sheepThere are more antelope in Africa than anywhere else in the world. Thomson’s gazelle lives in 11East Africa’s grasslands, where it often mixes with herds of zebras and wildebeest. It keeps a constant lookout for predators, sleeping in five-minute bursts for just an hour every day. The springbok 12 from southern Africa can leap more than six times its own length. Males lock horns during the breeding season, when they fight for the right to mate. Günther’s dik dik 13 is a miniature antelope that lives in shrubby places, while the gerenuk 14 stands on its back legs to feed in shrubs and trees, helped by its long, slender neck. The blackbuck 15 lives in India and Nepal. Females are mainly brown, but males are black and white with spirally-twisted horns. The muskox is named after the strong 16Extra-long neckIm p a la12S p r in g b o kA lp in ec h am o is11T h om s o n ’sg a z e l le15B la c k b u c k13G ü n t h e r ’sd ik d ikG o it e r e d g a z e l le14G e r e n u kG r a n t ’sg a z e l leS t e e n b o kSCALERidge of hair along back

279Mammals ❯ Cows, antelope, and sheep20B ig h o r n s h e e pM a r k h o rsmell emitted by males during the breeding season. It looks like a buffalo, but is actually a relative of wild goats and sheep. It lives in the high Arctic and has a thick, shaggy coat to protect it from the intense winter cold. The North American mountain goat 17 is a fearless and agile climber. It can leap along narrow ledges just a few hours after being born. The Alpine ibex 18 is just as sure-footed. It lives high above the treeline in the European Alps, and is famous for its horns, which can be up to 1 m (3 ft) long. The mouflon19from Europe and Asia is the wild ancestor of sheep that live on farms. Male bighorn sheep from North America use 20their horns to fight with their rivals. They crash head-on with enormous force and their fights can last several hours until one of the contestants walks away.Wool is used to make mohair, a costly fabricThick, curved horns longer in malesCurved horns 16M u s k o xC o t s w o ld s h e e p19M o u f lo nA n g o r a g o a t18A lp in e ib e x17M o u n t a ing o a tT a k i nB a rb a r y s h e e pSharp hooves have soft inner pads for better grip

HIPPOPOTAMUSES Hippopotamus means “river horse”, and these animals love water. They spend the day submerged to stay cool and keep their skin moist, coming ashore to graze at night. Hippos can close their nostrils to hold their breath, and sometimes even fall asleep underwater, coming up to breathe without waking up. With their long tusks, hippos can be dangerous, especially if their young are threatened.

Size Up to 1.7 m (5 ⁄ ft) tall ❯12Weight Males up to ❯4.5 tonnes; females up to 1.5 tonnes Habitat Shallow ❯lakes, rivers, swamps, and grassland around these areas. Distribution Sub-Saharan, Eastern, and Central Africa. ❯Diet Grass, reeds, and small shoots of plants. ❯Breeding❯Hippos breed about once every two years and have just one calf each time. The calves suckle for nearly a year and can do so even underwater. Lifespan About 50 years. ❯Predators❯Adults have no predators apart for humans. Young hippos may be eaten by crocodiles, lions, and hyenas. Conservation status Numbers have fallen sharply in recent years due to ❯habitat loss and because they are hunted for their teeth.

2821P ié t r a inp igMammals ❯ Pigs, peccaries, and deerNorth Africa, and Asia, but has been released in many other places where it is sometimes a serious pest. The collared peccary is found from southern USA to South America 3and is similar to a wild boar. The Buru babirusa from 4Indonesia has some of the strangest tusks of any pig. It has two growing out of its mouth and two more growing upwards through its snout. The warthog lives in Africa’s grasslands. 54B u r u b a b ir u s aW h it e - l ip p e dp e c c a r yB e arde d p igR e d r iv e rh o g2W i ldb o a r5W a r thogR o edee rSCALEPigs, peccaries, and deerLong snout for rooting up food Two pairs of tusksDeveloping antlers covered in velvety skin3C o l la r e dp e c c a r yS am b a rRed-brown summer coat turns dense and grey in winterPigs come in many shapes and colours. Domestic varieties are raised for their meat in farms across the world. The spotty Piétrain pig, originally from Belgium, 1is one popular variety. Domestic pigs have descended from the wild boar . With its bristly fur and bulldozer-like snout, 2this formidable creature digs up roots, burrowing animals, and also crops in fields. It originally comes from Europe, Pale white neck collar

