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NOVEMBER 2020| ISSUE 1 THE MHURECC REPORT Highlights of the Ministry of Housing, Urban Renewal, Environment and Climate Change Featured this QUARTER: Environment and Risk Management Branch Housing Policy, Research and Monitoring Branch Jamaica Bans Single Use Plastics Welcome to The Environment and Risk Management Branch has MHURECC been making significant strides in the development of policies, legislation; and continues to implement programmes which effectively manage the largest physical space we all share, the environment. The Ministry of Housing, Urban Renewal, Environment The Housing Policy, Research and Monitoring Branch and Climate Change (MHURECC) was established in continues its mandate to create and implement policies September 2020. The Ministry has responsibility for that will give Jamaicans greater access to safe, legal and approximately twenty-one (21) subject areas and oversees affordable housing solutions by 2030. nine (9) Departments and Agencies. The ensuing pages provide highlights on the work and MHURECC’s portfolio areas are integral to Jamaica’s accomplishments of the Branches. It also features a sustainable growth and development. The portfolio areas contributed article from Dr Earl Bailey, Land assigned to the ministry, are linked to Sustainable Development and Planning Consultant. Nestled among Development Goals #11 - Make cities and human the pages is a feature story on the much talked about settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable and “Plastic Ban”. As you flip through, you will also find #13 - Take urgent action to combat climate change and its some interesting facts on the Draft Biosafety Policy. impacts. We’ve also provided you with a few fun facts on This quarter’s Report will focus on two Branches of the Watersheds and be sure to treat yourself to some ministry - the Environment and Risk Management Branch edutainment as you fill in the Watershed puzzle. and the Housing Policy, Research and Monitoring Branch. Enjoy!


NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 The Ministry of Housing, Urban Renewal, Environment and Climate Change is pleased to have Minister Pearnel Charles Jr. serving as its Minister. Minister Charles is an Attorney-at-Law with qualification to practice law in Jamaica and the United States of America (New York Bar). He is no stranger to government as his previous appointments saw him serving in several capacities to include Government Senator, Minister of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade and the The Honourable Ministry of National Security. More recently he served as Minister without Portfolio in the Ministry of Economic Pearnel Charles Jr. MP Growth and Job Creation. Pearnel Charles Jr. was born with a passion for community service and as a youth advocate, he continues to actively participate in community activities geared towards uplifting underserved communities and protecting the most vulnerable. CHARLES JR. facts 01 He sings and plays the piano. 04 One of his first jobs was at He wrote and sang his wedding Victoria's Secret. song with background music by Serani, then music producer. 02 He is a scientist, who has a 05 He has been a \"Secret Santa\", double major in Biochemistry funding children's education and Zoology. since he was 20 years old. 03 He was involved in 06 He was arrested as a student at Entertainment Management UWI Cave Hill Campus during a and would have considered it student protest and was later as a profession if he did not elected as Guild President. pursue Politics and Law. MHURECC|PAGE 3

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 ENVIRONMENT AND RISK MANAGEMENT BRANCH The mandate of the Environment and Risk Management Branch is the development of policies, legislation and programmes for effective environmental management, supported by well-developed research and database systems in the area of environmental protection and conservation. THE BRANCH HAS THE FOLLOWING PRINCIPAL RESPONSIBILITIES 1. The development of policies and 6. Public and sector-specific education and promulgation of legislative and regulatory awareness raising, for example, the Ministry’s instruments related to natural resources and Youth Environmental Advocacy Programme environmental management and climate change. 7. National Focal Point responsibilities and 2. Providing policy and technical guidance to national reporting functions associated with various regional and international conventions the Minister with portfolio responsibility for and protocols to which Jamaica is a Party, and the environment, the Executive Branch and contributing to the implementation of global public bodies to facilitate informed decision- sustainable development frameworks, such as making and effective operations. the Sustainable Development Goals. 3. Development and implementation of 8. Jamaica's Operational Focal Point to the environmental projects and programmes. Global Environment Facility (GEF). 4. Monitoring and evaluation functions in 9. One of four permanent directors to the relation to the environment agency under the National Conservation Trust Fund of Jamaica Ministry, which is the Forestry Department. 5. Preparation and dissemination of environmental information and data to the public. “THE ENVIRONMENT IS WHERE WE ALL MEET, WHERE WE ALL HAVE A MUTUAL INTEREST; IT IS THE ONE THING ALL OF US SHARE...\" - LADY BIRD JOHNSON MHURECC|PAGE 4

