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Part 1 Module 1 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Module 2 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������15 Module 3 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 29 Module 4 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 43 Module 5 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 55 Module 6 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 67 Part 2 Module 7 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Module 8 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 23 Module 9 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 38 Module 10 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51 Module 11 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 67 Module 12 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 83

Module 1 PR Vocabulary Q Prefixes Prefixes are letters or groups of letters that are added at the beginning of a word to make a new word with a different meaning. Every prefix has its own meaning. Examples: • re- means again • im- means not 2

Prefixes can be used in the following cases. 1) to create a new word, with a new meaning 2) to create a new word with the opposite meaning of the original word or to turn a word into its negative form Examples: Base word Prefix + base word Type of meaning sure un + sure = unsure opposite in meaning / negative dis + respect = disrespect opposite in meaning / negative respect re + order = reorder order im + balance = imbalance new meaning in + complete = incomplete opposite in meaning / negative balance mis + use = misuse opposite in meaning / negative complete opposite in meaning / negative use Exercise 2.1: Complete the table by combining the base words with the correct prefixes. One is done for you. un- in- im- re- mis- dis- 1) fortune 1) misfortune New words 2) healthy 2) _______________________________ 3) agree 4) patient 3) _______________________________ 4) _______________________________ 5) formal 5) _______________________________ 6) _______________________________ 6) act Module 1 3

Exercise 2.2: Fill in the blanks by choosing and adding suitable prefixes to the base words given in brackets. One is done for you. un- dis- re- im- in- mis- 1) Razia was upset because of Mohan’s impolite (polite) behaviour. 2) The road was _____________________________________ (even). As a result, my mother fell down and hurt herself. 3) The teacher asked her students not to _____________________________________ (behave). 4) I enjoy reading but _____________________________________ (like) writing. 5) India became an _____________________________________ (dependent) country in 1947. 6) Did Roger _____________________________________ (turn) your pen? Grammar Nouns Read the passage and fill in the given table. It is a sunny Sunday. Aayat is sleeping in her cosy bed. The Sun is shining, and the birds are singing. Her mother calls out to her. Aayat jumps out of bed. She picks up her clothes and runs into the bathroom. Her brother, Asif, is waiting for her. Proper noun Common noun Gender masculine 4 feminine neuter

You have learnt about nouns in the previous classes. Let us revise the different types of nouns. Remember • C ommon nouns are general names given to people, places, animals or things of the same kind. They do not begin with a capital letter. Examples: lady, hospital, cheetah, duster hospital • Proper nouns are specific names given to people, places, animals or Tiggy things. They always begin with a capital letter. Examples: Enid Blyton, Amit, Nagpur, Tiggy Gender of nouns Nouns can also be sorted according to their gender. Masculine gender nouns: Feminine gender nouns: Neuter gender nouns: These are names for boys, These are names for These are nouns that name men and male animals. girls, women and female non-living things without animals. any gender. They are used for objects and places. Examples: son, uncle, Examples: daughter, aunt, They are also used to name nephew, prince, horse, niece, princess, mare, the months of the year and gander goose the days of the week. Examples: ruler, box, clothes, library, table, stone, truck, building, ocean, July, Monday Common gender nouns These refer to nouns that can be male or female. Examples: child, singer, coach, engineer, pilot, cousin, referee, parent child singer pilot Module 1 5

Exercise 3.1: Read the poem and identify the gender of the underlined nouns. Write 'M' for masculine, 'F' for feminine, 'C' for common and 'N' for neuter gender nouns in the circles beside the words. One is done for you. Baa, baa, black sheep, C Have you any wool? Yes sir, yes sir, three bags full! One for the master One for the dame, And one for the little boy Who lives down the lane! Exercise 3.2: Sort the given nouns according to their gender. One is done for you. shepherdess cave stick emperor student bride Masculine Feminine shepherdess Neuter Common 6

Collective nouns Read the passage below. bunch of grapes Kriti’s father took her to her grandfather’s farm brood of hens last Thursday. A few students from her class also went along. For breakfast, her grandfather treated everyone to fresh bunches of bananas and grapes. Then, he took them around the farm. They saw a herd of cows, a flock of sheep, a brood of hens and a gaggle of geese. They also spotted an army of ants near an ant hill. flock of sheep gaggle of geese Do you know what the words in bold in the passage are? They are collective nouns. Collective nouns are words that refer to a group of people, animals or things. Here are some more examples. Groups Collective noun Groups Collective noun soldiers, ants army bees hive sheep, birds flock flowers, fruits bunch ships fleet gaggle pack geese brood wolves, dogs class students hens herd cows, horses, buffaloes, cattle Module 1 7

