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by classklap SCIENCE WORKBOOK - TERM 2 Enhanced Edition 4 Name: ___________________________________ Section: ________________ Roll No.: _________ School: __________________________________ PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 1 13-Sep-19 5:42:07 PM

Lesson Name Page No. 1) Food 1 2) Water 9 3) Plants 16 25 Inside the Lab 29 Term Project PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 2 13-Sep-19 5:42:09 PM

Lesson 1: Food Eating hygiene Concept Map Keep the food covered against dust and insects. Eat fresh food that is not too cold or hot. Food Wash your hands with soap and water before eating. Avoid eating junk food, fast food and fried food. Avoiding food wastage Do not leave food on the plate and share excess food. Raw food Cooked food __________________(3) Pickling: mixing fruits Cooking methods and vegetables with fruits Cooking utensils oil and salt vegetables ____________ (1) utensils of different Refrigerating: keeping nuts materials like in the refrigerator to stainless steel, preserve for a short time aluminium, clay, and so on ___________ (4): removing water content from the Cooking habits food Canning: storing food in air-tight containers Moist heat Dry heat Other methods Boiling: immersing Roasting: cooking food by Microwave cooking in boiling water heating on a frying pan Solar cooking ___________ (2): cooking Baking food in steam Frying: cooking food Pressure cooking in hot oil PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 1 1 13-Sep-19 5:42:10 PM

Remembering Multiple Choice Questions (1M per question) 1) Which of the following do we get from animals? [    ] (A)  drumstick   (B)  lady’s finger   (C)  ghee    (D)  brinjal 2) The method of cooking food by heating on a frying pan without covering it is called [   ] (A)  steaming.   (B)  frying.     (C)  boiling.   (D)  roasting. Fill in the Blanks (1M per question) 3) Cooking food for a long time destroys the ______________ in the food. 4) The appliance used to cook food using sunlight is a __________________. Match the Following (5M) 5) a) dried to preserve the food 6) b) prepared using steam 7) c) cooking utensil 8) d) junk food 9) e) canning the food Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2 13-Sep-19 5:42:18 PM PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 2

Very Short Answer Questions (1M per question) 10) Write any two food items that you should eat when you are sick. (Textbook, Pg. 68) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ 11) Name any three cooking methods. (Textbook, Pg. 68) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ Understanding Very Short Answer Questions (1M per question) 12) How can you reduce the wastage of food in your home? (Textbook, Pg. 68) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ 13) Name the materials used to make cooking utensils in the present day. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ Short Answer Questions (3M per question) 14) Write about any two preservation methods. (Textbook, Pg. 68) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 15) Why should we consume soft food when we are sick? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Food 3 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 3 13-Sep-19 5:42:20 PM

Long Answer Question (4M per question) 16) Explain any four cooking methods. (Textbook, Pg. 68) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Application Short Answer Questions (3M per question) 17) Draw your favourite raw food and colour it. (Textbook, Pg. 68) Ans. 4 13-Sep-19 5:42:22 PM PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 4

18) Although we can eat raw food like carrots, cucumbers, onions, and so on, we cook food like rice and dhal. What are the advantages of cooking food? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Long Answer Questions (4M per question) 19) A new restaurant owner has requested you to tell his staff about the cooking habits that they should follow. List the cooking habits that can help them. OR What are the hygienic ways of cooking food? (Textbook, Pg. 68) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 20) Explain any four preservation methods. (Textbook, Pg. 68) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Food 5 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 5 13-Sep-19 5:42:24 PM

________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Higher Order Thinking Skills (H.O.T.S.) Short Answer Questions (3M per question) 21) Select the food that are healthy to eat from the menu given below. Menu Vegetable salad Freshly-cut fruits Pani puri Nuts Burger Pizza Fries Donuts Cola Fish curry and rice Boiled eggs Milk Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 6 13-Sep-19 5:42:25 PM PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 6

22) Read the following cooking habits and mealtime hygiene. Sort them into the right or wrong column in the table given below. a) Cook food for a very long time. b) You can leave the food uncovered during the day. c) Eat fresh food always. d) Wash the vegetables after cutting them. e) Wash your hands with soap only after having your food. f) We should avoid eating fried food all the time. Ans. Right Wrong Long Answer Questions (4M per question) 23) Look at the pictures and write the name of each dish and method of cooking that has been used to prepare it. Food Name and method of cooking a)  b)  Food 7 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 7 13-Sep-19 5:42:32 PM

c)  d)  24) Collect and paste the pictures of the food items that are preserved using the fol- lowing methods in your house. Ans. Food Items Method of preservation Drying Canning Refrigerating Pickling 8 13-Sep-19 5:42:38 PM PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 8

