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CO MPASS SERIES English language part - 2 3 Name: Learn@Home Sec�on: Roll No.: School:

Preface ClassKlap partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. Our books strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. ClassKlap presents the Compass series, designed specifically to meet the requirements of the new curriculum released in November 2016 by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE). Guiding principles: The 2016 CISCE curriculum states the following as a few of its guiding principles for English language teaching:  Connecting learning to life in the outside world  Integrating English with other subjects across the curriculum  Using meaningful contexts to develop language as a whole  Making assessment for learning an integral part of the teaching-learning process  Ensuring active participation of children by using a variety of activities and tasks Each of these principles resonates with the spirit in which the ClassKlap textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books have been designed. The ClassKlap team of pedagogy experts has carried out an intensive mapping exercise to create a framework based on the CISCE curriculum document. Key features of ClassKlap Compass series:  B ooks for English are mapped to the assessment patterns of English-I and English-II in ICSE schools.  T he grammar concepts covered in English-I have a horizontal and vertical progression across the grades, providing a spiral of learning.  T he writing sections contain a wide variety of topics with a focus on process-based writing in higher grades.  T he English-II book also covers all the themes recommended by the CISCE curriculum across classes 1–5.  A hallmark of ICSE English is a wide representation of authors – Indian and foreign. The Compass series includes pieces by writers such as Charles Dickens, Rabindranath Tagore, Sarojini Naidu, Oscar Wilde and Mark Twain among others.  Vocabulary building is a key focus area for ClassKlap Pictures for word meanings are included in each lesson to help students with visual clues for new or difficult words. All in all, the Compass English books aim to generate greater engagement and enhance fluency in English communication, which spans all the four skills of Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. – The Authors

Workbook Features • Subject-related vocabulary building • Scaffolded approach for development of writing skills • Combination of inductive and deductive approaches to grammar teaching • Simple and age-appropriate explanations of grammatical concepts Grammar Engaging grammar explanations and well-crafted exercises W Writing Formal Writing inculcates writing skills by introducing formal writing styles by providing samples and adequate practice Creative Writing exercises to foster creative writing by using imagination and drawing from real-life experiences R Reading Comprehension Interesting reading comprehension passages on varied themes along with questions that focus on language building

Contents 8 Tenses ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1 W8: Answer questions based on a picture ................................. The World Around Us ������������������������ 13 Write about personal experiences ..... Neighbourhood and Community ����� 14 R4: Reading Comprehension ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 9 Adverbs ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 W9: Paragraph writing ....................... The World Around Us ������������������������ 25 Dialogue writing ................................... Our Country ������������������������������������� 26 10 Prepositions ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 28 W10: Note writing ................................. Self, Family, Home, Friends �������������� 36 Photo-based character sketch ........... Art and Culture �������������������������������� 37 R5: Reading Comprehension ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 38 11 Conjunctions ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41 W11: Informal letter writing .................. Adventure and Imagination ������������ 48 Picture-based writing ........................... Physical Activities and Sports ���������� 50 12 Sentences ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 52 W12: Narrative paragraph writing ...... Neighbourhood and Community ����� 60 Story writing ........................................... Neighbourhood and Community ����� 61 R6: Reading Comprehension ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 63 13 Apostrophe ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 67 W13: Informal letter writing .................. Self, Family, Home, Friends �������������� 74 Diary entry ............................................. Art and Culture �������������������������������� 75

8 Tenses Read the sentences given below. Sam paints every day. Neha and Atif go to My grandfather reads school at seven o’clock. the newspaper in the afternoon. All these sentences describe actions that happen regularly or often. They are in the simple present tense. Can you think of three actions that you do every day? Write a sentence for each activity that you do every day. a)   b)   c)   1