Module 2 PR Vocabulary Q Antonyms Exercise 2.1: Complete the crossword puzzle with the antonyms of the words given in the clues. You can also use the pictures as hints. 1 2 3 4 Clues: Down Across 1) an antonym of ‘beautiful’ 2) an antonym of ‘idle’ 2) an antonym of ‘top’ 3) an antonym of ‘bitter’ 3) an antonym of ‘deep’ 4) an antonym of ‘adult’ Exercise 2.2: Fill in the blanks with the antonyms of the words given in brackets. Then, colour the symbols next to the correct options. One is done for you. 1) It is very warm here. (cool) cold warm sleepy Module 2 15

2) Please meet me __________________________ dinner. (after) during at before 3) __________________________ to my room. (go) Come Going Look 4) This dress is very __________________________. (cheap) light cold expensive 5) He came __________________________ in the race. (last) middle first home 6) He travels by bus __________________________. (never) today always sometimes Grammar Punctuation Rohan received an e-mail from his pen friend in Thiruvananthapuram. He opened the mail in excitement. Here is the e-mail. hi rohan, how are you i want to invite you to the onam celebrations at my house onam is an important harvest festival it is celebrated for ten days yippe i am so excited to think that you may join us for onam this year do tell me about your plans waiting eagerly to hear from you, rajam The e-mail completely puzzled Rohan. Rajam had written it in a hurry. He had missed adding commas, question marks and full stops in all the required places. He had also not used capital letters where needed. 16

Insert the correct punctuation marks and capital letters. Rewrite the e-mail so that Rohan can understand the message easily.  Punctuation marks are the traffic signals of writing. They help us to pause, stop and start our sentences. They are symbols that make a written message clearer and reduce miscommunication. They are used to structure and organise writing. Let us now revise the punctuation marks that we have learnt till now. full stop I am placed at the end of a sentence or statement. Example: I will travel tomorrow. It is too late to travel today. comma •  I am used to separate three or more words or items in a list. Example: He bought vegetables, milk, fruits and cheese from the market. •  I am used to separate the person addressed from the rest of the sentence. Example: Rohan, sit down. Module 2 17

question mark I am placed at the end of a question. exclamation mark Example: Where are we going? •  I am placed at the end of sentences that show emotions (happiness, excitement, frustration or anger). Example: W hat a beautiful beach! •  I am placed after interjections. An interjection is used to express a sudden burst of feeling or emotion. (Alas!, Hurray!, Wow!) Example: Wow! This room is so big. Some words always start with a capital letter. Remember the acronym M.I.N.T.S. for the correct usage of capital letters. Acronym Examples M : months, names of days • My birthday is in September. • I go to church on Sundays. • I bought a new pencil. I : the word ‘I’ • She can eat my food because I am not hungry. N : names of people, states, cities • My friend Sandeep lives in Kochi, Kerala. and countries—proper nouns • I plan to visit Norway next month. T : titles of books and movies • I am going to watch Titanic tonight. • My favourite book is Black Beauty. S : start of sentences • I have a new friend. Her name is Fatima. 18

Exercise 3.1: Rewrite the following sentences by using capital letters wherever  required. One is done for you. 1) peter pan is one of the most popular children’s stories. Ans. Peter Pan is one of the most popular children’s stories. 2) ambika is reading a book titled alice in wonderland. Ans.  3) ronaldo is a great footballer. Ans.   4) Disney’s new movie frozen releases this friday. Ans.   5) the movie midnight’s children is based on a book by Salman Rushdie. Ans.   6) 'The Little Mermaid' is a story by hans christian andersen. Ans.   Exercise 3.2: Read the following conversation between two friends. Fill in the blanks with the correct punctuation marks. One is done for you. Krish Hey, Josh! Josh Hi, Krish! Krish Are you going to Riya's birthday party____ Module 2 19

Josh Of course, I’m very excited____ Krish Josh Are you going with someone____ Krish Yes, I’m going with Arjun____ Kevin and Bipasha. Do you want to come with us? All right. I will come with you____ 20

Module 3 PR Vocabulary Q Compound words A compound word is formed when two different += words are joined to make a new word. jelly fish jellyfish There are three forms of compound words. Module 3 29

