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Nirmanika issue 1

Published by Dr. Sujeet Kumar, 2022-03-29 09:47:43

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Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022  NIRMANIKA Create, Grow & Sustain Dr. Sujeet Kumar Mr. Archit Priyadarshi Civil Engineering Department Shivalik College of Engineering Email : [email protected] 0135 2693401, 0135 2693402

NIRMANIKA Editor Dr. Sujeet Kumar Executive Editor Mr. Archit Priyadarshi Members Editorial Board Mr. Anand Kemwal Mr. Rohit Kumar Shakya Mr. Vimal Mohan Ms. Ankita Mrs. Monika Chauhan Mr. Yudhveer Singh Mr. Saurav Pawar Department of Civil Engineering, Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun 1 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

CONTENTS NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022 ARTICLE AUTHOR PAGE NO. Civil Engineering: Present and Future Dr. Sujeet Kumar 3-14 15-16 Structural Health monitoring system: Diagnostics and prognostics for civil infrastructure Mr. Rohit Kumar Shakya 17-18 systems 19-20 21-22 Shaping Future Cities: 3D Printing and Architecture Mr. Anand Kemwal 23-24 25-25 Sensor breakthrough paves way for groundbreaking map of world under Earth surface Ms. Ankita Vats 26-30 Water filtration membranes morph like cells Mr. Archit Priyadarshi Emerging Technologies in Transportation Systems: Challenges and Opportunities Mr. Vimal Mohan Meri Sadak v/s Traffic Rule Mrs. Monika Chauhan Career Corner Dr. Sujeet Kumar &Mr. Anand Kemwal 2 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

CIVIL ENGINEERING: CAREER PATHWAYS Civil engineering is the profession of planning, Designing and constructing various public-use structures such as dams, bridges, aqueducts, canals, highways, power plants, sewerage systems etc. The origins of civil engineering as a distinct subject may be traced back to the establishment of the Bridge and Highway Corps in France in 1716, which expanded into the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (\"National School of Bridges and Highways\") in 1747. As design and calculation supplanted rule of thumb and empirical formulas, and expert knowledge was formalized and defined, the nonmilitary engineer rose to the fore. Civil engineers were talented, albeit often self-taught, craftsmen, stonemasons, millwrights, toolmakers, and instrument makers. In 1838, King's College in London started teaching civil engineering, and in 1840, Queen Victoria established the first chair of civil engineering and mechanics at the University of Glasgow in Scotland. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, founded in 1824, was the first in the United States to provide civil engineering studies. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the number of colleges around the world with engineering faculties, especially civil engineering, grew dramatically. Civil engineering is now taught in colleges all around the world1. CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING For the past decades there have been major changes in the entire world, mostly brought about by technological advances. These improvements are reflected in every aspect of Civil Engineering. Civil Engineering was limited to design of sewer systems, dams, bridges and houses etc. The classical method to perform these tasks was cumbersome in nature resulting in loss of resources. But, according to the consumer demands, it made us rethink about precise analysis, design and inspection. Fortunately, with the latest technology, using the modern tools that are relevant today, the work becomes easy. Exchange of the information among the global leaders is taking place at increasingly higher speed, which helps to educate Civil engineers. The technology exchange helps in development of new Civil Engineering materials, with the use of waste materials and urges to adapt green technology for the environment. It also enables large scale simulations using computational tools. The analysis and design of critical problems, which requires large scale experimental equipment and set up, can be performed using numerical tools alone, within a small period of time. For the safety of the occupants or the users’ different modern techniques have been adopted, such as vibration control of structures, structural health monitoring and retrofitting it. 3 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

CURRENT STATE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING The trending technology in the field of Civil Engineering may be Artificial Intelligence in Construction AI has been widely used by engineers and researchers to solve non-linear problems in a small span of time. AI is found to be robust in determining the compressive strength of the materials (Concrete, Soil etc.), behavior of traffic in the pavement, prediction of earthquake, prediction of rainfall which will help to construct and design various Civil Engineering components. There is further immense scope of AI in the Civil Engineering industry. Computer Assisted Education The use of computers and software to analyze large scale tests is beneficial. This field is growing rapidly but it's promising in nature. The student with a learning disability also can adopt this at their own pace. The effect of various loadings such as wind, earthquake, wave impact, fatigue on road, railway track cannot be analyzed properly in full scale at laboratory on Civil Engineering components. Hence, the use of relevant software is a paramount concern. Structural Health Monitoring Construction of railway bridges, stadiums, tunnels, wind turbines, dams require a large economic investment. Any kind of failure during its serviceability in these types of structures is intolerable. Hence, for the early detection of failure, structural health monitoring has been adopted. As a result of which continuous inspection can be carried out and retrofitting can be done with smart materials to reduce the effect of failure and safeguard the vicinity. Smart Materials There is plenty of opportunity available to develop smart materials with the recycled waste or natural waste in Civil Engineering. The development of bendable concrete with Zero percent CO2 emission, various types of fiber reinforced polymers for the retrofitting are the few of them. The demand for soil stabilization with the use of smart materials is of growing interest among the researchers. Robotics in Civil Engineering To conduct the survey, drones are used nowadays. These drones can conduct very accurate surveying even to inaccessible areas. Drone surveys can cover a large area and perform the desired task in a very small amount of time. For urban planning and design drone surveys can be beneficial. GIS and GPS in Civil Engineering 4 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