283Mammals❯ Pigs, peccaries, and deer9M oose10R e in d e e rW h it e - t a i le dd e e rA x i sd e e rS o u t h e r np u d u8J a v am o u s ed e e r7W a p i t iP a m p a sd e e rM u s kd e e r6F a l l o w d e e rBoth males and females grow antlersAntlers fall off when winter endsS i k a d e e rLike other wild pigs it can be dangerous if cornered, particularly if it has piglets to protect. Pigs eat almost anything, but deer are vegetarians, feeding on leaves, lichens, and bark. Most male deer have antlers, which they shed and regrow each year. The fallow deer’s antlers are flat like the 6palm of a hand, but the wapiti has branching antlers that 7end in sharp points. Every autumn, male wapiti or stags clash head-on in a trial of strength that decides who gets a chance to breed. The tiny Java mouse deer 8 is the world’s smallest hoofed mammal, no bigger than a rabbit, while the moose9is by far the largest deer, with a record weight of more than 800 kg (1,760 lb). Moose live on their own, but reindeer10are much more sociable. In the Canadian Arctic, half a million of them can travel in a single herd.

284Mammals❯ Camels, llamas, and giraffesCamels, llamas, and giraffesFor thousands of years, the one-humped camelordromedary1has been used as a working animal in North Africa and the Middle East. Nicknamed the “ship of the desert”, it can go for two weeks without drinking, and when it does find water it can swallow enough to fill four kitchen sinks. Its hump stores an emergency reserve of fat, and it has cushioned feet that stop it from sinking in the desert sand. The Bactrian camel from Central Asia is even 2tougher because it has to cope with extreme winter cold. It has two humps instead of one and a thick winter coat that falls off when spring arrives. Giraffes are the world’s tallest animals. They live in Africa’s tree-studded grasslands, feeding on leaves and twigs that other mammals cannot reach. The Masai giraffe is the largest, with a record height of 31D r om e d a r y4O k a p iSCALE2B a c t r ia n c am e l3M a s a ig iraffeStriped upper legsShaggy beard on throatRound feet with two toes

285Mammals❯ Camels, llamas, and giraffes6 m (20 ft). The okapi from Central Africa is a forest- 4dwelling relative of giraffes, while the guanaco belongs 5to the camel family. It lives high in the Andes like the South American alpaca . Alpacas are raised for their silky fleece. 6Some breeds have short coats but suri alpacas can have 7a fleece so long that it trails along the ground. All alpacas are descendants of the vicuña 8. This wild grazer, also from the Andes, can survive at 5,000 m (16,400 ft), a height that would leave many people gasping for breath. The llama 9, a tame relative of the guanaco, is used for carrying burdens on narrow mountain paths. Back in Africa, Rothschild’s giraffe 10 is easily recognizable with its big spots and long white “socks” on its lower legs. Loss of habitat has threatened its existence, with fewer than 670 left in the wild.9Llama6A lp a c a8V i c u ñ a7S u r ia lp a c aBony horns covered in skinLarge ears for keeping coolTho r n i c r o f t ’ s g ira f f e5G u a n a c oLong, woolly coat10R o t h s c h i ld ’sg ir a f f eR e t ic u la t e d g i r a f f e

GIRAFFES With their amazingly long necks reaching into the treetops, giraffes are the tallest living animals. They have only seven bones in their necks, the same number as humans. Their long, slender legs allow them to gallop as fast as a horse, but become a problem when they have to bend down to drink. Giraffes also have long, bluish-purple tongues, and horn-like growths on their heads. Each giraffe can be recognized by its unique pattern of blotches.