Remember  The simple present tense describes habits, events and actions that happen regularly or are always true. Rule: subject + base verb (+ s/es) + object Examples: •  Heena jogs every morning. •  It always rains in June here.  D o not add ‘-s’ or ‘-es’ to verbs that come after ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’ and plural nouns.  Add ‘-s’ or ‘-es’ to verbs that follow ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’ and singular nouns. Read the sentences given below. It rained last week. I cleaned my room Nupur mopped the floor yesterday. last night. All these sentences talk about finished or completed actions. They are in the simple past tense. Write three actions that you did yesterday. Write one sentence for each action and keep in mind that they should be different from the actions that you wrote earlier. a)   2

b)   c)   Remember  The simple past tense describes actions that are finished or completed. Rule: subject + past tense form of verb + object Examples: •  Azarmi was tired. •  They kicked the football hard.  In the simple past tense: is and am was are were  The past tense forms of most words are made by adding ‘-d’, ‘-ed’ or ‘-ied’ (for a few words that end in ‘-y’). Irregular verbs in the past tense Till now we have only read about regular verbs that change to the past tense form by adding ‘-d’, ‘-ed’ or ‘-ied’. However, many verbs change to the past tense form without following any fixed rule. Such verbs are called irregular verbs. Read and remember the following list of irregular verbs and their past tense forms. Base verb Past tense form Base verb Past tense form (present tense (present tense form) form) come came eat ate find found get got Tenses 3

Base verb Past tense form Base verb Past tense form (present tense (present tense gave made form) met form) said give saw make sat took told meet began say broke sang won see sit take tell begin break sing win Some verbs are the same in the present tense and the past tense. Examples: •  cut – cut     •  put – put     •  hit – hit Read the sentences given below. I will go to the swimming We will travel by train Kiri will dance at the show on Sunday. pool tomorrow. next week. All these sentences talk about actions or events that will happen later. They are in the simple future tense. 4

Write about three actions that you plan to do next week. Write one sentence for each action. a)   b)   c)   Remember  The future tense describes actions or events that will happen later or in the future.  It also tells us about promises, decisions or hopes about a later time. Rule: subject + will + base verb + object Examples: •  I will become a pilot when I grow up. •  I will give you the book tomorrow.  To talk about events or actions that will NOT happen, we use the word ‘not’ between ‘will’ and the ‘base verb’. Example: •  We will not go to Madurai this year.  We can also use the words ‘going to’ to talk about future events. Examples: •  They are going to go to Goa in October. •  She is going to meet her best friend on Saturday. Tenses 5

Exercise 1: Rewrite the sentences based on the instructions given in brackets. One is done for you. a) Bela is going to participate in the spelling bee. (Change to the simple past tense.) Ans. Bela participated in the spelling bee. b) The books are on the table. (Change to the simple past tense.) Ans.   c) They will work here. (Change to the simple present tense.) Ans.   d) We won the debate. (Change to the simple future tense.) Ans.   e) He sang at the party. (Change to the simple future tense.) Ans.   f) We played tennis together. (Change to the simple present tense.) Ans.   6

What is happening now? – present continuous tense Many people are visiting the mall today. People are going up the escalator. A salesperson is waiting for customers in a shop. A man is buying vegetables. A girl is opening the door of a clothes shop. The above passage talks about actions that are happening now. The sentences are in the present continuous tense. Remember  In the present continuous tense, we use the ‘-ing’ form of the verb.  We use ‘is’, ‘am’ or ‘are’ before the ‘-ing’ form of the verb. is for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’ and singular nouns am for ‘I’ are for ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘they’ and plural nouns Rule: subject + is/am/are + ‘-ing’ form of the verb + object Examples: •  Mili is crossing the street. •  I am going to the park right now. •  We are playing ludo. Exercise 2: Tick the verbs that are in the simple present tense. Underline the verbs that are in the present continuous tense. One is done for you.  a) Shekhar paints a picture. b) Sania is watching television. c) Sohan is waiting for the shops to open. d) Birds fly in the sky. Tenses 7

e) We eat together. f) I am watering the plants. Exercise 3: Look at the pictures. Fill in the blanks to answer the questions. One is done for you. a) What are the ducks doing? Ans. The ducks are swimming (swim). b) What is the mother bird doing? Ans. The mother bird __________ __________________________ (feed) her babies. c) What is Ravi doing? Ans. Ravi __________ __________________________ (sleep). d) What is Som doing? Ans. Som __________ __________________________ (drink) water. e) What is the girl doing? Ans. The girl __________ __________________________ (dance). f) What are the children doing? Ans. The children __________ __________________________ (play) in the park. 8

