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Body Systems- Health Science

Published by Marissa Zurita, 2020-09-20 23:16:29

Description: Body Systems- Health Science


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Marissa Zurita Health Science 2B Pickett Body Systems Flipbook

Integumentary System Function: Protects, maintains body temperature, excretion, perception of derm/o, dermat/o: skin stimuli. kerat/o: hard, horned shape tissue Vocabulary: xer/o: dry, dryness Perspiration: Process of sweating. xanth/o: yellow, yellowish Keratin: Fibrous, water-repellent protein. erythr/o: red Squamous: Scaly. pedicul/o: nail Collagen: Fibrous protein. onych/o: nail Lipocytes: Cells that manufacture and store fat. myc/o: fungus Lipids: Group of organic compounds; consists of fat; insoluble. pil/o: hair, hair follicle Arrector Pili: Small muscle fibers, attached to the hair follicles. rhytid/o: wrinkle Sebum: Oily substance that contains lipids. albin/o: white Strata: Layers. lip/o: fat Melanin: Responsible for the skins pigmentation, or color. Diseases/ disorders: Acne: Inflammatory disorder;produces pimples on the skin. Psoriasis: Chronic disease; itchy, red skin with silvery patches. Tinea: Skin infection caused by a fungus. Albinism: Inherited condition; prevents normal production of melanin. Healthcare Careers: Dermatologists: specialists in skin. Cosmetologists: provide personal care services that include caring for people's hair, skin, and nails.

Musculoskeletal System Function: Provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body. myel/o: bone marrow Vocabulary: kinesi/o: movement Diaphysis: Shaft of a long bone. chondr/o: cartilage Fossa: Shallow pit or cavity in or on a bone. -pexy: surgical fixation Medullary Cavity: Has yellow bone marrow; mainly fat cells. -plegia: paralysis Hematopoiesis: Production of blood cells in the bone marrow. my/o: muscle Tendon: Band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone. crani/o: skull Ligament: Fibrous cord of tissue that connects bone to bone. arthr/o: joints Adduction: Movement of a body part toward midline of body. oste/o:bone Flexion: Movement of two body surfaces towards each other. cost/o: rib Supination: Rotational motion of forearm; palm faces upward. Inversion: Turning inward of the sole of the foot. Diseases/disorders: Osteoarthritis:Joint disease that mostly affects cartilage between the bone and joint. Talipes: Congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus. Hemiparesis: Total paralysis on one side of the body. Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle. Healthcare Careers: Physical Therapist: help injured or ill people improve movement and manage pain. Chiropractor: specialists use their hands or a small instrument to apply a controlled, sudden force to a spinal joint.

Nervous System Function: Receiving information about the environment around us and encephal/o: brain generating responses to that information. myel/o: bone marrow Vocabulary: ambul/o: to walk Neurons: Nerve cells; conduct electrical impulses through the body -esthesia: feeling; sensation to an external/internal stimulus. mening/o: meninges Mitochondria: Specialized tissue cells; convert nutrients to energy concuss/o: shaken together for cells in the body. psych/o: mind Synapse: Contact point; 1 neuron communicates with another. neur/o: nerve Neurotransmitters: Chemical messengers. Cerebral cortex: Outer layer of the cerebrum. Cerebellum: Controls sense of balance, coordinates movement. Afferent Nerves: Conduct messages from sensory receptors to the CNS only. Efferent Nerves: Conduct messages from CNS to the muscles Reflex: Involuntary reaction to a stimulus. Pia Mater: Contains rich supply of blood vessels that nourish the CNS. Diseases/disorders: Alzheimer’s Disease: Form of dementia. Cerebral Palsy: Affects movement and muscle tone. Poliomyelitis: Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord. Parkinson’s Disease: Progressive disorder; tremor, bradykinesia, muscular rigidity. Healthcare Careers: Neurologist: specialist in nerves. Psychologist: specialist with the mind.

Special Senses Function: Monitor stimuli and changes in the external/internal -cusis: hearing environment. -opia: vision condition Vocabulary: -metry: process of measuring Choroid: blood-rich tunic(enveloping coat) of the eyeball. tympan/o: eardrum Iris: pigmented muscular layer that surrounds the pupil. opthalm/o: eye Lens: clear, curved, flexible; focuses images on the retina. irid/o: iris Retina: thin layer of tissue; lines posterior of eye internally. ot/o: ear Auricle: aka pinna; forms shell shaped structure of outer ear. Cerumen: waxy, yellow substance; protects middle ear. Papillae: small, raised areas that contain taste buds. Rods: eye’s black and white photoreceptors. Incus: middle, anvil-shaped auditory ossicle. Sclera: white of the eye. Diseases/disorders: Glaucoma: intraocular pressure causes damage to retina and optical nerve. Strabismus: misalignment of the eyes caused by weakened eye muscles. Vertigo: sensation of spinning caused by an inner ear disorder. Hyperosmia: abnormally heightened sense of smell. Healthcare Careers: Dermatologist: specialist in skin. Neurologist: specialist in nerves.

Cardiovascular System Function: Circulate oxygen-rich blood throughout the body. cardi/o: heart Vocabulary: angi/o: vessel (blood) Apex: lowest part of the exterior of the heart. hem/o, hemat/o: Aorta: largest artery in the human body. thromb/o: clot Venules:tiny blood vessels that merge with the veins. -emia: blood condition Nodal System: responsible for electrical current conduction in the arteri/o: artery heart. leuk/o: white Systole: contraction of the ventricles. erythr/o: red Diastole: relaxation of the ventricles.. brady-: slow Sphygmomanometer: instrument used to measure BP. tachy-: fast Arterioles: small arterial branches that lead to capillaries. Veins: carry oxygen-poor blood to the heart. Arteries: carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the organs, tissues, and cells of the body. Diseases/disorders: Atherosclerosis: plaque buildup in the arteries. Cardiomyopathy: diseased heart muscle. Endocarditis: inflammation of inner layer of heart muscle. Hypotension: lower-than-normal blood pressure. Healthcare Careers: Cardiologist: Specialist that treats problems of the heart. Cardiac Surgeon: specialist who operates on the heart, lungs, and other thoracic organs.