GIS and GPS are widely used to conduct the surveying. The accuracy of surveying depends upon the GPS in all-weather conditions. This favorable system offers a promising solution for waste water management, disaster management etc. by giving the exact location. Use of 3D Printing 3D printing is a manufacturing process that builds layers to create an entire 3D object from a digital model. Various complex shaped civil engineering components can be created from a digital model with great accuracy. The construction of high-rise structures with 3D printing is a great challenge. However, various materials used in 3D printing for construction require extensive testing to determine their properties. SCOPE We are all aware of the role of civil engineering in the growth of humanity. Civil engineers are an important part of society, since all human beings benefit from civil engineering. Without them, we would have no basic facilities. It gives a sense of obligation to mankind to the civil engineer, but also a sense of satisfaction with the important social contribution. It is a career that is specifically concerned with raising people's living conditions. Without civil engineering modern societies cannot survive because of reliance on all facets of life. Civil engineering is an important engineering discipline who deals with planning, constructing and maintaining the facilities in either physically constructed or natural environments (roads, bridges to docks or stations and airports, canals, dams or many more). Civil engineering has a number of sectors including structural, environmental, geotechnical, traffic and transport, hydraulics, water management, and urban engineering. Artificial intelligence has recently been used as part of the project pace, reduction of total project cost and CO2 emissions in major construction areas. ROLES OF CIVIL ENGINEERS Civil engineers mainly perform three types of tasks: one performed before construction (feasibility studies, site investigations, and design), those performed during construction (working with clients, consulting engineers, and contractors), and those performed after construction (maintenance and research). A civil engineer's responsibilities can be summarized as follows: ✓ Assisting and suggesting architects in the designing of large and complex civil engineering projects. ✓ Liaising with environmental engineers for environmentally friendly and safe projects. ✓ Consulting with transportation agencies for optimal traffic management. ✓ Public officials' advisors for preparing and constructing modern types of technology to inculcate public needs. 5 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

APPLICATION AREAS ➢ Coastal and Ocean Engineering. ➢ Geotechnical Engineering. ➢ Construction Engineering. ➢ Structural Engineering. ➢ Bridge Engineering. ➢ Land Development Engineering. ➢ Hydraulic Engineering. ➢ Traffic and Transportation Engineering. ➢ Environmental Engineering. ➢ Irrigation Engineering. ➢ Materials Engineering. ➢ Urban Engineering. ➢ Water Resources Engineering. ➢ Urban Engineering. ➢ Landscape Engineering. ➢ Earthquake Engineering and others. LATEST FOCUSED AREAS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS Construction Engineering Planning and Management: Labour, material (quantity and availability) and equipment for specific projects at the appropriate time and place. Modern Construction Materials: responsible for specifying, designing and manufacturing the modern materials used in construction. Energy-Water-Environment Sustainability: focused on providing and supporting sustainable solutions for the exploration, production, delivery and use of energy, and their intersection with water and the built environment. Environmental Engineering and Science: Focused on solutions to air, land and water contamination problems. Underground Engineering: Areas related to planning, analysis, design and execution of various underground structures such as tunnels, oil storage space etc. Sustainable Infrastructure Systems: Focused on sustainability of infrastructure through emerging/innovative approaches. Hazard Mitigation and Management: focused on risk evaluation and risk management by natural and human-made hazards. INDUSTRY SCENARIO By 2025, India's construction industry is anticipated to be worth 10,20,000 crores and will contribute 13% of the country's GDP. India will become the world’s third largest construction market by 20252. India has a 98.4 trillion infrastructure investment budget under the National 6 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

infrastructure pipeline, with 24 percent going to renewable energy, 19 percent going to roads and highways, 16 percent going to urban infrastructure, and 13 percent going to railways. Currently, 724 investable projects totaling rupee 884.16 billion are available for investment in Construction. GROWTH DRIVERS Smart City Mission: 100 smart cities are developing in India to improve the quality of life through modernized/technology-driven urban planning3. Industrial and Infrastructure Corridor: The Government of India is building 11 Industrial Corridor Projects as part of the National Industrial Corridor program, which aims to create future industrial cities in India that can compete with the top manufacturing and investment destinations in the world. The same will generate job opportunities and economic growth, resulting in overall socioeconomic development. As per GOI, 11 Industrial Corridors Projects are being constructed, with 32 Projects to be developed in four phases between 2024 and 2025. There are 14 CEZs, 6 new ports and three mega ports under the project ‘Sagarmala’ which will be developed by 20354. List of industrial corridors in phase I. ❖ Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) ❖ Chennai Bengaluru Industrial Corridor (CBIC); ❖ Amritsar Kolkata Industrial Corridor (AKIC); ❖ East Coast Industrial Corridor (ECIC) with Vizag Chennai Industrial Corridor ❖ (VCIC) as Phase 1; ❖ Bengaluru Mumbai Industrial Corridor (BMIC); ❖ Extension of CBIC to Kochi via Coimbatore; ❖ Hyderabad Nagpur Industrial Corridor (HNIC); ❖ Hyderabad Warangal Industrial Corridor (HWIC); ❖ Hyderabad Bengaluru Industrial Corridor (HBIC); ❖ Odisha Economic Corridor (OEC); ❖ Delhi Nagpur Industrial Corridor (DNIC). The Western DFC was considered the transportation backbone for the Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) project, whereas the Eastern DFC was considered the backbone for the Amritsar Kolkata Industrial Corridor (AKIC) project. NH-4 has been considered as the backbone for other industrial corridor projects such as the Chennai Bengaluru Industrial Corridor (CBIC) and the Bengaluru Mumbai Industrial Corridor (BMIC). The Kolkata– Chennai train link has been proposed as the transport backbone for the East Coast Economic Corridor (ECEC), NH-5, which is part of the Golden Quadrilateral. The projected North-South East-West and East Coast Dedicated Freight Corridors will enhance the existing transportation backbone for the Industrial Corridors. 7 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