What was happening before? – past continuous tense Read the following sentences: The dog was barking It was raining heavily We were reading because it was hungry. when she went out. together. These sentences talk about actions that went on for some time in the past. They are in the past continuous tense. Remember  In the past continuous tense also, we use the ‘-ing’ form of the verb.  But we use ‘was’ or ‘were’ before the ‘-ing’ form of the verb. was for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’ and singular nouns were for ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘they’ and plural nouns Rule: subject + was/were + ‘-ing’ form of the verb + object Examples: •  I was studying for my exam. •  Ayan was listening to music. •  You were sleeping in the afternoon because you were tired. •  We were brushing our teeth. Exercise 4: Draw a star over verbs that are in the simple past tense. Underline the verbs that are in the past continuous tense. One is done for you. a) You were working all day yesterday. b) It snowed yesterday. c) You drank lemonade at the party. Tenses 9

d) The teacher explained the sum. e) Eddy and Lisa were looking out of the window. f) Yesterday, I was watching a movie with my friend. Exercise 5: Complete each sentence by changing the base verb in brackets to its past continuous form. One is done for you. a) Ajay was talking on the phone. b) The students ____________________ (talk) _____________________ for the bus. (wait) c) My father _______________________ d) She ____________________________ ______________________ a letter to _______________________ very fast. his friend. (write) (run) 10

e) My friends ______________________ f) The children _____________________ ________________________ football _____________________ a new song. yesterday. (play) (learn) Exercise 6: Rewrite the sentences based on the instructions given in brackets. One is done for you. a) Yusuf listened to music. (Change to the present continuous tense.) Ans. Yusuf is listening to music. b) Meena danced at night. (Change to the past continuous tense.) Ans.   c) She painted the house. (Change to the present continuous tense.) Ans.   d) The dog barks at me. (Change to the past continuous tense.) Ans.   Tenses 11

e) Prathik eats a burger and some fries. (Change to the present continuous tense.) Ans.   f) We take our dog to the park. (Change to the past continuous tense.) Ans.   12

W8 Writing Formal Writing Answer questions based on a picture Exercise 1: Observe the picture below and answer the given questions. a) Is the family at an airport or a hospital? Ans.   b) What are the bags being loaded on? Ans.   13

c) Who is carrying the bag with a bunny face on it? Ans.   d) Who is wearing a striped T-shirt? Ans.   e) How do you think the family is feeling? Ans.   Creative Writing Write about personal experiences Exercise 2: Write about an incident when you (or your family) helped your neighbours or when your neighbours helped you (or your family). Hints: • Write about what happened, who needed help and why. • H ow did you or your family help your neighbours or get help? • What did you learn from this?  14

Writing 8 15

R4 Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Raju was a naughty boy. He enjoyed telling lies. His father told him that lying was a bad habit. But Raju did not stop making up stories. One day, he came running and shouted, ‘Please save me. There is a tiger here.’ All the villagers ran to help him. Raju laughed and said, ‘I tricked you. There is no tiger.’ The villagers were very angry with Raju. After a few days, Raju played the same trick again on the villagers. This time, they decided not to be fooled by him anymore. One day, when Raju was alone, he actually saw a tiger. He shouted for help. However, the villagers thought it was a joke and did not believe him. The tiger attacked Raju. Raju was wounded. He finally realised his mistake. Moral: One should never tell lies and trouble others. 1) What did Raju enjoy doing? Ans.   2) What did the villagers decide after Raju tricked them for the second time? Ans.   16

