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51705023_Maple G4_Workbook English_Term3

Published by IMAX, 2020-04-09 01:04:39

Description: 51705023_Maple G4_Workbook English_Term3


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Theme 5: Exploring the World 14 Module 14 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 1 Beware of Mikhailovitch 15 Module 15 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Going Downhill on a Bicycle Theme 6: The Wonders of Science 16 Module 16 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 The Magical World of Science 17 Module 17 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 28 Robot with a Virus 18 Module 18 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 42 My Shadow

Lesson 14 Beware of Mikhailovitch Module 14 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Sentence dictation Vocabulary Listening audio Grammar Use of 'it's' and 'its' Language in Use Formal Writing Subject and predicate Creative Writing Irregular plurals Paragraph writing Story writing 1

Dictation Exercise 1.1: Sentence dictation 1) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) ____________________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 1.2: Listening audio 1) Where was Jawaharlal Nehru born? [   ] (A) Ahmedabad (B) Allahabad (C) Bhopal (D) Aligarh 2) Who was Jawaharlal Nehru’s mother? [   ] (A) Kamala Nehru (B) Kamala Das (C) Putali Bai (D) Swarup Rani 3) What was Nehru’s profession before he joined the freedom movement? [   ] (A) lawyer (B) professor (C) scientist (D) teacher 4) What was Nehru’s position after India attained independence? [   ] (A) Home Minister (B) Chief Minister (C) Prime Minister (D) President of India 5) Why is 14th November celebrated as Children’s Day? [   ] (A) It is Jawaharlal Nehru’s birthday. (B) It is M.K. Gandhi’s birthday. (C) Jawaharlal Nehru loved children. (D) A and C B C Vocabulary A Use of ‘it’s’ and ‘its’ ‘It’s’ is the contracted form of ‘it is’. We always use it with an apostrophe (’). Examples: •  It's (It is) not her fault. 2

•  It's (It is) starting to rain. ‘Its’ is the possessive form of the pronoun ‘it’. It shows the belonging of something or someone to a neuter gender noun. Examples: •  Turn the kitten to its (the kitten's) side. •  Kolkata is famous for its (belonging to Kolkata) sweets. Look at the table below for more examples of ‘it’s’ and ‘its’. it’s its It’s only 12:00 p.m. now. The dog had its teeth removed. It’s my favourite pen. The movie had reached its ending. It’s warm this time of the year. Can you guess its price? It’s time to get ready for school. This week had its ups and downs. Exercise 2.1: Fill in the blanks correctly with ‘it’s' or ‘its’. 1) The paneer is past _______________ expiry date. 2) The flag is erect on _______________ pole. 3) The knife is in _______________ case. 4) _______________ going to rain today. 5) The lion lives in _______________ cave. 6) _______________ so cold in here. Please turn off the fan. Exercise 2.2: Read the following paragraph carefully and make changes wherever necessary. Its not strange that the dog has grown up to be so strong. Its home was first on the streets where it had to struggle for it’s food every day. It’s master now takes good care of it. He has made a small kennel for the dog. For the dog, its home is it’s palace. I have not seen the dog for many years, and I miss its wagging tail. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Beware of Mikhailovitch 3

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Grammar Subject and predicate Read the following sentences: My family went to the zoo. The dog chased the cat. Meher and I are going to the library. A sentence consists of two parts: •  The thing or the person we are talking about is known as the subject. •  Something more about that person or thing is the part called the predicate. This part states what the subject is or does and always begins with a verb. Look at the table below for examples of subjects and predicates. Subject Predicate My family went to the zoo. The dog chased the cat. Meher and I are going to the library. Rohan eats cornflakes for breakfast. The children play near the swings. The words in bold are verbs. Remember: A meaningful and complete sentence needs both the subject and the predicate. 4

Exercise 3.1: Rearrange the words to make meaningful sentences. Circle the subject and underline the predicate of each sentence. One is done for you. 1) doctor/apple/keeps/an/day/a/the/away Ans. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. 2) is/cloudy/a/it/day Ans. ______________________________________________________________________ 3) guilty/judge/him/found/the Ans. ______________________________________________________________________ 4) those/themselves/helps/help/God/who Ans. ______________________________________________________________________ 5) Mumbai/I/tomorrow/leave/for/will Ans. ______________________________________________________________________ 6) friends/best/of/one/is/he/my Ans. ______________________________________________________________________ Exercise 3.2: Fill in the blanks with a suitable subject or predicate. One is done for you. 1) The Sun shines brightly in the sky. 2) The computer _________________________________________________. 3) _________________________________________________ went to school. 4) Shreeram and Arjab _________________________________________________. Beware of Mikhailovitch 5