Redevelopment of Railway Stations: In collaboration with the private sector, Indian Railways is moving forward with its plan to renovate 600 railway stations around the country. The project is projected to cost more than Rs 1 lakh crore, with Rs 80,000 crore going for asset commercialization and the remaining Rs 20,000 crore going toward station rehabilitation. Indian Railways anticipates earning Rs 50,000 crore via commercial exploitation of land near railway stations5. OPPORTUNITIES FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS There is a plethora of options available for civil engineers in the public and private sectors that depend on their own interests and long-term objectives. Students can start their carriers in civil engineering as Start-ups. IPR Advisor. Consulting Engineer. Design Engineer. Planning Engineer. Draft Engineer. Quality Assurance and Control Engineer. Estimator. Tendering and Procurement Expert. Site Engineer Research and Development. MAJOR PLAYERS IN THE INDUSTRIES Public Sector a) Indian/State Civil and Engineering Services. b) Academia and Research Organization. c) Municipal Corporations. d) Jal Boards. e) Delhi Development Authority. f) New Delhi Municipal Corporation. g) Metro Railways. h) National Highway Authority of India. i) Indian Oil Corporation. j) Delhi State Industrial Development Corporation. k) State and Central Public Works Department. l) Border Roads Organization. m) Military Engineering Services. n) Airport Authority of India. o) Indian defense. p) Indian railways. q) Irrigation & Flood control department. 8 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

r) Public Health Engineering department. s) National Hydro-electric Power Corporation. t) National Thermal Power Corporation. u) Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited. v) Defence Research and Development Organization. w) RITES, RVNL x) DRDO. y) IRCON International Ltd. z) Pollution Control Boards. aa) Indian Space Research Organization. bb) SAIL India cc) NBCC and many more Private Sector a) L&T Construction. b) Tata Projects Limited. c) Gammon India. d) Gammon Infrastructure Projects Limited. e) Omaxe Ltd. f) Supertech Ltd. g) Shapoorji & Pallonji Group. h) GMR Group. i) Hindustan Construction Company. j) Afcons Infrastructure Limited. k) Gammon India Limited, Reliance Infrastructure. l) Ashoka Buildcon. m) B L Kashyap & Sons Ltd. n) Consolidated Construction Consortium Ltd. o) Essar Group. p) Jaypee Group. q) Nagarjuna Construction Company Ltd. r) National Building Construction Corporation Limited. s) Punj Lloyd. t) ARUP u) Jacobs v) Thornton Tomasetti w) AECOM x) Simplex y) TATA Projects z) JMC and many more 9 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

CIVIL ENGINEERING AT SHIVALIK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Shivalik College of Engineering is one of the leading colleges in Uttarakhand in terms of quality education in the field of civil engineering. What we offer . Best in-class infrastructure. a. Wi-Fi enabled campus. b. Language and communication labs. c. State-of-the-art and modern library. d. ICT enabled classroom. e. Value added courses for students. f. Career- oriented courses at undergraduate program (Mandatory 2-week hands-on field training on field survey and quality control). g. Proactive and transparent system of teaching learning. h. Dedicated team for curriculum, teaching, learning, evaluation, research, innovation, student progression and departmental administration. i. Unique mentorship approach for students. j. Dedicated DIY lab. k. Good placement assistance. l. Personalized career coaching assistance for competitive examination. m. Experienced faculties with Masters and Ph.D. from IIT and NIT. OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC SECTOR Engineering Services Examination Engineering Services Test (ESE), also known as Indian Engineering Services (IES), is a prominent examination for engineering students held in India each year by the Union Public Service Commission UPSC. It provides engineers with the opportunity to serve their country as engineers and to work for the government of India as Class – 1 / Grade A officers in public sectors such as Indian Railways, Power, Telecommunications, Central Water Engineering, Defence Service of Engineers, Central Engineering Service, and so on. Engineering students have opportunities to work with India’s best services for engineers such as Indian Railway Service of Engineers, Indian Railway Stores Service , AEE (QS & C) in MES Surveyor Cadre, Central Engineering Service, (Gr ‘A’), Central Water Engineering Services, (Gr ‘A’), Survey of India (Gr ‘A’), Central Engineering Service (Roads), (Gr ‘A’), AEE(Civil) in Border Road Engineering Service, Indian Defence Service of Engineers, Indian Skill Development Service. ESE Year wise Civil Engg Vacancy Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022 10 | P a g e NIRMANIKA

Age Limits A candidate for this examination must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 30 years on the 1st January, 2021 i.e., he/she must have been born not earlier than 2nd January, 1991 and not later than 1st January, 2000. The upper age-limit of 30 years will be relaxable up to 35 years in the case of Government servants of the following categories, if they are employed in a Department/ Office under the control of any of the authorities mentioned in column 1 below and apply for admission to the examination for all or any of the Service(s)/Post(s) mentioned in column 2, for which they are otherwise eligible. A candidate who holds substantively a permanent post in the particular Department/Office concerned. This relaxation will not be admissible to a probationer appointed against a permanent post in the Department/Office during the period of his probation. However, this relaxation will be admissible to a probationer so appointed provided he/she already retains a lien on a permanent post in a Department/Office under the control of any of the authorities mentioned in column 1 below. A candidate who has been continuously in a temporary service on a regular basis in the particular Department/Office for at least 3 years on the 1st January, 2021. Examination Pattern UPSC IES/ESE exam conducted in three Stages i.e., Stage-I, Stage-II & Stage-III. Total 4 papers, out of these 4 papers, 2 are of objective type and 2 of subjective type. Total marks assigned for the written test is 1100 and 200 marks are assigned for the personal interview. UPSC IES/ESE is a three-step exam as per pattern like – written exam and personal interview. 11 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

