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Home Explore Health Science 1 Body Systems Flipbook

Health Science 1 Body Systems Flipbook

Published by Natalie Rummel, 2020-09-17 22:15:15

Description: Health Science Notes


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Health Science Notes

Integumentary System Function: to act as a barrier to protect the body from the outside world Key Terms: myc/o: fungus Diseases/Disorders: derm/o: skin pil/o: hair ● Acne ● Eczema kerat/o:tissue lip/o: fat ● Melanoma ● Keratosis Pilaris xer/o: dry; dryness rhytid/o: wrinkle Healthcare Careers: ● Dermatologist erythr/o: redness albin/o: white ● Esthetician pedicul/o: lice onych/o: pertaining to nails Dermis :the thick layer of living tissue below the epidermis which forms the true skin, containing blood capillaries, nerve endings, sweat glands, hair Dermatologist: a medical practitioner qualified to diagnose and follicles, and other structures. treat skin disorders. Sweat Gland: small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat Hair Shaft :non-growing portion of a hair which protrudes from the skin, i.e., Skin: the thin layer of tissue forming the natural outer covering from the follicle. of the body of a person or animal. Epidermis :the surface epithelium of the skin, overlying the Nerve: a whitish fiber or bundle of fibers that transmits impulses of dermis. sensation to the brain or spinal cord, and impulses from these to the Hypodermis: an underlayer of epithelial cells in arthropods and muscles and organs. certain other invertebrates that secretes substances for the Sebaceous Gland: a small gland in the skin which secretes a lubricating oily

Musculoskeletal System Function: to provide support, stability, and movement to the body Key Terms arthr/o: joint Diseases/Disorders: Cardiac Muscle: muscle of the my/o: muscle ● Osteopenia myel/o: bone, spine -plegia: paralysis ● osteoporosis heart oste/o: bone ● muscular dystrophy Skeletal Muscle: a muscle which crani/o: skull kinesi/o: movement ● myasthenia gravis is connected to the skeleton to -pexy: fixation form part of the mechanical chondr/o: cartilage Careers: system which moves the limbs Vocab ● orthopaedic doctor, and other parts of the body ● rheumatologist Smooth Muscle: muscle tissue in which the contractile fibrils are Flat Bone: made up of a layer of spongy bone between two thin layers of not highly ordered, occurring in compact bone. They have a flat shape, not rounded. the gut and other internal organs and not under voluntary control. Long Bone: hard, dense bones that provide strength, structure, and mobility Voluntary: done, given, or acting of one's own free will Short Bone: designated as those bones that are as wide as they are long. Involuntary: done without will or Irregular Bone: vary in shape and structure conscious control Sesamoid Bone: a little bone that is embedded in a joint capsule or tendon

Nervous System Function: involved in Nerve: bundle of axons or nerve cell fibers receiving information about Sensory Receptor: specialized structure associated Key Terms: the environment around us with the peripheral end of a sensory neuron neur/o: nerve, nerve and generating responses Somatic Nervous System: motor pathways the the tissue, the nervous to that information PNS that lead to skin and skeletal muscles system Diseases and Disorders: Autonomic Nervous System: portion of the PNS that encephal/o: brain controls organs myel/o: bone; spinal ● Alzheimer's disease Myelin: fatty covering that protects and insulates an cord and medulla ● Bell's palsy axon oblongata ● Cerebral palsy ambul/o: to walk ● Epilepsy -esthesia: sensibility mening/o: meninges Healthcare Careers: psych/o: mind; mental; ● Psychiatrist psychological ● Neurologist concuss/o: Shaken together, Violently Sensory Neurons: nerve composed of sensory nerve fibers agitated Interneurons: link motor and sensory neurons in the CNS Motor Neurons: Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector muscles or glands Axon: part of the neuron that conducts nerve impulses Central Nervous System: system that includes the brain and spinal cord