Closed form Hyphenated form Open form The words are blended or mixed and written as a The words are simply joined The words are used together and single word. by a hyphen or hyphens. convey one idea or meaning. However, they are spelt as Examples: separate words. •  lifeless •  outdoors Examples: Examples: •  day-to-day •  wooden dolls •  cut-outs •  glove puppets Exercise 2.1: Look at the picture clues given below. Pick out the words that make up the compound words shown in the pictures and write them down. One is done for you. light bee board ball skate foot house hive sea star fish shore 1) seashore 2) ________________________________ 3) ________________________________ 4) ________________________________ 5) ________________________________ 6) ________________________________ 30

Exercise 2.2: Tick the boxes that have compound words. Choose any two compound words and make a sentence each using them. 1) 2) 3) basketball flower igloo 4) 5) 6) toothbrush raindrops paper Sentences: 1) ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Grammar Singular and plural nouns Read the passage given below. Underline the plural nouns. Write their singular forms in the given table. My friends and I got a few candies from our teachers. We ate it during recess. We ate our lunch and washed our dishes, spoons and glasses. While going home, we tied scarves around our necks. We visited some churches. We could hear echoes inside a few of these churches. Module 3 31

Plural Singular Plural Singular ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Remember • R egular plurals are formed by adding -s to the ends of words. Examples: car – cars, pen – pens • Many plurals are formed in different ways and not just by adding -s to the ends of words.  To form the plurals of words that end in -x, -o, -s, -ch, -sh and -ss, we add -es to the ends of the words. Examples: fox – foxes, hero – heroes, bus – buses, bunch – bunches, wish – wishes, address – addresses  To form the plurals of words that end in -y, we change -y to -ies. Examples: fly – flies, bunny – bunnies, berry – berries  To form the plurals of words that end in -f or -fe, we change -f or -fe to -ve and then add -s. Examples: life – lives, wolf – wolves, self – selves For some exceptions, we add -s to form plurals for such words. Examples: chief – chiefs, roof – roofs More on plurals Here are a few nouns that do not change at all in the plural. You have to understand from the sentence whether one or many are being spoken about. Examples: There is a sheep in the field. 32

There are two sheep in the meadow. In the first sentence, ‘a’ sheep is spoken about. This means that there is only one sheep. Here, ‘sheep’ is singular. In the second sentence, there are ‘two’ sheep. Here, more than one sheep is mentioned. So, ‘sheep’ is a plural noun in the second sentence. Here are two more examples. There are three fish Eight deer are in the pond. grazing near the river. Exercise 3.1: Fill in the blanks with the correct plural forms from the options given in brackets. One is done for you. 1) People say that cats have nine lives. (lifes/lives) 2) I saw a few ____________________________ playing in the zoo. (leopard/leopards) 3) The __________________________ are sleeping. (deer/deers) 4) I grew two ____________________________ taller over the summer holidays. (inches/inchs) 5) There are many good ____________________________ in the old city. (libraries/librarys) 6) Look at those ____________________________ in the sky. (aircraft/aircrafts) Exercise 3.2: Change the underlined singular nouns to plural. Make other changes to the sentences so that they are grammatically correct. One is done for you. 1) I saw a boy run behind the deer. Ans. I saw boys run behind the deer. Module 3 33

2) Sumit is planting a tree. Ans.   3) I took a photograph of the moose. Ans.   4) The member of the winning country will get a prize. Ans.   5) The thief was stealing a cargo of cars. Ans.   6) I attended the birthday party of my friend. Ans.   Countable and uncountable nouns Look around your classroom. Can you name a few things (nouns) in the room that can be counted? Nouns that name things that we can count are called countable nouns. Examples: book (We can count the number of books.) • a dog, three cats, an animal, one man • many bottles, a few boxes, six pens • a table, three chairs one book three books 34

Remember • W hen a countable noun is singular, we use ‘a’, ‘an’, ‘the’ or the number ‘one’ before it. • W hen a countable noun is plural, we use words like ‘many’, ‘a few’ or numbers greater than one (two, three and so on) before it. Now, can you think of things (nouns) that cannot be counted? Nouns that name things that cannot be counted are called uncountable nouns. For example, we cannot say ‘one milk’, ‘two milk’ or ‘three milk’. We can say ‘a milk bottle’, ‘two milk bottles’ or ‘three milk bottles’. Here, we are counting the bottles and not the milk. Here are some more examples of uncountable nouns. some milk two milk bottles • lots of love, a lot of happiness, a little bit of sadness • s ome furniture or luggage, a lot of homework • a little rice or sugar, a lot of water, some milk Remember • A ll uncountable nouns are singular. There is no plural form for these words. • W e use words like ‘some’, ‘little’, ‘any’ or ‘much’ before uncountable nouns when we do not use any other unit. Module 3 35