Lesson 2: Water Concept Map Water Water cycle States of water There is continuous change in the ______________ (2), e.g., ice states of water in nature due to different processes. Liquid state, e.g., drinking water Evaporation: Water becomes Gaseous state, e.g., ________________ (3) water vapour due to heat. Rainwater harvesting __________________ (1): Water vapour becomes water due to to collect water in artificial reservoirs and cool air. These form the clouds. lakes ____________________________________ (4): Precipitation: When water droplets to collect water from the roof tops of in the clouds become heavy, they buildings to recharge groundwater or store for future use fall as rain, snow or hail. Benefits of rainwater harvesting Importance of water cycle It increases the groundwater level. to improve the availability of ground water It can be used for agriculture. to control the Earth’s temperature It increases the availability of water for living things. to provide water to plants, animals and humans to recycle the Earth’s supply of water constantly PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 9 9 13-Sep-19 5:42:39 PM

Remembering Multiple Choice Questions (1M per question) 1) Which of the following is an example of the gaseous state of water? [    ] (A) river (B) waterfalls (C) ice cubes (D) mist 2) Which form of precipitation is commonly seen in hot regions? [    ] (A) rain (B) hail (C) sleet (D) snow Fill in the Blanks (1M per question) 3) In nature, during condensation, water vapour comes in contact with cool _____________ to form water droplets. 4) Rainwater ____________ is the collection of water in natural reservoirs or artificial tanks. Match the Following (5M) 5) a) state of water below 0° C 6) b) form of precipitation 7) c) evaporation from water bodies 8) d) result of condensation 9) e) state of water above 100° C Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ 10 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 10 13-Sep-19 5:42:48 PM

Very Short Answer Questions (1M per question) 10) Write the states of water. (Textbook, Pg. 76) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ 11) Name the processes involved in water cycle. (Textbook, Pg. 76) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ 12) Which state government made rainwater harvesting mandatory in the year 2001? (Textbook, Pg. 76) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ Understanding Very Short Answer Questions (1M per question) 13) What is needed to construct a rainwater harvesting pit? (Textbook, Pg. 76) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 14) Which process in nature turns water vapour into water? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ 15) What turns water in the solid form to water in the liquid form? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ Short Answer Questions (3M per question) 16) What is freezing? (Textbook, Pg. 76) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Water 11 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 11 13-Sep-19 5:42:50 PM

17) What is the role of condensation in the water cycle? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 18) How does evaporation take place in nature? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 19) Write the state of water of the different water forms listed below. Ans. Forms of water State of water a) hail b) sleet c) water vapour from kettle d) rain e) snow f) ice cubes Long Answer Questions (4M per question) 20) What is water cycle? Write any three importance of water cycle. (Textbook, Pg. 76) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 12 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 12 13-Sep-19 5:42:50 PM

21) What is rainwater harvesting? List out the advantages of rainwater harvesting. (Textbook, Pg. 76) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Application Short Answer Questions (3M per question) 22) What causes snowfall in cold places like Kashmir? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 23) If we are given water in a pot, how can we turn water in the liquid state into water in the gaseous state? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Water 13 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 13 13-Sep-19 5:42:50 PM

Long Answer Question (4M per question) 24) Look at the picture of a forest given below. Illustrate the water cycle that happens in the forest region. Ans. Higher Order Thinking Skills (H.O.T.S.) Short Answer Questions (3M per question) 25) In the cities where there is a smaller number of lakes, how can rainwater harvesting help? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 14 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 14 13-Sep-19 5:42:53 PM

26) How does the water cycle help people living in cities and villages, particularly the farmers living in villages? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Long Answer Question (4M per question) 27) Mr. Iyer is building a rainwater harvesting pit for a newly-constructed house in Chennai. Can you design a pit and label the materials used to construct it? Ans. Water 15 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 15 13-Sep-19 5:42:53 PM

