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Published by IMAX, 2020-02-13 02:36:03



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ENGLISH 4 LANGUAGE – 2 Name: ___________________________________ Section: ________________ Roll No.: _________ School: __________________________________

Preface ClassKlap partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. Our books strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. ClassKlap presents the Traveller series, designed specifically to meet the requirements of the new curriculum released in November 2016 by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE). Guiding principles: The 2016 CISCE curriculum states the following as a few of its guiding principles for English language teaching:  Connecting learning to life in the outside world  Integrating English with other subjects across the curriculum  Using meaningful contexts to develop language as a whole  Making assessment for learning an integral part of the teaching-learning process  Ensuring active participation of children by using a variety of activities and tasks Each of these principles resonates with the spirit in which the ClassKlap textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books have been designed. The ClassKlap team of pedagogy experts has carried out an intensive mapping exercise to create a framework based on the CISCE curriculum document. Key features of ClassKlap Traveller series:  B ooks for English are mapped to the assessment patterns of English-I and English-II in ICSE schools.  T he grammar concepts covered in English-I have a horizontal and vertical progression across the grades, providing a spiral of learning.  T he writing sections contain a wide variety of topics with a focus on process-based writing in higher grades.  T he English-II book also covers all the themes recommended by the CISCE curriculum across classes 1–5.  A hallmark of ICSE English is a wide representation of authors – Indian and foreign. The Traveller series includes pieces by writers such as Charles Dickens, Rabindranath Tagore, Sarojini Naidu, Oscar Wilde and Mark Twain among others.  Vocabulary building is a key focus area for ClassKlap Pictures for word meanings are included in each lesson to help students with visual clues for new or difficult words. All in all, the Traveller English books aim to generate greater engagement and enhance fluency in English communication, which spans all the four skills of Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. – The Authors

Workbook Features • Subject-related vocabulary building • Scaffolded approach for development of writing skills • Combination of inductive and deductive approaches to grammar teaching • Simple and age-appropriate explanations of grammatical concepts Grammar Engaging grammar explanations and well-crafted exercises W Writing Formal Writing inculcates writing skills by introducing formal writing styles by providing samples and adequate practice Creative Writing exercises to foster creative writing by using imagination and drawing from real-life experiences R Reading Comprehension Interesting reading comprehension passages on varied themes along with questions that focus on language building

Contents 7 Verbs ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 1 W7: Editing exercise ........................... The World Around Us ������������������������ 10 Story writing ........................................... Adventure and Imagination ��������� 11 8 Tenses �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 W8: Narrative paragraph writing ...... Adventure and Imagination ��������� 22 Photo description ................................. The World Around Us ������������������������ 23 R4: Reading Comprehension ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 25 9 Adverbs ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29 W9: E-mail writing ............................... Science and Technology ����������������� 36 Photo-based character sketch............ Self, Family, Home, Friends �������������� 38 10 Prepositions ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 40 W10: Informal letter writing .................. Physical Activities and Sports ������� 48 Story writing ........................................... Adventure and Imagination ��������� 49 R5: Reading Comprehension ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 51 11 Conjunctions ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 54 W11: E-mail writing ............................... Animals and Plants ������������������������ 61 Diary entry ............................................. Our Country ������������������������������������ 62 12 Sentences ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 64 W12: Editing exercise ........................... Media ��������������������������������������������� 74 Autobiography writing ......................... Animals and Plants ������������������������ 76 R6: Reading Comprehension ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 78 13 Apostrophe ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 81 W13: Explanatory paragraph writing .... Health and Hygiene ���������������������� 90 Dialogue writing ................................... Transport ����������������������������������������� 91

7 Verbs Verbs and helping verbs In the previous classes, we have learnt about main verbs and helping verbs. Remember  Verbs are action words. They show the action that the noun does or the state of being of the noun. Examples: a) Corla cooks very well. b) Subhash lives in Assam.  H elping verbs do not show any action but help the main verb to complete its meaning. They also add detail or show the state of being of the noun. Helping verbs are also called auxiliary verbs. Examples: a) We were going to the park. b) There is a forest here. Exercise 1: Underline the main verbs in the following sentences. Also, tick the helping verbs in the sentences. Write a new sentence with each helping verb that you identify. One is done for you. (Hint: All sentences may not have both a main verb and a helping verb.) a) I am jumping higher than you. b) Bunnies are cute. c) Indians celebrate many festivals. d) She had given her pen to Sahil. e) Juan went to the market. f) Do you have a straw? 1