3) Fill in the blanks with the correct words. a) ________________ is Raju. (This/Those) b) ________________ tiger attacked Raju. (These/That) c) ________________ villagers saved Raju. (That/These) 4) The word from the passage that is the opposite of the word ‘truth’ is _______________________________________________________________________. 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B a) habit A) badly hurt b) tricked B) something that we do often c) wounded C) fooled Passage 2 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. One day, a lone fisher went fishing in a river. He put his net into the river and waited. A little fish was trapped in the net after a long time. So, he put the little fish into his bag. The fish spoke to him in a low voice, ‘Fisher, I am so small and will not be of any use to you now. Put me back in the water. After a few days, I will come back to you when I grow bigger.’ The wise fisher said, ‘How can I be sure that I will catch you again? I am not putting you back into the water!’ 6) What did the fisher put into the river? Ans.   Reading Comprehension 4 17

7) What was trapped in the fisher’s net? Ans. 8) Identify the tenses of the given sentences. a) The fisher throws a net into the river. – b) The fish talked to the fisher. –  c) The fishers were putting the fish –  in their baskets. 9) The word from the passage that means ‘someone who is clever and smart’ is _______________________________________________________________. 10) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B a) lone A) softly b) trapped B) single; by oneself c) in a low voice C) was caught 18

9 Adverbs Draw a star above the adverbs in the given sentences. a) He draws beautifully. b) She works hard. c) They happily sing a song. d) The teacher asked us to speak softly. Remember  Adverbs are words that show how some actions are done.  Adverbs tell us when, where, why or how something happens.  A djectives and adverbs have a strong connection. Many adverbs are formed by adding ‘-ly’ to the end of an adjective.  W e must remember that adjectives describe nouns or pronouns whereas adverbs describe verbs or adjectives. Examples: Adjective Adverb Adjective Adverb swift swiftly sudden suddenly easy easily fast fast Adverbs of manner There are many types of adverbs. An adverb that shows the way or manner in which an action is done is called an adverb of manner. Adverbs of manner answer the question ‘How?’ 19

Examples: Jenny finished her work Rahul drove the car well. Amita sings beautifully. quickly. How did Jenny finish her How did Rahul drive the How does Amita sing? work? car? quickly well beautifully Exercise 1: Underline the verbs. Put a star on the adverbs. One is done for you.  a) Ehsaan easily opened the jar. b) Evy tied the knot tightly. c) Priyank plays chess well. d) The students silently wrote their exams. e) Rashi works hard all day. f) The dog jumped playfully. 20

Exercise 2: Underline the adjective in the first sentence of each line. Then, fill in the blanks with the adverb forms of the adjectives. One is done for you. a) He was angry. He spoke angrily. b) Piyush is a shy boy. He speaks _________________________. c) Kavita is careless with her things. She keeps her things lying around _________________________. d) Moiz is impatient. He is waiting for his friend _________________________. e) The students are noisy. They climb the stairs _________________________. f) This is a scary movie. It has ghosts floating around _______________________. Exercise 3: Complete the table with the correct adjective or adverb forms of the given words. One is done for you. Adjective Adverb a) terrible terribly b) _______________________________ joyfully c) wonderful _______________________________ d) nice _______________________________ e) _______________________________ calmly f) _______________________________ hard Exercise 4: Look at the pictures. Draw a circle around the adverb of manner that suits each picture best. One is done for you. a) slowly angrily fast The snail crawls __________. Adverbs 21

b) softly quickly angrily They are in the library. So, they talk __________. c) cheerfully silently angrily The woman yelled at me __________. d) badly correctly loudly I answered all the questions __________. e) loudly silently quickly We shouted __________ on the football field. f) sadly angrily cheerfully I greeted my friend __________. 22