5) _________________________________________________ is really interesting. 6) _________________________________________________ in the corner of the room. Exercise 3.3: Match each subject with its correct predicate. One is done for you. Subject Predicate 1) The Earth’s land a) were so many oceans and seas formed? 2) One big, deep ocean b) will tell me the story of creation. 3) How c) was once made up of a single, huge continent. 4) You d) have enjoyed the story of creation. 5) Page 123 of this book e) covered the rest of the planet. 6) I f) gives all the details. Language in Use Irregular plurals Read the passage below about a visit to a wildlife park. We went to the Jim Corbett National Park recently. It has a wide variety of animals and birds. We drove through the thick jungle full of trees where we spotted many deer, wild pigs and elephants. Many buses full of tourists visit this park every day. Tourists go for animal safaris in batches. We had a great time at the park. We were also given glasses of lemonade on our bus ride back! 6

Some plurals are mentioned in the passage. Can you find them and complete the table? Singular Plural Singular Plural Read the following sentences: Tina bought fifteen candies There are two ladies in the There are many countries in for three rupees. She gave a waiting room. There is a lady the world. The name of my candy to her brother. inside the cabin. country is India. Remember: The words ‘candies’, ‘ladies’ and ‘countries’ are irregular plurals formed by replacing ‘y’ in the singular nouns with ‘-ies’. More examples: Plural Singular Plural Singular babies enemy enemies baby cities family families city diaries party parties diary Beware of Mikhailovitch 7

Read the following passage: This is the Patel family. Mr Patel is working in the kitchen along with his two children. His wife, Megha Patel, is doing her office work. The children have bought two loaves of bread to make sandwiches. They carefully cut slices of bread using knives. Now, Mr Patel is chopping carrots, cucumbers and lettuce leaves. Mr Patel cooks often, so he knows where everything is kept on the kitchen shelves. Let’s look at some words from the passage and their irregular plurals. Singular Plural Singular Plural loaf loaves knife knives leaf leaves shelf shelves Remember: To form the plurals of words that end in ‘-f’ or ‘-fe’, change ‘-f’ or ‘-fe’ to ‘-ve’ and then add ‘-s’. More examples: wolf – wolves, thief – thieves, life – lives, half – halves Note: S ome words ending in ‘-f’ or ‘-fe’ do not follow this rule. In such words, we simply add ‘-s’ to form the plurals. Examples: cliff – cliffs, roof – roofs, chief – chiefs, cafe – cafes Exercise 4.1: Match the singular nouns with their plural forms. One is done for you. Singular Plural 1) leaf a) wolves 2) wolf b) butterflies 3) butterfly c) leaves 4) chief d) puppies 5) puppy e) fairies 6) fairy f)  chiefs 8

Exercise 4.2: Fill in the table with singular and plural nouns. One is done for you. Singular Plural 1) life lives 2) handkerchief daisies 3) 4) half wives 5) party 6) Exercise: 4.3: Rewrite the following sentences, changing the singular nouns to their plural forms and making other necessary changes. One is done for you. 1) The rat ate up the corn. Ans. The rats ate up the corn. 2) The carpenter repaired the shelf. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3) The lady was buying a fruit from the shopkeeper. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 4) The baby had tiny hands. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 5) The thief had a knife with him. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Beware of Mikhailovitch 9

6) The elf helped the boy to make the shoe. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Formal Writing Paragraph writing Exercise 5: ‘If you cannot travel, read!’ Write a paragraph to support this statement. Research the advantages of reading and gaining knowledge through books. Hints: •  Why do people travel? •  How does reading help you? •  How are reading and travelling related? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 10

Creative Writing Story writing Exercise 6: Your class went for its annual school outing. Write a story about an exciting adventure that you had on the day in your own words. Hints: •  Where was your class going? •  What was the unexpected, exciting adventure? •  How did it end? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Beware of Mikhailovitch 11