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 SOME PRIORITY AREAS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT PORTFOLIO Biodiversity and Protected Areas (PAs) Management 1. The Branch is currently updating the 3. Additionally, the percentage 6.of The Branch has also commenced Protected Areas Policy which was terrestrial area under legal protection work, in collaboration with the developed in 1997. Once the Protected Areas Policy is finalized, work will will significantly increase with the Forestry Department, to amend commence on the enactment of overarching protected areas legislation. declaration of the Cockpit Country The Forest Act to take into Protected Area. The Forestry account, inter alia, the Department is currently completing provisions of the Forest Policy 2. In an effort to increase the percentage of the ground truthing exercise. Once (2016). terrestrial and marine areas under legal this activity has been completed, work will commence on the protection the Environment and Risk declaration of the area under law. Management Branch and the National Environment and Planning Agency are 4 Jamaica has also submitted its 6th currently working on the declaration of National Report to the Convention on the Black River (Upper and Lower Biological Diversity which is a Morass) as well as the Pedro Cays and report on the implementation of the surrounding waters as protected areas country's National Biodiversity under the Natural Resources Strategy and Action Plan (2016- Conservation Authority Act. It is 2021)'. anticipated that the former will be completed in the 2020/21 financial year 5. The National Biosafety Policy for and the latter in the 2021/22 financial Jamaica to address the transboundary movement, safe handling, transport year. Declaration of these areas as PAs and use of living modified organisms was tabled as a Green Paper in The will support Jamaica's commitment made Houses of Parliament in July 2020; Public consultations on the Green at the Ocean Summit to increase the Paper were held on October 14 & 15, 2020. Once the Policy is finalized, island's maritime area declared as marine work will commence on biosafety legislation. protected area under national legislation by an estimated 2% by the year 2019. While the country did not meet made the stipulated deadline due to various factors, work is still ongoing on the declaration of these important ecologically sensitive and productive marine areas. MHURECC|PAGE 5

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 Watersheds Management The Watersheds Management Policy is currently being developed by the Branch. Work is currently being undertaken in several severely degraded watersheds, namely:. i. Hope-Yallahs watershed - This GoJ/GEF/IDB Project will be finalized by Dec. 2020 ii. Wagwater and White River watersheds - GoJ/EU Hills to Oceans Project. This Project will commence in the 20/21FY; iii.The GoJ/International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Project will focus on the tracing of pollutants, namely heavy metals and organic pollutants, from rivers to the marine environment. The Falmouth Harbour and Kingston Harbour are being targeted. Air Quality The Emissions Policy Framework is currently being developed to address air pollution from several sources. The Branch is also working to expand the island’s air quality monitoring network by establishing two (2) additional sites to the current monitoring regime. Additionally, the Branch will implement air pollutants source reduction strategies in some hotspot areas, namely the Six Miles, Marcus Garvey Drive, Mandela Highway and Spanish Town Road air corridors. Pollution Management The National Policy on Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Waste is currently being finalized. The draft Policy is to be submitted to Cabinet for approval as a White Paper. The National Policy on Environmental Management Systems was approved in the 2019/20 financial year as a final policy for Jamaica and is currently being implemented by key Public Sector stakeholders, including the National Environment and Planning Agency. Coastal Zone and Marine Management The much talked about Draft Beach Access and Management Policy was approved by Cabinet as a Green Paper in August 2020. Public consultations are slated to commence this year (2020). Mangrove areas are constantly under threat from coastal development. The branch, in partnership with NEPA is therefore in the process of developing a management plan for mangroves. An economic valuation of mangroves was finalized by NEPA with the support of the World Bank.