Module 4 PR Vocabulary Q Synonyms Synonyms are words or phrases that mean the same or nearly the same. Exercise 2.1: Write a synonym for each of the words underlined in the sentences. Use a dictionary if required. One is done for you. 1) Our school team won the cricket match with ease. – comfort 2) This book is amazing. – ______________________________ 3) The weather was pleasant in the morning. – ______________________________ 4) Assisting people in need is a good deed. – ______________________________ 5) I was eager to go to school the next day. – ______________________________ 6) I am afraid to enter that dark room. – ______________________________ Module 4 43

Exercise 2.2: Match the words with their correct synonyms. Synonyms Words a) truthful  b) answer c) huge 1) wealthy  d) strong e) rich f) smart 2) mighty  3) honest  4) intelligent  5) enormous  6) respond  Grammar Pronouns Read the paragraph given below. Underline the pronouns and choose their types from the given boxes. When Anya came into the classroom, she thought to herself, ‘Is there a test today? Why did Sheetal not tell me about it?’ Anya sat down next to Vishal and prepared for the test with him. Anya had Vishal’s blue pen. She returned the pen to him. subject pronoun object pronoun reflexive pronoun 44

Remember • Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. • S ubject pronouns perform the action in a sentence. (I, we, you, he, she, it, they) Example: I am a singer. • O bject pronouns receive the action in a sentence. (me, us, you, him, her, it, them) Example: Give that cup to me. • Reflexive pronouns are used when we refer to the subject of the sentence again. In other words, these pronouns are used when the object of a sentence is the same as its subject. In a reflexive pronoun, the subject receives the action. When reflexive pronouns are used to put emphasis on the subject, they are called emphatic pronouns. (myself, yourself/ yourselves, himself, herself, themselves, itself, ourselves) Examples: • Ramiz gifted himself a sweater.  • We finished the project by ourselves. Exercise 3.1: Underline the pronouns in the sentences. Write 'SP' for subject pronouns, 'OP' for object pronouns and 'RP' for reflexive pronouns. One is done for you. 1) She is a good singer. __S_P__ 2) Rahul was waiting for me. _____ 4) I cooked a delicious meal. _____ 3) Lily cooked by herself. _____ 6) The big dog belongs to him. _____ 5) Joy bought himself a new book. _____ Possessive pronouns — whose is it? Read the following sentences. These books are mine. This class is ours. The dog is his. That cycle is hers. The pretty parcel is yours. That house is theirs. The words in bold are possessive pronouns. They tell us that something belongs to someone. They show belonging. Module 4 45

Here is a list of subject pronouns and the related possessive pronouns. Subject pronoun Possessive Subject pronoun Possessive I pronoun he pronoun mine his we ours she hers you yours it its – – they theirs Exercise 3.2: Complete the sentences using possessive pronouns 'mine', 'yours', 'ours', 'his', 'hers', 'its' and 'theirs'. One is done for you. 1) That is your dog. That dog is yours. 2) This is our house. The house is _____________________. 3) T hese rabbits belong to her. These rabbits are __________________. 4) That is my bus. The bus is _____________________. 5) Those are his toys. Those toys are _____________________. 6) That car belongs to them. It is _____________________. 46

Module 5 P R Vocabulary Q Suffixes Exercise 2.1: Word math time! Form nouns by adding the suffixes ‘-ment’ or ‘-ion’ (tion) to the given verbs. 1) agree 1) __________________________ 2) __________________________ 2) attract 3) appoint + -ment/-ion = 3) __________________________ 4) __________________________ 4) suggest 5)__________________________ 6) __________________________ 5) pay 6) invent Exercise 2.2: Fill in the blanks by using either ‘-ion’ (tion) or ‘-ment’ correctly in each case. Use the base words in brackets as hints. 1) Mira is moving in the ________________________________ (direct) of the campus. 2) Z aheer showed a marked ________________________________ (improve) in his writing skills. 3) T he ________________________________ (argue) continued until Rita accepted defeat. 4) B urying a person alive was a harsh ________________________________ (punish) given by rulers in olden times. 5) T he ________________________________ (construct) site had a crane as well as a bulldozer. 6) M y old grandmother needs to take medicines after every meal for proper ________________________________ (digest). Module 5 55