Write your sentences here.  am – I am a girl. Modal verbs Remember   Modal verbs are also helping verbs. They give additional information about the main verbs that follow them.  The modal verbs ‘can’ (present tense) and ‘could’ (past tense) show ability. Examples: • I can play the violin. • Could you swim when you were three years old?  T he modal verbs ‘may’, ‘could’, ‘might’ and ‘can’ are modal verbs of permission. ‘Can’ is an informal modal verb of permission, whereas ‘might’ is an extremely formal modal verb of permission. Examples: • You may borrow my shoes. • Could you pass me the bottle? • You can watch the match with me. (informal) • Might I come in? (extremely formal) 2

Let us learn a few new modal verbs. Modal verb Positive Negative Question Will –  shows desire, I will choose the I will not accept Will you be quiet? preference, white dress. your offer. choice or consent – s  hows the future They will go out They will not go out Will they go out tonight. tonight. tonight? – expresses The bottle will hold The bottle will not Will the bottle hold capability two litres of juice. hold two litres of two litres of juice? juice. – expresses I will win the match. I will not win the – determination match. Would – shows I would rather have I would not choose Would you like to preference go tomorrow? orange juice. apples over mangoes. – shows wishes I would like a I would not like it if it – holiday. rained. – gives advice I would study at If I were you, I – Shall nights if I were you. would not go to Rajasthan in May. – makes – – Shall we leave? suggestions – used for You shall obey the Students shall not – obligations in very formal rules. enter here. situations Verbs 3

Modal verb Positive Negative Question Should – gives opinions, I should walk home. He should not Don’t you think you makes disturb everyone. should do this first? suggestions or expresses preferences –  asks for opinions – – What should we do Must now? – expresses You must remain You must not forget – obligation seated till the show to return my money. is over. – used for You must read that You must not yell in – class. emphasis or book. recommendation Remember  We can write the negative forms of modal verbs using contractions. Examples: • will not – won’t • shall not – shan’t • would not – wouldn’t • should not – shouldn’t • must not – mustn’t Exercise 2: Choose the appropriate modal verbs for the following sentences from the word box given below. One is done for you. mustn’t   can   must   might   couldn’t   shall a) There is a school down this street. You mustn’t press the horn here. b) ____________________ you do a headstand? My sister has learnt yoga for five years, and she is very good at it. c) We ____________________ meet the author at the bookstore. There was too much rush. d) It looks like it ____________________ rain. The sky is completely dark and grey! 4

e) I f you want to learn a foreign language well, you ____________________ work very hard. Learning a language needs effort. f) I  ____________________ be late today. I have to meet my grandmother; it’s her birthday. Exercise 3: Complete the dialogue using suitable modal verbs. One is done for you. ‘Hello everyone! Today, I will (might/will) talk to you about things we can do to help the environment. If we want to live on a healthy planet, we _______________________________ (shall/must) work towards it. There are many simple things that we _______________________________ (can/will) do. Water, they say, is life. The first and most important step is to conserve water. We _______________________________ (shall/must) turn off the water while brushing and washing our hands. Many people also recycle water. For example, water that is used to wash fruits and vegetables _______________________________ (could/would) be used to water plants. We _______________________________ (would/should) also plant more trees to help increase the supply of underground water. And guess what? I have brought these lovely saplings to plant in the school garden as the first step towards a healthier planet!’ Subject-verb agreement A sentence is made up of three parts. Sentence Subject Verb Object It is what or whom the It is the activity or It is the bearer of the sentence is about; it is action of the subject. action; it is the somebody who does thing or the person the action. who is acted upon. Verbs 5

Now, read the following sentences. • The girls walks to college every day. • He cook dinner for his family. • The children swims well. • Your sister talk a lot for her age. You will notice that all these sentences seem unclear. They just do not sound correct! Identify the subjects and the verbs in these sentences. You will find that they do not go together. Remember  In a correct and meaningful sentence, the subject should be in line with its correct verb. This means that the subject and verb should agree.  This is known as subject-verb agreement. Rules of subject-verb agreement Rule 1: A singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb. Examples: • The boy throws a green ball. • The boys throw a green ball. In other words, the subject and the verb must agree in number. Rule 2: Two singular subjects connected by ‘or’, ‘either... or’ and ‘neither... nor’ require a singular verb. However, if one of the two subjects is plural and is closer to the main verb than the singular subject, then the verb will be plural. Examples: • My uncle or aunt is arriving today. • Either my brother or sister has made the bed. • Neither Mary nor her children want to come to the park. 6