Size Males up to 6 m (20 ft); females up to 4.7 m (15 ⁄ ft) ❯12tall Weight Males weigh up to 1.6 tonnes; females up to ❯1.1 tonnes Habitat Grassland, savanna, and open woodland. ❯Distribution Sub-Saharan Africa ❯Diet Giraffes mainly feed ❯on acacia trees. They have tough mouths and tongues to cope with the thorns. Breeding Giraffes breed in the rainy season, ❯and calves are born in the dry season. Females give birth standing up, and a calf can walk within an hour of being born. Lifespan About 25 years in the wild. ❯Predators Lions, ❯but young giraffes may also be killed by leopards, hyenas, wild dogs, and crocodiles. Conservation status Numbers of ❯some giraffe species are reducing due to habitat loss.

288Mammals❯ Dolphins and porpoisesDolphins and porpoisesDolphins and porpoises are related to whales, but they are smaller and faster, with sharply pointed teeth. Some live alone but most travel in groups called pods or schools. Intelligent and playful, they communicate with clicks and whistles. Like some whales, dolphins use sound waves to find their food. The striped dolphin lives worldwide, 1mainly where the sea is warm. It feeds on fish and squid, and often surfs the bow-waves in front of fast-moving boats. Risso’s dolphin has a flattened head instead of a beak. 2As it gets older, its body often becomes scarred from fighting with other dolphins and grappling with squid. Porpoises are usually shorter than dolphins, with barrel-shaped bodies and blunt jaws. The tiny vaquita is one of the rarest and 3smallest species, measuring just 1.2 m (4 ft) long, while Dall’s Burm e is t e r ’sp o r p o is e2R isso’s dolphinSouthern rig h twhaled o lp h in1S t r ip e dd o lp h inMostly grey body becomes lighter with ageDistinctive blunt, rounded headSteeply sloping headP y gmy killer whaleA t la n t icw h ite si-d e d d o lp h in4D a l l ’sp o r p o is e6In d u sr iv e rd o lp h in3V a q u it aF r a n c is c a n aF in le s sporpo is e5A m a z o n r iv e r dolph in

289Mammals❯ Dolphins and porpoisesporpoise is the fastest with a top speed of about 55 kph 4(34 mph). The Amazon river dolphin has small eyes 5and the Indus river dolphin is almost blind. Both these 6dolphins live in fresh water and rely on sound waves to hunt. The bottlenose dolphin is smart and agile, making it a 7popular performer at aquariums. It frequently interacts with humans in the wild, too. Commerson’s dolphin , on the 8other hand, is a much rarer species from icy southern seas. The killer whale , or orca, is by far the biggest member of 9the dolphin family, weighing up to 7 tonnes. A cunning and quick-witted predator, it attacks other dolphins and whales, and sometimes tips up ice floes to make seals slide into the sea. It is even known to attack seals on beaches, using large waves to wash itself back out to sea after grabbing its prey.S h o r t - b e a k ed o cmmon dolphinSCALE8C o m m e r s o n ’sd o lp h inA t la n tic sp o t t e ddo lp h inPea le ’sdo lp h in7B o t t lenos ed o lp h in9Kill e rw h a leH e c t o r ’sd o lp h inPowerful body suited for huntingHo urglass dolphin

290Mammals❯ WhalesWhalesFor more than 30 million years, whales have roamed the open seas. They include some of the biggest animals that have ever lived. They breathe air through blowholes on top of their heads and swim by beating their flukes, or horizontal tails. The beluga and 1narwhal are 2two small whales from the Arctic. Belugas have white skin that blends with Arctic ice floes. Narwhals have a long twisted tusk, which they were hunted for in the past. The tusks were sold as “unicorn horns” and were thought to have magical powers. The humpback whale is a fish-eater and an incredible 3acrobat. It sometimes bursts right out of the water, crashing back onto the surface with a massive splash. The humpback is much longer than a bus, but it is only half the size of the blue whale , the largest animal on Earth. This mega- 44Blue whale2Narw h a l5B o w h e a dw h a leP y gm yr ig h t w h a le3H u m p b a c kw h a leS e i w haleS o u t h e r nrig h tw h a leBryde’s whaleM in k ew h a le6Fin whaleSingle tusk with left-handed twistIrregular white patches on undersideThroat folds expand when feeding1B e lu g aw h a le