Lesson 15 Going Downhill on a Bicycle Module 15 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Word dictation Vocabulary Listening audio Use of ‘do’ and ‘make’ 12

Dictation Exercise 1.1: Word dictation 3) 6) 1) 2) 9) 4) 5) 7) 8) Exercise 1.2: Listening audio 1) Who was Godfrey Gordon Gustavus Gore? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) What did Godfrey’s parents wish for? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Where did Godfrey’s parents threaten to send him? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) What did Godfrey beg his parents for? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) Did Godfrey’s parents send him away? Why? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Going Downhill on a Bicycle 13

B C Vocabulary A Use of ‘do’ and ‘make’ We use ‘do’ when we talk about a task or some work. Examples: •  Did you do your homework last night? •  Do the Maths sums before you take a break. ‘Do’ is also used when we refer to general activities. Examples: •  I want to do something good for the poor. •  Please don’t do the work now. We use ‘make’ when we talk about making or creating something. Examples: •  Can you make some pulao for dinner, please? •  Let’s make a chart on water pollution. We also use ‘make’ to show the effect of something. Examples: •  Peeling onions can make your eyes water. •  Ravi can make his sister happy by taking her for a movie. Look at the table below for more examples of ‘do’ and ‘make’. do make Let’s do these exercises quickly. Make a cup of tea, and leave it on the Ravi wants to do a yoga course. table. I will do your work if you do mine. What can make the little baby smile? Can you do me a favour? The Principal will make an announcement now. Can Shazia make a plan for us to meet? 14

Exercise 2.1: Fill in the blanks correctly with ‘do’ or ‘make’. One is done for you. 1) My father helps me do my homework on Sundays. 2) Will Rachna ________________ a paper boat for me? 3) My parents like to ________________ the laundry together. 4) I am sure that she will ________________ a good job. 5) I can ________________ good tea. 6) The children are well behaved. They hardly ________________ noise during lunchtime. Exercise 2.2: Read the following sentences carefully. Choose from the words given in brackets to complete the sentences. 1) Don’t ________________ (do/make) this a big issue. 2) We need to ________________ (do/make) something about this issue soon. 3) They ________________ (do/make) the dishes together. 4) Sabir was able to __________________ (do/make) some good changes to the presentation. 5) My sister has to _______________ (do/make) a decision about her career soon. 6) Ensure you ________________ (do/make) your research before submitting the essay. Going Downhill on a Bicycle 15

Lesson 16 The Magical World of Science Module 16 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Sentence dictation Vocabulary Listening audio Grammar Antonyms Language in Use Formal Writing Interjections Creative Writing Types of sentences Formal letter writing Speech writing 16

Dictation Exercise 1.1: Sentence dictation 1) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) ____________________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 1.2: Listening audio 1) Who signs in the visitors at the hospital? [    ] (A) the nurse (B) the doctor [    ] (C) the receptionist (D) the compounder 2) Why are cooks important in a hospital? [    ] (A) Patients have to follow diets. (B) Many people visit the hospital. [    ] (C) Cooks can make food that is tasty. [    ] (D) Hospitals can make money through the food served. 3) What is a cafeteria? (A) an operation theatre (B) a lab (C) a place for all the workers of the hospital to eat (D) a place where only doctors eat 4) Why do doctors have to keep learning? (A) as medical science keeps changing (B) as they keep forgetting (C) to try new techniques (D) to experiment on patients 5) Choose a suitable title for the passage that you heard. (A) Nurses (B) Jobs at the Hospital (C) Receptionists (D) Doctors The Magical World of Science 17

B C Vocabulary A Antonyms You have learnt that antonyms are words that have opposite meanings. Exercise 2.1: Complete the crossword with the help of the clues given. Note: The answers are the opposites of the words in bold given in the clues. 1 2L 3X 4 T 5  L L 6  O Across Down 2. I think it was a very brave act. 1. Rajeev was boastful of his victory. 3. This is a very cheap watch. 4. The pond is quite deep. 6. The knot is tight. 5. We didn’t know that we would win. Exercise 2.2: Write the antonyms of the words given below. 1) rough × ___________________________ 2) swift × ___________________________ 3) likely × ___________________________ 4) narrow × ___________________________ 5) advantage × ___________________________ 6) necessary × ___________________________ 18

Grammar Interjections What is common among the following sentences? Ugh! This drink is very Wow! The fireworks Hurray! We won the Well, I don't know sour. were amazing. quiz. whether I support that. Each of these sentences begins with a word that shows a strong and sudden feeling or emotion. These words are known as interjections. Remember: A comma or an exclamation sign is used to mark an interjection from the rest of the sentence. •  U se an exclamation sign at the end of interjections that show very strong emotions. Capitalise the first letter of the word after the exclamation sign, since it is a new sentence. •  Use a comma after a mild interjection. Let us learn some common interjections. Interjections Usage Examples to get someone’s attention or to hey show surprise Hey! What are you doing here? used to express sadness alas Alas! We’ve lost the match. shh used to tell someone to be quiet Shh! The meeting is going on. hush Hush! I can hear someone coming. eeks used to show fear Eeks! These spiders are scary. yahoo used to express joy Yahoo! We’re going on a holiday. The Magical World of Science 19

Interjections Usage Examples used to show that something is yum delicious Yum! This cake melts in the mouth. sure Sure, I’ll come to your function. OK used for agreement OK, we’ll go together. oops Oops! I dropped the sandwich. used when you do something by yuck mistake Yuck! His shoes stink. ouch used to show dislike or disgust Ouch! These shoes are too tight. wow used to express hurt Wow! That’s really good news. used to express delight Exercise 3.1: Match the interjections with the correct sentences. One is done for you. Interjection Sentence 1) Sure, a) The king is dead. 2) Shh!/Hush! b) I stepped in the dirt. 3) Yum! c) The baby is sleeping. 4) Yuck! d) The ice cream looks delicious. 5) Yahoo! e) I’ll help you. 6) Alas! f) Tomorrow is a holiday. Exercise 3.2: Fill in the blanks with the correct interjections from the options given in brackets. One is done for you. 1) Ouch! A bee has stung me. (Wow/Ouch) 2) _________________________ He has lost his only son. (Ouch/Alas) 3) _________________________ Students are preparing for their exam in this room. (OK/Hush) 4) _________________________ Stop pinching me. (Ouch/Wow) 5) _________________________ Look at the beautiful scene. (Yum/Wow) 6) _________________________ India has won the match. (Hush/Yahoo) 20

Exercise 3.3: Make meaningful sentences using the given interjections. One is done for you. 1) Hurray! We have won the match. 2) Wow! _____________________________________________________________________________ 3) Ouch! _____________________________________________________________________________ 4) Oops! _____________________________________________________________________________ 5) Eeks! _____________________________________________________________________________ 6) Hey! _____________________________________________________________________________ Language in Use Types of sentences She has a dance We won the match! Please give me a Where are you performance tonight. glass of water. going? Did you notice that each sentence above is different from the others? Let us learn more about the types of sentences. Declarative It is a statement and ends with a full stop. sentence Examples: •  I will come to your party. •  The elephant has a long trunk. •  The Earth goes around the Sun. The Magical World of Science 21

Exclamatory It shows excitement or a strong feeling. It ends with an exclamation sentence mark. Examples: •  I've got a new frock! •  My sister is so clever! •  My car has a flat tyre! Imperative It tells us to do something. It shows a command or a request. sentence Examples: •  P lease get my book. (request) •  G o, sit in your chair. (command) •  S peak the truth. (command) Interrogative It asks a question and ends with a question mark. sentence Examples: •  Who broke the vase? •  What is your name? •  Which is the fastest train? Exercise 4.1: Identify the type of sentence and write it down. One is done for you. 1) Are you going to take your swimming costume? Ans. interrogative sentence 2) Simran likes travelling. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) There’s grave danger ahead! Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) Shut the door. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) The Sun is a star. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6) Can you solve these questions? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 22

Exercise 4.2: Rearrange the jumbled words to make the type of sentence given in brackets. One is done for you. 1) love/playing/we/all/cricket (declarative) Ans. We all love playing cricket. 2) homework/you/do/your/did (interrogative) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) feed/animals/don’t/the (imperative) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) tomorrow/holiday/we/a/hurray/have (exclamatory) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) Indian/citizen/is/an/she (declarative) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6) you/do/can/work/quickly/the (interrogative) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 4.3: Match the two parts of sentences given in the table. One is done for you. 1) Don’t a) get up early in the morning? 2) Ah! b) is a strong woman. 3) Do you c) was one of India’s freedom fighters. 4) She d) waste your time. 5) Sardar Patel e) not talk like that. 6) Do f) What a wonderful sight. The Magical World of Science 23

Formal Writing Formal letter writing Exercise 5: You are a member of the student council in your school. Write a letter to a scientist who lives in your city, inviting him or her to your school's Science Exhibition. Hints: •  Introduce yourself and your school. •  Share the details of the event: date, venue and so on. •  Explain why you would like to invite the scientist to the event. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 24

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ The Magical World of Science 25

Creative Writing Speech writing Read the sample of a speech given below. Observe the different elements of a speech. Salutation Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Title Address the listeners. Good morning, ladies and Opening lines Closing line gentlemen! This sets the tone for Thank the audience. the speech and tells One of the initiatives launched the audience what by our Honourable Prime Minister, to expect. Shri Narendra Modi, is the much- needed Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Body of the speech that asks citizens to pledge and Make a case for devote themselves to cleanliness the speech. Include and hygiene. examples if needed. Several individuals, municipalities, Concluding lines organisations and even ministries, Close or end the such as the Ministry for Drinking speech with a Water and Sanitation and the conclusion or a call Ministry for Urban Development, for action. have pledged themselves to providing and maintaining a clean India under the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Cleanliness plays a big role in the development of a nation – it helps in maintaining personal hygiene and eradicating diseases. Therefore, I ask that our school and each of us personally remember to do our part to help achieve the cause of Swachh Bharat. To make a start in this direction, our school is sponsoring a cleaning drive of our locality this Sunday, and all are requested to participate. Thank you! 26

Exercise 6: You have been asked to give a speech on an invention that has changed the world. Given below is an outline of the speech. Fill in appropriate words, phrases and sentences to complete it. Add a full stop when you complete a sentence. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Respected Principal, teachers and fellow students, today I am going to speak about an invention that has changed the world. This is _____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ In today’s world, we are dependent on ____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Truly, life has changed because of this invention of science. Thank you. The Magical World of Science 27

Lesson 17 Robot with a Virus Module 17 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Word dictation Vocabulary Listening audio Grammar Use of 'who' and 'whom' Language in Use Use of 'as... as', 'not as... as' Formal Writing and 'more... than' Creative Writing Order of adjectives Informal letter writing Poster making 28

Dictation Exercise 1.1: Word dictation 3) 6) 1) 2) 9) 4) 5) 7) 8) Exercise 1.2: Listening audio 1) Describe two things about the giant’s garden. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Why couldn’t the children play on the road? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Why did the flower slip back into the ground again? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) What did the giant do to keep the children away from his garden? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Robot with a Virus 29

5) Name the seasons mentioned in the story. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ B C Vocabulary A Use of ‘who’ and ‘whom’ ‘Who’ is used to refer to the subject of a sentence. Examples: •  Who stole the laddoos from my kitchen? •  Did you ask who would come for dinner tonight? ‘Whom’ is used as the object of a verb or preposition or to ask which person receives an action. Examples: •  To whom did you write the letter? •  I do not know whom you invited for dinner tonight. Look at the table below for more examples of ‘who’ and ‘whom’. who whom No matter who comes, do not open the door. For whom did you buy this? Who won the match? I know whom you are speaking of. Who could have been so impolite? The man whom you met yesterday is my Who bought you that dress? uncle. Whom do you want to talk to? Remember: •  Use ‘who’ when you can replace the word with ‘he’, ‘she’ or 'they'. •  Use ‘whom’ when you can replace the word with ‘him’, ‘her’ or 'them'. 30

Exercise 2.1 Fill in the blanks correctly with ‘who’ or ‘whom’. 1) __________________ made the sweets for the festival? 2) __________________ did he blame for the mistake? 3) __________________ will wash the baby’s clothes? 4) __________________ did you invite to dinner? 5) __________________ would you like to be friends with? 6) __________________ can narrate a story to the class?  Exercise 2.2: Read the following sentences carefully and make changes wherever required. Rewrite the correct sentences in the given space. 1) She was the one whom climbed Mount Everest. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Whom took you to the fair, Rita? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Would you like to know who made that painting? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Robot with a Virus 31

4) Who is the boy standing behind Ravi? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) Whom should I speak with regarding my absence? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6) Whom called you this morning? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Grammar Use of ‘as… as’, ‘not as… as’ We use the comparative form of adjectives when we compare two things. Examples: •  My dog is smarter than yours. •  He is taller than his brother. Now, read the following sentences: Ram’s car is as fast as Simi’s A pug is as cute as a This tiger is as big as that car. dalmatian. tiger. To show an equal comparison between two things, people or animals, we use the form ‘as... as’. 32

More examples: •  Shimla is as beautiful as Munnar. •  This restaurant is as crowded as the other one. •  Our football team is as good as theirs. Similarly, when we compare two unequal things, people or animals, we add the word ‘not’. Below are a few examples. The English project is not as The violin is not as big as the Gaurav is not as wise as Rahul. easy as the Science project. cello. Hence, to show an unequal comparison, we use the form ‘not as... as’. Here are a few more examples: •  The blue box is not as heavy as the black box. •  The second match was not as boring as the first one. •  Villages are not as polluted as cities. Using 'more... than' for comparison Tennis is more important to The dress on the right is more He’s more successful than his Nisha than music. expensive than the dress on brother. the left. Another form used to compare two unequal things is ‘more (adjective) than’. Adjectives with three or more syllables use ‘more… than’ for comparison. Robot with a Virus 33

Examples: •  Skiing is more dangerous than trekking. •  Butterflies are more beautiful than spiders. •  Gold is more expensive than silver. Exercise 3.1: Fill in the blanks using the ‘as… as’ or the ‘not as… as’ form. Use the words in brackets to guide you. One is done for you. 1) My old car is not as fast as my new one. (not fast)  2) Ramesh is ________________________________________ Rahul. (hardworking)  3) This story is ________________________________________ the last one. (long) 4) The tomato soup was ________________________________________ the mushroom soup. (not delicious) 5) Nikhil is ________________________________________ Krishna. (brave)  6) This house is ________________________________________ the other house. (not beautiful)  Exercise 3.2: Use ‘as... as’ or ‘not as... as’ to frame sentences with the hints given in brackets. One is done for you. 1) The black bike – new – green bike (equal) Ans. The black bike is as new as the green bike. 2) Her bedroom – clean – living room (unequal) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 34

3) Rishi’s mobile – expensive – computer (unequal) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) Tanush’s story – funny – Rohan’s story (equal) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) My handwriting – good – Sruthi’s (equal) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6) Our dog – obedient – neighbour’s dog (unequal) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 3.3: Join the given pairs of sentences into single meaningful sentences according to the hints given in brackets. One is done for you. 1) The movie seems to be interesting. But the book seems to be more interesting. (use ‘more... than’) Ans. The book seems to be more interesting than the movie. 2) The ordinary quilt is beautiful. But the embroidered quilt is even more so. (use ‘more... than’) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Shaila is good at Maths. Simran is also good at Maths. (equal comparison) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Robot with a Virus 35

4) Watching the match was important to him. But finishing his chores was even more important. (unequal comparison) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) The wall clock was expensive. But the watch was even more so. (unequal comparison) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6) The elf's magic was marvellous. The fairy's magic was marvellous too. (equal comparison) Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Language in Use Order of adjectives Read the following sentences: It is a beautiful, black My mother has an old, silver I like to look at the big, new armchair. mirror. clock on the wall. Sometimes, we use more than one adjective to describe a noun in a sentence. Look at the adjectives (in bold) in the above sentences. While using more than one adjective in a sentence, we must make sure that they are put in the correct order. Let us learn about the order of adjectives. Order Description Examples 1) opinion adjectives tell our view or thought about beautiful, boring, interesting, something dangerous 36

Order Description Examples 2) size adjectives tell us how big or small small, big, large, tiny, huge something is 3) c ondition / physical quality tell us about the state of weak, broken, cold, hot, wet, dirty adjectives something/someone 4) age adjectives tell us how old someone or old, young, new, ancient something is 5) colour adjectives tell us the colour of green, red, white, black something 6) purpose adjectives tell us what something is used gardening, sleeping, playing, for reading Let’s check the order of adjectives in the following phrases: Opinion Colour Noun beautiful black armchair Age Colour Noun old silver mirror Size Condition Noun big new clock Exercise 4.1: Sort the adjectives given in the box into the correct categories. One is done for you. charming interesting young blue playing ancient writing huge rough tiny broken brown Opinion Size Condition Age Colour Purpose charming Robot with a Virus 37

Exercise 4.2: Arrange the words in their correct order. One is done for you. 1) teacher, lovely, old Ans. lovely, old teacher 2) brown, small, package Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) friendly, young, man Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) writing, desk, rough Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) new, shiny, shoe Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6) frosty, roads, dangerous Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 4.3: Choose the correct order of words from the brackets and complete the sentences. One is done for you. 1) He was wearing a dirty, old shirt. (dirty, old shirt / shirt, old dirty / old, dirty shirt) 2) Pass me the _______________________________________. (mug, big new / big, new mug / big, mug new) 3) I used to drive _______________________________________. (a n old, white Ambassador / an old, Ambassador white / a white, old Ambassador) 4) Dump the waste in the _______________________________________. (b lack cleaning container / black container cleaning / container black cleaning) 5) He sat behind a _______________________________________. (large desk writing / large writing desk / writing large desk) 38

6) She gave him a _______________________________________. (vase, glossy pretty / glossy, vase pretty / pretty, glossy vase) Formal Writing Informal letter writing Exercise 5: Write a letter to your science teacher, asking him or her about something that you wonder about and want to know the scientific reason behind. Hints: •  It could be about anything from why the sky is blue to why dogs bark differently at different times. •  Ask questions that you think will have a scientific answer. •  Even though the letter is informal, keep it short and to the point. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Robot with a Virus 39

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Creative Writing Poster making Exercise 6: Science is all around us – outside in the garden, out in the playground and in our kitchens too. Create a poster to show how science is a part of our kitchens. Include gadgets and electronic things. Write a short note on the food that is made through the application of this science. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 40

Robot with a Virus 41

Lesson 18 My Shadow Module 18 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Sentence dictation Listening audio Vocabulary Sounds made by the letters ‘oo’ 42

Dictation Exercise 1.1: Sentence dictation 1) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) ____________________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 1.2: Listening audio 1) What does the poet feel about rain? [    ] (A) Rain is dirty. (B) Rain is slushy. (C) Rain is important. (D) Rain is beautiful. [    ] 2) Why was the street fiery? (A) due to the summer heat (B) due to forest fires (C) due to the fast cars (D) due to yellow clothes [    ] 3) What does the poet compare the sound of rain to? (A) the sound of horses’ hooves (B) sound of the waterfall (C) sound of drums (D) sound of cats and dogs My Shadow 43

4) What does the poet say about the water that flows out of the gutter? [    ] (A) It is like a river. [    ] (B) It is polluted. (C) It is smelly. (D) It is like a sea. 5) What does the poet say at the end of the poem? (A) He complains about the muddy rain. (B) He talks about the heat. (C) He likes how water gushes. (D) He welcomes the rain. B C Vocabulary A Sounds made by the letters ‘oo’ The letters ‘oo’ are used to make two slightly different sounds – a short sound and a long sound. Examples: • ‘pool’ and ‘school’ These two words have a long ‘oo’ sound. • ‘book’ and ‘look’ These two words have a short ‘oo’ sound. There are no particular rules to know the sound of ‘oo’ in a word. Observe the difference in the pronunciation of the words in the two columns below: Words with the long ‘oo’ sound Words with the short ‘oo’ sound boot foot food cook cool took 44

Exercise 2.1: Sort the words based on whether they make the long or short ‘oo’ sounds. Hint: Some of the words do not fit into either category. flood wool poor soon shook roof hood gloom stood scoop blood proof Words with the long ‘oo’ Words with the short ‘oo’ Words that don’t fit into either sound sound category Exercise 2.2: Read these sentences. Underline words with the long ‘oo’ sound and circle words with the short ‘oo’ sound. 1) The velvet feels smooth. 2) He sat on a stool in the school. 3) Shyama wore a woollen sweater. 4) Cut some wood and take it to the room. My Shadow 45

5) You can’t see the Moon at noon. 6) I took a look at the book. 46

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