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SKYLOUNGE ‫مجلة على العقارات وإدارة الثروات‬ Hotelier, Special Edition Property Investor KBA forum London 2022 & Philanthropist par excellence In Conversation with Tony Matharu Founder & Chairman Integrity International Group SPECIAL PRIVATE WEALTH Integrity International Group Citizenship by Investment USA Luxury Rehab in Texas Osmium - Scarcity creates value

Cover photo Tony Matharu Global Editor-in-Chief & ‫مدير التحرير‬ Publishing Director Marisa Zahra Ramirez Advisory Real Estate USA ‫العقارات الاستشارية‬ Patricia Garza Editor's note Audience Development ‫مشاركة الجمهور‬ As another season beckons, I have to confess that the package of time never ceases to Elizabeth Rodriguez amaze me. It's inevitable, of course, that the clocks keep turning and the years keep rolling by, but nevertheless every spring - with the arrival of lighter morning, the dawn chorus and Middle East Correspondent ‫الشرق الأوسط‬ cheering new blossoms on the trees - I wonder, “How did we get here again so quickly?”. Hamza Lahlou The last two years have been like a roller-coaster (COVID-19, lockdowns…). The more we are South East Asia & Indian Ocean ‫جنوب شرق آسيا‬ very pleased to welcome you to our special edition dedicated to the 7th KBA Forum which Avinay Soomaroo took place on 28th March 2022 in London. Executive Assistant ‫تطوير الأعمال‬ Interesting topics have been highlighted, Andrew Weir walked us through the latest real Zahra Lamrani estate developments in Prime Central London. We had the honour to present Philanthropist, Hotelier and Chairman of Integrity International Group Mr Tony Matharu. Furthermore we Production ‫مدير الانتاج‬ explored one of the rarest precious metals on earth (Osmium) as a tangible investment Nazha Belhaj opportunity. First time in our forum series, we highlighted new innovative medical treatments. Dr James Flowers from J. Flowers Health Institute in Houston/TX took us on a Art & Design Advisory ‫تصميم فن الصورة‬ tour through their ground-breaking Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation Program, an Vanessa Gutierrez ‫تكنولوجيا المعلومات‬ unparalleled concierge health care to executives, high-profile individuals, young adults, adolescents, and those with complex conditions. IT & Creative Media “There is hope after stroke”, Dr. Nils Thoennissen from CBC Health Munich and his team have Amar B.K. II redefined the regenerative health experience for stroke patients. Business Development ‫تسويق‬ Yana Albrecht has guided us through the complexities of US immigration and naturalization Indre Vasiliauskaite procedures and what best routes one can choose for himself. Founding Editor ‫الناشر والمدير العام‬ Plus, a peek at what’s new in regard to our hotspots, this time we “flew” to Mauritius and Dr Khalid Ben Amar Greece. Smita Khadaroo presented the island of Mauritius and its vast opportunities to buy into a second holiday home. Contributors ‫المساهمين‬ I want to thank all participants and presenters of the London Forum 2022 and looking Tony Matharu (Chairman Integrity Intern. Group) forward to seeing you again on our next Forum in London. Dr. James Flowers (J. Flowers Health Institute) Yours most sincerely, Robbin Mooney (J. Flowers Health Institute) Marisa Z. Ramirez Global Editor-in-Chief Andrew Weir (London Central Portfolio) Smita Khadaroo (Chic Consulting/Barnsbury Homes) Scarlett Clauss (Osmium Institute) Colin Lloyd (Osmium Institute) Yana Taylor Albrecht (Bay Immigration Law) Aryan Chopra (Castell Wealth Management) Vicky Grammatikopoulou (Vie Aesthetics) Dr. Nils Thoennissen (CBC Health) Nathan Evans (Pride Security Global) Romika Fazeli (Emirates World Club) Special thanks to ‫شكر خاص ل‬ Marina Vernicos (Marina Vernicos) Robbin Mooney (J. Flowers Health) Darlene Koldenhoven Natalia Vladiuc (Blue Orchid Hotels) Nadine Nourney (Osmium Institute) Scarlett Clauss (Osmium Institute) Ingo Wolf (Founder Osmium Institute) Published by KBA Enterprise Limited Weller House, Suite F 60 Longbridge Road IG11 8RT Barking - Essex Greater London United Kingdom E. [email protected] Representative offices: Dubai - Abu Dhabi - Casablanca - Monterrey Paris - Barcelona - Houston - Los Angeles SKYLOUNGE Every possible effort has been made to ensure that the information presented in this publication is accurate at the time of going to press and the publishers, editors, contributors and advertisers can accept no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No part of the magazine, including text, photographs, illustration, advertising layouts or other graphics may be reproduced in any way without prior written consent of KBA Enterprise Ltd. The views expressed in this magazine are not necessarily those of the publisher who accepts no responsibility for any loss incurred due to reliance on the information provided in this publication. SKYLOUNGE is a trademark of KBA Enterprise © 2022 KBA Enterprise Ltd.