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 Climate Change The Climate Change Policy Framework (CCPF) is currently being updated to take into account the provisions of the Paris Agreement. The draft Policy Framework was submitted to Cabinet as a Green Paper. Enactment of the Climate Change legislation will commence once the updated CCPF has been finalized. Additionally, Jamaica’s updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) was approved by Cabinet and recently submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Youth Environmental Advocacy Programme (YEAP) The Youth Environmental Advocacy Programme (YEAP) was launched in 2016 at the Holy Childhood High School, Kingston. The YEAP aims to educate students about environmental issues of concern to Jamaica as well as to increase their awareness of how to advocate for their concerns, through Regional Sessions which are held bi-annually. On March 6, 2020, the YEAP held its 8th Regional Session at the Mandeville Hotel under the theme, “Safeguarding Our Future: Reaching a New Deal for the Planet,” which examined biodiversity loss, sustainable consumption, climate change, and strategic planning for environmental issues. It also examined the role of young people in setting long-term strategies to the 2050 vision for biodiversity, approaches to living in harmony with nature, and preparation for the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. MHURECC|PAGE 6

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 GET THE FACTS DRAFT BIOSAFETY POLICY FOR JAMAICA WHAT IS BIOSAFETY? WHAT IS THE OBJECTIVE OF THE CARTAGENA PROTOCOL ON Biosafety refers to the need to protect human health and BIOSAFETY? the environment from the possible adverse effects of the The main objective of the Protocol is to ensure an adequate products of modern biotechnology. level of protection in the safe transfer, handling and use of Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking into account risks to human health and specifically focusing on transboundary movements. Jamaica became a Party to the Protocol in 2012. WHAT IS THE VISION OF THE DRAFT WHAT ARE THE GOALS OF THE BIOSAFETY POLICY FOR JAMAICA? DRAFT BIOSAFETY POLICY FOR The Vision of the draft Biosafety Policy for Jamaica is JAMAICA? “Jamaica has an enabling environment for the safe The goals of the draft Biosafety Policy for Jamaica are: development and utilization of modern biotechnology, resulting in minimal risks to human health and biodiversity (i) To manage the risks to human health, agriculture and biodiversity from the development, while providing benefits to health, agriculture and transboundary movement, handling and use of living modified industry. organisms. (ii)To facilitate the development of a national modern biotechnology sector in a safe and regulatory environment. WHAT ARE THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF THE DRAFT BIOSAFETY POLICY FOR JAMAICA? The main objectives of the draft Biosafety Policy for Jamaica are to: (i) Ensure the effective regulation of the transboundary movement (import and export) of LMOs is in keeping with the relevant international rules and standards as well as the tenets of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (ii)Ensure that the possible adverse effects of LMOs on human health and biodiversity are effectively mitigated and managed (iii) Promote the development and utilization of modern biotechnology at the national level that may provide financial benefits to the relevant sectors taking into account issues of biosafety (iv) Establish standards for the safe handling, storage transport and use of LMOs including packaging, labelling , documentation, disposal and contingency procedures, in keeping with international labelling standards. (v) Increase public education and awareness and information sharing on biosafety to facilitate effective implementation of the national biosafety regime; (vi) Increase the capacity of the relevant national institutions to implement and monitor a national framework for biosafety MHURECC|PAGE 7


NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 Watershed Crossword Puzzle organisms MHURECC|PAGE 9

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 Contributor : Rasheedah Menzie Jamaica joined the initiative of banning single use The Environment and Risk Management Branch reports plastics on January 1, 2019. that as of January 1, 2021, the country will be going into Phase 3 of the ban against single use plastic to include This saw the implementation of a ban on single-use single use plastic bags of dimensions at or below 24”x plastic bags and plastic straws in an effort to reduce 24” and thickness at and below 2.5mils as well as straws the impact that plastic pollution has on the attached to drink boxes and Tetra Paks. environment. Before the ban, Jamaica had one of the highest rates of plastic waste at 34,962 tonnes The Ministry of Housing, Urban Renewal, Environment per year in 2010. This level of pollution contributed and Climate Change will have preliminary discussions to the damage of mangroves, sand erosion, and has with partnering Ministries, Departments and Agencies to endangered many of Jamaica’s marine species. include other types of plastic packaging. The ban on single use plastics was imposed to The measures form part of broader initiatives aimed at reduce these effects as the government implemented safeguarding the environment. The government is several earlier measures to help mitigate the effects hopeful that this initiative continues on a steady path in of plastic waste. These measures excluded single deriving medium to long term benefits to the use plastic shopping bags made of polyethylene or environment. polypropylene with dimensions at or less than 24” X 24” and thickness at and below 2.5mils; the importation and manufacture of polystyrene foam for the packaging of food items such as raw meats and vegetables; and the importation and/or manufacture of plastic straws for medical and/or for other special needs purposes. MHURECC|PAGE 10