Rule 3: Use a plural verb with two or more subjects connected by ‘and’. Examples: • Kabir and Suman are friends. • Meher and Mihir go to school together. Remember  W e add ‘-s’ to make nouns plural and remove the ‘-s’ to make them singular. However, with verbs, we need to add ‘-s’ to make them singular and remove the ‘-s’ to make them plural.  U se the helping verbs ‘is’, ‘does’ and ‘has’ with singular nouns.  U se the helping verbs ‘are’, ‘do’ and ‘have’ with plural nouns. Let us now correct the sentences we read earlier.  H e cook dinner for  H e cooks dinner for his family. his family. ‘He’ is a singular subject, so the singular verb ‘cooks’  Y our sister talk a lot should be used. for her age.  Y  our sister talks a lot for her age.  T he girls walks to Again, ‘sister’ is a singular subject that takes the singular college every day. verb ‘talks’.  T he girls walk to college every day.  T he girl walks to college every day. ‘Girls’ is a plural subject, while ‘walks’ is a singular verb. To correct the sentence, we should use ‘walk’, which is a plural verb, or ‘girl’, which is a singular subject.  T he children swims  T he children swim well. well.  T he child swims well. ‘Children’ is a plural subject, so we should use 'swim', which is the plural form of the singular verb ‘swims’. We can also use the singular subject ‘child’ instead. Verbs 7

Exercise 4: Choose the correct forms of the verbs from the given options and fill in the blanks. One is done for you. a) My friend talks a lot. (talk/talks) b) The old woman and old man ___________________________ (looks/look) healthy. c) Either the girl or the boy ___________________________ (rides/ride) this bicycle. d) My neighbour ___________________________ (drives/drive) a taxi. e) The athletes ___________________________ (runs/run) five kilometres a day. f) N  either my mother nor father ___________________________ (have come / has come) home yet. Exercise 5: Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the base verbs in brackets. One is done for you. a) Kirti and Simi are (be) in class. b) He _____________________ (study) for six hours every day. c) Either Karan or Ali _____________________ (cook) on Sundays. d) Many books _____________________ (be) missing. e) All the princes and princesses _____________________ (eat) tasty food. f) The frogs _____________________ (leap) over each other. 8

Exercise 6: Rewrite the sentences so that the subjects and verbs agree. One is done for you. a) The wheels of the bus goes round and round. Ans. The wheels of the bus go round and round. b) The dog and the cat eats a lot of food. Ans.   c) The elephants or monkeys will takes the bananas. Ans.   d) I likes drawing. Ans.   e) Neither Suresh nor Maria like to sing. Ans.   f) A bag and a book was lying on the floor. Ans.   Verbs 9

W7 Writing  Formal Writing Editing exercise Exercise 1: The passage given below has spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors. Rewrite the passage in the space provided after correcting the errors. Last night! I looked up at the dark blew sky. I knew I wood sea stars, but I is Surprised by there brightness. There where so many stars!! I know they were made millions of ears ago bcos I has read about them in books from the librerry. I stood there and watched them for a hour. Then my brother satish called me we went to eat dinner.  10

Now, draw a picture to show what is happening in the passage. Creative Writing Story writing Exercise 2: The beginning, middle and end of a story are given. Complete the story in your own words.  Writing 7 11

Ananya came out, and in a second, the saucer disappeared. ‘Did this really happen, or was this a dream?’ she wondered. 12

8 Tenses Simple present, simple past and simple future tenses Meet Siya and read her story. Hi! I am Siya. I live in Chennai, and I study in Class 4. I love to read, swim and travel. We travelled to Bengaluru last month. I went with my parents and my younger brother. Bengaluru is a beautiful city. For our stay, we visited many historical places and gardens. For our next vacation, we will visit Delhi. My grandparents live in Delhi. Together, we will travel to Mathura. Isn’t that exciting? Notice that Siya is talking about actions that happen every day or are generally true, actions that have taken place earlier (in the past) and actions that will take place later (in the future). Just like Siya, when we communicate, we refer to the present time, the time in the past and the time in the future. In other words, we use tenses. Tenses Present tense Past tense Future tense  I live in Chennai.  We will visit Delhi.  We travelled to Bengaluru. 13

