Health Science Flip Book By:Sarvesh Medisetti
Table of Contents Integumentary System: Pages 3-7 Urinary System: Pages 43-48 Musculoskeletal System: Pages 8-13 Reproductive System: Pages 49-54 Nervous System: Pages 14-18 Citations: Page 55 Special Senses: Pages 19-24 Cardiovascular System: Pages 25-30 Respiratory System: Pages 31-36 Digestive System: Pages 37-42
Integumentary System Key Terms Combining Forms derm/o, dermat/o: skin pil/o: hair kerat/o-hard,horned: shaped tissue; cornea lip/o: fatty,lipid xer/o: dry rhytid/o: wrinkle xanth/o: yellow albin/o: white erythr/o: red pedicu/o: louse,lice onych/o: nail myc/o: fungus
Integumentary System Continued Key Terms Skin: largest organ that acts as a protective barrier between the outside and the inside of the body Hair: protect, regulate body temperature, and facilitation of evaporation of perspiration. Nails: help protect the top surface of your ﬁngertips and the tips of your toes Keratin: major component of skin,hair and nails Dermis: contains nerve endings, sensory receptors, capillaries, and elastic ﬁbers Epidermis: contains squamous cells, keratinocytes, which synthesize a tough protein called keratin Sweat Glands: regulates body temperature by secreting water to the skin surface Subcutaneous Layer: help keep the body’s temperature stable
Integumentary System Continued Key Terms pt.2 Eczema: conditions that cause skin to become red, itchy, inﬂamed, and sometimes blistering and weeping(aka Atopic dermatitis) Acne: a skin condition that occurs when your hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. Conditions/Diseases(4) Ichthyosis: disorder that causes dry, thickened skin that may look similar to ﬁsh scales Lichen Sclerosus: causes white spots or patches on skin of the genital and and anal areas Vitiligo: a disorder that causes patches of skin to become white Rosacea: a long-term disease that causes reddened skin and pimples, usually on the face
Integumentary System Continued Health-Care Careers (2) Dermatologist:physicians who have acquired a dermatology degree from a medical institution and specializes in the diagnosis and cure of skin disorders Cosmetologist:work in the health and beauty ﬁeld, taking care of client’s skin,hair, and nails.
Integumentary System Continued Labeled System Picture
Musculoskeletal System Key Terms Combining Forms/ Preﬁxes/ Sufﬁxes my/o: muscle chondr/o: cartilage myel/o: spinal cord, bone marrow arthr/o: joint oste/o: bone -plegia: paralysis cost/o: rib kinesi/o: movement crani/o: skull -pexy: surgical ﬁxation
Musculoskeletal System Cont... Key Terms (Muscle) Frontalis: raises eyebrow, wrinkles forehead Deltoid: abducts, extends, and ﬂexes arm Pectoralis Major: ﬂexes, abducts, and rotates arm medially Biceps Brachii: ﬂexes the forearm and supinates the hand Gastrocnemius: ﬂexes the foot and the leg
Musculoskeletal System Cont... Key Terms (Skeletal) Joint: a place where two or more bones meet Bone: dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton Ligament: attaches a bone to another bone Tendon: attaches muscle to bone Tibia: the shin bone, the larger of the two bones of the lower leg
Musculoskeletal System Cont... Conditions/Diseases(4) Tendonitis: an inﬂammation of a tendon Osteoarthritis: condition in which the cartilage gradually wears down Rheumatoid Arthritis: your body’s immune system attacks its own cells Bone Fractures: trauma, overuse, and disease can weaken your bones
Musculoskeletal System Cont... Healthcare Careers(2) Chiropractor: a healthcare professional focused on the diagnosis and treatment of neuromuscular disorders. Orthopedic Surgeon: is a surgeon who has been educated and trained in the treatment of diseases and injuries of the skeletal system.