Start with the right attitude

SKYLOUNGE Priority Pass Preferred member’s access: SKYLOUNGE members are eligible to receive discounts and special rates on a range of products and services through our affiliated partners: - Private Jet Charter - Airport Lounges - Private Clinics - Rehab/Detox Centers - Real Estate - At one of our privately-held forums - Advisory Services - a.m. For more info, please contact [email protected] quoting ref.: Priority Pass

Some of our partners

FAMILY OFFICE FORUM Dr. James Flowers COLLECTIONRobbin Mooney Scarlett Clauss All our events gather 100+ Family Offices and UHNWIs. Join our events in Zurich, London, Dubai, Wiesbaden, Singapore and NYC - see more at Marina Vernicos www.preTosnytMearlaathundpartner.comAndrew Weir Romika Fazeli Yana Albrecht Dr. Nils Thoennissen Aryan Chopra Smita Khadaroo Nick Farrow The Global Leader in Family Office Forum Conferences measured by the number of Single Family Offices and Investors attending. Vicky Grammatikopoulou Colin Lloyd Darlene Koldenhoven Venue Endorsement Partner SKYLOUNGE Media Partner

KBA forum The Real Estate Invest & Private Wealth Management Forum Highlights The Wellington Blue Orchid KBA forum This years’ 7th KBA forum took place in London at The Wellington Blue Orchid hotel on 28th & 29th March. The theme of this event was a mixture of alternative investment options (precious metal), innovative medical solutions (rehabilitation treatments) as well as real estate investment opportunities in London and Mauritius.

KBA forum London 2022

Marina Vernicos (Award winning Photographer, From left to right: Colin Lloyd (Osmium Canada), Ronnie Nathan Philanthropist, Entrepreneur, Influencer) (CEO Asset Time Invest), Pinky & Smita Khadaroo (Barnsbury Homes & Chic Consulting), Avinay Soomaroo (VP Indian Ocean SKYLOUNGE), Scarlett Clauss (Vice Director Osmium Institute), Nadine Nourney (BDM Osmium Institute) From left to right: Nadine Nourney, Scarlett Clauss, Smita Khadaroo, David Descombes (Reliance Health Paris), Avinay Soomaroo, Darlene Koldenhoven, Silia Potioudi (Dolphin Capital Partners), Marina Vernicos, Chrysanthi Kouroupi PA of Marina Vernicos, Colin Lloyd - at the Masterclass From left to right: Darlene Koldenhoven, Dr. K. B. Amar, Robbin Mooney (Co founder J. Flowers Health Inst.) , Amar B. K. II, Dr. James Flowers (Founder J. Flowers Health Inst.)

Dr. James Flowers speaking on behalf of J. Flowers Health Institute - J. Flowers Health Institute delivers unparalleled concierge health care to executives, high-profile individuals, young adults, adolescents, and those with complex conditions. Their Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation Program uncovers the true source of any health issue and illuminates the most effective path to optimal wellness. Colin Lloyd speaking on behalf of the Osmium Institute Germany – Osmium is one of the rarest precious metals in the world. In this session representatives of the Osmium Institute are highlighting Osmium’s options as a tangible asset.

Andrew Weir, CEO of London Central Portfolio, presenting London’s luxury real estate market outlook From left to right: Nadine Nourney, Steven Taylor, Yana T. Albrecht (Managing Attorney Palo Alto/CA), Colin Lloyd At display some of the precious jewelleries from the Osmium Institute Germany From left to right sitting: Hotelier & Philanthropist Tony Matharu, Darlene Koldenhoven, Robbin Mooney (Co-founder J. Flowers Health), Dr. James Flowers (Founder J. Flowers Health) Vicky Grammatikopoulou (CEO Vie Aesthetics clinics UK & Germany) Darlene Koldenhoven (GRAMMY®Award winner, singer and songwriter) From left to right: Dr. Ioannis Liakas (Medical Director Vie Aesthetics), Dr. K. B. Amar (MD KBA Enterprise), Vicky Grammatikopoulou, Scarlett Clauss, Romika Fazeli (CEO Emirates World Club)