Let us revise the simple present, simple past and simple future tenses. Simple present Simple past Simple future  subject + base verb  subject + past tense  subject + will/shall + (‘-s’/‘-es’) + object form of verb + object base verb + object  The verbs in this tense  The verbs in this  The verbs in this tense refer to actions that will show habits and ideas tense refer to actions happen in the future. that apply in general or that have already (‘will go’, ‘will play’, ‘will sing’, ‘will dance’) as a rule. happened. (goes, plays, sings, (‘went’, ‘played’, dances) ‘sang’, ‘danced’) Examples: Examples: Examples: •  I play with my friends •  I played with my friends •  I will play with my friends every day. at school yesterday. at school tomorrow. •  R ita goes to tennis •  Rita went to tennis •  R ita will go to tennis practice daily. practice at 4:00 p.m. practice at 4:00 p.m. •  The Sun rises in the east. Let us look at more sentences in the three tenses. Simple present Simple past Simple future We go for a walk every We went for a walk last We will go for a walk every morning. morning. morning. You eat dosas for breakfast You ate dosas for breakfast You will eat dosas for breakfast on Thursday. every day. yesterday. He will watch a movie on He watches a movie every He watched a movie last Friday. night. night. They go on a family picnic They went on a family They will go on a family every year. picnic last week. picnic tomorrow. Exercise 1: Convert the tenses of the sentences according to the instructions in brackets. One is done for you. a) Rishav is happy to be home. (Change this to the simple future tense.) Ans. Rishav will be happy to be home. 14

b) S  eema rode to school on her bicycle. (Change this to the simple present tense.) Ans. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ c) M  y best friend will come to school. (Change this to the simple past tense.) Ans. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ d) G  ita and Rita play in the park. (Change this to the simple past tense.) Ans. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ e) T he dog barked at the stranger. (Change this to the simple present tense.) Ans. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ f) I visited my friends in Chennai. (Change this to the simple future tense.) Ans. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Present continuous tense The present continuous tense is used to describe actions that are taking place now. How should we form sentences in the present continuous tense? Children are playing in the garden. subject is/am/are object ‘-ing’ form of verb Tenses 15

Past continuous tense The past continuous tense is used to refer to actions that were going on at a particular time in the past. These actions were in progress in the past. How should we form sentences in the past continuous tense? Children were playing in the garden. subject was/were object ‘-ing’ form of verb Exercise 2: Fill in the blanks with verbs in the correct continuous tenses. One is done for you. a) You were cooking (cook) while I was doing my homework two hours ago. b) The girls ____________________________________ (go) to the playground now. c) The cat ____________________________________ (chase) the mouse yesterday. d) I ____________________________________ (make) tea for my mother right now. e) Harish ____________________________________ (listen) to the radio last night. f) I left the house when it ____________________________________ (rain) yesterday. Present perfect tense Afreen has finished her painting. I have seen the movie. You have passed your exam. These sentences describe actions that have just finished in the present. Such actions are written in the present perfect tense. 16

 The present perfect tense links the present and the past.  It talks about completed actions  It also talks about actions or (past) that are important now or situations that started in the past reports news. and continue in the present. Example: Example: � I have passed the exam. � He went to India in 2012. He has UaUs‘newsde‘ehs‘’iah,nas‘gt’vhuweelai’ytrhw’na‘iothnhuedn‘’I,’sp,.‘ls‘uhyroeau’l,n’‘,oit’uns. lived there ever since. A sentence in the present perfect tense looks like this: subject + have/has + past participle form + object of verb Kavya + has + completed + the project. Here is a list of the past participle forms of some common verbs. Base verb Past tense form Past participle form was, were been be (is, am, are) beat beat beaten begin began begun sing sang sung break broke broken bite bit bitten Tenses 17

Base verb Past tense form Past participle form blow blew blown choose chose chosen come came come dive dove dived go went gone eat ate eaten draw drew drawn do did done fall fell fallen freeze froze frozen give gave given grow grew grown see saw seen lay laid laid spend spent spent bend bent bent Exercise 3: Fill in the blanks with the present perfect forms of the verbs. One is done for you. a) I have read (read) the newspaper today. b) She ____________________________________ (be) nervous all day. c) They ____________________________________ (see) this play before. d) Josh ____________________________________ (call) them three times today. e) We ____________________________________ (spend) all our money. f) I ______________________ just ____________________ (eat). 18