Musculoskeletal System Cont... Muscle System Labeled Skeletal System Labeled
Nervous System Key Terms Combining Forms/ Preﬁxes/ Sufﬁxes psych/o: mind concuss/o: shaken together neur/o: nerve encephal/o: brain myel/o: spinal cord, bone marrow ambul/o: walking -esthesia: sensation, feeling mening/o: membranes, meninges
Nervous System Cont... Key Terms Neurons: nerve cells that carry electrical messages from one area of the body to another Myelin: an insulating layer along the axon of a nerve cell Central Nervous System: made up of the brain and spinal cord. Interprets incoming messages and sends them to the peripheral nervous system. Axon: long part of nerve cell that conducts impulses away from the cell body Soma: large part of a neuron where the nucleus is located. Connects the dendrites and axon of the neuron to each other Spinal Cord: Long bundles of neurons that run inside of your vertebral column. Carries impulses from all parts of the body to the brain.
Nervous System Cont... Parietal Lobe: where the processing centers for speech, taste and reading are located. Right Hemisphere: te right side of the cerebrum of the brain that controls the left side of the body Left Hemisphere: the left side of the cerebrum of the brain that controls the right side of the body Brain Stem: regulates the ﬂow of information between the brain and the rest of the body Diseases/Disorder (4) Alzheimer’s Disease: alzheimer’s disease affects the brains function, memory and behaviour Cerebral Palsy: affects the nervous system, muscle control, movement and coordination. Epilepsy: disorder in which nerve cells activity in the brain is disturbed, causing seizures Motor Neurone Disease: condition that causes weakness in the muscles, leading eventually to paralysis
Nervous System Cont... Health Care Careers (2) Neurologist: medical doctor that specializes in the study, diagnosis, treatment, and management of injuries, diseases, and disorder of the nervous system Neurosurgeon: medical doctor who diagnoses and treats conditions of the brain, spine, and nervous system through surgical and nonsurgical treatments based on the type of injury or illness.
Nervous System Cont... Nervous System
Special Senses Key Terms Combining Forms/ Preﬁxes/ Sufﬁxes: -metry: measurement irid/o: iris -cusis: hearing -opia: vision condition ot/o: ear tympan/o: eardrum ophthalm/o: eye
Special Senses Cont... Key Terms: Eyelids: protect the eyes anteriorly Tarsal Glands: project from the border of each eyelid Somatic Senses: sensations produced by general sense organs General Sense Organs: term for microscopic receptors distributed throughout the body in skin, mucus, tissues, muscles, tendons, and joints. Exteroceptors: classiﬁcation of receptors due to location. Respond to stimuli external to the body. Chemoreceptors: classiﬁcation of receptors due to stimulus. Activated to the amount or the change in concentration of certain chemicals.
Special Senses Cont... Key Terms Cont Choroid: Blood-rich nutritive tunic that contains a dark pigment and prevents light from scattering inside the eye Pupil: rounded opening of the iris that allows light through Pigmented Layer: pigmented cells in the retina that absorb light and prevent light from scattering Ciliary Body: smooth muscle structure in the eye on which the lens is attached by a suspensory ligament.
Special Senses Cont... Diseases/Disorder (4): Blindness: describe a lack general lack of vision. Loss of vision that cannot be corrected with glasses or contact lenses Cataracts: clouding area over the front part of the eye. An area that is normally transparent. Deafness: hearing impairment, or hearing loss is partial or total inability to hear Glaucoma: condition in which the normal ﬂuid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises as a result of the ﬂuid which normally ﬂows in and out of the eye.
Special Senses Cont... Health Care Careers (2) Otolaryngologist: medical doctor who diagnoses and treats conditions related to the head and neck, such as ear infections Hearing Therapist: medical specialist who provides rehabilitation services to people who have lost their hearing or who have limited hearing.