Left to right: Dr. Ioannis Liakas (Medical Director Vie Aesthetics), Vicky Grammatikopoulou (CEO & Founder Vie Aesthetics), Anna Maria Kesanli (Operations Manager & Life Coach Vie Aesthetics) and Richard Hughes (Business Director Vie Aesthetics)

Dr. Nils Thoennissen speaking on behalf of CBC Health AG Closing of the Osmium Masterclass Vicky Grammatikopoulou (CEO Vie Aesthetics) OOssmmiuiummMMaassteterrcclalasssson second day From left to right: Dr. Nils Thoennissen (medical Director CBC Health AG) and Frank Rothmaier (VP International Business Relations CBC Health AG)


‫مقابلة مع‬ ‫توني ماتارو‬ Hotelier, Investor & Philanthropist par excellence One-on-one with Tony Matharu

MEET THE LEADER Sixty minutes interview with Tony Matharu Tony Matharu Founder & Chairman Integrity International Group 1. You founded many successful start-up 2. Your group of hotels have weathered the organizations and businesses combining your pandemic crisis quite well - what lessons can be passion for hospitality with philanthropy and learned for the hospitality industry and what’s community engagement, what makes your the secret for being resilient ? company so unique ? Hotels and the hospitality sector, particularly in The question itself provides part of the answer: capital cities, and urban locations have been the company is unique because of its blend of very severely and disproportionately impacted hospitality, philanthropy and community by the pandemic crisis and the response to it. It engagement. Values are at the heart of our seemed counter intuitive to us to close our doors business. We have boldly stood behind the as most hospitality businesses did just at a time integrity banner - long before ESG became part when people were stranded and in need. Key of the common corporate language. workers needed to avoid the risks of contaminating their families and were essential The company is deeply embedded in the to maintain public services and the most communities in which we operate: supporting vulnerable in society were isolated – so we young and disadvantaged people locally – from decided to stay open and provide safe the world’s oldest established youth club, to the accommodation, food and services to those in elderly and infirm, founding “Here to Help need. We “weathered the storm” so to speak by London” as a COVID-19 response initiative and our continued presence. This was not a then “Central London Alliance” to enable commercial consideration, but it did London’s businesses and Londoners to survive demonstrate our resilience and enabled us to and recover post pandemic. Collaboration, retain our key people, to retain communication partnerships and developing mutually beneficial with our customers and maintain orders with relationships are fundamental and integral to our suppliers. The result earned us accolades the Blue Orchid Hotels business. for our endeavours including a “Hospitality Hero Award”, but was never our mission. But we are not only London centric; caring about global concerns; responding to natural and other disasters through Integrity International Trust (including the current Ukrainian Humanitarian Appeal project), responding to environmental and sustainable concerns including through the Energy and Environmental Alliance and taking care with our global supply chain management.

3. What’s next on your agenda, are there any 5. Finally: What’s the best piece of advice given future plans ? to you ? We have a number of exciting plans, some of It is the advice from my mother which comes which are not yet publicly known but the from a poem attributed to Mother Teresa called acquisition of and planning permission gained for “Anyway” which encourages me to be the best I the building known as “London’s first can be whatever the circumstances. skyscraper”, an iconic Grade 1 listed building in St. James’s Park is an exciting new addition to Mother Teresa: \"Do It Anyway\" the Blue Orchid Hotels’ portfolio. We are currently refining details, but the consented People are often unreasonable, irrational, and self-centred. scheme involves 526 luxury guest rooms and Forgive them anyway. suites, a conference and events centre, a range of bars, restaurants and other facilities for local If you are kind, people may accuse you of selfish, ulterior motives. and international visitors to enjoy. Be kind anyway. If you are successful, you will win some unfaithful friends and some genuine enemies. Succeed anyway. 4. How does a usual working day in your life look If you are honest and sincere people may deceive you. like ? Be honest and sincere anyway. I try to incorporate some time every day to my What you spend years creating, others could destroy overnight. team, to do something creative, to do something Create anyway. for someone else without personal gain and to learn something new, but there is no set time or If you find serenity and happiness, some may be jealous. chronology for these. My workday is very fluid Be happy anyway. and pretty full particularly with Board and other non-work-related engagements like the London The good you do today, will often be forgotten. Chamber of Commerce & Industry, Asian Do good anyway. Business Association, Oracle Cancer Trust, Central London Alliance or sporting and cultural Give the best you have, and it will never be enough. and arts organisations including the London Give your best anyway. Indian Film Festival and Academy of Ideas. In the final analysis, it is between you and God. It was never between you and them anyway.