Grammar Adjectives Adjectives are words that describe nouns and pronouns. Read the passage and underline the adjectives. State whether these are adjectives of quality, quantity or number. Allan is a tall boy. He is wearing a new T-shirt. This is the fifth T-shirt he has been gifted this year. He really loves his toy cars. Allan has seven toy cars. Allan carries some water and a little milk when he goes out to play with his cars. Ans. _______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Remember • Adjectives of quality point out qualities of nouns. They answer the question: ‘of what kind?’. Examples: blue sky, lovely day, noisy street, large room, old shirt • Adjectives of quantity tell us ‘how many’ or ‘how much’. Examples: some, a little, all, several, much, many, a lot of, plenty of, few • Adjectives of number tell us about the number or position of the nouns or pronouns spoken about. They tell us ‘how many’. Examples: five, seventeen, twenty-four, tenth 56

Exercise 3.1: Read the paragraph and underline the adjectives. Sort them into adjectives of quality, quantity and number. One is done for you. Adnan was excited. He was going to the market by himself for the first time. He entered the busy market and went to a shop. He bought some juice and three packets of biscuits. He had enough money to buy these things. Adjectives of Adjectives of Adjectives of quality quantity number excited Degrees of comparison Read the following sentences. Delhi is cold during winter. Shimla is colder than Delhi Leh is the coldest of the during winter. three cities. • In the first sentence, ‘cold’ is an adjective that simply describes the weather conditions of Delhi during winter. • In the second sentence, the adjective ‘colder’ compares the weather conditions of Shimla and Delhi during winter. • In the third sentence, the adjective ‘coldest’ is used to compare the weather conditions of Delhi, Shimla and Leh during winter. It also shows which city is the ‘most cold’ among the three. To show comparison, adjectives change their forms. These forms are also known as degrees of comparison. Module 5 57

The three degrees of comparison cold • T his is the positive degree of an adjective. It is used when we describe something or someone but not for making a comparison. Examples: clever, strong, small colder • T his is the comparative degree of an adjective. It is used while comparing two nouns or pronouns. • We can make a comparative degree by simply adding ‘-er’ to the positive degree of an adjective. Examples: cleverer, stronger, smaller • The word ‘than’ is also used during comparisons. Example: Ramu is quicker than Mohan. • This is the superlative degree of an adjective. It is used to compare more than two things. • It can be formed by adding ‘-est’ to the positive degree. Examples: cleverest, strongest, smallest coldest • We use the word ‘the’ before the superlative degree. Example: Rakesh is the quickest boy in the class. • T he word 'among' is used when we compare more than two things or people. It also compares one person or thing in a group to the other people or things in the same group. Example: Jalebis are the sweetest among all the Indian sweets. Let us now look at the degrees of comparison of some adjectives. Positive degree Comparative degree Superlative degree short shorter shortest long longer longest smart smarter smartest old older/elder oldest/eldest 58

Positive degree Comparative degree Superlative degree rich richer richest weak weaker weakest new newer newest Exercise 3.2: Complete the table with positive, comparative or superlative degrees of the given adjectives. One is done for you. Positive degree Comparative degree Superlative degree 1) quick quicker quickest 2) _____________________ darkest 3) _____________________ ______________________ 4) poor younger ______________________ 5) bright ______________________ 6) _____________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ strongest Module 5 59

Module 6 PR Vocabulary Q Using a dictionary A dictionary is a book that lists words and their meanings in alphabetical order. We use dictionaries to search for the meanings of words, their spellings, pronunciations and other such information. Nowadays, we also have online dictionaries. They are very simple a dictionary to use. We just need to type the word that we are searching for and read its meaning. Online dictionaries also give example sentences. We can even listen to the pronunciation of difficult words using online dictionaries. Module 6 67

Look at a page from an online dictionary. Exercise 2.1: Use a physical dictionary to find the meanings of the first three words. Then, use an online dictionary to find the meanings of the next three words. 1) tradition – __________________________ 2) theatre – _______________________ ____________________________________ ________________________________ ____________________________________ ________________________________ 3) audience – _________________________ 4) ancient – _______________________ ____________________________________ ________________________________ ____________________________________ ________________________________ 5) performance – _____________________ 6) camera – ______________________ ____________________________________ ________________________________ ____________________________________ ________________________________ 68

Exercise 2.2: Search for the following words in the dictionary. Write their meanings and parts of speech. Also, mention a synonym for each word. Word Part of speech Meaning Synonym 1) cheerful 2) huge ___________________ ___________________________ __________________ 3) amusing ___________________________ 4) swiftly ___________________________ 5) scent 6) gift ___________________ ___________________________ __________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________ ___________________________ __________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________ ___________________________ __________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________ ___________________________ __________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________ ___________________________ __________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Grammar Articles Tick 'yes' or 'no'. Can we say the following? 1) a man Yes No 2) an apples Yes No 3) an tree Yes No 4) a octopus Yes No 5) the oranges Yes No 6) an egg Yes No Module 6 69