Special Senses Function: to detect environmental stimuli and transduce their energy into electrical impulses Key Terms ● Special Senses: sight, smell, taste and hearing. irid/o: iris Diseases/Disorders: ● Special Sense: Receptors: large complex sensory -cusis: hearing ● Blindness -opia: vision condition ● Cataracts organs or localized clusters of receptors. ot/o: ear ● Deafness ● Accessory Structures: parts accessory to the main tympan/o: eardrum, middle ear ● Glaucoma ophthalm/o: eye organ or structure -metry: process of measuring ● Eyelids: the lid or cover of the eye, a movable fold of skin and muscle that can be closed over the Healthcare Careers: eyeball or opened at will ● Ophthalmologist ● Canthus: angle formed by the meeting of the upper ● Aromatherapist and lower eyelids at either side of the eye ● Eyelashes:each of the short curved hairs growing on the edges of the eyelids, serving to protect the eyes from dust particles ● Tarsal Glands:holocrine type exocrine glands, along the rims of the eyelid inside the tarsal plate ● Conjunctiva:clusters of mucous cells in the conjunctival epithelium ● SIght: the faculty or power of seeing ● Smell: the faculty or power of perceiving odors or scents by means of the organs in the nose.

Cardiovascular System ● Heart: a hollow muscular organ that pumps the blood through the circulatory system by rhythmic contraction and dilation. In Key Terms: Function: to maintain blood vertebrates there may be up to four chambers, with two atria cardi/o: heart flow to all parts of the body, to and two ventricle angi/o: vessel allow it to survive. Diseases/ Disorders: ● Artery: any of the muscular-walled tubes forming part of the circulation system by which blood (which has been oxygenated) ● heart failure is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body. ● cardiomyopathy hemo/o, hemat/o: blood ● heart valve disease ● Ventricle: a hollow part or cavity in an organ ● pericardial disease ● Vein: any of the tubes forming part of the blood circulation brady- : slow Healthcare Careers: system of the body, carrying in most cases oxygen-depleted blood toward the heart. tachy- : fast ● Cardiologist ● Blood: the red liquid that circulates in the arteries and veins of ● Cardiac Surgeon humans and other vertebrate animals, carrying oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the tissues of the body. thromb/o: blood clot ● Plasma: the colorless fluid part of blood ● Capillaries: any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a emia- : blood network between the arterioles and venules. ● Atrium: each of the two upper cavities of the heart from which leuk: white blood is passed to the ventricles. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the veins of the body; the left atrium erythr/o: red receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins ● Platelet: a small colorless disk-shaped cell fragment without a nucleus, found in large numbers in blood and involved in clotting ● Chambers: a cavity in an organ arteri/o: arteries

Respiratory System Function: helps your body absorb oxygen from the air so Key Terms: your organs can work, it also ● Lungs: a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon dioxide from and bring Bronch/o: bronchial tube cleans waste gases, such as oxygen to the blood carbon dioxide, from your blood Diseases/Disorders: ● Alveoli: tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles Cyan/o: blue ● Asthma ● Trachea: a large membranous tube reinforced by ● Chronic Obstructive Laryng/o: larynx Pulmonary Disease rings of cartilage, extending from the larynx to the bronchial tubes and conveying air to and from the -Oxia: oxygen ● Chronic Bronchitis lungs; the windpipe ● Emphysema ● Bronchi: any of the major air passages of the lungs Oxy: swift Healthcare Careers: Pleur/o: pleura ● Registered Respiratory which diverge from the windpipe Therapist ● Diaphragm: a dome-shaped muscular partition ● Pulmonologist separating the thorax from the abdomen Pneum/o: lungs ● Exhale: breath out ● Inhale: breath in Pulmon/o: lung ● Nose: the usual passageway for air in respiration ● Respiration: the act of respiring; inhalation and exhalation of air ● Cyanosis: blue skin caused by low oxygen in the blood Thorac/o: chest Trache/o: trachea