Special Senses Cont... Special Senses
Cardiovascular System Key Terms Combining Forms/ Preﬁxes/ Sufﬁxes: Cardi/o: pertaining to the heart erythr/o: red blood cell Angi/o: denotes to blood or lymph vessels arteri/o: artery hem/o, hemat/o: pertaining to blood Brady-: slow Tachy-: fast thromb/o: blood clot -emia: blood condition leuk/o: white
Cardiovascular System Cont... Key Terms: Atria: the chambers of the heart that receive blood Ventricles: lower discharged chambers that function as the major blood pumps AV valves: open during heart relaxation and closed during ventricular contraction Coronary Arteries: blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from the aorta to the heart muscle Cardiac Muscle Fibers: have intercalated discs that allow network of muscles to contract as a unit striated Angina Pectoris: chest pain that results when the heart does not get enough oxygen Pulmonary Circuit: the vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
Cardiovascular System Cont... Key Terms Cont: Pericardium: serous membrane lining the heart cavity and covering the heart Pericardial Cavity: hold the heart. In between visceral and pericardial layers Epicardium: visceral layer of serous pericardium- outer layer of myocardium
Cardiovascular System Cont... Diseases/Disorder (4): Angina: a type of chest pain that occurs due to decreased blood ﬂow into the heart Arrhythmia: irregular heartbeat or heart rhythm Heart Attack: a sudden blockage to the heart’s blood ﬂow and oxygen supply Heart Failure: wherein the heart cannot contract or relax normally
Cardiovascular System Cont... Health Care Careers (2): Cardiologist: a physician that diagnoses and treats ailments of the cardiovascular system. May use catheterizations to view clogged arteries or help patients through the rehabilitation process, following a heart surgery. Cardiovascular Surgeon: performs life-saving operations on patients experiencing issues with their heart.
Cardiovascular System Cont... Cardiovascular System
Respiratory System Key Terms Combining Forms/ Preﬁxes/ Sufﬁxes: bronch/o: bronchus; bronchial tube thorac/o: chest cyan/o: blue trache/o: trachea; windpipe laryng/o: larynx; voice box -oxia: oxygen Oxy-: containing oxygen pleur/o: pleura; serous membrane that enfolds the lung pneum/o: lung; air pulmon/o: lung
Respiratory System Cont... Key Terms: Trachea: aka windpipe, it ﬁlters air we inhale and branches into the bronchi Lungs: the main organ of the respiratory system Pharynx: tube that connects the mouth to the larynx and esophagus Bronchi: tube that connects the trachea to the lungs Larynx: aka voice box, it is a connection between the pharynx and the trachea Alveoli: tiny air-like sac where gaseous exchange takes place Diaphragm: breathing begins with a dome-shaped muscle located at the bottom of the lungs
Respiratory System Cont... Key Terms Cont: Epiglottis: leaf shaped ﬂap of cartilage located behind the tongue, at the top of the larynx (voice box) Cilia: hair like structures that ﬁlter out particles entering into your nasal cavity Capillaries: tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
Respiratory System Cont... Diseases/Disorder (4): Asthma: chronic respiratory condition that causes difﬁculty breathing due to inﬂammation of the airways Emphysema: type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where air sacs in the lungs become damaged and stretched Lung Cancer: a type of cancer that begins in the lungs. Most often occurs in people who smoke Cystic Fibrosis: generic respiratory disease caused by a defective gene that creates thick and sticky mucus that clogs up tubes and passageways.
Respiratory System Cont... Health Care Careers (2): Respiratory Therapist: works with patients who have breathing or other cardiopulmonary disorders Pulmonary Technician: conducts pulmonary function tests, provide respiratory-related carem and treat patients with lung-related problems
Respiratory System Cont... Respiratory System
Digestive System Key Terms Combining Forms/ Preﬁxes/ Sufﬁxes: cholecyst/o: gallbladder proct/o: rectum enter/o: intestines col/o , colon/o: colon; large intestine hepat/o: liver gastr/o: stomach or/o: mouth -pepsia: digestion chol/e: gall; bite
Digestive System Cont... Key Terms: GI Tract: the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract that has the mouth ,pharynx ,esophagus ,stomach, small/large intestines, rectum, and anus Cecum: u-shaped pouch that is the ﬁrst park of the large intestine Esophagus: a 10 inch tube that is a passageway for food Liver: produces bile which is a necessary for the digestion of fats Gallbladder: a small pouch that sits just under the liver. The gallbladder stores bile produced by the liver. Villi: ﬁngerlike projections sticking out of the walls of the intestines increasing the surface area improving the body’s ability to absorb nutrients
Digestive System Cont... Key Terms Cont: Large intestine: absorbs extra water from undigested materials Enzymes: special substances that break down some nutrients into smaller particles that the body can use Stomach: a muscular organ of the digestive tract; attached to the lower end of the esophagus (chemical digestion of food) Rectum: connects the colon to the anus. The rectums job is to receive stool from the colon and let you know that there is stool to be evacuated from the body.