Remember The words ‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘the’ are called articles. ► ‘A’ and ‘an’ are called indefinite articles. These are used depending on the first sound of a word. • If the first letter of a word makes a consonant sound, the article ‘a’ is used before the word. • If the first letter of a word makes a vowel sound, the article ‘an’ is used before it. a boy, an apple, a girl an egg Remember Remember that the first ‘sound’ and not the first ‘letter’ should be considered. Example: It is an honour to meet you. We say ‘an’ honour even though the first letter in honour is ‘h’, which is a consonant. This is because while pronouncing this word, ‘h’ is silent and we pronounce the word as ‘aunur’. The same goes for words like ‘uniform’ or ‘unicorn’. We use the article ‘a’ before them as the first sound in these words is /y/ even though the first letters are vowels. ► ‘The’ is called the definite article. It is used to: • refer to a specific or particular noun, or something that has already been talked about. • refer to something that is the only one of its kind. • refer to names of rivers, mountains, seas and so on. 70

The thief who stole The Sun is The Alps are the the diamonds has shining highest mountain not been caught. brightly. range in Europe. Exercise 3.1: Fill in the blanks with the correct articles. One is done for you. 1) Mohini is a doctor. 2) I was born on ______________ Wednesday. 3) Paul eats ______________ egg every day. 4) ______________ Sun rises in the East. 5) ______________ apple a day keeps the doctor away. 6) I want ______________ red apple which is kept on the table. Exercise 3.2: The articles ‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘the’ have been used incorrectly at six places in the paragraph given below. Correct the errors and rewrite the paragraph. One is done for you. Long ago, the man had an goose. It laid an golden egg every day. A man would sell it and spend the money happily. But he became greedy. He wanted all the eggs at the same time. So he killed a goose, cut it open and looked for eggs. He searched for a hour. But there were no golden eggs inside. He was sad and angry with himself for his foolishness. Ans. Long ago, a man Module 6 71

Pronouncing ‘the’ Remember • We pronounce ‘the’ as the when the next word starts with a consonant sound. • We pronounce ‘the’ as thee when the next word starts with a vowel sound. Let us look at the given examples. We write Vowel sound We pronounce the apple a ‘thee’ apple the elephant e the ice cream i ‘thee’ elephant the orange o ‘thee’ ice cream the umbrella u ‘thee’ orange ‘thee’ umbrella 72

Module 7 PR Vocabulary Q Use of ‘to’, ‘two’ and ‘too’ The words ‘to’, ‘two’ and ‘too’ sound exactly the same but have very different meanings. To: It is a preposition that expresses direction or shows a particular condition. Examples: • He went to the market yesterday. • Rita likes to eat laddoos. 2

Two: It is the number name of 2. Examples: • Chanda has eaten two biscuits today. • Two of his friends were laughing loudly. Too: It means ‘also’ or ‘much more or less than needed’. Examples: • Neha loves chocolates, and I love them too. • This house is too large for us. Exercise 2.1: Colour the circles with the correct options and complete the sentences. 1) I was invited to a party, and my sister was to two too . 2) Zaheer saw to t w o too lovely roses bloom in his garden. 3) Romila had to t w o t oo meet Shyam in the morning. 4) Climb to t wo too the top, and wave the flag. 5) He has eaten to t w o t o o much this time. 6) His father came home and gave him to tw o too oranges. Exercise 2.2: In the following sentences, the underlined words have been used incorrectly. Rewrite the sentences using the correct words. 1) My mother went two Shillong last month. Ans. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2) Ravi likes too come back home early from office. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) To of those apples are ripe and juicy. Please give me both. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Module 7 3

4) Mary hates nursery rhymes. Her sister, Jane, hates them to. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) R aza’s father brought too beautiful vases from his shop. One was blue, and the other was red. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6) We took a trip to Ladakh; we visited Kashmir two. Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ Grammar Verbs and helping verbs In the previous classes, we have learnt about main verbs and helping verbs. Underline the main verbs and circle the helping verbs in the sentences given below. 1) Do you know my name? 2) She is doing her best. 3) We are going to the market. 4) I am making eggs for dinner. Remember • Verbs are action words. They show the action that the noun does or the state of being of the noun. Examples: a) Corla cooks very well. b) Subhash lives in Assam. • Helping verbs do not show any action but help the main verb to complete its meaning. They also add detail or show the state of being of the noun. Helping verbs are also called auxiliary verbs. Examples: a) We were going to the park. b) There is a forest here. 4