Digestive SystemCholecyst/o: gallbladder Function: a group of organs working ● Digestive System: System of organs that breaks down food together to convert food into energy into nutrients needed by the cells of the body. Enter/o: intestine and basic nutrients to feed the entire Col/o; Colon/o: colon body ● Teeth: Bony projections located on the maxilla and mandible Hepato/o: liver Diseases/Disorders: that are used for tearing and crushing food into a pulp, Gastr/o: stomach making it easier to digest. Or/o: mouth ● Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) ● Saliva: A liquid that is released within the mouth that aids in the process of digestion. ● Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) ● Mouth: The orifice through which food is consumed. ● Amylase: An enzyme, contained in saliva, that breaks ● Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) ● Gastritis chemical bonds between the sugar monomers in starches. Healthcare Careers: ● Esophagus: Tube through which the bolus passes to reach ● Gastroenterologist ● Proctologist the stomach. ● Stomach: Large muscular organ, sac-like in shape, that digests food both chemically and mechanically. ● Mechanical Digestion: The physical breaking down of food particles into smaller bits that are easier to digest. -pepsia: digestion ● Chemical Digestion: Process in which larger molecules from Chol/e: gallbladder food particles are broken down through chemical reactions into smaller, simpler molecules. ● Liver: Organ that produces bile and filters toxins out of Proct/o: rectum blood.

Urinary System Function: to filter blood and ● Urinary System: Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the create urine as a waste body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance -cele: swelling; hernia by-product of the blood -lysis: breakdown Diseases/Disorders: cyst/o: cyst ● Filtration: A technique that uses a porous barrier to nephr/o: kidneys ● Nephrosis separate a solid from a liquid ren/o-: kidney ● Nephrolith -uria: urine ● Urethritis ● Incontinence: Inability of the body to control the elimination -pexy: surgical fixation ● Nocturia of urine and/or feces -ectasis: dilation Healthcare Careers pyel/o: pelvis ● Urologist ● Renal Artery: an artery originating from the abdominal ● Nephrologists aorta and supplying the kidneys and adrenal glands and ureters ● Renal Cortex: Outer one third region of the kidney except for the hilus. It has inward extensions or folds called renal columns ● Renal Medulla: Inner portion of kidney that contains renal tubules, the loops of henle, & collecting tubules. (Hypertonic to plasma): Renal Pelvis: Places where major calyces converge, portion of the kidney that narrows to become the ureter ● Urinary Bladder: A membranous sac for temporary retention of urine ● Ureters: The tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder ● Collecting Ducts: The tubule system that collects tubular filtrate from the distal convoluted tubules and carries it to the renal pelvis

Reproductive System Function: To produce egg and sperm ● Breast: either of two soft fleshy milk-secreting cells. To transport and sustain these glandular organs on the chest of a woman Cervic/o: neck, cervix cells. To nurture the developing Salping/o: relating to the fallopian or offspring ● Cervix: the opening to the uterus eustachian tubes Diseases/Disorders: ● Infertility: incapable or reproduction Ov/o: oocyte; egg ● Labia minora: two thin folds of skin within the Orchid/o: testicle ● Endometriosis Oophor/o: ovary ● Uterine Fibroids folds of the labia majora ● Gynecologic Cancer ● Labia majora: the folds of skin that lie on either ● HIV/AIDS Healthcare Careers: side of the vaginal opening ● OBGYN ● Labia minora: two thin folds of skin within the ● Reproductive Endocrinologist folds of the labia majora Men/o: menstruation ● Menstrual cycle: a recurring cycle (beginning at Mamm/o: breast menarche and ending at menopause) in which the endometrial lining of the uterus prepares for Gynec/o: female pregnancy ● Menstruation: the shedding of the uterine lining ● Ova: a female reproductive cell ● Ovary: vertebrates) one of usually two organs that produce ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone ● Penis: male reproductive organ Colp/o: vagina Prostat/o: prostate gland

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