Respiratory System Function: Exchanging harmful carbon dioxide(a metabolic waste product) for bronch/o: bronchus life sustaining oxygen. trache/o: trachea(windpipe) Vocabulary: laryng/o: larynx(voice box) Ventilation: process which air moves into and out of the lungs. -oxia: oxygen Respiration: process of gas exchange. oxy-: swift Septum: Cartilage in the nose that separates the nostrils. pleur/o: pleura Nasopharynx: first section of pharynx; part where air passes. pneum/o: lung Oropharynx: second section; behind oral cavity. pulmon/o: lung Sternum: breastbone. thorac/o: chest Visceral Pleura: serous(watery)membrane, protects the lungs. cyan/o: blue Parietal Pleura: lines thoracic cavity/ upper side of diaphragm. Pleural Cavity: between the two pleuras, contains pleural fluid. Bony Thorax: protective bones and cartilage that surround the respiratory structures. Diseases/disorders: Nasal Polyp: tumor with stem of new growth in the nose. Pneumothorax: collection of air or gas in the pleural space. Sleep Apnea: periodic cessation of breathing during sleep. Tuberculosis: disease caused by bacterial infection of the lungs. Healthcare Careers: Pulmonologists:specialists trained to treat diseases of chest. Thoracic Surgeon: surgeon who specializes in conditions affecting the organs in the chest.

Digestive System Function: Breakdown of food into smaller components, until they can be cholecyst/o: gallbladder absorbed and assimilated into the body. enter/o: intestines Vocabulary: col/o, colon/o: colon; large intestine Amylase: enzyme; aids in the chemical breakdown of starches. proct/o: rectum; anus Deglutition: swallowing -pepsia: digestion Fundus: upper rounded portion of the stomach. gastr/o: stomach Antrum: lower section of stomach. chol/e: gall; bile Chyme: pulpy substance in the stomach. hepat/o: liver Pyloric Sphincter: thick ring of muscular tissue. or/o: mouth Pylorus: narrow, muscular passageway. Lipase: helps break down fats. Protease: helps break down protein. Insulin: hormone that aids in the absorption of sugar. Diseases/disorders: Periodontal Disease: inflammation and degeneration of the gums, teeth, and surrounding bone. Ulcerative Colitis: chronic inflammation of colon with ulcers. Crohn’s Disease: chronic; inflammation of the digestive tract. Cirrhosis: scarring of the liver due to alcohol, drugs, or virus. Healthcare Careers: Dentist: diagnoses/treats diseases/disorders of teeth/tissues of the oral cavity. Dietitian: Professional trained to assess nutrition status and recommend appropriate diet therapy.

Urinary System Function: filter blood and create urine as a waste by-product. -cele: hernia; swelling; protrusion Vocabulary: -lysis: breakdown; seperation Renal Cortex: outer layer of the kidney. -pexy: surgical fixation Filtration: separating waste products out from the blood. -ectasis: dilation; expansion Urea: waste product of proteins broken down by the liver -uria: urination Hilum: depression that serves as a passageway for blood vessels, cyst/o: cyst; bladder lymphatic vessels, and nerves. pyel/o: renal pelvis Trigone: bladder neck nephr/o: kidney Renal Pelvis: widened upper part of the ureter. ren/o: kidney Urethra: transports urine from bladder to outside of body. Urethral Sphincters: composed of muscle tissue and work together to control the flow of urine. Secretion: movement of material from one point to another. Renal Calyces: cup-like cavities that collect urine. Diseases/disorders: Diabetes Mellitus: inadequate secretion of insulin. Nephrolithiasis: renal calculi; kidney stones. Glomerulonephritis: inflammation of glomeruli in the kidney. Nephrosclerosis: arteriole walls in kidneys become narrowed and thickened, often due to high BP. Healthcare Careers: Gynecologist: specialize in care for female health problems. Nephrologist: specializes in kidney care and treating diseases of the kidneys.

Reproductive System Function: Produce egg and sperm cells, transport and sustain these cells, cervic/o: neck; cervix and nurture the developing offspring. salping/o: fallopian tube Vocabulary: orchid/o: testis; testicle Ova: female gametes(commonly known as the eggs). men/o: menses; menstruation Follicles: fluid filled sacs that keep ova safe until they mature. gynec/o: female; woman Conception: fusion of an egg and sperm. prostat/o: prostate gland Gestation: period of human development and growth in the uterus mamm/o: breast from conception to birth. oophor/o: ovary Colostrum: thin, yellow fluid, provides rich nutrition. ov/o: ovum(egg) Expulsion: 2nd stage of labor; period between complete dilation of colp/o: vagina cervix and delivery of fetus. Placenta: spongy, blood-filled organ. Chorion: outer sac. Trimester: period of three months. Vestibule: area beneath the labia. Diseases/disorders: Breast Cancer: malignant tumor of the mammary gland. Human Papillomavirus: most common STI. Pyosalpinx: fallopian tubes are filled with pus. Menorrhagia: excessively heavy menstrual bleeding. Healthcare Careers: Obstetrician:physician or surgeon qualified to practice in obstetrics; deals with all aspects of pregnancy. Gynecologist: doctors who specialize in womenś health.

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