Modal verbs (ability and permission) Read the following sentences. May I use your phone, Could my sister come along I can swim for an hour, but please? too? my brother cannot. Observe the use of ‘may’, ‘could’, ‘can’ and ‘cannot’ in these sentences. They are used by speakers to ask for permission or to show ability. The word ‘cannot’ shows a lack of ability to do something. These words are called modal verbs. What are modal verbs? Modal verbs, or helping verbs, give additional information about the main verbs that follow them. Let us learn about the modal verbs that show ability and are used to ask for permission. Modal verbs of ability can (ability in Positive Negative Question the present) Can you speak I can play the guitar Reema cannot play very well. table tennis. Spanish? could (ability in Gina could walk Megha could not Could you read or the past) when she was just write until she was write before you eleven months old. seven. were six? Module 7 5

Modal verbs for permission (more formal) may Asking for Giving could (polite) permission permission might (extremely May I borrow your book? You may borrow my book. formal) Could I take a leave tomorrow? – – Might I give an idea? Modal verbs for permission (less formal) Asking for Giving permission permission can Can I watch the play tonight? You can watch the play. Note: To use a modal verb in its negative form, add ‘not’ between the modal verb and the main verb. Examples: •   You may not leave early today. •   She cannot ride a bicycle. Exercise 3.1: Choose the correct modal verbs for the given sentences. One is done for you. 1) I cannot pick up this 2) _ _____________________ I ask 3) When I was a child, I box; it is very heavy. a question, please? ______________________ (less formal) do a headstand. a) cannot b) may not a) Could a) can c) might not b) Can b) could c) May c) may 6

4) ______________________ 5) H  e ______________________ 6) Y ou ______________________ I leave early? speak fluently in Hindi when he go home if you like. (extremely formal) came here two years ago. (less formal) a) Can a) cannot a) can b) Might b) could not b) might c) Could c) may not c) may Exercise 3.2: Choose the appropriate modal verbs for the following sentences from the words given below. One is done for you. could can may might couldn’t cannot 1) I cannot hear you. The room is very noisy. 2) _ ___________________ you do a headstand? My sister has learnt yoga for five years, and she is very good at it. 3) W e ____________________ meet the author at the bookstore. There was too much rush. 4) ____________________ we borrow your pens? (more formal) 5) ____________________ I take a leave tomorrow? (extremely formal) 6) When I was younger, I _______________________ run for three hours continuously. Module 7 7

Subject-verb agreement A sentence is made up of three parts. Sentence Subject Verb Object It is what or whom the sentence is about; it is somebody or something It is the action that It is the thing or the person who the subject does. is acted upon or receives the who/that does the action. action. Now, read the following sentences. • He cook dinner for his family. • The girls walks to college every day. • Your sister talk a lot for her age. • The children swims well. You will notice that all these sentences seem odd. They just do not sound correct! Identify the subjects and verbs in these sentences. You will find that they do not go together. Remember • In a correct and meaningful sentence, the subject should be in line with the verb. This means that the subject and the verb should agree. • This is known as subject-verb agreement. Rules of subject-verb agreement Rule 1 A singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb. Examples: • The boy throws a ball. • The boys throw a ball. 8

Rule 2 Two singular subjects connected by ‘or’, ‘either... or’ or ‘neither... nor’ require a singular verb. However, if one of the two subjects is plural and is closer to the main verb than the singular subject, then the verb will be plural. Examples: • Either my brother or sister has made the bed. • My uncle or aunt is arriving today. • Neither Mary nor her children want to go to the park. Rule 3 Use a plural verb with two or more subjects connected by ‘and’. Examples: • Kabir and these children are friends. • Meher and Mihir go to school together. Remember • W e add ‘-s’ to make nouns plural and remove the ‘-s’ to make them singular. However, with verbs, it is the opposite. With verbs, we need to add ‘-s’ to make them singular and remove the ‘-s’ to make them plural. • U se the helping verbs ‘is’, ‘does’ and ‘has’ with singular nouns. • U se the helping verbs ‘are’, ‘do’ and ‘have’ with plural nouns. Module 7 9