Exercise 4: Answer the following questions about yourself in the present perfect tense. One is done for you. a) Have you ever seen a ghost? Ans. I have never seen a ghost. b) What languages have you studied? Ans.   c) Which cities or states have you travelled to in India? Ans.   d) How many friends have you met today? Ans.   e) What is the best food item that you have eaten today? Ans.   f) Where have you lived for the last two years? Ans.   Past perfect tense Read the given paragraph. Dina and Ravi participated in a dance competition yesterday. They had practised for this performance for almost a year. They glided together on the dance floor like birds in the sky. It was Dina and Ravi’s first public performance. They had never danced in front of people before. They had been inspired by salsa dancers. For this performance, they had designed their own costumes and had composed the music as well! Many dancers participated in the competition. The judges awarded the first prize to Dina and Ravi. Needless to say, they were over the moon! Tenses 19

The previous paragraph talks about an event in the past – the dance competition – and the events that happened before it. We use the past perfect tense to show which of two past actions happened first. When I arrived at the party, my best friend had already left. an earlier past event a more recent past now event past perfect simple past A sentence in the past perfect tense looks like this: subject + had + past participle form + object   of verb Kanta + had + left + the house when her   brother broke the cup. Let us look at some more examples. Later events in the past when the guests arrived. Earlier events in the past before it crashed. I had already finished my dinner before she visited me. The aeroplane had received many warnings when I arrived at the clinic. Navika had completed her work The doctor had left Later events in the past Earlier actions in the past When we reached their house the baby had slept. When the computer crashed I had saved all my data. Meera did not have any money as she had lost her wallet. 20

Second event in the past First event in the past before the By the time Satyam reached the cinema hall second event occurred the movie had already started. Exercise 5: Circle the past perfect form of the verbs in the given sentences. One is done for you. a) Everyone had gone home when I reached the party. b) Samar had eaten his breakfast before he left for school. c) When the chief guest arrived, the dance performance had already started. d) The train had left the station when I arrived there. e) Mayur had cleaned the house before the children came. f) Siya had studied French before she moved to Paris. Exercise 6: Fill in the blanks using the simple past or past perfect forms of the verbs in brackets. One is done for you. a) He had eaten (eat) his dinner before he boarded (board) the bus. b) I ____________________________________ (sleep) early last night as I ____________________________________ (finish) my project. c) Ayush ____________________________________ almost _______________________________ (complete) his homework when the lights ______________________________ (go) off. d) They ____________________________________ (live) in Hyderabad for five years before they ____________________________________ (move) to Gurgaon. e) By the time I ____________________________________ (reach) home, my father _______________________________ (repair) the bicycle. f) Mr Khanna ____________________________________ (own) this house for five years before he ____________________________________ (sell) it. Tenses 21

W8 Writing  Formal Writing Narrative paragraph writing Exercise 1: Imagine that you heard some noise in the kitchen at night. You got up from your bed and walked towards the kitchen. What happened next? Write a paragraph narrating the incident using the given hints. Hints: • What did you think the noise was? • How did you feel as you walked towards the kitchen? • What did you see? • What did you do and feel when you found out what had made the noise?  22

Creative Writing Photo description Exercise 2: Look at the given photograph. Describe what you see in it. Describe the surroundings and mood of the children. Writing 8 23

Hints: • Who do you see in the photo? • What are they doing? • Do they look happy or sad? • What do their surroundings look like? There are two ____________________________ and an ____________________________ in the picture. One boy is _________________________________________________________________ ____________________________. The other boy _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. They are __________________________________________________________________________. The boys look ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. They are in ________________________________________________________________________. The jungle is _______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. The ground is ______________________________________________________________________. There are __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. The photograph looks _____________________________________________________________. 24

R4 Reading Comprehension  Passage 1 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Last Sunday, little Phulmani went to watch a jatra with her parents. She was thrilled to watch it. The next day, when she narrated the story of the performance to the class, her teacher said that jatra is actually a kind of folk theatre. This kind of theatre is performed under different names in different parts of our country. It is called ‘tamasha’ in Maharashtra, ‘nautanki’ in northern India and ‘jatra’ in Bengal. Most of these folk theatre forms are based on mythological incidents or characters. India also has a rich heritage of classical dance forms, and each deals with a mythological narrative. The dancers wear colourful costumes and dance in harmony with music. Kathak is a dance of northern India, while Bharatanatyam, Mohiniattyam, Kuchipudi and Kathakali are all from southern India. Manipuri and Odissi are dance forms of eastern India. Such a wide variety of dance forms cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Phulmani came to know that Indian kings and rulers patronised classical music and dance in their courts. Emperor Akbar loved to listen to the songs of Tansen. Our country is so big that we have many different styles of classical music like Hindustani and Carnatic. Each of these styles began in temples and developed down the ages. 1) What did the teacher say a ‘jatra’ was? Ans.   25

2) Whose songs did Emperor Akbar like to listen to? