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10 Social Studies Book

Published by zenitha334, 2021-08-18 01:02:03

Description: 10 Social Studies Book


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Approved by the Government of Nepal, Ministry of Education Curriculum Development Centre (CDC), Sanothimi, Bhaktapur, Nepal. Readmore NewS O C I A L STUDIES Revised and Updated 10GRADE Author Matrika Pd. Lamsal

Published by TU Road, Kuleshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal. Phone: 4672071, 5187211, 5187226 Fax: 00977-1-4672073 E-mail: [email protected] © Copyright: Publisher 2075 BS No part of this book (maps, symbols, illustrations, etc.) may be reproduced or transmitted by any means, electronic, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher. Any breach of this condition will entail legal action and prosecution. First Edition : 2075 BS Revised and Updated Edition : 2076, 2077 BS Revised and Updated Edition : 2078 BS Language Editor Special Thanks to: Layout Ishwar Mani Lamsal Readmore Desktop Ganesh Dhakal Kiran Thapa Krishna Pd. Parajuli Grishma Rajbhandari Shyam Sunder Lamichhane Suren Shakya Tek Nath Poudel Jagat Prasad Bhattarai Sanjeev Rai Dilip Acharya Badri Bdr. Chauhan Purshottam Khanal Som Chaulagain Prakash Khanal Printed in Nepal You can exchange this book from your nearest book shop if any binding errors are found. Read to help others read ! We are pleased to inform that a certain amount from each book is allocated to the Charity Fund. The fund is provided to deserving and needy students all over Nepal. The charity always welcomes co-operation and support from all well wishers and agencies.

About The Book Social Studies is a graded series of books for school children. The Secondary Level series consists of two books suitable for class IX and X. This series is prepared especially for the children of English medium schools of Nepal. It is an appropriately planned graded series fulfilling the needs of students and teachers in the changing situation of our country and the world. Salient features of the book: The entire curriculum has been divided into 9 units as specified by the Curriculum Development Centre, Government of Nepal. Each unit consists of lessons covering the entire curriculum and additional materials. Every lesson has been supplemented with suitable pictures and illustrations. This book includes informative colourful maps of the continents so that students can easily get information about the physical features and other characteristics of the continents. Outline maps of all the continents are also included in the book so that students can evaluate their knowledge themselves. The related provisions of the Constitution of Nepal, prevailing rules and regulations have been presented in a simplified manner. New topics like Human Resource Development, Provinces of Nepal, Sustainable Development, Ongoing Development Projects in Nepal, Contemporary Development Goals, Universal Brotherhood, Responsibility Towards the Senior Citizens, Rights of Women and Indigenous Nationalities, Citizen Identity and Citizenship, Cooperative and Its Economic Importance, Finance Education, Insurance, Revenue and Tax Collection, Consumers’ Rights, Globalization and Localization, etc have been given special attention. The contents of the lessons are simple with lucid language and edited by expert language editors. The latest accurate data are included in all the lessons. These series are appropriately illustrated books reflecting the socio-economic and cultural side of Nepal. Special attention has been given to social, ethnic and geographical diversity, gender equality and secularism. Sufficient evaluation exercises are given in each and every lesson according to the objectives of the curriculum. Activities, exercises and enough community and project works have been given in each lesson. Key terms have been highlighted in each lesson to make the students understand the lesson easily. I would like to express my sincere thanks to the principals and teachers who have recommended Social Studies book to their students and schools. I am confident that these books will be able to fulfill the objectives set forth by CDC, Government of Nepal. I highly appreciate the opinion and constructive suggestions from the teachers and intellectuals. - Author

Table of Contents UNIT 1. WE AND OUR SOCIETY Pages 1. Human Resource Development 7 2. Human Development Index and Nepal 13 3. Concept of Regional Development and Federalism 19 4. Provinces of Nepal 25 UNIT 2. DEVELOPMENT AND INFRASTRUCTURES OF DEVELOPMENT 1. Sustainable Development 44 2. Ongoing Development Projects in Nepal 47 3. Infrastructure of Development: Skilled Human Resource and Employment Opportunity 51 4. Contemporary Development Goals and Nepal 55 5. Formulation of Development Proposal at Local Level 60 UNIT 3. OUR SOCIAL VALUES AND NORMS 1. Our National Heritages 64 2. Folk Songs of Nepal 72 3. Folk Musical Instruments of Nepal 76 4. Folk and Classical Dances of Nepal 82 5. Our National Days 87 6. International Personalities 91 7. Universal Brotherhood 95 8. Responsibility Towards the Senior Citizens 98 UNIT 4. SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 1. Human Trafficking: A Social Problem 102 2. Domestic Violence and Untouchability 106 3. Some Bad Customs 109 4. Roles Played by the International Organizations 112 5. Identification of Social Problems and Problem Solving Skills 116 UNIT 5. CIVIC AWARENESS 1. Legislature 119 2. Executive 125 3. Judiciary 132 4. Constitutional Bodies 137 5. Other Constitutional Commissions 144 6. Political Parties 148 7. Election Process 152 8. Role of Citizens in the Election 159 9. Human Rights and National and International Agencies 162 10. Rights of Women and Indigenous Nationalities 167 11. Citizen Identity and Citizenship 170 UNIT 6. OUR EARTH 175 181 1. Climates of the World 2. Tropical Zone

3. Temperate Zone 189 4. Frigid Zone 197 5. Alpine Climate or High Mountainous Climate 202 6. Climate, Vegetation and Animals in the World 204 7. Effects on Climate and Topographic Diversity on Lifestyle 206 8. North America: Geographical and Natural Environment 208 9. North America: Economic Activities and Social Life 213 10. South America: Geographical and Natural Environment 220 11. South America: Economic Activities and Social Life 225 12. Africa: Geographical and Natural Environment 232 13. Africa: Economic Activities and Social Life 237 14. North America, South America, Africa and Nepal 244 15. Natural Disasters: Earthquake and Tsunami 247 16. Globe, Map and Map Technology 251 UNIT 7. OUR PAST 1. Revolution of 2007 BS and Delhi Agreement 258 2. A Decade of Democratic Politics (2007-2017 BS) 264 3. Abduction of Democracy and Ban on Political Parties 269 4. Political Events from 2017 BS to 2046 BS 273 5. Causes of the Rise and Downfall of Panchayat System 280 6. Political Events from 2046 BS to 2062 BS 282 7. Political Events after 2062/63 BS 286 8. Social and Economic Achievements After People’s Movement-II 292 9. Causes of the First World War 295 10. Consequences of the First World War 301 11. Causes of the Second World War 305 12. Consequences of the Second World War and Role of Nepal 310 13. Exploration, Identification, Preservation and Promotion of 315 Historical Sites and Monuments UNIT 8. ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES 1. Current Plan 320 2. Tourism Industry, Its Importance and Prospects 324 3. Water: An Important Source of Energy 331 4. Foreign Employment in Nepal 334 5. Cooperative and Its Economic Importance 338 6. Financial Education 342 7. Financial Instruments 347 8. Insurance 351 9. Revenue and Tax Collection 355 10. Consumers’ Rights 358 UNIT 9. OUR INTERNATIONAL RELATION AND COOPERATION 1. United Nations and Its Organs 363 2. Specialized Agencies of the United Nations 369 3. Nepal’s Role in the United Nations 378 4. Activities of the United Nations in Nepal 381 5. Current Affairs and Their Effects 385 6. Globalization and Localization 389 Additional Learning Materials 392-416

1UNIT WE AND OUR SOCIETY Learning achievements Understand the concept of Human Resource Development, Be familiar with the concept of Human Development Index (HDI) and identify its status in Nepal, Discuss the concept of regional development and federalism, and Do comparative study of the provinces of Nepal. Subject matters Human Resource Development Human Development Index and Nepal Concept of Regional Development and Federalism Provinces of Nepal 6 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

1LESSON Human Resource Development Introduction The world is dynamic. It keeps on changing. The process of positive and progressive change is known as development. Development requires various means and resources. Among them, the people or group of people with ability and skill is an important resource. It is called human resource. Various kinds of human resources are required for development. Manpower like entrepreneur, peasant, businessperson, doctor, engineer, lawyer, teacher, pilot, administrator, nurse, carpenter, mason, bureaucrat, etc are important human resources for the economic development and prosperity of the country. Human resources refer to both general and technical manpower essential for carrying out any work. It includes the manpower from general labours to highly skilled technicians. Human resource plays an important role in the economic, social, cultural and scientific progress of the country. The planning for human resource is made on the basis of work and need. Types of human resources Human resources can be categorized on the basis of skill and term. a. On the basis of skill On the basis of skill, human resource is categorized into three types: unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled. The manpower, which has not attained any skill but can contribute in the development of the country, is known as unskilled human resource. General labours like sweepers, conductors, etc come under this category. The manpower, which has attained some skills but is not an expert, is known as semi- skilled human resource. Health assistants, co- Doctors pilot, assistant director who are the assistants of the experts are the examples of semi-skilled human resource. Similarly, the manpower, which has attained complete knowledge and skill in a particular field and is an expert, is known as skilled human resource. Doctors, professors, teachers, engineers, pilots, etc are the examples of skilled human resource. b. On the basis of term On the basis of term or duration, the human resource is categorized into three types: short term, long term and constant human resource. The human resource prepared for We and Our Society 7

short term and for specific work is known as Agriculture short term human resource. For example: the manpower prepared for harvesting crops and working as tourist guide in tourism season, etc. The human resource prepared for long period service is known as long term human resource. The police, army, civil servants are the long term human resources. The meaning of constant human resources is the manpower who can contribute for the development throughout the life once they attain skill and knowledge. Teachers, doctors, etc are constant human resources. Preparation of human resource It takes a long time for the development of science and technology, establishment of industries, operation of big projects, etc. So, enough preparation has to be done before establishing any infrastructure. It also needs huge investment. The state has to run various institutions to prepare long term human resource and projects for creating job opportunities simultaneously. The universities also have to produce constant human resource required in the market regularly. Along with the universities, there are institutions Establishment of Industry for providing technical and vocational education to produce technically skilled manpower. With the management of diverse manpower, we can develop the country, fulfill the immediate and future needs of the country and make the living standard of people prosperous. A country’s development status depends upon its skilled human resources. So, countries like Nepal should focus on production of large number of skilled human resources. Human resources can be prepared by providing them various types of trainings and formal education. Human Resource Management (HRM) Human resource management is also called personnel management. It is the process of appointing employees in an organization and developing their efficiency to make them more responsible and valuable to the organization. Human resource management includes conducting job analyses, planning personnel needs, recruiting the right worker for the job, orientation and training, managing wages, providing benefits and incentives, evaluating performance, resolving disputes, and communicating with the employees at all levels. The competence of the organization depends on the ability of its employees and their personal development. So, there is a need of proper human resource management to 8 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

develop the feeling of cooperation among the employees and motivate them to work in group. Human Resource Development (HRD) Human resource development is a part of human resource management. It is the process of empowering employees of an organization and strengthening their ability so that they can perform better. It aims at improving skills, knowledge, competencies, attitude and behaviour of employees of an organization. The purpose of human resource development is to empower and strengthen the abilities of the employees so that they can give their best to the organization. Need of Human Resource Development There is a great need of human resource development for qualitative output. The following points justify the need of human resource development: a. To demand and recruit the manpower on the basis of human resource plan, b. To fulfill the lack of manpower at the time of need and manage the additional employees, c. To increase the productivity of the organization with the proper management of available manpower, d. To diversify the work and estimate the need of the employees for various works and condition of manpower available in the market, e. To identify availability and possibility of the expert and skilled worker in the country required for the job, and f. To increase or decrease the number of workers in the organization by analyzing the expenditure for labour. Importance of Human Resource Development Every organization prepares a human resource development plan for the management of different level and types of manpower. Human Resource Planning (HRP) is the process of forecasting future human resource requirements of the organization and determining as to how the existing human resource capacity of the organization can be utilized to fulfill these requirements. An organization can get competent manpower from this. The recruitment of employees and their use, work efficiency of the employee, upgrading of skill and technology and improvement of the organization play an important role in the output of the organization. It manages the whole plan; organization, policy making, mutual cooperation, provision of budget and condition of profit and loss of the organization. The importance of human resource development has been presented in the following points: a. It helps in the effective use of the manpower, b. It facilitates to search manpower for the present and future, and determine the incentive plan for the manpower, We and Our Society 9

c. It is useful to motivate the manpower and the organization to achieve the goal, d. It expands the relationship between human resource working in the organization and stakeholders, which gives further positive result in the quality of work and internal management, e. It is beneficial for the development of leadership, supervision and effective communication in the organization, and f. It yields higher productivity from the organization by helping in the utilization of time, capital mobilization, energy management, achievement of expected goals, training development and minimization of loss. Process of Human Resource Planning Human Resource Planning is a process of forecasting the organization’s demand for and supply of manpower required in the near future. The process of human resources planning includes the following actions: 1. Determining the objectives of Human Resource Planning 2. Analyzing current manpower supply 3. Forecasting the demand and supply of Human Resources 4. Analyzing the manpower gaps 5. Employment Plan/Action Plan 6. Training and Development, and 7. Evaluation of Manpower Planning. Challenges of Human Resource Development and their solution Challenges Solutions a. Create employment opportunities in a. There is lack of required manpower for development since a large number the country to reduce dependency on of skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled foreign employment. manpower go abroad for employment. b. Maintain balance between the b. It is difficult to manage manpower production of manpower in the country since the production of the manpower and its demand in the market. doesn’t match with its demand in the market. c. Run development activities targeting the people of remote areas, women, c. The human resource development Dalit, differently abled, backward area, of the country has not taken the class and community. speed as expected since the effort of development has not reached remote areas, women, Dalit, differently abled, backward area, class and community. 10 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

d. The effort of the government for d. Make enough effort to get benefits human resource development through from the existing active population. education, health, tourism, etc is not enough. e. Produce skilled manpower as per the demand of national and international e. There is a problem in the development market in the country with the effective of manpower because of the inability mobilization of internal resource. to mobilize the available economic resource. f. Formulate a human resource plan with long term action plan to overcome f. There is lack of clear human resource the challenges of human resource policy in the country. development. Future plan for the human resource development The lack of employment opportunity leads to increase in the problem of unemployment. A large number of manpower goes abroad in search of employment. The human resource development should concentrate on the production of qualitative and quantitative manpower that can compete in the global market and fulfill the need of changing situation of the country. For this, a future plan should be set considering the following long term vision: a. To develop the skilled, competent and capable manpower to compete in the national and international market b. To maintain balance between demand and supply of manpower c. To focus on the technical and vocational trainings that creates employment and self- employment d. To run integrated programs for the skilled human resource development e. To increase the efficiency of institutions related to the human resource f. To prepare and implement the human resource development policy g. To run programs for developing leadership in the young manpower h. To maintain coordination between the available employment in the market and the manpower produced from the educational institutions i. To develop the ability of targeted group j. To develop human resource by providing skill and technology to compete in the foreign and domestic market, and k. To define the work differently and make education job-oriented. We and Our Society 11

Activities With the help of subject teacher, consult with the Chairperson of School Management Committee and Head Master to find the answer of the following questions. Then write an article on the topic “Human Resource Development of Our School”. a. What is human resource development in school? b. Why should the human resource be developed in school? c. What plan has been made for the human resource development in school? d. What manpower plan should be made in future in order to make the school better than neighbouring schools? e. What challenges can be met while making the plan for human resource development in the school? What can be the measures to solve such challenges? Exercise Very short answer questions: 1. Define Human Resource. 2. Name the types of human resource on the basis of skill. 3. Compare between short term human resource and long term human resource in a sentence. 4. Write the full form of HRM and HRD. Short answer questions: 1. Write any four characteristics of Human Resource Management. 2. Explain the importance of human resource development. 3. What plan has been made for the human resource development in our country? 4. How should the manpower plan be prepared in order to upgrade our country as a developed country? 5. What are the challenges in the human resource development in Nepal? How can they be overcome? 6. Why is it essential to improve the condition of human resource development in Nepal? Give reasons. 7. Write two differences between Human Resource Development and Human Resource Management. Community Work Meet an intellectual person in your community to ask the following questions and prepare a report including his/her answer to present in the class: How many people in your community are involved in an occupation and in which occupation? What is the relationship between the human resource of the community and employment? In which sector there is lack of human resource? What should be done to supply sufficient human resource? 12 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