71 Vincent Square, London, SW1P 2PA wellington.[email protected] +44 (0) 207 834 4740

Andrew Weir KBA forum Chief Executive Officer London 2022 London Central Portfolio London Central Portfolio (LCP) Chief Executive Andrew Weir has over 30 years’ experience in the prime London residential property market during its period of unprecedented growth and change. Having sold literally tens of thousands of Central London properties over his career, he knows the market and streets “better than a London cabbie”. This detailed knowledge is an invaluable resource for those seeking to buy in a market with high demand but often little available quality ‘stock’, often only available for sale to those “in the know” with insider information. “Understanding all nuances of the market is crucial to knowing whether a price is reasonable, what will re-sell easily, gain in value and be easy to rent,” he says.

Established in 1990, LCP is one of London's foremost buying and investment agencies. For UK and overseas property investors and homebuyers seeking exclusive prime London real estate, LCP provides superior access to buying opportunities, meticulous project management and creative design solutions, to suit all aspirations and budgets. Using sophisticated financial modelling appraising every proposed opportunity, LCP secure each property for the best price. As part of its end-to-end service, LCP offer a refurbishment service and full letting & management. LCP House, Ogle Street London W1W 6HU T. +44 (0)207 723 1733 [email protected]

Nick Farrow KBA forum London 2022 Chairman of Farrows & The Royal Warrant Holders Association Charity Fund After studying Fine Art in London and at Wolverhampton University, Nick Farrow worked in Norwich for a well-known photographic company. In 1979 he left to start his own studio in Norwich city centre. Over the last 38 years Farrows has grown to include marketeers, artists, designers, coders, photographers, project managers and administration. The work, produced for many national and international companies includes; marketing, new product development, branding, illustration plus design for packaging, brochures, web, point of sale, exhibition and museum design. Clients include Baxters, Bendicks, Majestic, Walker & Wodehouse, Holland & Holland, Premier Foods, Kettle Foods, Bel Cheeses, Tiptree Jams, UEA, Watermen’s Hall and the Royal Household amongst many others. In 2003 Nick and Farrows Limited were awarded The Queen’s Royal Warrant for producing quality work for the Royal Household over eight years. In 2005 he was asked to be part of the judging panel for the iOM3 International Starpack Student Awards for packaging and was chairman of the Institute of Directors Norfolk from 2007 for three years. In 2009 Nick was elected to president of the Sandringham Royal Warrant Holders and became a director of one of the first Educational Academy’s in the UK. He now chairs the business committee for that academy. In 2010 Nick was elected to the position of trustee of The Queen Elizabeth Scholarship Trust (QEST), a Royal charity giving educational scholarships to crafts people in all fields, and became chairman in 2012. Having completed his four-year term with QEST Nick has taken up the one year ambassadorial role of National President of the Royal Warrant Holders Association (800 companies who supply the Royal Households). Nick is currently the National Council and Executive Committee member of the Royal Warrant Holders Association, which is part of the decision making boards of the Association.

KBA forum London 2022 Aryan Chopra B. Eng I MBA I DipFP Private Client Wealth Manager Castell Wealth Management Originally from Canada, Aryan has built a career around solving problems and finding creative solutions for his clients who are looking to save on taxes, make their money work smarter and achieve their ‘future-perfect’ ambitions through goal-based financial planning and structured advice. Prior to starting at Castell, Aryan worked in capital markets, hedge fund management, and for the US Government under President Obama’s Administration. He is an authorised financial consultant with an MBA from the University of London, and a Bachelor’s in Computer Science and biomedical engineering. He was recently awarded within the Times Top 100 Financial Adviser 2020 accolade based on exceptional reviews from his existing clients. Aryan joined Castell Wealth Management’s young and vibrant team to act as a better custodian for his clients’ and their families. This move from Portbury Wealth Management was aligned with his philosophy of responsible investing, exceptional service, and a unique due-diligence process backed by a FTSE 100 company. In his free time, he enjoys golf and rock-climbing, the occasional poker game and a warm plate of pancakes with maple syrup to remind him of his days in Canada. Specialisms: HNWI’s – typically senior executives, business owners, investment bankers, self-employed contractors, fund managers, and property developers. The value of an investment with St. James’s Place will be directly linked to the performance of the funds you select and the value can therefore go down as well as up. You may get back less than you invested.