Personal interview call is only for those who clear the written cut-off decided by UPSC (Stage- I & Stage-II). Further written cut-off is again classified in two categories – cut-off of objective papers and cut-off of subjective plus objective papers i.e., (1) Cut-off marks out of 500 – include only objective paper marks (2) Cut-off marks out of 1100 – include objective paper and also subjective paper marks (3) Cut-off marks out of 1300 – include objective paper, subjective paper marks and personal interview marks. Official website Read more at: State Public Service Commission Civil engineering graduates have excellent prospects to begin their careers as assistant and sub engineers with various state government construction departments. For official notifications, see the list of state public service commissions below. ✓ Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission Vijayawada ✓ Arunachal Pradesh Public Service Commission, Itanagar ✓ Assam Public Service Commission Guwahati ✓ Bihar Public Service Commission Patna ✓ Chhattisgarh Public Service Commission Raipur ✓ Goa Public Service Commission Panaji ✓ Gujarat Public Service Commission Gandhinagar ✓ Haryana Public Service Commission Panchkula ✓ Himachal Pradesh Public Service Commission, Shimla ✓ Jammu and Kashmir Public Service Commission Srinagar, ✓ Jharkhand Public Service Commission Ranchi ✓ Karnataka Public Service Commission Bangalore ✓ Kerala Public Service Commission, ✓ Madhya Pradesh Public Service Commission Indore ✓ Maharashtra Public Service Commission Mumbai ✓ Manipur Public Service Commission Imphal ✓ Meghalaya Public Service Commission, Shillong ✓ Mizoram Public Service Commission Aizawl ✓ Nagaland Public Service Commission, Kohima ✓ Odisha Public Service Commission Cuttack ✓ Punjab Public Service Commission Patiala ✓ Rajasthan Public Service Commission Ajmer ✓ Sikkim Public Service Commission Gangtok ✓ Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission Chennai ✓ Telangana State Public Service Commission Hyderabad 12 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

✓ Tripura Public Service Commission Agartala ✓ Uttar Pradesh Public Service Commission Prayagraj ✓ Uttarakhand Public Service Commission Haridwar ✓ West Bengal Public Service Commission Kolkata Resources ✓ Strength of Materials, Gere & Timoshenko ✓ Strength of Materials for unsolved problems, L. Singer ✓ Theory of Structures/Analysis of Structure S Ramamrutham ✓ Theory of Structures/Analysis of Structure L.S. Negi & Jangid ✓ Theory of Structures/Analysis of Structure Gupta & Pandit, C S Reddy ✓ Structural Analysis (9th Edition) R. C. Hibbeler ✓ Analysis of Structures (vol. I & II) Vazirani & Ratwani ✓ Structural Dynamics Mario Paz ✓ RCC. Design A. K. Jain ✓ S N Sinha ✓ RCC. Design IS: 456-2000 ✓ Reinforced Concrete Design Pillai & D. Menon ✓ Prestressed Concrete (2nd Edition) N. Krishna Raju ✓ Limit State Design of Steel Structures (2nd Edition) S.K. Duggal ✓ Steel Design L. S. Negi ✓ Steel Design IS: 800-1984 ✓ Design of Steel Structures N. Subramaniam (Oxford Publication) ✓ Environmental Engineering (vol. I & II) S. K Garg ✓ Environmental Engineering (vol. I & II) B. C. Punamia ✓ Environmental Engineering Peavy & Rowe ✓ Environmental Engineering Metcalf & Eddy ✓ Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics Gopal Ranjan & Rao ✓ Soil Mechanics & Foundations Muni Budhu ✓ Soil Mechanics R. F. Craig ✓ Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines (9th Edition) R. K. Bansal ✓ Flow in Open Channel K. Subramanya ✓ Fluid Mechanics & Fluid Machines A. K. Jain ✓ Highway Engineering Khanna & Justo ✓ Surveying (vol. I & II) S.K. Duggal ✓ Hydrology K. Subramanya ✓ Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures S.K. Garg ✓ Construction Project Management K. N. Jha ✓ Concrete Technology M. L. Gambhir ✓ Engineering Materials Rangwala 13 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

✓ Airport Planning & Design and Railway Engineering S.C. Saxena & S.P. Arora ✓ Harbour, Dock and Tunnel Engineering R. Srinivasan Sujeet Kumar, PhD Assistant Professor and Coordinator Civil Engineering Department References: 1. 2. mkt-by- 2025/articleshow/20856489.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text& utm_campaign=cppst 3. ndustry%20in%20India%20is%20expected%20to%20reach%20%241.4%20Tn%20b y%202025&text=The%20construction%20industry%20market%20in,sectors%20with %20linkages%20across%20sectors. 4. economicgrowth1298012980.html/#:~:text=The%20government%20has%20planned %20six,Island%20Port%20(West%20Bengal). 5. 600-railway-stations-on-public-private-partnership. 14 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

Structural Health monitoring system: Diagnostics and prognostics for civil infrastructure systems With the emergence of new materials and technologies, the construction of civil structures is now carried out at a faster rate. There is an increased requirement to provide both cost savings about maintenance and a safer environment by preventing structural failures. India being the home of rich historical background inherits a varied amount of historical structures. Due to their historical importance, it becomes very important to assess the health condition of these structures. Buildings like hospitals, stadiums, sports arenas could cause harm to a large number of people at a time and are something to be taken care of regularly. Structural health monitoring is a technique aimed at providing accurate and in-time information concerning structural conditions and performance on a proactive basis. Information obtained from monitoring is usually used to plan and design maintenance, enhance safety, reduce ambiguity, and expand the knowledge concerning the structure being monitored. In the recent past, non-destructive techniques are being utilized for monitoring purposes. Installing a structural health monitoring system in a structure is about 0.5% to 3% one time cost and 2% to 5% for monitoring structure over a 10 year period. Motivation for Structural Health Monitoring Knowing the integrity of in-service structures on a continuous real-time basis is a very important objective for manufacturers, end-users, and maintenance teams. In effect, SHM: – allows optimal use of the structure, a minimized downtime, and the avoidance of catastrophic failures, – gives the constructor an improvement in his products, – drastically changes the work organization of maintenance services: i) by aiming to replace scheduled and periodic maintenance inspection with performance- based maintenance (long term) or at least (short term) by reducing the present maintenance labor. ii) by drastically minimizing human involvement, and consequently reducing labor, downtime, and human errors, and thus improving safety and reliability. Structural Health Monitoring as a way of making materials and structures smart Since the end of the 1980s, the concept of smart or intelligent materials and structures has become more and more present in the minds of engineers. These new ideas were particularly welcome in the fields of aerospace and civil engineering. The concept is presently one of the 15 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

