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Published by THE MANTHAN SCHOOL, 2021-02-25 03:56:49

Description: Cars, Trains, Ships, and Planes_ A Visual Encyclopedia of Every Vehicle


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This trademark is owned by the Smithsonian Institution and is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Established in 1846, the Smithsonian Institution—the world’s largest museum and research complex—includes 19 museums and galleries and the National Zoological Park. The total number of artefacts, works of art, and specimens in the Smithsonian’s collection is estimated at 137 million, the bulk of which is contained in the National Museum of Natural History, which holds more than 126 million specimens and objects. The Smithsonian is a renowned research centre, dedicated to public education, national service, and scholarship in the arts, sciences, and history. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Clive Gifford is the winner of the Royal Society Young People’s Book Prize and the School Library Association Information Book Award. He has written more than 150 books including Wow! Science, Car Crazy, and Super Trucks.

smithsonian A visual encyclopedia of every vehicle WRITTEN BY CLIVE GIFFORD

DK India Foreword 6 Transportation Project Editor Sneha Sunder Benjamin timelines 8 Project Art Editor Vaibhav Rastogi Land 16 Editor Medha Gupta Art Editor Rakesh Khundongbam Animal power 18 Assistant Editor Isha Sharma Camel caravan 20 Bicycle 22 Assistant Art Editors Anusri Saha, Riti Sodhi Pedal power 24 Jacket Designer Dhirendra Singh Speed wheels 26 Sprint finish 28 Jacket Managing Editor Saloni Singh Bike business 30 DTP Designer Jaypal Chauhan Fun on wheels 32 Extreme cycling 34 Senior DTP Designers Harish Aggarwal, Neeraj Bhatia Mountain bike madness 36 Picture Researcher Aditya Katyal Motorcycle 38 Managing Editor Rohan Sinha Revving up 40 Bikes in battle 42 Managing Art Editor Sudakshina Basu Scooting around 44 Pre-production Manager Balwant Singh Three-wheelers 46 Road burners 48 Production Manager Pankaj Sharma Burning rubber 50 Jumps and flicks 52 DK UK Off-roaders 54 Fastest on two wheels 56 Senior Editor Francesca Baines Easy riders 58 Senior Art Editor Rachael Grady Car 60 Pioneering cars 62 US Editor Allison Singer Thrills and spills 64 Jacket Designer Mark Cavanagh Early race cars 66 Machines with style 68 Jacket Assistant Claire Gell Fins and finery 70 Managing Editor Linda Esposito Faster and faster 72 Managing Art Editor Philip Letsu Fast and furious 74 Pre-production Controllers Nikoleta Parasaki, Gillian Reid The ultimate test 76 Production Controller Srijana Gurung Fun in cars 78 Design Development Manager Sophia MTT Crazy cars 80 A spin across the waves 82 Publisher Andrew Macintyre Family cars 84 Art Director Karen Self Outdoor warriors 86 Associate Publishing Director Liz Wheeler Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf First American Edition, 2015 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 Copyright © 2015 Dorling Kindersley Limited A Penguin Random House Company 15 16 17 18 19 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 001–192634–September/2015 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under the copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-1-4654-3805-8 DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 or [email protected] Printed in China A WORLD OF IDEAS: SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW

Convertibles and sports cars 88 On the farm 116 Dawn of diesel 134 Mini motors 90 Monster leap The Mopetta microcar 92 Construction and mining 118 Mainstream diesel 136 Supercars 94 Tanks and tracks Luxury rides 96 Steam train 120 Rail workhorses 138 Record breakers 98 Early steam Dragster burnout 100 Mainstream steam 122 Going electric 140 Truck 102 Flying Scotsman Tons of trucks 104 Diesel train 124 High-speed electric trains 142 Special task trucks 106 Shuttle crawler 108 126 Bullet train 144 Bus stop 110 Tractor 112 128 Urban railroads 146 Total tractor 114 130 Streetcars and trolleybuses 148 132 Hold on tight! 150 Water 154 Sailing ship 160 City on the sea 152 156 Sail power 162 World War ships Taking to the water 158 Trade and exploration 164 Aircraft carriers 178 World of watercraft 166 Modern warships 180 Over the top War at sea 168 Submarine 182 Riding the wind 170 Dive, dive, dive 184 Steamship 172 Need for speed 186 Steam meets steel 174 Fun and games 188 Working ships 176 A flying success 190 Passenger carriers 192 194 Air 198 Eyes in the sky 226 Spacecraft 196 200 Helicopter 228 Launch vehicles Airplane 202 Whirlybirds 230 Space probes 236 Taking to the skies 204 Working choppers 232 Out of this world 238 First planes 206 Air support 234 Liftoff! 240 The girl of nerve 208 242 Fighter planes 210 244 Strike force 212 Racers and record-breakers 214 Jet fighters 216 Super speed 218 Seaplanes 220 Light aircraft 222 Plane spotting 224 Coming in low Straight up and supersonic Glossary 246 Index 250 Acknowledgments 255

KTM 350 SX-F Peel P50 New Holland T6.140 Foreword aircraft—from massive jet bombers to nimble aerobatic biplanes. I found them astonishing, Welcome to the world of fast cars and even just as I did the giant trucks and two Ferrari faster planes, of mighty ships, awesome supercars in the air show’s parking lot. I was motorcycles, and heavy hauling trucks and hooked and have remained excited by all forms trains. All these and many more machines of transportation ever since. that move people, goods, and materials can be found in this big book of transportation. This book is packed with vehicles, craft, and vessels that have enabled people to travel farther, I have had a fascination with transportation faster, and with greater ease—from the slickest for as long as I can remember. My father flew street bike to the most powerful diesel train. gliders and worked for an early airline company Many have played their part in changing people’s that offered many people their first taste of air lives, and how and where they work and live. travel. I remember him taking me to an air show Before the development of modern cars, trains, when I was eleven to see an array of amazing ships, and planes, few people traveled outside DHR Class B De D ion-Bouton Type O

Montgolfier Hot-air Balloon Bücker Bü133C Jungmeister of their own neighborhood and even fewer Throughout this book you will find scale boxes traveled long distances overseas. Today, coast- that show the sizes of types of transportation to-coast journeys that once took weeks take compared to either a child or a school bus. hours, while you can cross the planet in less than a day on a giant jet airliner. Shipping now Child = 4 ft 9 in (1.45 m) tall connects all parts of the globe, enabling you to buy food grown on the other side of the School bus = world and many other goods, too. Advances in 36 ft (11 m) long transportation have helped people explore and settle new lands, make exciting discoveries about our world, and even blast off, leaving the planet altogether to explore the marvels of space. Clive Gifford Unicycle Sea-Doo® Spark™ John Deere 650K XLT

On the road 1769 The first automobile was a steam-powered cart that set off in French 1769 at a top speed of 2.5 mph (4 km/h). Over the years, many inventor clever inventions have helped shape modern motor vehicles. Nicolas-Joseph Today, more than one billion travel along the world’s roads. Cugnot builds the first working automobile. 1868 The first 1885 1927 traffic lights The Benz Motorwagen, the The Napier-Campbell are installed in first wheeled vehicle powered Blue Bird sets a London. Not long by an internal combustion engine, takes to the road. land-speed record of afterward, 195 mph (314 km/h). they explode! 1900 Blue Bird 1876 German engineer Nikolaus Otto builds the first internal combustion engine. 1850 1880 1894 1908 Several inventors In Germany, Hildebrand The Ford Model T goes develop so-called and Wolfmüller build on sale in the USA. It the Motorrad, the first becomes the first car “safety bicycles” production motorcycle. to be mass-produced on driven by a pedal and an assembly line. 1871 chain mechanism. The High Wheeler, the first bicycle with big front wheels to boost speed, is designed. 1916 The Ford Model T first fully working armored tank, the Mark 1, goes into battle in France in World War I. 8

1979 Bigfoot, the first 2013 British company monster truck, is developed FlashPark invents a in the USA by Bob Chandler talking parking ticket. for off-road adventures. 1938 1997 The Volkswagen Type 1, Thrust SSC sets a world or Beetle, rolls off the land-speed record of production line in Germany. Over the years, a further 763 mph (1,228 km/h), faster 21.5 million are built. than the speed of sound. 1950 1980 The world’s first Formula 1 The world’s longest World Championship is won recorded traffic jam by Italy’s Giuseppe Farina in of 105 miles (170 km) an Alfa Romeo 159. blocks roads in France. 1950 2000 1946 1981 2005 In Italy, Vespa produces Stumpjumper, the first mass- A Bugatti Veyron sets the record its first scooter, sparking produced mountain bicycle, for the world’s fastest production a fashion craze from the car, clocking 253 mph (407 km/h). 1950s onward. goes on sale in the USA. Bugatti Veyron 1940 Jeep 1949 Sierra Sam becomes The Jeep is first introduced as the first fully formed crash a general test dummy, used to test purpose the safety features of cars. light truck. 9

Along the tracks Steam locomotives were known as “iron horses” when they started a transportation revolution in the early 1800s, speeding 1913 up the movement of people and goods all over the world. Today, diesel and electric locomotives have taken over from steam. Grand Central Terminal opens in New York. The station has the most number of tracks— 1829 1830 The first intercity 67 in all. The first modern steam steam passenger service, the 1881 locomotive, the Rocket, Liverpool and Manchester built by Robert Stephenson, Railway, begins. sets new speed records. The first electric streetcar service 1770 begins in Germany. Scottish inventor 1869 James Watt invents the compound steam The first Transcontinental engine, versions of Railroad across the USA which will power is completed—a total of early locomotives. 1,907 miles (3,069 km) of tracks. 1800 1850 1900 1804 1863 1914 The Pen-y-Darren The first underground city railroad, the Throughout World locomotive is built Metropolitan Line, opens in London. by British inventor War I, railroads Richard Trevithick, en-y-Darren locomot for work in mines. 1906 prove invaluable The for moving troops Simplon Tunnel, and supplies. connecting Italy and P ive Switzerland under the Alps, opens. It is the world’s longest railroad tunnel. 10

Golden Eagle Trans-Siberian Express 1964 1984 1916 The world’s first bullet In the UK, the first commercial train, Shinkansen, maglev transportation system The world’s longest railroad line, the connects Tokyo to opens, connecting Birmingham Trans-Siberian Railway across Russia, is other cities of Japan. International Airport and completed. It runs for 5,772 miles (9,289 km). nearby terminals. 1994 1937 1960 2012 The high-speed German inventor French Railways Channel Tunnel Tokyo metro carries Hermann Kemper introduce the world’s Eurostar service begins 3.29 billion passengers in a develops magnetic from London year, making it the busiest levitation (maglev) as a first 125 mph metro system in the world. force for moving trains. (200 km/h) service— to Paris. the Le Capitole. 1950 2000 1955 1975 2007 Initial trials of the English In the UK, the Inter-City HST An experimental French TGV sets the Electric Deltic—the most becomes the fastest diesel- world record for the fastest electric train, powerful diesel locomotive powered train in the world. in the world—take place. with a speed of 357 mph (574 km/h). 2015 1938 First passenger-carrying test run of Japan’s new maglev The Mallard sets the world record for train system. Trains reach speeds the fastest-ever steam locomotive, at a speed of more than 125 mph (200 km/h). of 373 mph (600 km/h). 1988 The world’s longest underwater railroad tunnel, the Seikan Tunnel, 33.5 miles (53.9 km) long, is built to connect two Japanese islands. 11

Across the water Humans have been traveling by water for so long that it is 1768 impossible to know exactly when the first boats were built. Some have changed little over the centuries, but today Captain James there are also hi-tech speedboats, mighty Cook sets off from tankers, and giant cruise liners on the England to explore the waters of the world. South Pacific. His voyage takes three years and covers Santa Maria more than 30,000 miles 1492 (48,000 km). Explorer Christopher 1661 Columbus sails west from Spain in the Santa Maria. The first recorded yacht race takes He crosses the Atlantic place, between the English King Ocean and lands in Charles II and his brother James, the Bahamas. on the Thames River in London. 1500 1600 1700 1510 1620 The English ship Mary Rose The Mayflower leaves 1716 is one of the first to be built Plymouth, England, ptluhnediremreodstSpdIaanCnntiagthsherheierbowtberueaeasatar,elsnayrusswr1epo7eif0srrehat0hitsapee,tss. with gunports, holes for cannons to fire through. taking 102 pilgrims to settle in the New Mayf lower World (America). 1519 Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan sets out with a fleet of five ships. Just one would make it back in 1522, having completed the 12 first voyage around the world.

opnuiSnltalweWMmbdoaiuynawteen1clorse8rooos-sysondkseiteiwaanLn,rg1ha-Usoek9kwSnleid2asAPh.s2R,eeianpwlvipnaehsnted 2014 The CSCL Globe container ship goes into service. At 1,311 ft (400 m) long, it is the longest container ship in the world. Tûranor PlanetSola r Dreadnought 2012 1819 Tûranor PlanetSolar, the largest solar- SS Savannah becomes the first powered boat in the steamship to cross world, completes its the Atlantic Ocean. trip around the globe. 1800 1906 1914 1977 The Dreadnought is launched The Panama Canal, NS Arktika, a nuclear- by the English king, George V. linking the Pacific Ocean powered icebreaker, with the Atlantic Ocean, becomes the first At the time, it was the most opens. Ships no longer surface ship to reach powerful battleship in the world. have to take the long and the North Pole. dangerous route around 1900 South America. 2000 1775 1912 2009 In the USA, the world’s On her maiden voyage, the MS Allure of the Seas— first combat submarine, the biggest passenger the Turtle, is designed. RMS Titanic sinks after cruise liner ever built, launches. 1822 striking an iceberg in the North Atlantic. 1954 French scientist The world’s first nuclear- Augustin Fresnel designs a powered submarine, the USS lens that makes the beam of Nautilus, is launched. In 1958, it crossed the a lighthouse five times North Pole underwater. more powerful. Turtle USS Nautilus 13

Up in the air 1913 Russian Pyotr Nesterov Powered flight took off in 1903 when American brothers becomes the first pilot to fly a Wilbur and Orville Wright attached an engine to a glider loop-the-loop. and traveled through air for 12 seconds. This short flight blazed the trail for supersonic jets, giant airliners, and even spacecraft. 1785 Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard and American John Jeffries fly across the English Channel in a balloon. 1783 1900 The first rigid airship, the 1903 In Paris, France, the Zeppelin LZ1, makes its maiden The Wright brothers’ first Montgolfier brothers’ voyage in Germany. powered flying machine, hot-air balloon makes the Wright Flyer, takes the world’s first manned off in the USA. flight, lasting 25 minutes. 1900 1850 1891 1896 1907 1852 German “Flying man” American inventor The first flight of a Frenchman Jules Otto Lilienthal makes Samuel Pierpont rotary-wing aircraft, Henri Giffard’s the first of more than Langley flies his forerunner of the steam-powered 2,000 flights in a series steam-powered helicopter, is airship makes its of fixed-wing gliders. model aircraft, piloted by first flight, proving the Aerodrome. French engineer controlled flight Paul Cornu. is possible. 14 Lilienthal’s Normal Apparatus

1930 A nurse by profession, Ellen Church becomes the first flight attendant. Space Shuttle Columbia 1969 1969 1981 In the UK, the The US Apollo 11 spacecraft Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off from Hawker Siddeley takes off for the moon. Two Cape Canaveral, Florida, for its first Harrier becomes the of its astronauts become the space mission. The Space Shuttle first vertical-take-off- first humans to walk on the program continues until 2011. and-landing (VTOL) lunar surface. military jet in service. 2000 1938 The American Boeing 307 Stratoliner, the first airliner with a pressurized cabin, helps make flying a pleasant experience for passengers. 1950 1952 1961 1976 2014 In the UK, the first commercial Russian cosmonaut Yuri The UK/French After a 10-year jet airliner, the de Havilland Gagarin becomes the supersonic airliner journey, the Comet, enters service. first man in space. He the Concorde enters orbits the Earth for 108 passenger service. European Space 1927 minutes onboard his Agency spacecraft Vostok 1 spacecraft. American Charles Lindbergh makes Rosetta reaches the first nonstop flight across North a comet and lands a Atlantic in his Ryan NYP Spirit of probe on its surface. St Louis, a distance of more than 3,600 miles (5,800 km). 1Ifit9rsi4st 9rneofAunesBtleo-5dp0ifnlSigumhpitedarafroiorruftorneudsrstthimmeaweksoe!rsldth. e 15


Animal power Handler, called Wooden, RCohmae r2i0o0 tBCE musher, gives spoked wheel commands to dogs Leather Roman harness tic region chariots pulled by four horses could race at speeds of 30 mph (50 km/h). LandHusky sled Arc Chuck wagon USA 1866 Canvas cover stretched over iron hoops Reins are attached to the to provide protection against weather harness at the mouth Straight Liverpool g ig UK 1800s backrest Conestoga wagon Distinctive glass lanterns USA 18th and 19th century The Glass Coach is used for the weddings of the British royal family. The Glass Coach UK 1881 For thousands of years, people have As early as 3000 BCE, animals were used to pull harnessed the power of large animals the first chariots into battle in the Middle East and to transport them and their goods. Oxen, Asia. Later, the Romans turned chariot racing dogs, horses, mules, and reindeer have into a sport, using lightweight designs in which all been used to pull sleds or haul wagons the driver rode from a small platform over the 18 and, in some parts of the world, still do. wheel axle. Wagons got bigger when pioneers set

“Rumble” Arched hood Coachman’s seat for can be raised seat servant or lowered SpideUrK or groom phaeton Animal power c.1890 Rubber Square landau tires UK c.1890 Lead dogs find the trail and set Railway horse bus the pace UK c.1900 Enclosed cab for passengers Iron hoop forms frame for a canvas cover Chuck box—a set of drawers for storing goods Flag with red cross indicates wagon was a medical vehicle Wooden wheels Ambulance wagon with iron rims World War I 1914–18 off across North America in the 18th and 19th as they herded cattle across the country. In the 19 centuries. The four-wheeled, covered Conestoga towns, small, lightweight carriages such as the wagon could carry five tons of food, tools, and Liverpool gig or the Spider phaeton carried belongings, and was usually pulled by oxen. Not up to two people on short journeys, while bigger long after, fully working kitchens on wheels, called carriages, such as the Square landau could chuck wagons, could be seen following cowboys transport four people in greater comfort.

CAMEL CARAVAN Out of the way, there’s a convoy coming through! It’s made up of camels carrying salt—Ethiopia’s white gold, mined from the Danakil Depression. Highly prized, both to flavor food and preserve it, salt is levered out of the giant salt flats at Danakil in slabs. These slabs are then cut into blocks and lashed onto the backs of the camels, the ultimate desert pack animal.

Caravans (convoys) of pack animals—from camels, horses, Ethiopia, from Danakil to the trading center of Mekele, and mules, to yaks, llamas, and even elephants—have been involves a 60-mile (100-km) trek across one of the hottest used throughout history to transport food, materials, and places on Earth, with temperatures soaring past 122°F goods for trade. Camels are famed for their ability to (50°C). Salt caravans have crossed the Sahara for more withstand heat and a lack of water, making them perfect for than 2,000 years. In the past, thousands of animals made cargo-carrying trips across hot deserts. This route across up the camel trains, but today 20 to 30 are more common.

Bicycle Land Bicycles are a fun and efficient way of getting around. A cyclist can travel around four to five times faster than a Saddle ❯ The Seat post walker, using the same amount of energy. Although designs vary, most bicycles share bicycle’s seat can be solid Seat common key parts. A chain, powered by or padded for comfort. tube a chainwheel and driven by pedals and It is attached to a seat cranks, transmits power to the rear wheel, which turns and drives the bicycle forward. post, which slides into the frame’s seat tube. Rear brake cable Wheel and tire ❯ These Rear brake support the weight of the bicycle and the rider. Different tires have different patterns on their outer surface known as tread. This bicycle has smooth tread tires for road racing. An off-road bicycle will have chunkier tread to provide better grip. Gear cable Rear derailleur ❯ The derailleur gear moves the chain to different gear cogs. Spokes ❯ Thin and Chainwheel strong, spokes connect Chain Bottom the wheel’s rim to its bracket center, or hub. They allow wheels to be built that are strong but light in weight, and they let air 22 through when the wheel faces the wind.

Frame ❯ This is the skeleton Stem Handlebars ❯ These act as a lever Bicycle of the bicycle, to which all the for the rider to grip and turn the front other parts are attached. The wheel when steering. They also hold the gear controls, bicycle computers, frame is usually formed out and brake levers. This racing bicycle of hollow tubes of steel for has dropped handlebars for a low, cheaper bikes, or aluminum tucked-in riding position. combined with other metals (alloy), titanium, or carbon fiber Brake lever for higher performance models. Fork Cable guides Cannondale rac Water bottle held in cage ing bike Spider Pedal Crank ❯ The crank is a shaft connecting the pedal to the toothed chainwheel through a series of arms called a spider. The spider and chainwheels turn on the bottom bracket axle. 23

Pedal power Similar-sized front and rear wheels Padded Handlebar ar mrest on iron stem Velocipede UK 183 Land 9 High wheeler UK 1871 Dandy Horse Draisienne Germany 1817 Leather saddle Wooden Long shaft crossbar connects pedal to rear wheel Saddle on single metal spring Wooden wheel bMonicehshaaukxeVr eFlraoncceip18e6d9e Solid iron handlebar stem Spoon brake presses directly on solid rubber tire to slow bicycle down HIGH WHEELER Considering the wheel has been around The German Baron Karl Von Drais invented the for more than 5,000 years, it is amazing Dandy Horse in 1817, which had a saddle and to think that it was only 200 years ago handlebars but was powered by a rider paddling people finally got the idea to place two his feet along the ground. It led to other human- wheels on a frame and create pedal- powered machines, including the Michaux 24 powered personal transportation. Velocipede, which had pedals fitted directly

Curved steel High wheeler Pedal power tubes form a front wheel acts Singer tricycle UK 1888 diamond shape Rover safet as a rear wheel y bicycle UK 1885 Straight In 1885, Chain links pedals bicSywcliftsae fUeKt front forks and rear wheel the Rover bicycle Cur ved Large front Solid rubber tire, front wheel up to won a 100 mile replaced by pneumatic forks 5 ft (1.5 m) in diameter (160 km) race in (air-filled) tires the UK in 7 hours, from 1888 5 minutes. y 1887 Simple mudguard covered the small rear wheel Facile dwarf safety bicycle Singer safety UK 1888 UK 1888 Saddle made of 131 ft (40 m) of In 1884, woven cord weighs 31⁄2 oz (100 g) Thomas Stevens crossed the USA on a high wheeler. Dursley Pedersen bicycle UK 1898–99 to the front wheel. The experience of its iron resulting in many falls. Alternatives were sought, 25 “tires” on cobbled streets earned it the nickname including pairing two high wheeler front wheels boneshaker. High wheelers, or Penny Farthings, to form the rear wheels of the Singer tricycle, in the UK, France, and the USA had no chains or and using a chain-driven rear wheel, as in the gears, but had bigger front wheels to boost speed. Rover safety bicycle. This design ushered in It perched the rider high above the ground, the modern bicycle with wheels of similar size.

Speed Seat post wheels Land Rear wheel Dedacciai Strada Assoluto Italy 2011 Isaac Force Germany 2005 with spokes and carbon Tires inflated with helium gas to save 3⁄8–9⁄16oz (10–15 g) per tire fiber rim Dropped handlebars Molded carbon fiber frame This revolutionary track bicycle weighed just 20 lb (9 kg). Women’s bicycles often have narrower handlebars Marin Ravenna A6WFG USA 2012 Single, fixed gear If you have a need for speed, then a Not all racing bicycles are used for racing. Many racing bicycle is for you. Designed for are used by cyclists to commute rapidly to work or fast riding on smooth surfaces, racing for a workout. Frames are designed for both men bicycles are light in weight with a high and women; the Ravenna A6WFG is a women’s seat and low, dropped handlebars. racing bicycle designed for endurance riding. Competition racing bikes are designed with super- 26

Narrow aero bars help bicycle Frame extends all Long tri-bars and rider cut through air the way to the saddle to rest arms on Rossin Time Trial pe 108 UK 1992 Italy 1983 Lotus Ty Speed wheels Cantilever UK 1986 Three-spoke This Brake and gear cables carbon fiber wheel hidden inside frame to bicycle broke improve aerodynamics Gull-wing handlebars the 400 m Cervelo P5 world record in the Canada 2012 1992 Olympic games. Windcheetah Carbon Pannier bags for storage Third bottle fitted Cannondale ST1000 USA 1988 underneath down tube lightweight frames of aluminum or titanium alloys, aerodynamic (cut through air more easily) than 27 or carbon fiber. The Assoluto’s carbon fiber frame wheels with spokes. Solid-bodied track racers, weighs just 2lb 6oz (1.1kg), a little more than a such as the Windcheetah Carbon Cantilever, baseball bat. Solid disk rear wheels are used on appeared in the 1980s with a solid carbon fiber track racers, in time trials, and on triathlete’s bikes body. They were tested in wind tunnels to ensure such as the Cervelo P5, because they are more they were as aerodynamic as possible.

SPRINT FINISH You can feel the pain just watching these sprinters pump the pedals at the end of another grueling stage of the world’s most famous bike race, the Tour de France. This stage—the tenth of the 2011 Tour—started 98miles (158km) back. In a photo finish, André Greipel of Germany (right) crossed the line a fraction ahead of Mark Cavendish of the UK (left). Both are given the time of 3 hours, 31 minutes, and 21 seconds.

The Tour de France takes place over three weeks every part, each with nine riders. The cyclists’ times for each day summer. It covers more than 2,175 miles (3,500 km), broken are added together and the rider with the overall lowest time up into 21 stages. Each year, the route across France changes, gets to wear the prized maillot jaune (yellow jersey). But there sometimes entering other European countries, but it always are also prizes for the fastest sprinter (green jersey), the challenges riders over all sorts of terrain, with stages on the fastest climber (red polka dot jersey), the fastest rider under flat, in the hills, and in the mountains. Around 20 teams take 25 (white jersey), and for the fastest team.

Bike business Land Wicker basket holds up Pannier bag Response bicycle UK 2000 to 55 lb (25 kg) of goods contains emergency medical equipment shley Delibike UK 1948 Pa Butterfly screw can be Folding stand supports loosened to fold frame in half the bicycle when parked Flashing side lights on rack bag BSA Airbo rne UK 1943 Tool bag hung from Police mountain bicycle top tube of frame Germany 2000s Folded-up bicycle is less than 23 in (57 cm) in height and 22 in (55 cm) in length There are more than 1,200 parts in a Brompton Folding Bicycle. Brompton Folding Bicycle UK 1981–83 Cycling may be lots of fun, but many In both crowded towns and cities, and isolated people ride their bicycles to and from countryside areas, police mountain bicycles work, or use them in order to do their allow officers to get to a crime scene quickly. jobs. Bicycles offer a cheap, quick, and Response bicycles, with their pannier bags convenient way to get around, and to filled with lifesaving medical equipment, can get 30 transport people and deliver goods. through traffic or crowds to reach a patient where

Container for letters Bike business and small packages Trishaw Malaysia DHL Parcycle Netherlands 2014 Hooded canopy provides shade Penang Seat for up to 1980s Canopy two passengers keeps ice cream Cart handle acts as shaded from Sun Height and angle of the bicycle’s handlebars saddle can be adjusted for Tricycle ice cre cart India 1980s maximum comfort am Brake and gear cabling hang loose, so the bike can be folded Luggage rack Small wire can hold large bag basket to ycle China 2000s carry shopping Public bic Small, 16-in (40.6-cm) wheel larger vehicles cannot go. The BSA Airborne bicycles are equipped with baskets or carriers to 31 was used by British troops during World War II— carry cargo. The DHL Parcycle fits a giant its frame folded in half when two butterfly screws container onto a bike to carry packages. Bicycles were loosened. Folding bicycles, such as the can also be modified, and their frames attached Brompton Folding Bicycle, continue to be to carts or carriages, such as the ice cream cart used by thousands of commuters. Delivery and the pedal-powered Penang Trishaw taxi.

Fun on wheels SL 1981 UK Padded seat Velocar France 1933 MarWkinVdIcShpeeeetdayh supports back Land Unicyc Backrest includes Riders lockable trunk and experience rear lights “rubber legs” le France 1800s KiUnKg1c9y90csle when they try a new style of bike and use new muscles. Dropped handlebars with brakes for the rider at the back Santana Triplet USA 2000s If you think all bicycles feature just one A unicycle has a single wheel, turned by pedals, rider sitting upright, supported by two and demands great balance from the rider to stay wheels, think again! Many variations on. Three-wheelers are easier to ride, and some, on the bicycle’s basic design have been such as the Pashley Tri.1, even offer a platform attempted for greater speed, more to carry large loads. Tandem bicycles, such as the 32 comfort, or just for fun. Dawes Galaxy Twin, have two riders pedaling,

Joystick Kingcycle Be Brakes on Body shell and Fun on wheels front wheel bicycle weigh an UK 1984 82 lb (37.2 kg) This e Switzerland 1995 Hinged windshield slick bicycle acts as a door has joysticks Twik Electric motor, plus instead of pedal power, gives top speed of 15 mph (24 km/h) handlebars Handlebars for steering. gripped under rider’s knees Twin seats Sinclair C5 UK 1985 Platform to carry loads Luggage rack Pashle Hinged frame y Tri.1 UK 2013 folds up for storage Dawes Galaxy Twin UK 2008 Timing chain links two sets of pedals and chainwheels but only the front rider steers. The Santana The Windcheetah Speedy was cycled the length 33 Triplet has seats for three riders, with a long of the UK in just 41 hours, 4 minutes, 22 seconds. chain linking each rider’s chainwheel to ensure Some recumbents fit a body shell around the rider smooth pedaling. In recumbent bicycles, riders sit to let air flow past more smoothly. In 1990, the or lie down with their legs out in front; the bicycle Kingcycle Bean set a world speed record of is low and can slip through air at high speed. 47 mph (76 km/h) over one hour.

Extreme cycling Land Trek 8900 Pro USA 1990 Suspension allows Gear changer on the front forks to telescope handlebar helps select down into lower tubes between the bicycle’s 15 gears when hitting bumps Single gear cog on rear wheel Specialized Stumpjumper Raleigh Kool Ma x UK 2000s Frame made of USA 1981 carbon fiber tubes fitted to aluminum joints 2ft-6in- (6.4-cm-) wide tire for great grip in sand, dirt, and mud Some Fat Chance Yo-Eddy USA 1991 mountain bicycles have up to 30 gears to speed over different conditions. Shock absorber cushions bumps Trek 6000 USA 19 91 Toe straps Hydraulic (fluid- secure rider’s operated) disk brakes feet on pedals Stumpjumper FSR Pro USA 2004 While ordinary bicycles can be ridden The first mountain bicycle made on a large scale off-road, their smooth tires and slender was the Specialized Stumpjumper. Only 500 frames are not suitable for rough stuff. were initially produced, but they started a When bikers in the USA began redesigning revolution. Soon, many manufacturers came up bicycles for better off-road performances with their own designs. The Trek 6000 had a 34 in the 1970s, mountain biking was born! lightweight, all-aluminum frame, while the Trek

Rubber grips Derailleur gear system Front forks have suspension on handlebar has 20 different gears for that can slide as much as 3.8 in Cushioned saddle with plastic covering rider to select from (99 mm) to cushion bumps Large frame Marin Nail Trail Rigid USA 2014 forks Chain guard Reflector fitted to stops clothing from wheel spokes snagging on chain Saddle set low so Foot peg for that rider’s weight is stepping on when performing tricks over rear wheel MBM Instinct BMX Haro Freestyler BMX stunt bicycle Italy 2000s racing bike USA 2012 8900 Pro’s frame was made of carbon fiber to such as the Stumpjumper FSR Pro, have shock 35 keep its weight down. Many mountain bikes are absorbers for both wheels. BMX bikes are strong, fitted with suspension systems. Hardtail bicycles small-wheeled bicycles, some of which are raced (with rigid frames), such as the Marin Nail Trail, over dirt tracks. Freestyle (stunt riding) BMX have front forks that lessen the impact of bumps bikes such as the MBM Instinct, are built for and landings. In contrast, full-suspension bicycles, doing tricks and out-of-the-saddle moves.

MOUNTAIN BIKE MADNESS MTB freerider Louis Reboul launches his mountain bike off a giant 52-ft- (16-m-) high ramp during the Red Bull Rampage 2014. He twists the bike and his riding position in midair to pull off a perfectly judged landing. One mistake and the result could be disastrous, with a huge drop onto the hard, unforgiving sandstone below.

Mountain bike (MTB) freeriding involves riders pulling moves and complexity of their tricks. These can involve full 360° and tricks as they take on a challenging run, full of dramatic spins, backflips, and no-hands riding. Held on the edge of natural features and, sometimes, man-made obstacles such Zion National Park in Utah, the Red Bull Rampage is an as large ramps. Competitors ride bikes with full suspension annual invite-only tournament for some of the hottest on both wheels to allow for heavy impacts on landing, and freeriders in the world. Each gets to pick their own route their runs are judged for speed, control, and the execution along the almost-vertical drops of ridges and cliffs.

Motorcycle Land Bikes were first fitted with engines in the 19th century and have never looked back! Today, millions enjoy the fast, convenient travel and the freedom of the open road or trail that motorcycles Chassis ❯ The frame provide. This Yamaha XJR 1300 is called a “naked” bike, because its engine is not hidden behind body panels. With a top to which other parts speed of 130 mph (210 km/h), it is faster than many cars. of the motorcycle are attached, the chassis Rear seat ❯ Big motorcycles have a helps keep the wheels in line for good handling. It seat long enough for a passenger, who is usually made of steel can grip the handle behind the seat. or a combination of metals (alloy). Yamaha XJR 1300 Indicator light Shock absorber ❯ A coil-spring and oil-filled cylinder cushion the bike and rider over bumps in the road. Rear wheel ❯ Exhaust pipe ❯ The exhaust This is driven by pipe channels waste gases from power from the the engine out behind the bike. engine through a shaft or belt, or on this motorcycle, a metal chain 38 similar to a bicycle chain.

Side mirrors ❯ Throttle ❯ Controlled by twisting the Motorcycle Mounted on the right handlebar, the throttle controls handlebars, these allow the flow of gas and air mixture into the cylinders in the engine. More air means the rider to see what’s more power and a higher speed. going on behind the bike. Windshield Fuel tank ❯ The tank holds the gas and pumps it to the engine. Headlight ❯ Powered by the motorcycle’s alternator, this lights up the road ahead. Front Front wheel ❯ Fitted forks with an air-filled tire, this wheel is steered by the handlebars. Brake disk Engine ❯ Fueled by gasoline, the engine generates power, which is transmitted to the rear wheel. This engine generates around 107 horsepower, as much as a hatchback car. 39

Revving up Mveiclohcaiupxe-dPe F Land Handlebars Saddle caught fire on ranecer1r8e6a7–u7x1 for steering its first journey because it Metal-rimmed was directly above the wooden wheel hot ignition tube This steam-powered motorcycle weighing 195 lb (88 kg) had no brakes! 5Daimler Reitwagen Germany 188 nd & GWermolafnmy 1ü8l9l4er d HMilotdoerbrraa Mudguard Cyklon Germany 1901 was also the motorcycle’s With its 0.5horsepower engine, the Daimler Reitwagen is considered to be the first “real” water tank motorcycle, even though it was crafted out of wood. It proved to be an uncomfortable ride due The first powered motorcycles used a to its wooden wheels and lack of suspension. The small steam engine to drive the rear faster Motorrad and the first widely made wheel, but motorcycles made a great leap forward once internal combustion engines were built small enough to 40 attach to a bicycle-styled frame.

Sprung n Single USA 1904 bicycle saddle Mo La India urdienl KBlCezmechenRetpuSblliacv19ia Pedaling backward Revving up activated the brakes Pedal to start 03 Brass tank held the engine gas and oil FN Four Pope Mo Belgium 1911 del L USA 1911 Engine gives top speed Comfortable padded of 40 mph (64 km/h), a leather seat record at the time Three speed Wilkinson TMC UK 1912 gears when many motorcycles had one Engine is water-cooled Carl like many cars Clancy rode Early record 17,895 miles breaker—reached (28,800 km) around the world Long handlebars extend 71 mph (115 km/h) on a Henderson back toward the seat Four in 1912. Motorcycle gives top speed of 60 mph (97 km/h), making it a hit with police forces Henderson Four Norton Old Miracle UK 1912 USA 1912 motorcycle, with around 2,000 built. Some early more than one cylinder. The Pope Model L had 41 motorcycles had their engines mounted in strange two cylinders and cost as much as a Ford Model T places. The Cyklon’s engine sat in front of the car. The FN Four was one of the first motorcycles rider; it drove the front wheel around. The Indian with four cylinders. The four-cylinder Wilkinson Single’s engine was so low, riding over a bump TMC was designed for long-distance touring with could knock it. Over time, engines were built with a padded leather seat, but it had no front brake.

Bikes in battle Land Rikuo Type 97 Japan 1933 Sidecar wheel powered by the motorcycle’s 745 cc engine Headlight hood to mask the Sun’s glare, Zundapp KS750 which could give away the bike’s position Germany 1940 Sidecar BMW R12 Germany 1940 Steel frame for heavy panniers Twin fuel tanks hold that could hold ammunition 5 gal (19 liters) of gas 8-in (20-cm) UBiKg19Four drum brake 40 Norton Sidecar Indian 841 USA 1941 As motorcycles became faster, sturdier, Many World War II motorcycles were adapted and more reliable, they were adopted by civilian models. More than 70,000 Harley- armed forces in their thousands. World Davidson WLAs were made for the American War II saw heavy motorcycle use, as forces, while 126,000 BSA M20s were built by the scouts, in convoys, and as couriers, UK and its allies—making it the most produced 42 transporting messages and people. motorcycle of the war. A prewar Harley-Davidson

Motorcycle could carry Cannister, with three soldiers and their the bike fitted weapons at speeds up to 59 mph (95 km/h) inside, is just 13 in (33 cm) in diameter Parachute Bikes in battleWelbike UK 1942 H BSA M20 UK 1942 A Welbike could be put together in just 11 seconds. Rear-wheel canvas panniers Norton 16H Desert Duty UK Holster to hold rifle n WLA USA 1942 or machine gun 1942 arley-Davidso Metal sheet The just 130-lb (60-kg) “bash plate” motorcycle could be dropped by to protect engine parachute or carried by a glider Small engine used 0.26 gal (1 liter) of gas per 33 miles (53 km) Royal Enfield WD/RE125 Flying Flea UK 1948 built in Japan, the Rikuo Type 97 served was one of the biggest World War II sidecars. 43 Japanese forces during wartime. Its sidecar was In contrast, the 71-lb (32-kg) Welbike could engine-powered, improving travel over rough be folded inside a cannister, dropped from a ground, a feature also found in the sidecar of the plane, and parachuted to the ground. Another Norton Big Four, used as a scout by British lightweight, the Flying Flea was used to carry soldiers. The 930-lb (420-kg) Zundapp KS750 messages when radio contact was impossible.

Scooting around Steering column folds Lockable glove box down when not in use Land Autoped Enclosed 202 cc engine USA 1915 mounted under the seat Cushman Auto-glide USA 1938 155 cc engine directly over the front wheel Rear wheel Large is 10 in (25 cm) windshield in diameter Exhaust pipe Lambretta LD150 Italy 1957 Padded bench saddle seats two Vespa Rally 250 Italy 1976 Saddle that can seat two people More than Air vents help cool engine, which can 60 million propel scooter to speeds Super Cubs have up to 70 mph (113 km/h) been built—the most produced motor vehicle ever. Honda Super Cub C100 Japan 1958 Scooters are small motorcycles with a step- The Autoped was one of the first scooters; its through design and the driver’s seat above engine drove the front wheel using gears. The an enclosed engine. The term mopeds once VéloSoleX 45, an early moped, had an engine meant motorized bikes that had to be that powered a ceramic roller that gripped the pedaled to start, but now it applies to small top of the front wheel to turn it. Lightweight and 44 scooters with 50cc or lesser power engines. fuel-efficient, scooters and mopeds such as the

Safety cell crumples in This Hooded onda PCX 125 Japan 2 Scooting around crash to protect rider scooter instrument panel can go from Large lithium-ion battery 010 BMW Front wheel fitted powers electric motors and C 0–60mph with hydraulic brake can be recharged in 4 hours BMGeWrmCanyE 2v01ol4ution 1 200 Germany 2001 (100km/h) in under H 7 seconds. Scooter travels 60 miles Carrier with (100 km) on a single charge storage box Small fuel tank holds 1.3 gal (5 liters) of gas Steel VFérlaoncS luggage Yamaha Jog RR rack olee X19449 5 Motobécane Mobylette Japan 2011 France 1986 Hinged seat with compartment underneath Headlight fitted into the plastic fairing PGO PMX Naked Taiwan 2011 Honda Super Cub proved to be a cheap form and mopeds are still in demand. The Yamaha 45 of transportation in the postwar years. A craze Jog and the PGO PMX, powered by small for stylishly designed Italian scooters in the 50 cc engines, are aimed at young riders. Future 1950s and 1960s led to the popular Lambretta scooters may be enclosed with a roof, such as LD150 with its large windshield, passenger seat, the BMW C1 200 concept, or be powered by and top speed of 50mph (80km/h). Scooters electric motors, like the BMW C Evolution.

Three-wheelers Ariel Tricycle UK 1898 Single-cylinder Top box holds tools engine propelled bike and spare clothing Fuel to 24 mph (39 km/h) tank Passenger RTaalnedigehmRTarlieciagrhUeKtt1e904 seat in front of the driver Steering wheel instead of handlebars Rexette 5HP UK 1905 Coiled radiator tubes filled with water to cool engine Rear light Front fender SeHravril-eCya-rDGavEidUsSAon1969 Chopper-styled Honda Stream Jap wide, padded seat Police siren an 1982 Not all motorcycles have two wheels. Ever Early three-wheelers were pedal-powered tricycles since bikes were first developed, engineers fitted with an engine. The Ariel Tricycle used have experimented with three-wheeled the space between the rear wheels for the engine. machines, which are easier to learn to ride, Some manufacturers preferred to power a single have more space for engines or loads, and rear wheel, so they placed a pair of wheels in the 46 come with an extra tire for better grip. front. Both the Rexette 5HP and Raleighette

Vandenbrink Carver One Netherlands 2007 Honda Goldwing EML Trike Three-wheelers Japan/Netherlands 1994 Three-wheeled car-like body tilts up to Short, plastic windshield deflects air 45 degrees, with wheels up and over rider’s head staying on the road Each Can-Am front wheel has its own suspension to ride out bumps. Weighs 335 lb (152 kg), a quarter of the Carver One Can-Am Spyder Trike Yamaha Tricity Canada 2011 Japan 2014 Twin six-spoked wheels with 13.8 in (35 cm) diameter Tricar had rear-wheel drive and used the space a small hatchback car. Advances in technology 47 above the front wheels to fit a passenger chair. have brought in new three-wheelers that can tilt The Harley-Davidson Servi-Car GE served their bodies as they turn. The Vandenbrink is like police forces and breakdown mechanics from a three-wheeled car, with a fully enclosed cockpit the 1930s to the 1970s. In contrast, the Can-Am and twin rear wheels, while the Yamaha Tricity Spyder is built for fun and has as much power as resembles a motorcycle with twin wheels in front.

Land Road License- burners plate holder Low-lying exhaust pipe Seat with springs underneath Royal Enfield 500 Twin UK 1951 Front fender shows name of motorcycle Harley-Davidson Chrome Honda CB550 Electra Glide USA 1965 front forks Four Japan 1976 More than Rear tire with 18 in (45 cm) diameter, 33⁄4 in 3,000 police (9.4 cm) width units across KMZ Dnepr MT11 Russia 1985 the USA use Harley-Davidsons. Kawasaki H2C Japan 1975 BMW R60/6 Germany 197 6 Various types of motorcycles have been Standard motorcycles are ideal for riding around designed for road use, from standards to town and for short journeys. Popular midsize cruisers. Most standards offer a relatively engine bikes in the 1970s included the BMW upright riding style and have smooth tires. R60/6 and the Honda CB550, with a top speed Cruisers are bigger, with a reclining back of 102mph (164km/h) from its 500 cc engine. 48 and relaxed riding position for long rides. For long-distance riding, cruisers are more

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