291Mammals❯ Whalesmammal weighs about 150 tonnes, which is more than the heaviest dinosaur, and grows up to 27 m (89 ft) long. It feeds on tiny animals called krill, filtering them out of the water, swallowing up to 8 billion every day. The bowhead whale 5and fin whale are also filter-feeders, but the 6sperm whale is the world’s biggest hunter-killer with a huge head 7and about 50 enormous teeth. It feeds on giant squid, diving up to 3,000 m (9,840 ft) beneath the waves to find prey. The gray whale makes the longest migrations of any mammal, 8a round trip of 20,000 km (12,430 miles) from Alaskan waters to warmer waters off Mexico. Beaked whales feed in seabed canyons, sucking up squid and fish. Baird’s beaked whale9is the biggest of these mysterious animals while Cuvier’s beaked whale is the most widespread.107Sperm w h a leP y gm ys p e rm w h a leB la in v i l le ’sb e a k e dw h aleS t r a p - t o o t h e dw h a leN o r t h e rn bottlenose wh a leG r a y’sb e a k e dw h a leH u b b s ’b e a k e dw h a le10C u v ie r’sb e a k e dw h a le9B a ir d ’sb e a k e dw h a leTeeth at tip of protruding lower jawClumps of barnacles may grow on whale’s skinWrinkled skinG in k g o - t o o t h e dw h a leS h e p h e r d ’sb e a k e dw h a leSCALE8G r a y whaleBackward-sloping upper finScars from battling prey

HUMPBACK WHALE These whales are famous for the males’ complex, haunting songs, which carry for thousands of kilometres through the ocean. Humpback whales are remarkably agile for their size. They can push themselves right out of the water, twisting in the air to land on their backs with an enormous splash. This movement is known as breaching. Many whales do it, but scientists do not know why.

Size Males up to 14 m (46 ft) long; females up to 16 m ❯(52 ⁄ ft) long 12Weight Up to 40 tonnes ❯Habitat Ocean; ❯humpback whales breed in warm tropical and subtropical waters but migrate to cooler waters to feed. Distribution❯Oceans and coastal areas across the world. Diet Plankton, ❯krill, and small fish, which they filter out of the water. Breeding Females breed once every two to three years ❯and nurse their calves for about 12 months. Humpback whales become adult at about five years. Lifespan Up ❯to 95 years. Predators Killer whales may hunt young ❯humpbacks. Conservation status No longer threatened ❯since hunting by humans was banned in 1966.

294IndexINDEXAabdomens 81, 97adders 150African bush vipers 154–155African savannah elephants 226–227agoutis 231albatrosses 206–207algae 16–17, 20, 27, 61alligators 139, 156, 157alpacas 285alpine swifts 177anacondas 151anemone cups 26anemonefish 114anemones 53, 114angelfish 114Angora rabbits 228anhingas 196, 197anteaters 222–223Antelope jackrabbits 229antelopes 277, 278antennae 78, 79, 81, 121antlers 283ants 102–103, 222antshrikes 208apes 236–237apollos 94Arab horses 273aracaris 180–181armadillos 222arthropods 48ash trees 44asses 272atlas moths 97auks 204avocets 202axolotls 137aye-ayes 235azure vase sponges 51Bbabies see youngbabirusas 282baboons 242–243bacteria 14–15, 27badgers 265bald eagles 182–183banana slugs 61bandicoots 221barbets 180, 181barn owls 173barnacles 78barred owls 174–175bateleurs 182bats 244–247, 248–249bat flies 100, 101beaks 158birds 168, 176, 180, 181, 195, 198, 202whales 291bears 252–253, 254–255beavers 231bed bugs 88, 89bee-eaters 178, 179bee flies 100, 101bee hummingbirds 177bees 102–103beetles 92–93, 103bellbirds 209beluga whales 290bettongs 218big cats 258–261, 262–263bilbies 220–221binturongs 267birch trees 46birds-of-paradise (birds) 210, 211birds-of-paradise (plants) 40bird’s nests (fungi) 24–25birds of prey 182–185birth 217mammals 222, 223, 224, 227, 228, 239, 255, 263, 269, 287reptiles 144, 152, 155sharks 108, 111bitterns 194black bears 252black-browed albatrosses 206–207black leopards 258black rhinoceros 270black-striped salemas 118–119black swans 189black widow spiders 71black vultures 184blackbirds 211, 213blind animals see sightblindsnakes 151blood pythons 152bloodsuckers 88, 89, 100, 245blue whales 290–291bluebirds 213bluebottle flies 100boa constrictors 150–151boars 282bobcats 261bones 137, 158, 216, 244, 286bonobos 237boobies 197boring sponges 50–51Bornean orang-utans 237bottlenose dolphins 289bowerbirds 209bowhead whales 290, 291box turtles 140boxfish 112brackens 35brains 126intelligence 217, 226, 237, 288breadcrumb sponges 50bream 114breathing 104, 106, 115, 126lungs 139mammals 226, 231, 246, 257, 280, 290breeding see birth, reproduction