Lesson 3: Plants Concept Map Plants Leaf Classification of plants blade: the broad ________________ (3), e.g., mango, neem, paddy flat part non-flowering plants, e.g., algae, fungi, ferns _______(1): the tip midrib: runs along green plants, e.g., algae, grass, paddy the centre veins: branch from non-green plants, e.g., bracket fungi the midrib to carry water and minerals Flowers petiole: joins to the main stem Sepals protect the bud of the flower. stomata: tiny Petals are bright coloured parts that attract openings for gas insects that help in the transfer of pollen. exchange Stamen is the male part of the flower that contains pollen grains. Leaf as food factory Pistil is the female part of the flower that receives the pollen and helps the flower to photosynthesis: food making become a fruit. process in the leaves Seasonal flowers Water is absorbed by the roots and flowers blooming in different seasons like sent to the leaves. summer, autumn and winter, e.g., Jasmine, Tulip Carbon dioxide passes through Exotic plants the ___________ (2) on the leaves. plants growing outside their native area, e.g., fern, crotons Sunlight is trapped by the chlorophyll in the leaf. Plants as food Parts of different plants are edible and used as fruits, vegetables, spices, and so on. 16 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 16 13-Sep-19 5:42:55 PM

Remembering Multiple Choice Questions (1M per question) 1) Which of the following is an edible stem? [    ] (A) ginger (B) beetroot (C) cabbage (D) clove 2) Which of the following is a non-green plant? [    ] (A) fern (B) algae (C) groundnut (D) mushroom Fill in the Blanks (1M per question) 3) Non-green plants that depend on other organisms for food and living space are called ____________________. 4) ____________________________ joins the leaf to the main stem. Match the Following (5M) 5) a) roots as food 6) b) flowers as food 7) c) fruits as food 8) d) stems as food 9) e) leaves as food Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ Plants 17 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 17 13-Sep-19 5:43:05 PM

Very Short Answer Questions (1M per question) 10) Write the name of any one leaf that is used as food. (Textbook, Pg. 90) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ 11) Write the names of the exotic plants. (Textbook, Pg. 90) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ 12) Write any one of the flowers that bloom in summer. (Textbook, Pg. 90) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ 13) Write the parts of a leaf. (Textbook, Pg. 90) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ 14) Write the names of any two underground stem plants. (Textbook, Pg. 90) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ Understanding Very Short Answer Questions (1M per question) 15) Which is the female part of plant? (Textbook, Pg. 90) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 16) Which flower bud is used as spices in food? (Textbook, Pg. 90) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 17) Why should we not touch a Parthenium plant? (Textbook, Pg. 90) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 18 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 18 13-Sep-19 5:43:06 PM

Short Answer Questions (3M per question) 18) Define photosynthesis. (Textbook, Pg. 90) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 19) Describe the importance of chlorophyll in plants. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Long Answer Questions (4M per question) 20) Mark any four parts and describe the parts of a leaf. (Textbook, Pg. 90) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Plants 19 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 19 13-Sep-19 5:43:07 PM

________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 21) Draw the diagram of a flower and explain the parts of a flower. (Textbook, Pg. 90) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 20 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 20 13-Sep-19 5:43:08 PM

Application Short Answer Questions (3M per question) 22) Doctor has advised Roshan to eat food rich in vitamins and minerals. Can you guide Roshan about the food that he should eat? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 23) In gardens and parks, out of so many plants, only a few plants are called exotic plants. Why? Name a few exotic plants. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Long Answer Question (4M per question) 24) Differentiate between green and non-green plants. Ans. Green plants Non-green plants Plants 21 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 21 13-Sep-19 5:43:08 PM

Higher Order Thinking Skills (H.O.T.S.) Short Answer Questions (3M per question) 25) We all know that flowers help the plants in reproduction. Then, how do the non- flowering plants reproduce? Give some examples of non-flowering plants. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 26) Read the descriptions and identify the correct classification of plant. (flowering plants, non-flowering plants, green plants) Ans. Description Classification of plant a) These plants reproduce by seeds. b) These plants are also called autotrophs. c) These plants reproduce by spores. Long Answer Questions (4M per question) 27) Look at the picture of a tomato plant and answer the following questions. a) How does the tomato plant produce its own food? b) What kind of plant or organism is it? (flowering plant, green plant, non-green plant, non-flowering plant, heterotroph, autotroph) c) If the tomato plant prepares its own food, • what are the things required? • where does the tomato plant get these things from? 22 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 22 13-Sep-19 5:43:08 PM

d) Illustrate the food-making process in the tomato plant. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Plants 23 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 23 13-Sep-19 5:43:16 PM

28) Read the clue given in the box and draw the picture of the plant described. I live in the desert with very less water. My leaves are replaced with spines, but I prepare my own food and store it in my green stem. Who am I? Ans. 24 13-Sep-19 5:43:16 PM PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 24