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 Waste Composition of Selected Communities in the Riverton Wasteshed (2013) The generation of plastics was down in 2013 in relation to 2006, indicating that some plastics are probably sold directly, or given, to private recyclers rather than disposing if them. MHURECC|PAGE 11

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 Forestry Department An average of 50 acres of forest is needed to absorb the carbon dioxide released from one car The Forestry Department is the Government’s over its lifetime. Car owners—how many trees organization responsible for the management and conservation of the country’s forest resources. The have you planted today? functions of the Department are mandated under the Forest Act 1996 and are aimed at managing Trees of Jamaica – Lignum Vitae forests on a sustainable basis to maintain and increase the environmental services and economic The striking blue flowers of the Lignum vitae are benefits they provide. Jamaica’s national flower. This handsome small The Forestry Department is the evergreen is easily recognized by its dense Executive Agency charged with rounded crown and dark green foliage. It is managing and conserving Jamaica’s often planted as an ornamental. The wood forest resources, particularly those found on Crown Lands. About 40% of the Lignum vitae is one of the hardest of Jamaica is forested, a third – which is and heaviest known, and is unique for its approximately 116,862 hectares of the forested self- lubricating properties due to the lands- are on Crown Lands. The Agency has its resin content of the wood. Lignum vitae has beginnings in 1937 with the passing of the Forest been exported from the Caribbean for nearly Act which created the Forest Branch of the Lands 400 years. Department. Jamaica Mortgage Bank The Jamaica Mortgage Bank was established JMB has 13 active projects across the island valuing $4.3B, to in 1971, as a private limited company under build a total of 307 middle income housing solutions? The Bank the Companies Act of 1965, with an authorized share capital of $5 million. On also has an additional 324 units/lots valuing $3.74B in the June 5, 1973, under Act of Parliament No. 16 pipeline, for a total of 22 projects under management valuing of 1973, the Bank was converted to a statutory corporation. The authorized, issued $8B. and fully paid-up share capital of the Bank is at present $500 million. The Jamaica Mortgage Bank (JMB) was established with the mandate to finance safe and affordable housing so that all Jamaicans will have access to home ownership. The JMB seeks to mobilize financial resources for on-lending to private and public sector Kensington Gates | Developer: Williams Innovative Homes & Designs Limited Kensington Gates, developers located at Kensington Crescent in the fast-paced area of St. Andrew, consists of forty (40) Studio developing and financial institutions, Apartments. The apartments are ideal for families or for persons seeking to acquire a property for a an active secondary mortgage market and providing mortgage indemnity long term real estate investment. insurance. MHURECC|PAGEE 12

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 Min. Charles at Nat'l Tree Forestry Dept. staff at Nat'l Planting Day 2020 Tree Planting Day 2020 AGENCY SPOTLIGHT Nat'l Tree Planting Day 2020 Pleasant Valley in St. James JMB Funding Project Warrens Place Emeralds Estates JMB Funding Project JMB Funding Project MHURECC|PAGE 13