295Indexbrittle stars 64, 65brolgas 200brown bears 252, 253brown noddies 204brown rats 232–233budgerigars 166buffaloes 276, 277bugs 88–89bull sharks 109bullfrogs 130, 131, 133bumblebees 103burbots 124burrowsbadgers 265marsupials 220, 221moles 225rabbits 188, 228spiders 70bushbabies 234–235bustards 201butterflies 94–97buzzards 182–183Ccacti 39caimans 157callsbirds 173, 179, 200, 201, 209, 211, 213bugs 89frogs 130–131chlorophyll 31cicadas 89civets 266–267clams 58, 61, 62–63claws 77, 184, 223, 244, 253 see also pincers, talonsclick beetles 93climbing animals 128, 152, 219, 224, 234, 259, 279clostridia 14clouded leopards 258clover 38coats 250, 264, 285fur 103, 216, 228, 229, 232, 253, 265cobras 150, 151, 153cockatiels 167cockatoos 166, 167cocks-of-the-rock 209cocoa trees 44, 45cod 116–117cold-blooded animals 105, 127, 138collective nouns see groupscolonies 192, 247, 248colours 31, 154, 198to attract food 42, 120to attract mates 83, 159, 240as camouflage 64, 88, 107, 131, 147as mimicry 65as warnings 22, 56, 66, 86, 88, 113, 129, 130, 136comet darners 83communication see callsconches 58–59condors 184conifers 36–37constrictors 150–151coots 201coral spots (fungi) 26primates 236, 240, 241whales 292camels 284camouflage 58, 94, 112,as eyes 88–89, 95, 97as plants 85, 88, 129, 134, 194against snow 173, 229, 253stripes 259, 277cane toads 126–127caps (fungi) 22capsids 88capuchins 241capybaras 230–231caracals 260–261caracaras 184carapaces 49carnivores (meat-eaters) 43, 54, 139, 217carpenter bees 102carpenter moths 96carps 122cases 52, 80 see also shellscassowaries 160–161catbirds 209caterpillars 95, 96, 98–99catfish 113, 122cats 258–261, 262–263catsharks 107, 108cedar trees 36centipedes 68–69chachalacas 163chaffinches 209chambered nautiluses 65chameleons 138–139, 146–147chanterelles 25chars 124–125cheetahs 260, 274chestnut trees 46, 47chickadees 210chickens 162chihuahuas 250chimaeras 106chimpanzees 237chinchillas 232, 233chipmunks 230coral weeds (seaweed) 21corals (fungi) 24corals (marine animals) 52–53cormorants 196–197Cornish Rexes 260cottontails 228, 229couas 170coucals 171cougars 261courtship see matingcowbirds 211cows 276coyotes 250–251coypus 233crab spiders 70crabs 76–77crakes 201cramp balls 26–27cranes 200–201crickets 86–87crocodile newts 136crocodiles 156–157crossbills 209crows 211crustaceans 18, 48, 76–79ctenopomas 124cuckoo-doves 165cuckoos 170–171cup fungi 28–29curassows 162, 163cushion stars 64–65cuttlefish 62, 63cytoplasm 12