2LESSON Human Development Index and Nepal Human Development Development is evaluated not only by economic advancement but also improvement in human well-being. Development in health, education, food, clothing, housing, skill, freedom, opportunity, etc for the improvement in human well-being is called human development. Human Development Index (HDI) Human Development Index (HDI) is the indicator that shows the level of achievements of progress in three basic dimensions of human development in a given country. The three basic dimensions of human development are: Long and healthy life, knowledge, and decent standard of living. In other words, the human development index (HDI) Amartya Sen is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education and per capita income indicators, which is used to rank countries into four tiers of human development as very high human development, high human development, medium human development and low human development. The Human Development Index was developed in 1990 AD by Indian economist Amartya Sen and Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq. Since 1990 AD, the UNDP has been continuously publishing annual Human Development Index report. The three dimensions of human development are Mahbub ul Haq measured using the following indicators: a. Long and healthy life (Health) is measured by ‘Life expectancy at birth’, b. Knowledge (Education) is measured by ‘Average years of schooling in the adult population’ and ‘Expected years of schooling for school-age children’, c. Decent standard of living (Income) is measured by ‘Gross National Income (GNI) per capita (PPP US$)’. We and Our Society 13

Purposes of measuring human development Following are the purposes of measuring the human development: a. To identify the condition of human development b. To compare and rank the social and economic development of different countries of the world c. To identify the areas to be improved in human development d. To bring improvement in the human development, and e. To set the future goals of the country and make plans accordingly. Calculation of Human Development Index The method of calculation has been revised from time to time since its inception in 1990 AD. According to the new method published on 4th November 2010 (and updated on 10th June, 2011), HDI is calculated with the help of Life Expectancy Index, Education Index and Income Index. The HDI value ranges between 0 to 1, where 0 indicates the lowest HDI and 1 indicates the highest HDI. Minimum and maximum values fixed for each indicator of the global HDI Dimension Indicator Minimum Maximum Health Life Expectancy (year) 20 85 Education Expected Years of Schooling 0 18 0 15 Standard of living Mean Year of Schooling Gross National Income per 100 75,000 capita (PPP US$ 2011) HDI Dimension Index Calculation Step: 1 Calculation of Life Expectancy Index Life Expectancy Index (LEI) = Life Expectancy of concerned country–Minimum Life Expectancy Maximum Life Expectancy–Minimum Life Expectancy Step: 2 Calculation of Education Index Mean Year of Schooling of concerned country + Expected Year of Schooling of concerned country 15 18 Education Index (EI) = 2 MYS + EYS 15 18 Or, EI = 2 Step: 3 Calculation of Income Index Income Index (II) = ln (Gross National Income per capita of concerned country)–ln (Minimum Gross National Income per capita) ln (Maximum Gross National Income per capita)–ln (Minimum Gross National Income per capita) 14 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

Step: 4 Calculation of HDI Human Development Index = Ö3 (Life Expectancy Index × Education Index × Income Index) Or, HDI = Ö3 (LEI×EI×II) Where, Life Expectancy : Life expectancy at birth Mean Years of Schooling : Years that a person aged 25 or older has spent in formal education Expected Years of Schooling : Total expected years of schooling for children under 18 years of age Gross National Income per capita : Gross National Income at purchasing power parity per capita Example Calculate the HDI of a country on the basis of the following data: i. Maximum Life Expectancy = 85 years ii. Minimum Life Expectancy = 20 years iii. Maximum Gross National Income per capita = US$ 75,000 iv. Minimum Gross National Income per capita = US$ 100 v. Maximum Expected Years of Schooling = 18 years vi. Maximum Mean Years of Schooling = 15 years vii. Gross National per capita of concerned country = US$ 5350 viii. Life Expectancy of concerned country = 65 years ix. Mean Year of Schooling of concerned country = 4.4 years x. Expected Year of Schooling of concerned country = 10.7 years Solution: Calculating Life Expectancy Index Life Expectancy Index (LEI) = Life Expectancy of concerned country–Minimum Life Expectancy Maximum Life Expectancy–Minimum Life Expectancy = 65-20 85-20 = 45 65 = 0.692 Calculating Education Index Mean Year of Schooling of concerned country + Expected Year of Schooling of concerned country 15 18 Education Index (EI) = 2 4.4 + 10.7  = 15 18 2 We and Our Society 15

= 0.293 + 0.594 2 = 0.887 2 = 0.443 Calculating Income Index Income Index (II) = ln (Gross National Income per capita of concerned country)–ln (Minimum Gross National Income per capita) ln (Maximum Gross National Income per capita)–ln (Minimum Gross National Income per capita) = ln (5350)–ln (100) Do you know? In (75,000)- ln (100) Human Development Index (HDI): A composite index = 8.584 – 4.605 measuring average achievement in three dimensions of human 11.225 – 4.605 development - a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. = 3.979 6.620 Life expectancy at birth: Number of years a newborn infant could expect to live if prevailing patterns of age-specific = 0.601 mortality rates at the time of birth stay the same throughout the infant’s life. Calculating Human Development Index Expected years of schooling: Number of years of schooling HDI = Ö3 LEI×EI×II that a child of school entrance age can expect to receive if prevailing patterns of age-specific enrolment rates persist = Ö3 0.692×0.443×0.601 throughout the child’s life. = Ö3 0.184 Mean years of schooling: Average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older, converted = 0.568 from education attainment levels using official durations of each level. \\HDI=0.568 Gross national income (GNI) per capita: Aggregate income of an economy generated by its production and its ownership of factors of production, less the incomes paid for the use of factors of production owned by the rest of the world, converted to international dollars using PPP rates, divided by midyear population. Nepal’s status in HDI Nepal’s status in HDI Year Rank Score Nepal’s status in HDI in 2020 improved five ranks 2013 146 0.543 to 142 compared to the last year according to the 2014 146 0.543 report published by the UNDP in 2020 AD. The 2015 145 0.548 ranking is out of 189 countries. 2016 144 0.558 Measures to improve the status of 2017 148 0.566 Human Development 2018 149 0.574 2019 147 0.579 Ü Expand health services 2020 142 0.602 Ü Focus in the development of Ranking Base education Globally countries are divided in the following four Ü Modernize agriculture tiers according to their score in Human Development Ü Extend industries and factories Index: Ü Develop tourism business Ü Utilize local resources and means HDI Score Level of Human Development properly 0.800 and above Very High Human Development Ü Increase employment opportunity 0.700 – 0.799 High Human Development 0.550 – 0.699 Medium Human Development Below 0.550 Low Human Development 16 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

Activities Study the table given below. Discuss in the class and answer the following questions: HDI of SAARC Countries, 2020 HDI Country Human Life Expected Mean years Gross national rank Development expectancy years of schooling income Index (HDI) of (Years) 2019 at birth (GNI) per capita Value 2019 (Years) 2019 schooling (2011 PPP $ 2019) (Years) 2019 72 Sri Lanka 0.782 77.0 14.1 10.6 12,707 95 Maldives 0.740 78.9 12.2 7.0 17,417 129 Bhutan 0.654 71.8 13.0 4.1 10,746 131 India 0.645 69.7 12.2 6.5 6,681 133 Bangladesh 0.632 72.6 11.6 6.2 4,976 142 Nepal 0.602 70.8 12.8 5.0 3,457 154 Pakistan 0.557 67.3 8.3 5.2 5,005 169 Afghanistan 0.511 64.8 10.2 3.9 2,229 Note: Values are rounded. Countries with high HDI 2020 HDI Country Human Life Expected Mean years Gross national rank Development expectancy years of schooling income Index (HDI) of (Years) 2019 at birth (GNI) per capita Value 2019 (Years) 2019 schooling (2011 PPP $ 2019) (Years) 2019 1 Norway 0.957 82.4 18.1 12.9 66,494 2 Ireland 0.955 82.3 18.7 12.7 68,371 2 Switzerland 0.955 83.8 16.3 13.4 69,394 4 Hong Kong, 0.949 84.9 16.9 12.3 62,985 China (SAR) 4 Iceland 0.949 83.0 19.1 12.8 54,682 Countries with low HDI 2020 Note: Values are rounded. HDI Country Human Life Expected Mean years Gross national rank Development expectancy years of income Index (HDI) at birth of schooling schooling (GNI) per capita Value 2019 (Years) 2019 (Years) 2019 (Years) (2011 PPP $ 2019) 2019 185 Burundi 0.433 61.6 11.1 3.3 754 185 South Sudan 0.433 57.9 5.3 4.8 2,003 187 Chad 0.398 54.2 7.3 2.5 1,555 188 Central African 0.397 53.3 7.6 4.3 993 Republic 189 Niger 0.394 62.4 6.5 2.1 1,201 Note: Values are rounded. Source: Human Development Statistical Update, 2019 We and Our Society 17