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 HOUSING POLICY, RESEARCH AND MONITORING BRANCH The Mission of the Housing Policy, Research and Monitoring Branch is to enable the development of adequate and suitable legislative, regulatory and policy instruments to facilitate the provision of access to safe, legal, sanitary and affordable housing solutions for all in keeping with Vision 2030 National Development Plan. The responsibilities of the Housing Policy, Research and Monitoring Branch include Spearheading the development and revision of Preparation of Submissions to the Cabinet on behalf Housing Sector related Policies and Legislations of the Ministry and the Housing Agencies under its purview to facilitate approval of proposed projects, Monitoring of the Housing Sector: programmes and policies. Housing development projects and related infrastructure; Facilitating the implementation of Jamaica’s obligations under the United Nations Human Implementation of Housing policies and Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) with special legislations; and emphasis on monitoring. Implementation of the UN-Habitat Represent/ Facilitate the Ministry’s involvement in projects/programmes, e.g. Participatory Slum Regional and International Conferences on Human Upgrading Programme Settlements in particular, the United Nations Habitat and the Regional Meeting of Ministers and High-Level Collaboration with stakeholders in the Authorities on Housing and Urbanization in Latin housing sector America and the Caribbean (MINURVI) Undertaking of primary and secondary research to inform the Ministry’s intervention in projects undertaken by the Ministry and its Agencies as well as its programmes. MHURECC|PAGE 14

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 DRAFT NATIONAL HOUSING POLICY The Branch is in the process of finalizing the Draft National Housing Policy and Implementation Plan. The Draft National Housing Policy is being developed to provide the enabling framework within which the Government of Jamaica can realize access to safe, legal and affordable housing solutions for all Jamaicans by 2030. The National Housing Policy is intended to chart the way out of the perennial housing crisis which has been evolving since the 1950’s, by providing an enabling framework within which the government of Jamaica can realize access to affordable, safe and legal housing solutions for all Jamaican by 2030. The Draft Policy was Tabled in the Houses of Parliament in July 2019 as a Green Paper and is expected to be the finalized for submission to the Cabinet for approval for Tabling as a White Paper in the Houses of Parliament by the end of the 2020/2021 financial year. THE POLICY SPECIFICALLY SEEKS TO Promote a wide range of housing choices at all income levels. Foster partnerships with the private sector and other providers to increase the supply of additional housing solutions to meet projected demand. Rationalize the roles of the public sector agencies directly involved in the provision of housing. Identify mechanisms to make land more accessible to all income groups, for housing development. Provide a framework to support the delivery of social housing, particularly, for the vulnerable and disadvantaged. Establish mechanisms to reduce the impacts of natural disasters and other emergencies on human settlements. MHURECC|PAGE 15

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 The Rent Restriction Act plays a significant role in the regulation of the relationship between landlords and tenants. It sets covenants, rules and standards to govern their behaviour and generally sets out the legal framework within which they operate. LEGISLATION The Branch is currently in receipt of the third Draft Bill from the Chief The Rent Restriction Act Parliamentary Counsel (CPC) which is currently being reviewed to inform the preparation of further drafting instruction to the CPC. The Ministry has been taking steps to amend the Rent Restriction Act which was developed in 1944 (last amended in 1983) to strengthen the outdated provisions contained therein in order to address the current challenges being faced by landlords and tenants in the rental industry. Additionally, in keeping with the Vision 2030 National Development Plan, one of the recommendations of the draft National Housing Policy is to amend the Act, with a view to facilitate a viable rental industry as an option to access adequate, safe and legal housing solutions. For any complaint whether from a landlord or a tenant no action is taken until both parties have been consulted. Landlords and tenants should seek the advice of the Rent Board before going to the court with problems. MHURECC|PAGE 16

DRAFT NATIONAL HOUSING POLICY FACTS Guiding Principles The policy is premised on five major principles to guide the current transformation in housing; these are: 1. Fairness and equity 2. Quality and affordability 3. Partnership and participation 4. Transparency and accountability 5. Sustainability Goal The main goal of the policy is to provide the enabling framework within which the government of Jamaica can realise access to safe, legal and affordable housing solutions for all Jamaicans by 2030. Specifically, it will seek to: 1. Increase access to housing and its associated resources to all segments of the population, in particular the poor, while at the same time reducing direct governmental role in housing production. 2. Promote homeownership among other tenure arrangements including renting to facilitate access to decent, safe and affordable housing solutions for all Jamaicans. 3. Maintain a fair and stable operating environment for the private property market by ensuring adequate land supply and the provision of efficient supporting infrastructure. MHURECC|PAGE 17