296IndexDdaddy long-legs spiders 71daisies 41ies 82–83fldamseldandelions 41darners 82, 83ngers 26–27fidead man’s death cap mushrooms 25sh 120–121fideep-sea deer 282, 283defences 40, 49, 67, 85, 153, 264armour 112, 140, 156, 223, 271confusing predators 64, 88–89, 118, 134, 145see also age,flcamou poisonous animals, venomous animalsdegus 233desmans 225diatoms 17diet 195, 235, 257feeding 43, 75, 96, 160, 264, 284, 286carnivores 43, 54, 139, 217herbivores 80, 217, 237see also bloodsuckers, scavengersdingoes 250, 251dippers 208–209disease carriers 14, 15, 56, 100–101diving animalsbirds 196, 208–209mammals 231, 242–243, 257, 290reptiles 145DNA 12sh 108fidogdogs 27, 250dolphins 288–289domesticated animals 146, 154, 168, 232, 250, 273, 282, 284, 285donkeys 272–273dormice 231doves 164, 165ies 82–83fldragondromedaries 284ducks 188–189dunlins 203EE. coli 15eagles 182–183ears 216, 224, 226, 228, 229, 246, 251hearing 172, 216, 229, 272earthworms 57echolocation (sound waves) 246, 288, 289eels 112, 121, 123, 124eggs 51, 105, 127, 159amphibians 132, 135, 139birds 163, 170, 187, 193, 211sh 108–109, 117, 119fiinsects 91, 92, 96, 100, 102, 103invertebrates 79plankton 19reptiles 143, 152egrets 194elands 277electric eels 124electric shocks 124elephants 226–227elks (wapitis) 283emperor penguins 190, 192–193emus 160endangered species seethreatened speciesenergy from sunlight 15, 17, 30, 31, 43ergots 26evolution 104exoskeleton 49 see also shells, skeletonsextinction 126, 164, 241, 271 see also threatened specieseyes 81, 101, 109, 116, 124, 147as markings 88–89, 95, 97see also sightFfalcons 183fallow deer 283fangs 70, 72, 150, 217 see also teethfeathers 159, 162, 174, 185, 196, 210feeding 43, 75, 96, 160, 264, 284, 286bloodsuckers 88, 89, 100, 245see also scavengersfeet 133, 162, 193, 197, 208hooves 276, 277, 279, 283fennec foxes 251ferns 34–35ferrets 265ghting 93, 114, 124, 153,fi 161, 201mammals 226, 266, 274, 278, 279, 288nches 209, 210fin whales 291fins 105, 107, 113, 121fire ants 103fire salamanders 136fire worms 57firs 36, 37fiagella 13flamingos 198–199flatworms 56fleecesfl see coatsickers 181flies 100–101flightless birds 160, 161, 167,fl 190, 196–197ightless insects 80, 87,fl 89, 101ippers 140, 257flocks 161, 198, 211flowering plants 31, 38–41flowering trees 44–47fly agaric 22–23, 25fly catchers 208, 210flying foxes 244, 245flying squirrels 230flfood storage 187, 197, 214, 242, 284sh 120fifootballfoxes 250, 251foxgloves 41, 44francolins 163sh 122–125fifreshwater frigatebirds 197frogs 128–133, 134–135fruit bats 245fruit trees 44–45, 47fruitbodies (fungi) 23funnel-web spiders 72fur 103, 216, 228, 229, 232, 253, 265coats 250, 264, 285fur seals 256Ggalahs 167gallinules 201gamebirds 162–163gannets 197gars 125gazelles 278geckos 144, 146, 147geese 188gender changes 115genders, differences betweenbirds 163, 167, 169, 211sh 121fiinvertebrates 71mammals 237, 243, 259, 278genets 266–267gerbils 232