KBA forum Romika Fazeli London 2022 Founder Emirates World Club & RF Life Coaching Romika received a bachelor in social sciences at Heinrich- Heine-Universität in Düsseldorf. Romika has lived for the past 12 years in the United Arab Emirates. While there she became a self-made woman, building a high reputable event company, followed by the most exclusive VIP-networking club, Emirates World Club which is based on 6,000 top international and local business leaders. Emirates World Club is a Dubai-based VIP-private members’ club that has attracted not only the region’s highest-level CEOs, VPs, business VIPs and senior GMs, but a global C-suite elite that shares the common bond of bearing the unique responsibilities that come with high-level corporate performance. Founder Romika Fazeli has single-handedly grown one of the most difficult-to-enter private member business clubs in the world, based in the heart of Dubai. She is also the CEO and founder of RF Life Coaching thus acting in her function as a Life & Business Coach, specializing in helping individuals make progress in their personal and professional lives to achieve greater fulfilment. Romika is based between Dubai/UAE and Duesseldorf/Germany.

Ulysse Nardin Executive Free Wheel Osmium

The World’s Rarest Precious Metal Becomes the Unique Opportunity The Osmium-Institut zur Inverkehrbringung und Zertifizierung für Osmium GmbH is the leading authority for certification and distribution of crystallized osmium. The tasks are carried out by a team of specialists who inform dealers, train processing companies, and provide information to interested parties. The Osmium Institute employs experts who can help confirm the authenticity of osmium and supply Osmium Identification Codes for private trade. The Osmium Institutes is the point of contact for the press and television for information about osmium and its uses. They maintain an FAQ and help answer all scientific and economic questions relating to osmium. The Osmium Institute Germany has the task of establishing an international network of regional institutes on all continents to facilitate local trade. Am Mösl 41, T: +49 89 744 88 88 88 [email protected] 82418 Murnau am Staffelsee F: +49 89 744 88 88 19 Germany

Scarlett Clauss is the Vice Director of the German Osmium Institute and the founder of Oslery GmbH. Born in the United States to German diplomats, she developed an early appreciation for travelling the world and discovering new cultures. She has spent her adult life in Berlin, Germany, where she completed her Abitur studies and Bachelor of Arts at the top of her class. A core member of Osmium Institute since 2018, Clauss is also the owner and director of Oslery GmbH. Founded in 2020, it was the world’s first ever company to produce jewellery exclusively featuring crystalline osmium. Meanwhile, Clauss is on the Institute's board of directors and advocates worldwide for osmium as a tangible asset and jewelry metal. Outside of developing the international Osmium market, her passions include her fitness, her friends, her family, and her puppy. Colin Lloyd is the North American Coordinator of the Osmium Institute. Born and raised in Canada, Lloyd spent his formative years in Montreal before moving to Berlin, Germany, in 2021. His tenure with the Osmium Institute began as the Canadian Channel Partner. After spending time studying the investor behaviour of a country to which Osmium had been newly introduced as a tangible asset, he eventually took on the role of coordinating overseas trade to both Canada and the United States. Now based in Germany, the homeland of the Osmium Institute, Lloyd works in tangent with the Osmium Institute’s management to help bring osmium to English- speaking markets across the globe. Lloyd is a graduate of McGill University, where he received his Bachelor of Music in 2017. Before working in international commerce, he spent years performing throughout Canada and the United States as a professional trombonist.

What is ?OSMIUM The picture shows the availability of precious metals worldwide. The globally available amount of gold fits into a cube with an edge length of 22 meters. In terms of quantity, OSMIUM is the rarest of all precious metals in our earth’s crust, as there is 1,500 times less of it than gold and 2,500 times less of it than silver. Crystalline OSMIUM is 35 times more precious than gold and has the highest value in terms of volume among all precious metals. 1 pure ounce of osmium = 31.1 g. Crystalline OSMIUM has a steel blue color. Its unique Diamond Crystalline OSMIUM bluish-silvery to bluish-whitish reflection of light extends beyond that of a diamond. The light does not refract on the crystal surface and has a remarkable reflection. Osmium was toxic until 2014 when Swiss scientists discovered the possibility that they could crystallize osmium. The process is extremely complex and time- consuming with as many as 50 interdependent variables (temperature, pressure, gas content, etc.). If only one of these variables deviates, the crystallization process is unsuccessful.