driving forces for innovation in all domains. The concept of Smart Materials/Structures can be considered as a step in the general evolution of man-made objects. There is a continuous trend from simple to complex in human production, starting from the use of homogeneous materials, supplied by nature and accepted with their natural properties, followed by multi-materials (in particular, composite materials) allowing us to create structures with properties adapted to specific uses. In fact, composite materials and multi-materials are replacing homogeneous materials in more and more structures. This is particularly true in the aeronautic domain. For instance, composite parts are now used for modern aircraft. It is worth noting that this aircraft is the first one in which it is clearly planned to embed SHM systems, in particular systems for impact detection. Vibration-based structural health monitoring: Data-based techniques Data-Based techniques are based on statistical, rather than physical models of the structure. These methods are called data-based because the features extracted from the structural response are obtained by simple operations performed on the response itself, and do not require any physical model assumptions. These approaches are often said to “let the data speak by themselves”. PROS • Do not require high user expertise. • Often coined using machine learning knowledge: highly computationally efficient and ideal to be automated. • Take into account uncertainties inherently present in SHM. • Free from modeling assumption-induced errors. CONS • Without a physical model, it can at most reach the second level of the damage detection hierarchy (damage location). • Being based on a statistical model of the features, they require sufficient data to be available. Sources: In book: Structural Health Monitoring (pp.13-43) Chapter. Chapter 1- Publisher: ISTE Editors: Daniel Balageas, Claus-Peter Fritzen, Alfredo Güemes, Authors: Daniel Balageas, Institute of Mechanics and Engineering of Bordeaux. Mr. Rohit Kumar Shakya Assistant Professor Civil Engineering Department 16 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

Shaping Future Cities: 3D Printing and Architecture Technology and continued advancements in technology have paved the way for design and architecture in the contemporary world. They have aided designers to better realize their ideas into actuality within shorter periods of time and with more ease. Where individual drawings would take weeks to complete, computer-aided design software has allowed architects to achieve complex design layouts, illustrations, and renders of building perspectives, virtual models of the building and its spaces, etc. in much simpler ways. It has completely reshaped the approach to design, with the development of computational design methodologies, advanced tools for analysis of site conditions, analysis of a building’s performance, etc. it has allowed the architect and the client both complete clarity in their vision and made achieving them possible. 3D Printing seeks to be another game-changer. The idea of creating an actual, 3d object from a digital data file enticed people from all industries. The possibilities seemed endless. With extensive applications in various fields, architecture seemed to be a front-runner to embrace this new technology. Once its potential for detailed model making was realized, the benefits it offered over conventional model-making techniques; many architecture firms began to use 3D printed models to demonstrate their designs. The level of detail and precision achieved to allow the clients to view the project at a smaller scale and make informed decisions moving forward. It began as a cost-intensive technique, but with its growing popularity and ubiquity; it is becoming more and more approachable for architects and even students of architecture to experiment with. 3D models for representation are using this technology on a smaller, simpler scale. Using 3D printing and architecture as a construction process; having a whole structure printed through digital data files is what this technology has true potential for. It is still too soon to comment on its validity, but experiments with the idea have created a new buzz and opened up a whole new world of possibilities. Ambitious projects envision complete structures printed using this technology, various combinations of materials, technologies, etc. are being used to achieve this. A project, The Landscape House, envisioned as an endless strip with no beginning or end was conceived as a design inspired by the mathematical concept of the Mobius Strip. The architect, Janjua Cuisenaire wanted to use 3D printing for construction because he saw it as a seamless and organic process, which further echoed the overall design philosophy. While the execution of the design ultimately consists of 3D printed formwork which will be filled with fiber reinforced concrete, which is not exactly a completely 3D printed building, it is an advancement towards the same. 17 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

Another project, the Pothouse by Soft kill Design is a conceptual house designed to explore 3D printing as a technique, the basic principle is derived from ‘bone structure’. The form of the building was created using an algorithm with mimic’s bone growth and deposits material along stress lines creating an intricate webbed structure. The structure will be printed in parts and each part will be shipped to the site and assembled on site. Mr. Anand Kemwal Assistant Professor Civil Engineering Department Reference 1. Source: Insider,, 18 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

Sensor breakthrough paves way for groundbreaking map of world under Earth surface An object hidden below ground has been located using quantum technology -- a long-awaited milestone with profound implications for industry, human knowledge and national security. University of Birmingham researchers from the UK National Quantum Technology Hub in Sensors and Timing have reported their achievement in Nature. It is the first in the world for a quantum gravity gradiometer outside of laboratory conditions. The quantum gravity gradiometer, which was developed under a contract for the Ministry of Defence and in the UKRI-funded Gravity Pioneer project, was used to find a tunnel buried outdoors in real-world conditions one meter below the ground surface. It wins an international race to take the technology outside. The sensor works by detecting variations in microgravity using the principles of quantum physics, which is based on manipulating nature at the sub-molecular level. The success opens a commercial path to significantly improved mapping of what exists below ground level. This will mean: ● Reduced costs and delays to construction, rail and road projects. ● Improved prediction of natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions. ● Discovery of hidden natural resources and built structures. ● Understanding archaeological mysteries without damaging excavation. Professor Kai Bongs, Head of Cold Atom Physics at the University of Birmingham and Principal Investigator of the UK Quantum Technology Hub Sensors and Timing, said: \"This is an 'Edison moment' in sensing that will transform society, human understanding and economies. \"With this breakthrough we have the potential to end reliance on poor records and luck as we explore, build and repair. In addition, an underground map of what is currently invisible is now a significant step closer, ending a situation where we know more about Antarctica than what lies a few feet below our streets.\" Current gravity sensors are limited by a range of environmental factors. A particular challenge is vibration, which limits the measurement time of all gravity sensors for survey applications. If these limitations can be addressed, surveys can become faster, more comprehensive and lower cost. The sensor developed by Dr Michael Holynski, Head of Atom Interferometry at Birmingham and lead author of the study, and his team at Birmingham is a gravity gradiometer. Their system 19 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