297Indexgharials 157ghost bats 247giant clams 62–63giardia lamblia 12–13gibbons 236gills 23, 105, 126, 136–137giraffes 284–285, 286–287gliding animals 133, 159, 206, 219go-away birds 170, 171goats 279goldfish 122gophers 232goliath beetles 93goliath tarantulas 71gorillas 236–237gorses 38goshawks 185grasshoppers 86–87greater flamingos 198–199grebes 201grivets 243groupscolonies 192, 247, 248flocks 161, 198, 211herds 227, 275, 276, 277, 278, 283hordes 243hearing 172, 216, 229, 272hearts 132hedgehogs 224, 225height 33, 34, 51, 160, 190, 198mammals 227, 239, 252, 255, 270, 281 284–285herbivores (plant-eaters) 80, 217, 237herds 227, 275, 276, 277, 278, 283hermit crabs 76herons 194, 195herring 117hibernation 153, 230, 246sleep 177, 221, 223, 246, 278, 280hinnies 273hippopotamuses 280–281hoatzins 171hogs 282holly trees 45Honduran white bats 248–249honey bees 102honeybirds 180honeyeaters 210hoopoes 179hooves 276, 277, 279, 283hordes 243hornbills 178–179horntails 103horns 147, 270, 271, 276, 277, 278, 279mobs 268packs 250, 251prides 259schools 118–119, 288swarms 55, 78, 86grouse 162, 163growth rates 20, 27, 35, 71, 120growth rings 61, 142grubs see larvaeguanacos 285guans 162, 163guillemots 204guinea pigs 232guineafowls 162gulls 204–205Hhabitats 14, 122, 162, 233, 237loss of 43, 126, 169, 187, 215, 239, 263, 281, 287hammerkops 197hamsters 231hands 236hares 228–229harriers 185harvestman spiders 70hawks 182heads 80, 101, 109, 140, 157, 185, 217antlers 283horseflies 101horses 272, 273horseshoe bats 245horsetails 34house centipedes 69house flies 100house mice 232, 233hoverflies 101howler monkeys 241humans 237, 250hummingbirds 176, 177humpback whales 290, 292–293humps 284huntsman spiders 70huskies 250hyacinths 41hybrid animals 273hydroids 52hyphae 22Iibexes 279ibises 195iguanas 145, 146–147impalas 278intelligence 217, 226, 237, 288brains 126intestines 15, 56isopods 79

298IndexJjacamars 181jacanas 203jackals 250jackrabbits 229jaguars 258, 259jays 211jellyfish 52, 54–55John Dories 117jungle nymphs 80–81Kkakapos 166, 167kangaroos 219keas 167kestrels 183killer whales 289king vultures 186–187kingfishers 179kinkajous 265kites 184, 185kiwis 160, 161koalas 221koels 170komodo dragons 148–149kookaburras 179krill 78–79Llaburnum trees 46ladybirds 92, 93langurs 243lanternfish 121larch trees 36–37larks 211, 213larvaefish 118insects 92, 98, 103invertebrates 48, 55, 63, 75plankton 18lavender 38leaves 31, 42, 249legsamphibians 127birds 160, 202–203insects 81, 86, 87, 90, 93, 101invertebrates 48, 49, 64, 66–67, 78mammals 237, 286reptiles 139, 140legspan 71lemon sponges 50lemon trees 45lemurs 234–235length 83, 91, 109, 119, 149, 155birds 169, 175, 187, 215invertebrates 55, 63, 75mammals 263, 269, 293leopards 258–259lichens 27life stages 96 see also eggs, larvaelifespans 43, 85, 91, 120, 135birds 169, 175, 199, 205, 207, 215invertebrates 51, 55, 77mammals 227, 239, 269, 275, 281, 287, 293reptiles 142, 149, 155lilac 38lilies 30–31, 39, 41limpets 60linsangs 267lionfish 104–105, 113lions 259, 262–263liverworts 32–33lizards 138, 144–147llamas 285loaches 122lobsters 78, 79locusts 86lop-eared rabbits 228lorikeets 166loris 235lovebirds 167lungs 139 see also breathinglynx 261Mmacaques 242–243macaws 166, 167, 168–169mackerel 116maggots 100magpie-geese 188magpies 211mallards 189malleefowl 163mammoth wasps 103manakins 208mandrills 243maple trees 44maras 232markings 88–89, 95, 97, 114, 143, 258 see alsocamouflage, coloursmarmosets 240–241marmots 230marsupials 218–221martens 265martins 212matingcalls 89, 130–131, 201, 213competing for 93, 101, 153, 161, 274, 278, 283displays 113, 137, 161, 163, 169, 203, 208, 209, 211and eating 91for life 167, 207see also birth, reproductionmeerkats 266, 268–269membranes 13, 15, 23, 105merlins 183metamorphosis 48, 126

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