Digestive System Cont... Diseases/Disorder (4): Crohn’s Disease: chronic, or large lasting disease that causes inﬂammation and irritation in your digestive tract Barrett’s Esophagus: condition in which tissue that is similar to the lining of your intestine replaces the tissue lining your esophagus Celiac Disease: digestive disorder that damages the small intestine. They cannot eat gluten, wheat, barley and rye and it can cause long-term digestive problems and keep you from getting the nutrients you need. Diarrhea: loose, watery stools three or more times a day. Diarrhea may be acute, persistent or chronic diarrhea.
Digestive System Cont... Health Care Careers (2): Gastroenterologist: a physician who specializes in disease of the gastrointestinal tract Digestive Health Nursing: care nurses are trained to understand digestive conditions in all of the individual parts of the digestive system
Digestive System Cont... Digestive System
Urinary System -ectasis: dilation pyel/o: renal pelvis Key Terms Combining Forms/ Preﬁxes/ Sufﬁxes: -cele: hernia, swelling, protrusion -lysis: breakdown, separation, lossing cyst/o: cyst, ﬂuid sac, bladder nephr/o: kidney ren/o: kidney -uria: urination, condition of urine -pexy: surgical ﬁxation
Urinary System Cont... Key Terms: Cortex: outer region of an organ; renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney Creatinine: nitrogenous waste excreted in urine. Creatinine is a product of muscle metabolism] Urea: major nitrogenous waste excreted in urine Ureter: one of two tubes leading away from the kidneys to the urinary bladder Urethra: tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body Urinary Bladder: hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores urine Kidney: one of two bean shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region; ﬁlters nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream to form urine
Urinary System Cont... Key Terms Cont: Medulla: inner region of an organ; the renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney Nephron: combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where ﬁltration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney Glomerulus: glomeruli (plural) tiny ball of capillaries in the kidney
Urinary System Cont... Diseases/Disorder (4): Bladder Cancer: is a common type of cancer that begins in the cells of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer most often begins in the cells that line the inside of your bladder. Peyronie Disease: causes hard, ﬂat plaque to form under the skin on the tissue of the penis. The plaque often starts as an inﬂammation that may turn into scar tissue. Urinary Tract Infections: are infections in any part of the urinary tract. Common health problem that affects millions of t people each year. Hematuria: red blood cells that enter the urine. Though the urine may look normal when seeing this to a human eye, through close examination, it contains a high number of red blood cells.
Urinary System Cont... Health Care Careers (2): Nephrologist: is a physician specializing in the conditions such as kidney disease, renal failure, dialysis patients and renal transplants. Urologist: a physician specializing in the treatment of the male and female urinary tract and reproductive system.
Urinary System Cont... Urinary System
Reproductive System Key Terms Combining Forms/ Preﬁxes/ Sufﬁxes: cervic/o: neck of the uterus, cervix gynec/o: woman;female salping/o: a tube(usually the uterine or auditory tube) colp/o: vagina ov/o: egg prostat/o: prostate gland orchid/o: testicle oophor/o: ovary men/o: menstruation mamm/o: breast
Reproductive System Cont... Key Terms: Gynecology: medical specialty that treats diseases of the female reproductive organs Ductus Deferens: contracts to push sperm along to accessory glands Prostate Gland: gland that produces a clear slightly alkaline ﬂuid that makes up 10-30 percent of semen Urethra: a tube connecting the bladder to outside of the body Vagina: the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in females Cervix: lower narrow portion of uterus where it joins with the vagina Uterus: the womb opens to vagina fallopian tubes
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Health Science Flip Book By:Sarvesh Medisetti