Inside the Lab Activity 1: Cuisines of Different States India is a diverse country. It has so many cultures. Each state has its traditional cuisine. You will need: 2–3 sheets of paper and a pencil or pen. You need to: a) divide the learners into groups so that each group has at least one learner who is aware of any famous food from a different state. Each group should have one sheet of paper. b) ask the learners to discuss and collect information on the subsequent points. • Ask each group about a famous food from a different state. • Ask them to note down its recipe. • Ask why it is famous. • Ask what local ingredients are used to prepare it. • Ask how it is suitable for the people of that state. • Ask the learners to record their findings in a table like the one given on the next page. • Ask them to paste a picture of the dish if they get one. cuisines of different states PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 25 25 13-Sep-19 5:43:18 PM

Name of the Dish Dosa State Tamil Nadu Ingredients half cup urad dal (split black lentils) Method of preparation 1 cup raw rice (chawal) ghee for cooking Reasons for it being popular in Tamil Nadu 1) Combine the urad dal and rice and soak the mixture in enough water for 4 hours. 2) Drain the urad dal and rice and blend in a mixer to a smooth paste using approx. 1 cup of water. 3) T ransfer the mixture to the same bowl. Add some salt and mix well. 4) Cover and ferment in a warm place for 12 hours. 5) Heat a non-stick tawa. 6) Pour a ladleful of the batter on the tawa and spread it in a circular motion. Smear a little ghee over it and along the edges and cook on a high flame till the dosa turns brown in colour and crisp. 7) Fold over to make a semi-circle or a roll. It is easy to ferment batter in the southern Indian climate. So, dosa is popular in Tamil Nadu. Local ingredients used Rice 1) Compare the recipes of different states from your classmates. Did you find different recipes using the same ingredients? Ans. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Read the names of the food given below and tabulate them according to the cooking methods. chapati rice idli vada popcorn milk jowar poori payasam 26 13-Sep-19 5:43:19 PM PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 26

Ans. Boiling Steaming Roasting Frying Activity 2: Clean Your Own Water Make sure you do these following Let us make a simple water filter. activities only with the help of a teacher You will need: or an adult. a large plastic bottle, a container, a piece of cotton cloth, gravel, sand and muddy water. You need to: a) make 10 holes in the bottom of the large, empty plastic bottle. b) cut off the top of the bottle evenly. (The teacher should help the students while cutting.) c) spread the cotton cloth at the bottom, covering all the holes. d) add a layer of gravel. e) then, fill the bottle with sand. f) now, pour the muddy water through the homemade filter. g) collect the water in another container from the bottom. h) look at the water that comes out of the filter. It should be clear. If not, you may have to pass the water through the filter more than once. Simple water filter Note: Now, you have made a water filter, but the water you get may not be safe to drink. The water may still contain harmful bacteria that your filter did not remove. To get water safe enough to drink, you also need to purify it. 27 PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 27 13-Sep-19 5:43:20 PM

1) Write a note on the importance of using water filters in rainwater harvesting. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Draw a roof top rainwater harvesting system for a home. The home should have a flat roof, a rainwater harvesting pit and the filtered water should be stored in an underground tank. Ans. 28 13-Sep-19 5:43:20 PM PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 28

Term Project Art with Grains and Seeds You will need: a) chart paper, a pencil, an eraser, glue and a pair of child- friendly scissors. b) grains such as rice, wheat, maize, green gram, pea, lentil, Bengal gram, some dried seeds like watermelon or papaya seeds (if available) and so on. You need to: a) take the chart paper. Cut it into an A4 size sheet with the help of your teacher. b) draw the picture of a plant showing the plant parts such as leaves, flowers, a stem and so on. c) decorate the plant you have drawn by pasting various grains and seeds with the help of glue. (Hint: You can use green grains to make the leaves, yellow or red grains to decorate flowers and so on.) Your grain art is ready! You may draw any other picture of your choice and decorate it using the grains and seeds. You can even make a birthday card for your friend by following the same steps. PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 29 29 13-Sep-19 5:43:22 PM

1) List the different seeds and grains that you have used to create an art piece in the following table. Ans. Part of the art piece Grains used to make the art Root Stem Leaves Flowers Fruits Soil 2) Draw an exotic plant or a seasonal flower that you can see around you. Ans. 30 13-Sep-19 5:43:23 PM PNC_G4_SCI_T2_WB_QC4.indb 30

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