Exercise 5: Read the actions that Twinky the monkey is doing. Circle the adverbs that show ‘how’ Twinky is doing the actions. One is done for you. Hints: • Adverbs of manner answer the question ‘How?’. • All sentences may not have adverbs of manner. a) Twinky is holding the bananas carefully. b) Twinky is throwing the ball forcefully. c) Twinky is sleeping peacefully. d) Twinky sits outside. e) Twinky is jumping joyfully. Adverbs 23

f) Twinky started swimming recently. Exercise 6: Fill in the blanks with the correct adverbs of manner based on the adjectives given in brackets. One is done for you. This is Aryan. He is quietly (quiet) cleaning his room. First he _____________________ _____________ (neat) folds his clothes and _____________________________________ (quick) puts them in the cupboard. Then, he __________________________________ (slow) picks up all the scraps of paper, pencil shavings and wrappers and throws them in the bin. A clean room will allow him to do his work ______________ _____________________ (calm). After he is done, he helps his father in the kitchen. He ________________________________ (polite) greets his grandparents who come down for dinner. 24

W9 Writing Formal Writing Explanatory paragraph writing Exercise 1: Write a paragraph that explains how to make a cup of tea. Use the pictures given below as hints. Also use linking words like ‘and’, ‘first’, ‘then’, ‘as well as’, ‘because’ and ‘finally’. pour water add tea leaves pour milk and add sugar stir strain  25

Creative Writing Dialogue writing Exercise 2: Write a dialogue between two friends about their favourite Indian food by using the given hints. Hints: • Make sure the friends greet each other. • They should then start talking about their favourite Indian food items. • They can discuss which states their favourite food items are from. • They should mention why those food items are their favourite. • The friends should mention how their favourite food items are made. • You can also have them discuss how people from different states of India eat different types of food. 26

Writing 9 27

10 Prepositions Tick the prepositions in the following sentences. a) My pet was hiding behind the door. b) The birds are flying in the sky above. c) The car stopped in front of the building. d) He fell asleep on the bed. Remember Prepositions help in connecting two nouns. They tell us the positions of the nouns. Example: T he sheep (noun) are in (preposition) the field (noun). Introduction to ‘at’, ‘near’ and ‘around’ Let us learn three new prepositions. At: It points out a specific time, place or address and an activity. Amjad will meet me at 2 John lives at 43A, Karve Ishaan is good at painting. o'clock in the afternoon. Road. 28

Near: It points to something or someone that is close by. The animals are The windmill is near the The apples are lying near the box. standing near the road. house. Around: It means ‘surrounding or circling on every side’. The children are dancing We were playing around The bees are flying around the beehive. around the stools. the tree. There are a few prepositions that have similar or the same meanings. Let us read about such prepositions. ‘Above’ and ‘over’ ‘Beside’ / ‘at the side of’ / ‘next to’ Both ‘above’ and ‘over’ ‘At the side of’ and mean ‘at a place that is ‘next to’ mean the higher than someone or same as ‘beside’. something’. Examples: Examples: •  The apple is next to the box. •  The apple is above the box. •  The apple is beside the box. •  The apple is over the box. •  The apple is at the side of the box. Prepositions 29

Exercise 1: Match the positions of the owl in the pictures with the correct prepositions. One is done for you. Column A Column B a) C A) between b) B) in front of c) C) on d) D) around e) E) behind f) F) below 30

Exercise 2: Where is Goofy, the slow loris? Complete the sentences by writing the correct preposition for each picture. One is done for you. a) Goofy is in the box. b) Goofy is _____________________________________________. c) Goofy is _____________________________________________. d) Goofy is _____________________________________________. e) Goofy is _____________________________________________. f) Goofy is _____________________________________________. Prepositions 31

Exercise 3: Draw pictures according to the given sentences. One is done for you. a) b) The apple is beside the mango. The clouds float over the mountains. c) d) The bees fly around the flower. The fish swims in the pond. 32

e) f) The keys are on the table. The ball is under the stool. Exercise 4: Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions from the options given in brackets. One is done for you. Riyaz and Atul are friends. Their houses are next to (under / next to) each other. Riyaz decides to meet Atul _________________________ (at/on) four o’clock in the evening at the park. They sit _________________________ (between/on) a park bench and talk. There are a few puppies playing _________________________ (in/ near) them. After a while, the boys go to the library _________________________ (above / in front of) the park. The books are neatly placed on shelves. The storybooks are on the shelves _________________________ (above/at) the geography books. Prepositions 33

Exercise 5: Look at the picture and write true or false. One is done for you. a) The child is sitting in the shopping cart. – true b) The fridge is over the other shelves. –  c) A girl is standing behind the counter. –  d) There are many food items on the shelves. –  e) The people in the picture are standing under each other. –  f) A man is standing behind the child. –  34

Exercise 6: Look at the picture given below. Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions. One is done for you. a) The vase is on the table. b) The toys are scattered all ________________________ the child. c) The cat is ________________________ the table. d) There is a stool ________________________ the sofa. e) The clock is ________________________ the shelves and the bookcase. f) Three lights are hanging from the ceiling ________________________ the sofa. Prepositions 35

W10 Writing Formal Writing Note writing Exercise 1: Your friend has invited you to his birthday party. You have a football team selection camp that day and will have to miss the party. Write a note to your friend, informing him that you will be unable to attend the party. Hints: • Wish your friend. • Mention why you will have to miss the party. • Apologise (say sorry) for having to miss the party.  36

Creative Writing Photo-based character sketch Exercise 2: Write a character sketch of the person in the picture using the hints given below. Hints: • Who do you think she is? • What is she doing? • How does she look? • What would she be feeling?  Writing 10 37

R5 Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. A donkey was grazing near a forest. He saw a lion’s skin lying on the ground. He decided to wear it and pretend to be a lion. He thought that everyone would be scared and would listen to him. He walked into the forest, and all the animals thought he was a lion. They were scared. A clever fox saw him and realised that he was a donkey wearing a lion’s skin. So, he came to the donkey and said, ‘I am afraid of lions. But, I am not scared of a donkey wearing a lion’s skin.’ The donkey heard this, got scared and ran away quickly. Moral: Never act like someone you are not. 1) What did the donkey see lying on the ground? Ans.   2) What happened when the donkey walked into the forest? Ans.    3) Underline the pronouns and state whether they are subject pronouns or object pronouns. a) He wore the lion’s skin. –  38

b) The animals were scared of him. –  c) They realised that the donkey was lying. –  4) Write one word from the passage that has the same meaning as ‘fear’. Ans.   5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B a) grazing A) to act like someone else b) clever B) eating grass in a forest or field c) pretend C) smart Passage 2 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. One day, two cats found a piece of bread on the road. They decided to share it by cutting it into halves. However, one half of the bread turned out to be a little bigger than the other. So, the cats started fighting for the bigger piece. A monkey was passing by. The cats asked him to help them decide. The monkey was smart and greedy. He said, ‘Let me help you.’ He ate small bites of both pieces of bread. He told the cats that he was making them equal. The cats saw that the pieces had become very small. They said, ‘We will take the pieces now.’ But the monkey ate all the pieces of bread and left. Moral: Never trust unknown people with your problems. Reading Comprehension 5 39

6) What did the two cats find? Ans. 7) Why did the monkey take small bites of both pieces of bread? Ans. 8) Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions from the brackets. a) T  he piece of bread was ___________________________ the road. (on/over) b) T  he monkey was sitting ___________________________ a tree. (between/on) c) T  he monkey put the bread ____________________________ his mouth. (under/in) 9) T he word from the passage that is a homophone of the word ‘peace’ is . 10) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B a) decided A) give some of what one has to others b) share B) of the same size c) equal C) made up one’s mind 40