OSMIUM is an element with atomic number 76 in the periodic table of the elements. It cannot be produced chemically/artificially. Osmium is durable Because of its durability, OSMIUM keeps its shine forever. For example, it is also resistant to hydrochloric acid. Its abrasion resistance exceeds all other substances. Inimitable density The crystalline OSMIUM has a purity of 99.9995%. In its crystalline form, osmium is completely harmless to the body and skin. Osmium has the highest density of all chemical elements and compounds, so it cannot be falsified by the conventional enclosing a heavy core in a bar. If you were to place a less valuable core inside an osmium bar, this would reduce its specific density which would expose the counterfeit immediately. OSMIUM namely has the highest density of all elements which makes it inimitable. • To counterfeit osmium is mission impossible! • Gold can be counterfeited by simply coating tungsten bars. • Osmium has the highest density of all substances. • It is not possible to enclose a less valuable core inside osmium. Osmium is solid The crystalline OSMIUM has a value of 7.5 on the Mosh hardness scale and is as hard as tungsten and harder than silver and gold whose hardness is 2.7 and 2.5.

Osmium’s rapid upturn Since its launch in 2014, the price of crystalline OSMIUM has been steadily increasing and is very stable. ● Osmium [€] exponentially The price of osmium changes once a day (every 24 hours). Namely, the price of osmium is not determined through the traditional precious metals trading system. It depends on the supply of crude osmium and the demand for crystalline osmium. t Opportunities • Diversification and hedge against inflation • Rare and limited supply • Available in flat and cylindrical geometries in various sizes including Osmium Disk, Osmium Diamonds, Osmium Stars, Osmium Bars and Osmium Shapes

Opportunities with Osmium The driving factors behind the demand for crystalline osmium are its uses as a value-dense tangible investment asset and as a jewelry metal. Many other potential applications exist due to the special properties of osmium; however, osmium has historically been too rare and too expensive for any of these applications. Investors with a long-term perspective are therefore predominantly betting that, due to its rarity, osmium will become increasingly difficult to acquire for jewellers. In the future, private and institutional investors will supply the jewelry market with crystalline osmium. Purchase Crystalline, certified osmium is directly purchased from the Osmium-Institut zur Inverkehrbringung und Zertifizierung Delivery lead time von Osmium GmbH, Germany, or one of its affiliated local osmium institutes. Product Boxes Depending on order between 1 and 6 weeks Small investment tranches start at EUR 5000 (small box) and go up to between approx. EUR 125,000 per Investor Disk and Fees & other costs EUR 1 million per Family Office package (8 Investor Disks). The estimated market cap is $200billion Costs for import duties, taxes, fees for storage and any other costs to be borne by buyer. Options for bonded warehousing are available.

The osmium crystallisation process and issuing of certificates of authenticity is entirely under the control of the Osmium-Institut zur Inverkehrbringung und Zertifizierung von Osmium GmbH. Certified osmium can initially only be bought from affiliated osmium institutes and partners who are certified to work with and sell osmium. As there is only one single entity controlling the crystallization process, there is only one place where osmium can be initially purchased. Exclusive delivery contracts for raw osmium have been negotiated with mining corporations. Only their products are processed into crystallized osmium. No affiliated osmium institute will buy raw osmium from any other distributor. As part of the authentication process, every osmium piece is photographed, weighed and measured in Germany. The chemical purity, which is at least 99.9995%, is determined per batch. The crystalline surface structure of every single osmium piece is an individual feature, just like a human fingerprint, but with a 10,000 times greater accuracy. Each osmium piece is assigned with an eight-digit alpha-numeric code, the Osmium Identification Code (OIC). The OIC is entered into the International Osmium Database along with the information recorded as part of the authentication process. The OIC enables private individuals to verify the authenticity of purchased osmium by visual comparison with the photographs which are stored in the International Osmium Database. Osmium is found in platinum ores and is so rare that approximately 10,000 tons of platinum ore will yield a mere 28 grams of osmium. Platinum is a rare enough metal, and yet when comparing global reserves, there are approximately 13,000 tons of platinum, as opposed to around 200 tons of osmium. In fact, Osmium is the least abundant stable element in Earth’s crust with an average mass fraction of 50 parts per trillion in the continental crust.

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