a. Which countries have high HDI? Why is there high HDI? Write the reasons. b. Analyze the status of HDI in SAARC countries. c. What are the challenges for the countries having low HDI? d. What should be done to improve in the status of Human Development? Exercise Very short answer questions: 1. What is human development index? How is it expressed? 2. What is the status of Nepal in human development index? 3. Compare Congo and Denmark with Nepal in term of human development index. Short answer questions: 1. What should be done for the development of Nepal? Suggest any four measures. 2. What are the purposes of measuring human development? 3. Mention the three dimensions of human development? Write the formula to calculate HDI dimension index. 4. Show the ranking base of the countries according to their score in HDI in a table. What is the status of Nepal in HDI ranking? 5. Suggest any four ways to improve human development. 6. Calculate HDI of the following countries on the basis of given data: HDI Country Life Expected years Mean years Gross national rank expectancy of schooling of schooling income (Years) 2019 (Years) 2019 72 Sri Lanka at birth (GNI) per capita 131 India (Years) 2019 14.11107 10.63257 (2011 PPP $ 2019) 142 Nepal 12.16229 6.5 154 Pakistan 76.98 12.75613 12,707.36624 169 Afghanistan 69.66 8.27594 5.014 6681.346904 70.78 10.17643 5.158944258 3,456.706213 67.27 5,005.034893 64.83 3.93 2,229.362021 Project Work Search in the internet about the latest report of the Human Development, collect the information about it and present in the class. 18 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

3LESSON Concept of Regional Development and Federalism Concept of Development Development is a positive and progressive Fulfillment change. The ultimate goal of development is to of demands upgrade the standard of human life. Development indicates the economic and social progress of the Modern Progress thought people. It brings gradual progress in the existing Increase in Concept of Utilization condition of the country. Development is related productivity Development of social with the fulfillment of human needs and upgrading norms and beliefs the satisfaction level of people since the concept Freedom Self-respect of development covers the social, economic and Equality and cultural progress. Human resource plays an important role in the development and also can Poverty alleviation lead the development towards the desired direction. Various human and natural resources and means are required for the development. Rivers, land, forest, minerals, etc are the natural resources and means whereas skilled manpower, technology, trainings, etc are human resources and means. Development covers various dimensions like rural, urban, community, human resource, economic development, environment conservation, climate change, administrative improvement, etc.Aplanned and environment friendly development helps in both environment conservation and fulfillment of human needs. It fulfills the basic needs of people by which people get the opportunity to attain and use their civic rights, live a life with dignity and the opportunity for personal development, social and economic progress. So, development activities should be carried out for the progress of the country. Need of Development Ü To make the human life easy, prosperous and joyful by fulfilling the needs, Ü To increase the self dependence and competence, Ü To ensure economic and social transformation, and Ü To change traditional thought into contemporary. Concept of Regional Development This is a concept to develop the country by dividing it into different administrative units. The concept of regional development is related with strengthening the administration of the country. The main objective of this concept is fast and easy delivery of service to people. With the objective of achieving balanced, effective and speedy development in all parts of the country, the concept of regional development was brought into implementation. We and Our Society 19

According to this concept, Nepal was divided into 4 development regions in 2029 BS and into 5 development regions in 2037 BS including Mountain, Hill and Terai regions in each. KANCHANPUR D - Dhankuta T - Terhathum On the basis of landform, Nepal is divided into 3 geographical regions: Mountain region, Hilly region and Terai region. It is difficult to run development works in mountain and hilly region due to difficult topography. The Terai region has plain and fertile land. So, it is comparatively easier to develop the infrastructures of development in Terai region. With the objective of developing Remove Regional Decentralization Proportional all the parts of the country Disparity of Power Development from the administrative point of view, Nepal was Strengthen Concept of Regional Simple and Effective divided into 14 zones and 75 districts on 1st Baishakh, National Integrity Development Administrative Work 2018 BS. Mobilization of Public Check the Resource and Means Participation Migration Federalism Federalism is an important concept of Increases decentralization of power. Decentralization political of power means the delegation of power from participation centre to the provinces and local level. Thus, federalism is a system of governance in which Disperses Federalism Improves power is shared between a central authority and power efficiency constituent political units. Helps to Permits Nepal had been practising unitary form of manage diversity governance since unification. However this conflict system was not able to achieve development 20 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

I SuNdurpaDshchim Province C Provincial Map of Nepal A NI KarnaliHProvince Gandaki Province I IND I AGodawari Birendranagar WEST BagmatNi Province JanakpurI EAST KANCHANPUR Pokhara Province: 1 Deukhuri A N RUPANDEHI NAWAL NAWAELASPTARASI PARASI Lumbini Province WEST D Hetauda Scale- 1:1,000,000 Provincial Headquarters K - Kathmandu Province: 2 I Biratnagar B - Bhaktapur L - Lalitpur A goals of the country and also seen as an ‘exclusive form of rule’. Federalism is seen as an inclusive practice for Nepal. So, with the view of proportionate development in all parts of the country by appropriate distribution and mobilization of resources and reducing the economic, social and religious discrimination, the country has been transformed into federal structure. Nepal became a federal democratic republican state since 15th Jestha, 2065 BS. According to the concept of federal system, Nepal has been divided into 7 provinces. Now, each province has a separate government along with a federal government at centre. There are three tiers of authority: central, provincial and local. From this system, people can utilize the resources and means of their region, earn income, consume and participate in the development of their region. There are two types of federal system: one, by uniting the states like in the US, and other, by dividing a country into different provinces like in Nepal. At present, about 25 countries of the world have the federal system. This system is in practice in India, the USA, Canada, Belgium, Spain, Australia, Ethiopia, South Africa, Switzerland, etc. In this system, states or provinces are formed on the basis of geography, history, ethnicity and language, region, population, availability of resource, etc. Nepal has been divided into 7 provinces on the basis of identity and capability. The Constitution of Nepal has distributed the state power to central, provincial and local units. Some of them are presented below: Federal Powers Provincial Powers Powers of Local Level Protection of national unity Municipal police and territorial integrity State civil service and Cooperatives Relating to national security other government services FM operation We and Our Society 21

Central planning, central State level electricity, Local development projects and bank, finance policies, irrigation and water supply programs monetary and banking, services, navigation monetary policies, foreign Basic and secondary education grants, aid and loans State universities, higher education, libraries, Basic health sanitation Foreign and diplomatic museums affairs, international Distribution of land, building relations and United Matters relating to the ownership certificates Nations related matters State Assembly, State Council of Ministers Preservation and development National transportation of language, culture and arts policies, management Intra-State trade, State of railways and national highways, Health services Drinking water, small electricity highways projects, alternative energy Management of lands, land records Local tax Laws relating to family affairs Positive Aspects of Federalism No political system is perfect in itself. Every political system has its positive and challenging aspects. Some positive aspects of the federal system are: Ü Maintains close relation between the state and its people, Ü Settles conflict at local level, Ü Utilizes means and resources, Ü Accelerates development activities, Ü Increases public participation in government activities, Ü Conserves local and ethnic art, culture and heritages, Ü Maintains balance in population distribution, Ü Doesn’t depend upon the centre for everything, Ü Runs the provinces smoothly even if the central government is dissolved. Challenging Aspects of Federal System Besides the good aspects of federal system, it may create some problems and challenges, like: Ü Unequal distribution of means and resources between the states may cause unequal development and misunderstanding among the states. Ü There may be conflict between the states regarding the use of natural resources of border areas. Ü Federal system of government is more expensive; hence there may be lack of sufficient budget for its successful operation. Ü There may be misunderstanding between federal government and provincial government regarding the sharing of power and authorities. Ü Provinces may demand for a different and a separate state which can threaten the national security and integrity. Ü The cultural and ethnic diversity can be a challenge regarding the state language and maintaining equal recognition to all cultural groups. 22 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

Activities 1. What are the bases for the division of Nepal in federal structure? Meet and consult with any local or central leader and make a list of the bases for the division. 2. What complications may arise while running the country as per the concept of federal system? Discuss in pairs and present in the class. Exercise Very short answer questions: 1. Define the concept of development. 2. Write one change occurred in the country after the implementation of federalism. 3. Differentiate between unitary system and the federal system in a sentence. 4. Define federal democratic republican state. 5. Write your opinion for or against on federalism that contributes in the local development in a sentence. 6. What are the three levels of government according to the Constitution of Nepal? Short answer questions: 1. Show the various aspects covered in the concept of development in a diagrammatic form. 2. What can be the bases for the division of a country in federal structure? Give short introduction to each of them. 3. What are the dimensions of development? 4. What are the matters considered in order to establish federal structure in Nepal? 5. Analyze the positive aspects of federalism. 6. “Federalism has negative accepts too.” Justify this statement. 7. What do the central, provincial and local level and the people have to do for the successful implementation of federal system in the country? Present their roles. 8. “Federal system maintains close relationship between the government and the people”. Justify the statement in a paragraph. Project Work Search the countries in the world map that have adopted federal system and show their location. We and Our Society 23