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 DOWNTOWN KINGSTON With a landmass and population of 0.97 km2 and 50,000 in 1907 to the current 475 km2 and Conceptual approximately 888,627, respectively, undoubtedly, basis for Urban the city has grown. Settlement development became Renewal more structurally focused after a devastating earthquake and fire in 1907, mainly in the DTK-CBD. WRITTEN BY: DR EARL BAILEY Since then, Kingston’s growth has been undermined LAND DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING CONSULTANT by poor governance, weak enforcement of planning regulations, mushrooming of squatter settlements, Since 1907, the city of Kingston (1872 to resource transfer, crime and political garrisonisation 1923) and later the KMA (1923 to present) inter alia. Growth and contemporary socio- have increased in importance as the demographic dynamics have outpaced socio- Caribbean’s largest English speaking city and physical infrastructure provision, increasing metropolitan areas. Kingston’s economy and vulnerability to multiple hazards. growth were based on port activities (the port is the world’s seventh deepest anchorage). Consequently, continued investments in physical The relaxation of import laws, by the colonial and socio-economic infrastructure have contributed government, saw increases in new business. to primacy and increasing vulnerability. This Between 1921 and 1943 more than 2000 development paradox is exacerbated by people migrated to Kingston annually, as the infrastructure works that continue to ignore serious plantation economy slowly ended. The sensitive ecological considerations spurred by economic base has since then been climate change and climate departure. The diversified into bauxite and tourism at the earthquake was but one of a series of hazards that beginning of the 1950s and later expanding thwarted the development of Kingston during its financial, commercial, ICT, and logistic embryonic stage. It was in 1907 that the first official services since the 1980s to present. Downtown Kingston Redevelopment Project (DKRP) was launched by the Mayor and Council of Kingston, Parochial Board of St. Andrew and Kingston General Commission. The plan valued at JMD1.6million (USD$16,000) included DTK-CBD and involved the implementation of the island’s first building code. This plan saw the retrofitting of structures with reinforced concrete and other modern construction and engineering methods. MHURECC|PAGE 18

NOVEMBER 2020/ ISSUE 1 Primacy Tenets of urban redevelopment Urban development and redevelopment facilitate On one hand urban redevelopment is physically charged primacy by concentrating demographic, socio-spatial and policy led. In the latter urban renewal is about and economic investments, dramatically increasing improving and strategically retrofitting the urban the city’s relative value. Additionally, Over the past physical infrastructural support systems by century, the redevelopment of DTK-CBD and the mainstreaming disaster resilience and ecological KMA, respectively, has been of growing importance sensitivities in their functioning. The former, urban for three reasons; firstly, increasing dependence on revitalisation, is focused on the improving the social and its supporting infrastructure and services to sustain economic conditions of urban residents, by ensuring the other activities in peri-urban space, placing pressure resources for planning are equitably distributed to on an ageing infrastructure. Secondly, there is proportionally enrich the lives of all urban residents. growing concern over socio-spatial expansion of Fundamental in both approaches, is the concern of KMA into surrounding residential communities and mainstreaming disaster resilience and ecological on agricultural lands. Finally, there is increasing sustainable principles on design and operations of the concern about the rise in multiple urban nodes within physical space and the social consciousness of all urban the KMR and second-tier cities (PIOJ 1991; STATIN residents and visitors. 2011) within the national urban hierarchy. Both renewal and revitalisation captures the three fundamental tenets of urban development; the proportionate density of people within the space, the provision and presence of physical and social support systems to service said people in that space and finally, the sort of social product and etiquette that is specific for people within a urban setting, served with special physical and social services and infrastructure and being forced to co-exist with a hodgepodge of social, cultural, racial , ethic, economic and gender differences etc. DOWNTOWN MONTEGO BAY The urban environment produced a peculiar social product, that is acclimatised to the dynamics of the urban area. Urban renewal and revitalisation must be cognisant of the sensitivities inherent in the urban space. This is especially important since as the city’s dependency increases, it crosses the threshold for higher level services. Consequently, it should start offering richer opportunities for development, plus an increasing imperative in recognising its socio-ecological importance and position within the national development equation. MHURECC|PAGE 19


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