Let us now correct the sentences we read earlier.  He cook dinner for his family.  H  e cooks dinner for his family. ‘He’ is a singular subject, so the singular verb ‘cooks’ should be used.  Your sister talk a lot for her age.  Y our sister talks a lot for her age. A gain, ‘sister’ is a singular subject that goes with the singular verb ‘talks’.  The girls walks to college  The girls walk to college every day. every day.  T he children swims well. ‘Girls’ is a plural subject, while ‘walks’ is a singular verb. To correct the sentence, we should use ‘walk’, which is a plural verb.  The children swim well. Again, ‘children’ is a plural subject, so we should use 'swim', which is the plural form of the singular verb ‘swims’. 10

Module 8 PR Vocabulary Q Words related to art Exercise 2.1: Solve this crossword puzzle about different forms of art. Use the clues given under the puzzle. One is done for you. 12 mu s i c 3 4 5 Across – music 1) nice to listen to – p h ___ t ___ ___ r a ___ h y 5) done with a camera Down – s ___ e t ___ ___ 2) made with a pencil – s ___ ___ g 3) can be sung – ___ a n ___ ___ 4) performed alone or in a group – ___ a i ___ ___ ___ n g 5) made with paints as a hobby Module 8 23

Exercise 2.2: Find the names of the given Indian dance forms in the word search below. K AMK UCH I P U D I V R C bhangra A X A P A P DQX F NAV P N kathakali T P Y X X UQX Z QH YMU S H I T H T D T CH T U KG I P kathak A F AA E V I RCR U I L I L K N NWN B V K DCMA H A D GX AQ L F Q T H B K J F A P D J T R N X N I CA A K K OQ V F AOA S P NH VN L S GN V R R MM U R T G B L Q Y K I L E A Z D I AMAN I P U R I CXH I X K S X E F S NNA Z UWB R E H J J KOHC L D Y HOQ Z P OCN I M P I E A X B HANGR AV Z T G E Y F A manipuri kuchipudi bharatanatyam 24

Grammar Simple present, simple past and simple future tenses Meet Siya and read her story. Hi! I am Siya. I live in Chennai. I study in Class 4. I love to read, swim and travel. We travelled to Bengaluru last month. I went with my parents and my brother. Bengaluru is a beautiful city. During our stay, we visited many historical places and gardens. For our next vacation, we will visit Delhi. My grandparents live in Delhi. Together, we will travel to Mathura. Isn’t that exciting? Notice that Siya is talking about: • actions that happen every day or are generally true. • actions that have taken place earlier (in the past). • actions that will take place later (in the future). Just like Siya, when we communicate, we refer to the present time, the time in the past and the time in the future. In other words, we use tenses. Tenses Present tense Past tense Future tense  I live in Chennai.  We travelled to Bengaluru.  We will visit Delhi. Module 8 25

Let us revise the simple present, simple past and simple future tenses. Simple Present  The verbs in this tense show habits and ideas that apply in general or as a rule. subject + base verb ('plays', 'goes', 'sings', 'dances') (‘-s’/‘-es’) + object Examples: •  I play with my friends every day. •  R ita goes to tennis practice daily. • The Sun rises in the east. Simple Past  The verbs in this tense refer to actions that have already happened. subject + past tense (‘played’, ‘went’, ‘sang’, ‘danced’) form of verb + object Examples: •  I played with my friends at school yesterday. • R  ita went to tennis practice at 4:00 p.m. Simple Future  The verbs in this tense refer to actions that will happen in the future. subject + will/shall + (‘will play’, ‘will go’, ‘will sing’, ‘will dance’) base verb + object Examples: • I  will play with my friends at school tomorrow. •  R ita will go to tennis practice at 4:00 p.m. 26

Let us look at more sentences in the three tenses. Simple present Simple past Simple future We go for a walk every We went for a walk last We will go for a walk morning. morning. tomorrow morning. You eat dosas for breakfast You ate dosas for breakfast You will eat dosas for every day. yesterday. breakfast on Thursday. He will watch a movie on He watches a movie every He watched a movie last night. night. Friday. They go on a family picnic They went on a family picnic They will go on a family every year. last week. picnic tomorrow. Exercise 3.1: Convert the tenses of the sentences according to the instructions given in brackets. One is done for you. 1) Rishav goes to school. (Change this to the simple future tense.) Ans. Rishav will go to school. 2) S eema rode to school on her bicycle. (Change this to the simple present tense.) Ans. 3) M y best friend will come to school. (Change this to the simple past tense.) Ans. 4) Gita and Rita play in the park. (Change this to the simple past tense.) Ans. 5) T he dog barked at the stranger. (Change this to the simple present tense.) Ans. Module 8 27

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