Province No. 1 SuPrdouvripnacsehchim ProKvainrcneali Lumbini PGroavnindcaeki PBroavgimncaeti Province Province No. 2 Lalitpur PNroov. i1nce Khumbu Pashanglamu Location of Province No. 1 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10 24

4LESSON Provinces of Nepal The Constitution of Nepal has executed federalism in the country by making the provision of seven provinces. Nepal has been declared as a Federal Democratic Republican State. A short description of the seven provinces of Nepal is presented below: Province No. 1 Geographical Environment It lies in the eastern part of Nepal. It covers Mt. Sagarmatha 8,848.86 m (29,031.69 ft) mountain, hill and Terai region of eastern Nepal. It has an area of 25, 905 sq. km. i.e. 17.6% of the Area Province No. 1 total area of the country. The highest mountain Population peak of the world Mt. Sagarmatha, the third 17.6 % (25, 905 sq. km.) highest peak of the world Mt. Kanchenjungha, Mt. Choyu, Mt. Makalu, etc lie in the northern 17.12 % (4,534,943 part of this province. Sagarmatha National Park, according to census Makalu Barun National Park, Kanchenjungha 2068 BS) Conservation Area also lie in this province. The rivers like Mechi, Tamor, Arun, Dudhkoshi, etc No. of Districts 14 (Taplejung, Panchthar, have been supplying water for various purposes. Ilam, Sankhuwasabha, It consists of sub-tropical evergreen forest in the Tehrathum, Dhankuta, south, deciduous and coniferous forest in the Bhojpur, Khotang, hill and higher hill, and tundra vegetation in the Solukhumbu, northern part. Summer monsoon causes heavy Okhaldhunga, Udayapur, rainfall in this province. The land in the Terai Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari) region is plain and fertile. No. of Local 137 (Rural Socio-Cultural Environment Levels Municipalities: 88, Municipalities: 46, Sub- People belonging to different castes and ethnic Headquarters Metropolitan Cities: 2 and groups live in the Terai, hilly and mountain region Metropolitan City:1) of this province. Sherpa, Chhetri, Brahmin, Meche, Koche, Rajbansi, Lepcha, Limbu, Rai, Biratnagar etc are the main habitants. According to the census of 2068 BS, 4,534,943 people (17.12% We and Our Society 25

of total population of the country) live in this Pathibhara Temple, Taplejung province. Barahakshetra, Pathibhara, Halesi Halesi Mahadev, Khotang Mahadev, Chhintang Devi, etc are the major religious sites. The literacy rate in this province is also high. Economic and Development Activities Food crops like paddy, maize, wheat, etc and cash crops like jute, tea, sugarcane, tobacco, etc are produced in this province. There are many industries established in its different parts such as jute mill, sugar mill, cotton cloth industry, tea industry, etc. This province has a large area of agricultural region. As a result, it has been mainly contributing in Gross Domestic Product from agricultural sector. Biratnagar, Ilam, Dharan, Okhaldhunga, Gaighat, etc are the main trade centers. Similarly, tourism, agriculture, trade, service, etc are the major economic activities in this province. Mahendra highway, Mechi highway, etc run through this province. Because of Purbanchal University and many other important educational institutions, there is more literate population in this province. Province No. 2 Geographical Environment Tea Garden, Ilam It lies in the middle Terai region of the country. It has covered the plain land from Saptari to Parsa district. Total area of this province is 9,661 sq. km. i.e. 6.56% of the total area of the country. Most of this province is plain and has fertile land. Hot temperature, sub- tropical climate and enough rainfall in summer are the main climatic features of this province. It consists of more cultivable land compared to other provinces. To the north of this province, there lies a dense forest in Chure range. Socio-Cultural Environment The majority of population belongs to Madhesi community. Yadav, Tharu, Dalit, Muslim, etc are the castes and ethnic groups living in this province. The languages spoken here 26 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

We and Our Society Province No. 2 SuPrdouvripnacsehchim ProKvainrcneali Lumbini PGroavnindcaeki PBroavgimncaeti Province Province No. 2 PNroov. i1nce Location of Province No. 2 Lalitpur Khumbu Pashanglamu 27

are Maithili, Bhojpuri, Nepali, Janaki Temple, Janakpur Bajjika, etc. According to the census of 2068 BS, a total of 5,404,145 population live here. It is 20.4% of the total population of the country. The religious sites such as Ramjanaki temple, Chhinnamasta temple, Gadimai temple, etc are located in this province. Economic and Development Chhinnamasta Temple, Saptari Activities Province No. 2 Many industrial estates and most of the industries are located in this Area 6.56 % (9,661 sq. km.) province. So, it is considered more developed than other provinces. East- Population 20.4 % (5,404,145 west and postal highways contribute according to census in transportation facility. Industrial 2068 BS) products, fishery, agricultural products, etc are contributing a lot in the Gross 8 (Saptari, Siraha, Dhanusa, Domestic Product of Nepal. More cultivable No. of Districts Mahottari, Sarlahi, land, trend of foreign employment, production of food crops and cash crops, etc have allowed Rautahat, Bara, Parsa) this province to have higher per capita income. Birgunj, the gateway of the country for foreign No. of Local 136 (Rural Municipalities: trade also lies in this province which collects Levels 59, Municipalities: 73, Sub- the highest amount of revenue in the country. Metropolitan Cities: 3 and Janakpur, Simara, Harioun, Chandranigahapur, Metropolitan City: 1) Lahan, Rajbiraj, Birgunj, etc are the important trade centers of this province. Parsa Wildlife Headquarters Janakpur Reserve and a part of Koshitappu Wildlife Reserve also contribute in the conservation of wildlife and tourism development.Agriculture, tourism, service, trade, manufacturing, etc are the major occupation of the people in this province. Parsa Wildlife Reserve 28 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

Bagmati Province Area Bagmati Province Population Geographical Environment 13.79 % (20,300 sq. km.) No. of Districts Most of the parts of this province are 20.87 % (5,529,452 according to hilly and mountainous. The Kathmandu No. of Local census 2068 BS) valley also lies in this province. It has Levels covered an area of 20,300 sq. km. i.e. Headquarters 13 (Dolakha, Ramechhap, Sindhuli, 13.79% of the total area of the country. Kavrepalanchok, Sindhupalchok, Gaurishankar, Langtang, Jugal, Ganesh, Rasuwa, Nuwakot, Dhading, etc are the important mountains present Chitwan, Makawanpur, Bhaktapur, in this province. Rivers like Trishuli, Lalitpur, Kathmandu) Bagmati, Bhotekoshi, etc are supplying 119 (Rural Municipalities: 74, water for various purposes. Kathmandu Municipalities: 41, Sub- Metropolitan valley and Chitwan are very fertile land. Cities: 1 and Metropolitan City: 3) Deciduous forest, coniferous forest and alpine forest are available according to Hetauda the altitude. Rainfall takes place mainly during summer. Temperature varies Gaurishankar Himal 7,134 m (23,406 ft) with altitude. Socio-Cultural Environment People belonging to various castes and ethnic groups are living in this province with harmonious relation. Bhote and Sherpa are the main inhabitants of mountain region whereas Newars are the major inhabitants of the Kathmandu valley. Tharu, Magar, Tamang, Jirel, Brahmin, Chhetri, Dashnami, Dalit, etc are living in different parts of the province. According to the census of Pashupatinath Temple, Kathmandu 2068 BS, a total of 5,529,452 people live in this province. It is 20.87% of the total population of the country. A unique relationship can be seen among the people of diverse culture and religion in this province. People from various parts of the country are living in the Kathmandu valley. Palanchowk Bhagawati, Dakshinkali, Dolakha Bhimeshwor, Bauddhanath Stupa, Budhanilakantha, Swayambhu, Pashupatinath, Gosainkunda, etc are the major religious sites located in this province. It is rich in cultural diversity. We and Our Society 29

30 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10 Bagmati Province SuPrdouvripnacsehchim ProKvainrcneali Lumbini PGroavnindcaeki PBroavgimncaeti Province Province No. 2 PNroov. i1nce Location of Bagmati Province Lalitpur Khumbu Pashanglamu

Economic and Development Activities Patan Durbar Square, Lalitpur This is the province having more youth Kathmandu Durbar Square population hence making the development of infrastructures more possible here. The Distribution of Melamchi Drinking Water infrastructures of development like electricity, drinking water, education, transportation, Machhapuchchhre 6,993 m (22,943 ft) hydropower, etc are more developed here than the other provinces. It has made 31 advancement in the educational institutions, excavation of mines, tourism industries, etc. Commercialized agriculture, more opportunity for employment and important trade centers present here contribute a large portion in the Gross Domestic Product of the country. Industrial estates like Balaju, Hetauda and Patan are located in this province. The major trade centers of this province are Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Lalitpur, Banepa, Hetauda, Chitwan, Dhulikhel, etc. Agriculture, tourism, trade, manufacturing, service, etc are the major occupation of the people. It is expected that some ongoing provincial and national development projects will support further more in the development of this province. Distribution of Melamchi Drinking Water has been inaugurated and expected to solve the problem of drinking water scarcity in the Kathmandu valley. Gandaki Province Geographical Environment Most of this province is hilly and mountainous. It has covered an area of 21,504 sq. km. i.e. 14.61% of the total area of the country. The mountain valleys like Manang and Mustang also lie in this province. Lumle, a place receiving highest rainfall in the country and Dana gorge, the world’s deepest gorge are also located in this province. Rivers like Kaligandaki, Marsyandi, We and Our Society

32 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10 Gandaki Province SuPrdouvripnacsehchim ProKvainrcneali Lumbini PGroavnindcaeki PBroavgimncaeti Province Province No. 2 PNroov. i1nce Location of Gandaki Province Lalitpur Khumbu Pashanglamu

Seti and their tributaries have been Gandaki Province supplying water for various purposes. 14.61 % (21,504 sq. km.) Dhaulagiri, Manaslu, Hiunchuli, Area Annapurna, Machhapuchchhre, etc Population 9.07 % (2,403,757 according to are the major mountain peaks of census 2068 BS) this province. Tilicho, Phewa, Rupa, No. of Districts Begnas, etc are the lakes adding 11 (Gorkha, Lamjung, Tanahun, Kaski, natural beauty. Due to the difficult No. of Local Manang, Mustang, Parbat, Syangja, topography, it is difficult to develop the Levels Myagdi, Baglung, Nawalparasi East) infrastructures here. Most of the land Headquarters is covered with snow. The agricultural 85 (Rural Municipalities: 58, land is fewer in this province. Enough Rainfall takes Municipalities: 26, Sub- Metropolitan place here. The temperature differs from place to Cities: 0 and Metropolitan City: 1) place according to the altitude. Deciduous forest, coniferous forest and alpine forest are found from Pokhara south to north. Tundra vegetation is also found in the upper part of the mountain region. Socio-Cultural Environment Muktinath Temple, Mustang Population density is low in this province. According to the census of 2068 BS, 2,403,757 population lives here. It is 9.07% of the total population of the country. Magar, Gurung, Brahmin, Thakali, Chhetri, Dura, etc are the main inhabitants of this province. Pokhara University and various educational institutions have been providing educational opportunity hence resulting in increased literacy rate. Galeshwar, Baglung Pokhara Valley Kalika, Muktinath, Bindyawasini, Manakamana, Talbarahi, Dhorbarahi, etc are the major religious sites of this province. This province is forward in health consciousness and sanitation. Economic and Development Activities There is a great possibility of tourism development in this province. A good flow of tourist can be seen in the tourist centers like Pokhara, Bandipur, Gorkha, Manakamana, Muktinath, etc. There is plentiful possibility of electricity production. Kaligandaki and Marsyandi hydroelectricity projects are producing and supplying electricity in good amount. Foreign employment, tourism, agriculture, service, etc are the major occupation of people. Production of apple in the mountain region and coffee in the hilly region has made this province popular. There is less agricultural land and less road networks. As a result it contributes less in Gross Domestic Product from the agricultural sector. We and Our Society 33

Lumbini Province Geographical Environment Area Lumbini Province Population There is no mountain range in this 15.14 % (22,288 sq. km.) province. Most part of this lies in Terai No. of Districts region and rest in hilly region. This 16.98 % (4,499,272 according to province has an area of 22,288 sq. km. No. of Local census 2068 BS) i.e. 15.14% of the total area of the Levels country. It consists of plenty of cultivable Headquarters 12 (Nawalparasi West, Rupandehi, land. River Tinau, River Rapti, River Kapilbastu, Palpa, Arghakhanchi, Badhigad, etc are the major rivers of Gulmi, Rukum East, Rolpa, Pyuthan, this province. Temperature is hot in Daang, Banke, Bardiya) summer and cold in winter. Enough rainfall takes place in summer. This 109 (Rural Municipalities: 73, province experiences sub-tropical Municipalities: 32, Sub- Metropolitan climate. Satyawati lake, Barakune Cities: 4 and Metropolitan City: 0) lake and Jagdishpur lake lie here. Deukhuri Likewise, Dang, Deukhuri, Rampur, Madi valleys are also located in this province. Socio-Cultural Environment According to the census of 2068 BS, River Tinau a total of 4,499,272 people live in this province. It is 16.98% of the total population of the country. Magar, Tharu, Brahmin, Chhetri, etc are the main inhabitants in this province. There is a dense settlement of Madhesi Community in its southern part. Plentiful cultivable land is being utilized. The extending road network has made the life of people easier. Lumbini, Bageswari, Thakurdwara, Swargadwari Temple, Pyuthan Swargadwari, Bhairabsthan, Resunga, Rurukshetra, Rishikesh Temple, etc are the major religious sites located in this province. Many industries have been established in Kohalpur, Nepalgunj, Butwal and Bhairahawa. 34 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

We and Our Society Lumbini Province SuPrdouvripnacsehchim ProKvainrcneali Lumbini PGroavnindcaeki PBroavgimncaeti Province Province No. 2 PNroov. i1nce Location of Lumbini Province Lalitpur Khumbu Pashanglamu 35

Economic and Developmental Activities There is higher possibility of agricultural development. Some important irrigation projects are in progress in this province. Irrigation projects like Sikta, Babai, Badganga, Tinau, etc have been assisting in the increase of agricultural productions. Butwal, Bhairahawa, Krishnanagar, Tansen, Lamahi, Nepalgunj, Kohalpur, Bijuwar, Rajapur, etc are Lumbini, Rupandehi the important trade centers located in this province. Bageswari, Thakurdwara, Swargadwari, Bhairabsthan, Resunga, Ridi, Lumbini, etc are also helping in the tourism development. Nepal Sanskrit University, Lumbini Bauddha University have been established here to provide better opportunity to young generations. Jhimruk hydroelectricity project also lies in this province. Karnali Province Mt. Kanjirowa 6,883 m (22,582 ft) Phoksundo Lake, Dolpa Geographical Environment This province is located in the mountain and hilly region of western part of the country. It is extended in 27,984 sq. km. i.e. 19.01% of the total area of the country. Here, the climate is dry and cold. Rivers like Tila, Bheri, Sani Bheri, Humla Karnali, etc are supplying water for irrigation and other purposes in this province. Similarly, mountains like Kanjirowa, Danphesail, etc and the lakes like Rara, Phoksundo lie here. It consists of a large forest area, wide grasslands suitable for cattle rearing and medicinal herbs. 36 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

We and Our Society SuPrdouvripnacsehchim ProKvainrcneali Karnali Province Lumbini PGroavnindcaeki PBroavgimncaeti Province Province No. 2 PNroov. i1nce Location of Karnali Province Lalitpur Khumbu Pashanglamu 37