11 Conjunctions Revision of conjunctions Join the sentences by using the correct conjunctions. Use the hints in brackets to help you. a) Shalini went to school on Monday. Shalini went to the park on Monday. [She went to both the places on Monday.] Ans.   b) Moiz played sports. Moiz was fit. [result] Ans.   c) You can attend the swimming class. You can attend the dance class. [You cannot attend both.] Ans.   d) I tried my best. I could not catch the bus. [opposite ideas] Ans.   41

Remember  You have learnt that conjunctions are words that join words or parts of sentences together.  There are three types of conjunctions. Conjunctions Coordinating Correlative Subordinating conjunctions conjunctions conjunctions  The conjunctions you have learnt about in the previous classes (and, but, or, so) are coordinating conjunctions. We will learn about more coordinating conjunctions in this lesson. Coordinating conjunctions They are words that connect two or more parts of speech in a sentence. They also connect two similar parts of a sentence. Remember Remember the term FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) for coordinating conjunctions. 42

Let us understand how each coordinating conjunction is used. 'For' means ‘because’ or ‘since’. Examples: •  I was tired, for I had been working hard. •  I don’t go to beaches, for I am afraid of the sea. 'And' combines one thing/idea/event with another. Examples: •  We ate pasta and cake at her party. •  We sang and danced on New Year’s Eve. 'Nor' combines negative or untrue things. Examples: •  He will not come to the theatre, nor will he stay at home. •  Anya did not steal the necklace, nor did she take the money. 'But' connects statements with opposite ideas. Examples: •  I called Meera, but she was not at home. •  It was cloudy, but it did not rain. 'Or' shows choice (options) between two things. Examples: •  Will you have coffee or tea? •  Will he stay back or go home? 'Yet' shows a surprising contrast or difference between things. Examples: •  I was tired, yet I had to keep running. •  I left early, yet I reached late. Conjunctions 43

‘So’ connects two sentences where one shows a cause and the other the result. Examples: •  It was raining, so she decided to stay back. •  He was rude, so I did not speak to him. Remember  When you join two simple and complete sentences, place a comma before the coordinating conjunction. Examples: •  I want to go to the market, but I don’t have money. •  I am not well, so I will not go on the picnic.  When coordinating conjunctions join two incomplete sentences or two words, a comma is not placed before the conjunction. Examples: •  Shaila and Heena went to school. •  The dog is young but well-trained. Exercise 1: Tick the sentences where the conjunctions are used correctly, and cross out the others. One is done for you. a) He knows Rama but Piyush.   b) Huma was tired, so she fell asleep.  c) Dara and Stuti are best friends.  d) I would like to eat strawberries yet mangoes.  44

e) They had to return home, for the show was cancelled.  f) She was told to sit still, but she kept moving.  Exercise 2: Make six sentences using suitable conjunctions. One is done for you. a)  I went to the market, and cookies. yet reached school on time. b) You can go to the playground c)  Seema likes cake but will she go to the theatre. or to your friend’s house. d) I had kept my sweater safely, e)  I woke up late for I could not find it. f)  Raima will not go to the nor I had to buy some vegetables. library, a) I went to the market, for I had to buy some vegetables. b)   c)   d)   e)   f)   Conjunctions 45

Exercise 3: Join the given pairs of sentences using the coordinating conjunctions given in brackets. One is done for you. a) They came here in the evening. They began making the arrangements. (and) Ans. They came here in the evening and began making the arrangements. b) He is slow. He does not want to make a mistake. (for) Ans.   c) The principal entered the classroom. The students did not stop talking. (yet) Ans.   d) The doctor can treat the old woman first. The doctor can treat the child first. (or) Ans.   e) The car is small. It has a lot of space inside. (but) Ans.   f) There was no water. They waited for the water truck. (so) Ans.   Exercise 4: Complete these sentences using ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘so’ or ‘for’. One is done for you. a) Vinnie wants to watch that film, but I do not like it. b) She can read well, __________________________________ she cannot write. 46

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