overcomes vibration and a variety of other environmental challenges in order to successfully apply quantum technology in the field. The successful detection, realized in collaboration with civil engineers led by Professor Nicole Metje of the School of Engineering, is the culmination of a long-term development programme that has been closely linked to end-users from its outset. This breakthrough will allow future gravity surveys to be cheaper, more reliable and delivered 10 times faster, reducing the time needed for surveys from a month to a few days. It has the potential to open a range of new applications for gravity survey, providing a new lens into the underground. Professor George Tuckwell, Director for Geoscience and Engineering at RSK, said: \"Detection of ground conditions such as mine workings, tunnels and unstable ground is fundamental to our ability to design, construct and maintain housing, industry and infrastructure. The improved capability that this new technology represents could transform how we map the ground and deliver these projects \"Dr Gareth Brown, joint Project Technical Authority for Quantum Sensing and Senior Principal Scientist at Dstl, said: \"For national Defence and Security, accurate and rapid measurements of variations in microgravity open up new opportunities to detect the otherwise undetectable and navigate more safely in challenging environments. As gravity sensing technology matures, applications for underwater navigation and revealing the subterranean will become possible.\" The breakthrough is a collaboration between the University of Birmingham, environmental, engineering and sustainability solutions provider RSK, Dstl (the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, part of the UK Ministry of Defence), and technology company Teledyne e2v. The project is funded by UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) as part of the UK National Quantum Technologies Programme, and under contract from the Ministry of Defence. Reference: 1. Stray, B., Lamb, A., Kaushik, A. et al. Quantum sensing for gravity cartography. Nature, 2022 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-04315-3 Ms. Ankita Vats Lecturer Civil Engineering Department 20 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

Water filtration membranes morph like cells Morphogenesis is nature's way of building diverse structures and functions out of a fixed set of components. While nature is rich with examples of morphogenesis -- cell differentiation, embryonic development and cytoskeleton formation, for example -- research into the phenomenon in synthetic materials is scant. Researchers are taking a step forward using electron tomography, fluid dynamics theories and machine learning to watch soft polymers as the polymers learn from nature. The new study, led by Qian Chen, a professor of materials science and engineering; Jie Feng, a professor of mechanical science and engineering; and Xiao Su, a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering; is the first to demonstrate nanoscale morphogenesis in a synthetic material. The study is published in the journal Science Advances. \"You may see the filters in your home water purification systems as simple membranes with pores, but they are much more sophisticated when we zoom in using electron tomography,\" said former Illinois postdoctoral researcher Hyosung An, the study's lead author and a professor of petrochemical materials engineering at Chonnam National University in South Korea. \"By capturing images of sample membranes from a rotatable stage, we can reconstruct their full 3D morphology at sub-nanometer resolution.\" Imaging from varying angles allows the researchers to see the intricate 3D structure of the membranes -- with all their crumples, inner voids and networks -- at a spatial resolution not possible before. The structures are so complex that traditional shape descriptors, like radius and length, are invalid, said Chen, who led the experimental portion of the study. To help team members get their heads around the complex nature of the membranes, graduate students John W. Smith and Lehan Yao developed a machine learning-based workflow to digitize the structure parameters. Smith and Yao's efforts made an immediate impact. \"We can see morphological similarities between the synthetic membranes and biological systems,\" said Feng, who led the study's fluid dynamics and reaction modeling with postdoctoral researcher Bingqiang Ji. \"We tested several models and found amazing quantitative agreement with conventional theories that explain structures found in macroscopic biological systems, such as patterns on fish skin. The molecules are smart, and we expect that similar morphogenesis occurs in other soft polymer materials -- we simply didn't have the tools to see them until now.\" \"The impact goes beyond mechanistic understanding,\" said Su, who led the membrane separation studies alongside graduate student Stephen Cotty. \"One long-standing puzzle of separation science has been how to correlate membrane morphology and performance. Our 21 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

study combines the detailed nanoscale understanding of the morphology with membrane filtration testing, with important implications for various separation contexts.\" The researchers envision a wide range of applications of this development that may expand the functionality of soft nanomaterials like polymers, vesicles, microgels and composites -- all through morphogenesis. \"By casting 3D nanomorphology during formative chemical reactions, this advance will benefit the design of other materials of complex 3D morphologies,\" Chen said. \"The technologies behind devices like actuated nanomachines and other bioinspired materials with precise 3D interfacial morphology whose shapes can affect biological interactions may all advance by our findings.\" The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Defense University Research Instrumentation Program and the National Science Foundation supported this study. Chen and Feng also are affiliated with the Materials Research Laboratory; Chen also is affiliated with bioengineering, chemistry and chemical and biomolecular engineering. Chen and Su also are professors within the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology; Su also is affiliated with civil and environmental engineering at Illinois. Source: Materials provided by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, News Bureau. Originally written by Lois Yoksoulian. Mr. Archit Priyadarshi Assistant Professor Civil Engineering Department Reference: 1. Hyosung An, John W. Smith, Bingqiang Ji, Stephen Cotty, Shan Zhou, Lehan Yao, Falon C. Kalutantirige, Wenxiang Chen, Zihao Ou, Xiao Su, Jie Feng, Qian Chen. Mechanism and performance relevance of nano morphogenesis in polyamide films revealed by quantitative 3D imaging and machine learning. Science Advances, 2022; 8 (8) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abk1888 22 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