Socio-Cultural Environment People belonging to Thakuri, Chhetri, Brahmin, Dalit caste and ethnic groups live in this province. According to the census of 2068 BS, its total population is 1,570,418 . It is 5.92% of the total population of the country. Kankre Bihar, Shey-Gumba, Chandannath, Deuti Bajai, etc are the important religious sites located in this province. Kankre Bihar, Surkhet Various social problems and evils are still in practice in this province. The Karnali Province literacy rate is comparatively low. Area 19.01 % (27,984 sq. km.) Different epidemics cause the death of Population 5.92 % (1,570,418 according to many people every year. census 2068 BS) No. of Districts Economic and Developmental 10 (Rukum West, Salyan, Dolpa, Activities No. of Local Jumla, Mugu, Humla, Kalikot, Levels Jajarkot, Dailekh, Surkhet) There is a great possibility of Headquarters hydroelectricity production. The wide 79 (Rural Municipalities: 54, grasslands are suitable for cattle rearing Municipalities: 25, Sub- Metropolitan Cities: 0 and Metropolitan City: 0) Birendranagar and production of medicinal herbs. Collection of Yarsagumba and other medicinal herbs, production of apple, walnut, etc are the major occupation of the people living in mountain region. Animal husbandry is popular in the wide grasslands. The dense forest supplies the forest products. Despite difficult topography some highways have been constructed and some are under Rara National Park construction. Ratna highway, Karnali highway, Chhinchu Jajarkot road, etc have made the great change in the transportation sector in this province. Jumla, Salli Bazar, Dailekh, Chhinchu, Birendranagar, etc are the major trade centers located here. There is a great possibility of tourism development as well. Rara Lake, Phoksundo Lake, Shey-Phoksundo National Park, Rara National Park, etc are the attractive tourist destinations. 38 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

Sudurpashchim Province SuPrdouvripnacsehchim ProKvainrcneali Lumbini PGroavnindcaeki PBroavgimncaeti Province Province No. 2 Lalitpur PNroov. i1nce Khumbu Pashanglamu Location of Sudurpashchim Province We and Our Society 39

Sudurpashchim Province Geographical Environment Mount Api 7,132 m (23,399 ft) This province is located in the far Sudurpashchim Province western part of the country. It covers 19, 539 sq. km. i.e. 13.27% of the Area 13.27 % (19,539 sq. km.) total area of the country. However, the recently released map of Nepal has Population 9.63 % (2,552,517 according to covered Limpiyadhura and Lipulek census 2068 BS) with an area of 460.28 sq. km. Southern part of it is affected by the 9 (Bajura, Bajhang, Doti, Achham, hot wind called ‘Loo’ during summer. No. of Districts Darchula, Baitadi, Dadeldhura, There is enough rainfall during winter caused by the winter monsoon. Sub- Kanchanpur, Kailali) tropical evergreen forest in the south, deciduous forest in the middle and No. of Local 88 (Rural Municipalities: 54, alpine forest in the north are found Levels Municipalities: 33, Sub- Metropolitan here. This province consists of three Cities: 1 and Metropolitan City: 0) geographical regions: mountain region, hilly region and Terai region. Headquarters Godawari Api and Saipal are the popular mountains of this province. To the southern part of this province, there is plain and fertile land in the Terai region and altitude goes on increasing towards the north. Socio-Cultural Environment According to the census of 2068 BS, a total of 2,552,517 population lives here. It is 9.63% of the total population of the country. People belong to Brahmin, Thakuri, Chhetri, Tharu, Dalit, etc caste and ethnic groups are Gaura Parva the main inhabitants of this province. Badhimalika, Shaileshwari, Urgatara, etc are the important religious sites located here. This province is rich in culture. Gaura Parva and Deuda dance are the typical culture of this province and also popular throughout the country. Literacy is comparatively low 40 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

and many communities are trapped by some social problems and evil practices like Haliya, Deuki, Chhaupadi, etc. Many efforts are being made from governmental and non- governmental sectors in order to abolish such problems. Economic and Developmental Activities There is sufficient production of food crops in this province. Paddy, wheat, millet, barley, maize, oilseed, etc are produced in large scale. Tanakpur barrage and Pancheshwar multipurpose project are the ongoing projects; and West Seti, a project of national pride is also going to be implemented. Shuklaphanta and Shuklaphanta National Park Khaptad National Parks have added the attraction for tourism development. Dadeldhura, Sanphebagar, Tikapur, Attariya, Silgadhi, Dhangadhi, Bhimdutta Nagar, etc are the major trade centers located in this province. Almost all the parts of Terai region is accessed by the road network. There is easy access to India by road network. Agriculture, service, trade, tourism, etc are the main economic activities of the people. Some people of this province go to India for employment as well. Activities 1. To which province does your village/town belong? What are the features of this province? Search and present in the class. 2. Do a comparative study of the provinces of Nepal on the following topics and present the findings in the class: Geography, population, use of land, road network, hydroelectricity, industries contributing in GDP, tourist destinations, availability of educational institutions, condition of human health, etc. 3. Make a table and present the districts belonging to each of the provinces. We and Our Society 41

Exercise Very short answer questions: 1. How can the province having more agricultural land contribute for the development? 2. If a province has more land covered with snow, how can the province take advantage from it? 3. What effects does a province have in the development if it doesn’t have enough area for grazing or grassland? 4. Which province has less area of forest? What can be its alternative? 5. Mention any two physical features of the province where you reside. Short answer questions: 1. Which province has less number of industries? Mention the prospect of development in that province? 2. List the problems and challenges in the development of Karnali Province and suggest the ways to solve them. 3. Compare the possibilities of development between Province No. 2 and Sudurpashchim Province in four points. 4. Prepare an article on the topic “Population and geography can be boon for development” covering the context of your province. 5. Give a brief introduction of land relief, climate and natural vegetation, life style and economic condition of your province. Community Work Select a major development project of your province. What should be done so that most of the people can be benefited from that project? Present your suggestions. 42 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

UNIT DEVELOPMENT AND 2 INFRASTRUCTURES OF DEVELOPMENT Learning achievements Present the concept of sustainable development, Describe the major ongoing projects in Nepal, participate and help in the operation of the projects, Mention the need and importance of skilled manpower and employment opportunity as the infrastructures of development, and Be familiar with contemporary development goals and draft development proposal at local level. Subject matters Sustainable Development Ongoing Development Projects in Nepal Infrastructures of Development: Skilled Manpower and Employment Opportunity Contemporary Development Goals and Nepal Formulation of Development Proposal at Local Level Development and Infrastructures of Development 43

1LESSON Sustainable Development Introduction Sustainable development means the economic development conducted without depleting natural resources. It has been defined in many ways, but the most frequently quoted definition is taken from “Our Common Future”, a report of Brundtland Commission. The United Nations organized an international conference in Stockholm, Sweden from June 5th to 16th, in 1972 AD. It was the UN’s first major conference on international environmental issues. The conference was called “The First United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHE)”. This conference was attended by world leaders and top environmental scientists. Gro Harlem Brundtland In 1975 AD, based on UNCHE outcome and recommendations, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a new international organization was established. UN General Assembly passed a resolution in 1983 AD to establish the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). Gro Harlem Brundtland, then the Prime Minister of Norway was appointed as the Chairperson of this Commission in December 1983 AD. Thus, this commission is commonly known as the Brundtland Commission. Its mandate was to formulate “A global agenda for change”. It released a report called “Our Common Future”, also known as the Brundtland Report, in October 1987 AD. This document defined “Sustainable Development” as “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Sustainable Development for Nepal According to “Sustainable Development Agenda for Nepal 2003”, Sustainable Development for Nepal has been defined as “The over-arching goal of sustainable development in Nepal is to expedite a process that reduces poverty, and provides to its citizens and successive generation not just the basic means of livelihood, but also the broadest of opportunities in the social, economic, political, cultural, and ecological aspects of their lives”. 44 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

Thus, sustainable development refers to such a development that maintains balance between environment and development, provides continuous benefits and cares about the bearing capacity of the earth. Similarly, it is the long term development without degrading environment. Objectives of Sustainable Development a. To help in poverty alleviation b. To conserve the environment effectively c. To use resources and means carefully d. To maintain social justice in the sectors of disability, women, and physical impaired, etc. e. To attain the high, stable and sustainable economic growth, and f. To gain human development and progress. Features of Sustainable Development a. It helps in the sustainable management of resources and means, b. It helps to ensure a bright future for the future generation, c. It focuses on the environment conservation, d. It helps in the acquisition, mobilization and conservation of resources and means, e. It pays attention in justifiable distribution of resources and means, f. It checks the trend of excessive use of resources, g. It helps to achieve higher and wider economic growth, and h. It gives priority to the use and promotion of resource that can be recycled, reused and renewed. Dimensions of Sustainable Development CONNSEARTVUARTAIOLN Sustainable development is a multi-dimensional All living things, APPROPREIACTOENDOEVMELICOPMENT concept of development. It is concerned with resources and life social, cultural, economic and human aspects of support systems development. According to UNESCO, sustainable DEMOCRACY development has four dimensions. They are: social Politics Jobs dimension, economic dimension, natural dimension POLITICAL Income and political dimension. Policy SUSTAINABLE Decision- DEVELOPMENT TS making People living together Social dimension: It includes the preservation PEACE, SOC IAL RIGH and promotion of culture and its transfer to new generation. EQUALITY & HUMAN Economic dimension: It includes high economic growth and its sustainability. Natural dimension: It includes the conservation of nature for future. Political dimension: It includes institutionalization of democracy and political stability. Development and Infrastructures of Development 45