Emerging Technologies in Transportation Systems: Challenges and Opportunities Emerging technologies have been used as a complementary tool to solve different problems that modern society faces every day. One area where the emerging technologies have a big opportunity is transportation. As cities become larger, the number of vehicles and the need for transportation is growing quickly. In this sense, modern society is facing more traffic congestion, higher fuel bills and the increase of CO2 emissions. It is imperative to improve and develop a sustainable transportation system that uses in a better way the existing infrastructure and that infrastructure has to be complemented with the application of emerging technologies. This work gives readers a global vision of traffic and transportation issues and how merging technologies contribute to solving transportation problems. In addition, it analyzes some of the emerging technologies and how each technology might be used to improve transportation systems. Finally, a classification of applications for transportation systems is explained and some real applications that are being developed in both academic and industrial environments are described. Introduction Modern society depends on mobility, which provides personal freedom and access to services for business and pleasure. The amount of time to travel from one location to another can vary significantly based on the current traffic conditions. The growing volume of traffic has adverse effects on the environment, public health and especially in accidents that cause fatalities, injuries and material damages. Vehicular traffic congestion is one of the most critical concerns for a modern society where cities are ever-growing. Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases. It is of paramount importance to improve the safety and efficiency of transportation. In order to solve these serious transportation problems, the proposed solutions must be based on intelligent mechanisms and the application of information and communication technologies to make traffic control and management more efficient and safer. Several research groups focus their attention on the emerging technologies as a feasible alternative that contributes to solving the transportation problems (Chatzigiannakis, Grammatikou & Papavassiliou, 2007; Qing, Mak, Jeff & Sengupta, 2007). Due to the development of Information Technologies, technological advances and wireless communications, the Transportation Systems are rapidly gaining an importance, creating the vision towards more intelligent transportation systems. These systems, which are known as Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), attempt to apply information and communications technologies to vehicles and transportation infrastructure to manage and control items that are typically independent of each other, such as vehicles, loads, and routes. The final goal is to improve safety and reduce vehicle wear, transportation times, and fuel consumption, among others. ITS can contribute to the transportation solution by applying the latest information and communication technologies, such as wireless, sensing, cellular, mesh, and computing 23 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

technologies to transportation systems. However, the intelligence level depends on technological integration level and the technologies used or applied (Figure 1). When these technologies are integrated into the transportation system’s infrastructure, and in vehicles themselves, they can help to relieve congestion, improve safety and enhance productivity. The main challenge will be to integrate all technologies within a complementary and cooperative environment that solves the transportation problems. The proposal of a new cooperative environment composed of different network technologies and integrated applications will focus on creating safer roads, more efficient mobility and minimizing the environmental impact. Additionally, the development of predictive techniques and algorithms will allow transportation systems to increase their grade of intelligence by means of advanced modeling and comparison of historical baseline. It will be necessary to accelerate and coordinate the deployment and use of ITS applications and services for road transport and their connections with other modes of transport, to ensure seamless access and continuity of services. In this sense, EU has proposed an action plan that includes specific measures in these areas (Mobility and Transport, 2009; European commission & Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport, 2011): • Optimal use of road and traffic data. • Traffic and freight management. • Road safety and security. • Integrating ITS applications in the vehicle. • Data protection and liability. The direct benefit will be a faster, better-coordinated and more harmonized use of intelligent transport systems and services, which in turn will contribute to more efficient, cleaner and safer transportation systems. Mr. Vimal Uniyal Assistant Professor Civil Engineering Department Reference: 1. International Journal of Wireless Networks and Broadband Technologies (IJWNBT) 24 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

Meri Sadak v/s Traffic Rule We Indians complain about bad roads as an excuse for not following traffic rules, there have been videos made on social media demanding the government first to fix the roads and then implement the Motor vehicle act, which is quite childish. The government has already delayed the process for saving their vote banks. The respect for traffic rules all over India is nil, due to ‘sab chalta hai’ attitude, the fact cannot be changed that every year the number of people killed due to oversteering, jumping red signals, and wrong side driving is much more than those killed due to the bad state of roads. Traffic rules should not restrict the following of rules by individuals but also by the schools where the school van/rickshaw have children more than the accepted limit, fines should be imposed on both the parents and schools for overloading the vehicle. Traffic rules should be a part of the curriculum for the schools so that respect for traffic rules is imbibed in children from the nascent stage. Children learn from their parents when they see their parents are going on the wrong side and are less worried about the consequences, the same is repeated by children when they ride the vehicle, so as parents’ responsibility is not to protest against the government for bad roads, instead be an example for children by following the rules. Media is more concerned about people’s reaction to imposing fines than educating people about the traffic rules and their implementation around the world. For example, talking on the phone while driving in Spain costs around 300-500 euros, driving without a seatbelt in Greece costs 375 euros and it applies to all the passengers, etc. For bad roads let us first reduce the accidents due to our mistakes, and then we will move towards questioning the government. 25 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Mrs. Monika Chauhan Lecturer Civil Engineering Department Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

Career Corner Uttarakhand Subordinate Service Selection Commission, UKSSSC has recently invited Online Applications for 776 Junior Engineer (JE) Posts. Aspirants have to prepare four subjects i.e., General Hindi, Civil, General Knowledge & Current Affairs to ace in the UKPSC Junior Engineer Written Examination. Download UKSSSC JE Written Exam Syllabus, Topics of Exams, Exam Pattern, here. Organization Uttarakhand Public Service Commission Post Junior Engineer (JE) Name of Examination Written Competitive Examination Category Exam Syllabus No. of vacancy 776 Admit Card Update Soon Selection Process Written examination Job Location Uttarakhand Official Recruitment Website Syllabus of UKPSC JE Civil Engineering The flow of Fluids, Hydraulic Machines, Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow, Pipe Flow and Hydro Power Solid Waste Management Solid Mechanics Noise Pollution and Ecology Geotechnical Engineering Surveying and Geology Transportation Engineering Highways Tunneling Railways Systems Harbors Airports Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering Environmental Engineering Water Supply Engineering Building Materials Structural Analysis Design of Steel Structures Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures Construction Practice 26 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