Activities 1. Make a report on the efforts made for the sustainable development in Nepal and present in class. 2. Present a plan to run any one development work ongoing in your community according to the concept of sustainable development. 3. There may be some ongoing projects in your community which lacks the concept of sustainable development. Observe them and identify the areas that need to be reformed. Exercise Very short answer questions: 1. What is sustainable development? 2. What are the four dimensions of sustainable development according to UNESCO? 3. When and which commission brought the concept of sustainable development? Short answer questions: 1. What are the things to be considered for the sustainable development? 2. “Poverty alleviation is necessary for sustainable development.” How? Clarify in four points. 3. Mention the objectives of sustainable development in points. 4. What are the aspects to be considered while running the projects according to the concept of sustainable development? 5. What should Nepal do for the sustainable development? 6. Prepare a dialogue on the topic “Need of Sustainable Development”. 7. What are the problems and challenges of implementation of sustainable development in Nepal? Write points. 8. “Unmanaged development is destruction”. Discuss this statement in groups and clarify it with example. Community Work Select a small development project running in your community. Prepare a draft of plan to run that project according to the concept of sustainable development. Name of the project: Place: Objective: Status of public participation: Estimated expenditure: Duration of the project: Number of beneficiaries: Possible alternatives not to hamper the environment: 46 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

2LESSON Ongoing Development Projects in Nepal Introduction A speedy, balanced and proportionate development can only be done by running well managed development programs. Such development programs running with the use of resources and means and aiming at achieving various goals within a certain period of time are called development projects. The development projects can be big or small on the basis of goal, investment, expected result and affected area. They can be run at national or provincial or local level. The development projects running at national level require more resources and means, and investment in comparison with the projects running at provincial and local level. The bigger development projects are run at national level since many people are benefited from them and such projects present the identity of the Wider whole nation. economic With the objective of achieving the goals growth of the periodical development projects, the Promotion of peace Government of Nepal has prioritized some Achievement Projects of and order important development projects as “Priority of MDGs National Projects”or “projects of National Pride” and Priority/Pride Participation, began to make the distribution of resource Production inclusion effective. There are 21 projects of National oriented Pride till 2073 BS. In the fiscal year and gender 2070/71, total number of projects running in employment equality opportunity the country was 455 and amongst them 21 Environmental Construction (6.9%) projects were Projects of National sustainability of physical Pride. Number of such projects may be property changed with the change in time and need of the country. Projects of National Pride of Nepal S.N. Projects S.N. Projects 1. Sikta Irrigation Project 2. Babai Irrigation Project 3. Rani-Jamariya-Kularia Irrigation 4. Bheri-Babai Diversion Multi- Project Purpose Project 5. Budhigandaki Hydropower Project 6. Upper Tamakoshi Hydropower Project 7. West Seti Hydropower Project 8. Kathmandu-Terai Expressway 9. North-South Karnali Corridor 10. North-South Kaligandaki Corridor Development and Infrastructures of Development 47

11. North-South Koshi Corridor 12. Mid-Hills Pushpalal Highway 13. East-West Railway 14. Terai Hulaki Marg 15. Pashupati Area Development 16. Lumbini Area Development Project Project 17. Second International Airport, Bara 18. Pokhara Regional International Airport 19. Gautam Buddha Regional 20. Melamchi Drinking Water Project International Airport 21. President Chure-Terai Madhesh Conservation Area Program Some Projects of National Pride a. Pokhara Regional International Airport From this project, it has been expected that Pokhara Airport will be upgraded as Pokhara Regional International Airport which will ultimately contribute for sustainable tourism development. It covers an area of 3,600 ropanies. The Pokhara Regional International Airport construction was formally started at Chhinedanda, Pokhara by putting foundation stone on 1st Baishakh 2073 BS and now it is under construction by Chinese Company. It has aimed at developing Pokhara as one of the attractive tourist destinations of the world. The project will construct 2,500 m X 45 m concrete runway, taxi parking, air traffic control tower, 50 m long air bridge, international and domestic terminal buildings. After the completion of this project, large airplanes up to 200 seats can take off and land on Pokhara Airport. b. Mid-Hills Pushpalal Highway This project has aimed at connecting the mid- hilly districts with road network which will ultimately contribute in the development of tourism, hydroelectricity, agriculture and other sectors. It has been expected that it will help in the balanced development of economic, social, cultural, tourism and educational sectors of the hilly region. After Mid-Hills Pushpalal Highway the completion of this project, a 1776 km long highway will connect Chiyabhanjyang of Panchthar district to Jhulaghat of Baitadi district. It is under construction with the investment of the Government of Nepal. From this road network, about 7 million people of 23 districts and 215 villages will be benefitted. According to the policy of managed urbanization, this road network has also integrated 48 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

the plan of developing 10 towns in different places. About 1517 km road is already in operation and track opening process is going on in the remaining section. c. President Chure-Terai Madhesh Conservation Area Program This project has aimed at solving the problems seen in Chure region. Its main objective is to maintain balance in environment and living standard of people by considering the biodiversity, geographical, social and economic aspects. It has covered 12.78% of the total area of Nepal from Ilam in the east to Kanchanpur in the west at an altitude of 200-2,100 m. It is extended in 26 districts. An authorized body “President Terai Madhesh Chure Conservation President Chure-Terai Madhesh Conservation Development Committee” has been established Area Program at center for this programme. This project runs various activities like construction and management of permanent nursery, production of saplings of varieties of plants, control fire in Chure, controlling encroachment of forest and illegal hunting and exporting, run job oriented afforestation, etc. d. Budhigandaki Hydropower Project This is a project concerning with reservoir. It is located at the border of Gorkha and Dhading district about 80 km west of Kathmandu. Its total estimated cost is Rs. 2,54,95,50,00,000. This project will be operated, regulated and supervised completely by the Government of Nepal. World Bank, International Financial Organization, Asian Development Bank, etc will provide the economic resources. Budhi Gandaki Hydro Project Development Committee is the proposer of this project. This project will be completed within 8 years from the beginning of its construction. After the completion of this project, 1,200 megawatt electricity will be produced and supplied to manage the energy crisis. e. Upper Tamakoshi Hydropower Project Upper Tamakoshi Hydropower Project This 456 megawatt project is funded by Nepal Electricity Authority, Nepal Telecom, Citizen Investment Trust, Rastriya Bima Sansthan, Employees Provident Fund, civil servants and general public. As this project is entirely financed by domestic funds, the electricity produced by it will be comparatively cheaper. The hydroelectricity will be generated from River Tamakoshi at northern part of Dolakha district. The organization named, “Upper Tamakoshi Hydroelectricity Limited” was established in 2063 BS to run the project. Development and Infrastructures of Development 49

Activities 1. Collect the information about the following projects from various sources and present in the class. a. Bheri-Babai Diversion Multi-Purpose Project b. Second International Airport, Bara c. Terai Hulaki Marg d. Pashupati Area Development Project e. Melamchi Drinking Water Project 2. Collect the progress report of the projects running in the country with the help of internet or news published in the newspaper. Then present in the class. Exercise Very short answer questions: 1. What is a development project? 2. What do you understand by the “Projects of National Pride”? 3. What are the infrastructures of projects? Mention. 4. How many projects have been considered as the projects of national pride? 5. What should be done to complete ongoing projects of Nepal in pre-determined time frame? Write your views in two points. Short answer questions: 1. Clarify the importance and need of development project. 2. Why are the projects running in Nepal not completed within the specified period? Mention the reasons and also list the measures of its solution. 3. What is your opinion about the domestic investment in the projects? Present your logics. 4. What advantages can the Mid-Hills Pushpalal Highway provide? Write your logics. 5. If you were a member of National Planning Commission, what project would you run in your province? Why? 6. Clarify the positive effects of a Project of National Pride that is in operation in your province in four points. Community Work Select any one project which can be run in your community or school premises like Sanitation Project, Waste Management Project, etc. Make a project on the basis of the following points and implement: a. Name of the project b. Objective of the project c. Required materials for the project d. Date to begin and complete the project e. Required manpower for the project f. Estimated cost for the project g. Fund 50 SOCIAL STUDIES - GRADE 10

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