PRACTICE SET-1 Q. 1 What is the density of steel? A. 7800 kg/m3 B. 7500 kg/m3 C. 7850 Kg/m3 D. 8000 kg/m3 Q. 2 The commonly used lime in white washing, is A. White lime B. Fat lime C. Hydraulic lime D. Quick lime Q. 3 For slaking of 10 kg of CaO, the theoretical amount of water is A. 2.2 kg B. 1.5 kg C. 3.2 kg D. None of these Q. 4 Plywood is made from A. Common timber B. Bamboo fiber C. Teak wood only D. Asbestos sheets Q. 5 A 1st class brick immersed in water for 24 hours, should not absorb water (by weight) more than A. 10 % B. 15 % C. 20 % D. 25 % Q. 6 The bearing capacity of granite is generally A. 15 to 20 kg/cm2 B. 30 to 35 kg/cm2 C. 5 to 10 kg/cm2 D. 40 to 45 kg/cm2 Q. 7 In grillage foundations a minimum 15 cm cover is provided on A. Ends of external beams B. Upper flange of top tier C. Lower beam of lower-tier D. None to these Q. 8 Stability of an existing structure may be disturbed by 27 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

A. Rising of the water table B. Vibrations caused by traffic movements C. Mining in the neighborhood D. All the above Q. 9 The Auger boring method is not suitable for A. Cemented soil B. Vary soft soil C. Very hard soil D. All the above Q. 10 Dampness causes A. Bleaching of paints B. Crumbling of plaster C. Efflorescence D. Growth of termites Q. 11 The lateral earth pressure on a retaining wall A. is equal to mass of the soil retained B. proportional to the depth of the soil C. proportional to the square of the depth of the soil D. proportional to the internal friction of the soil Q. 12 The intensity of active earth pressure at a depth of 10 metres in dry cohesionless sand with an angle of internal friction of 30? and with a weight of 1.8 t/m3, is A. 4 t/m2 B. 5 t/m2 C. 6 t/m2 D. 7 t/m2 Q. 13 If the failure of a finite slope occurs through the toe, it is known as A. slope failure B. face failure C. base failure D. toe failure. Q. 14 A soil not fully consolidated under the existing overburden pressure, is called A. pre-consolidated B. normally consolidated C. over-consolidated D. none of these. Q. 15 The maximum net pressure intensity causing shear failure of soil, is known A. safe bearing capacity B. net safe bearing capacity C. net ultimate bearing capacity D. ultimate bearing capacity. Q. 16 Terzaghi's analysis assumes: A. soil is homogeneous and isotropic B. elastic zone has straight boundaries inclined at NI = q to the horizontal and plastic zones fully developed C. failure zones do not extend above the horizontal plane through the base of the footing D. all the above. 28 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

Q. 17 The Terzaghi's general bearing capacity equation for a continuous footing is given by where N, Nb and Ny are bearing capacity factors. A. qf = cNc + qNq + 0.5ƴBNy B. qf = cNc + qNq +0.9ƴBNy C. qf = cNc + qNq - 0.5ƴBNy D. qf = cNc - qNq + 0.5ƴBNy Q. 18 Pick up the correct statement from the following: A. If the ratio of depth to width is less than 2, it is shallow foundation B. If the ratio of depth to width is more than 2, it is deep foundation C. If the ratio of the length to width is between 1 and 2, it is spread foundation D. All the above. Q. 19 The ultimate bearing capacity of a soil, is A. total load on the bearing area B. safe load on the bearing area C. load at which soil fails D. load at which soil consolidates. Q. 20 A compacted soil sample using 10% moisture content has a weight of 200 g and mass unit weight of 2.0 g/cm3. If the specific gravity of soil particles and water are 2.7 and 1.0, the degree of saturation of the soil is A.11.10% B.55.60% C.69.60% D. none of these. Q. 21 A sample of saturated soil has 30% water content and the specific gravity of soil grains is 2.6. The dry density of the soil mass in g/cc, is A.1.47 B.1.82 C.1.91 D. none of these. Q. 22 1n a liquid limit test, the moisture content at 10 blows was 70% and that at 100 blows was 20%. The liquid limit of the soil, is A.35% B.50% C.65% D. none of these. Q. 23 Pick up the cohesive soil from the following: A. Red earth B. Clay C. Black cotton soil D. Compacted ground. Q. 24 For determing the specific gravity of soil solids, using a pycnometer of 500 cc., the following data is available: Weight of dry empty pycnometer= 125g, weight of dried soil and pycnometer = 500g, weight of dried soil and distilled= 850 g-water filled in pycnometer up to top the specific gravity of soil soilds, is A.2 B.2.25 C.2.5 D. 2.75. 29 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

Q. 25 If the specific gravity of a soil particle of 0.05 cm diameter is 2.67, its terminal velocity while settling in distilled water of viscosity, 0.01 poise, is A. 0.2200 cm/sec B. 0.2225 cm/sec C. 0.2250 cm/sec D. 0.2275 cm/sec Q. 26 Plasticity index is defined as the range of water content between A. liquid and plastic limit B. plastic limit and semi solid limit C. semi-solid limit and liquid limit D. liquid limit and solid limit. Q. 27 The water content in a soil sample when it continues to loose weight without loosing the volume, is called A. Shrinkage limit B. Plastic limit C. liquid limit D. semi-solid limit. Q. 28 If dry density, water density and specific gravity of solids of a given soil sample are 1.6 glee, 1.84 g/cc and 2.56 respectively, the porosity of the soil sample, is A.0.375 B.0.37 C.0.38 D. 0.390. Q. 29 If dry density, water density and specific gravity of solids of a given soil sample are 1.6 glee, 1.84 g/cc and 2.56 respectively, the void ratio of the soil sample is A.0.4 B.0.5 C.0.6 D. 0.75. Q. 30 If dry density, water density and specific gravity of solids of a given soil sample are 1.6 g/cc, 1.84 g/cc and 2.56 respectively, the degree of saturation of the soil sample stated, is A.60% B.62% C.64% D. 66%. Sujeet Kumar & Anand Kemwal Assistant Professor Civil Engineering Department 30 | P a g e NIRMANIKA Volume 5: Issue 1: Year 2022

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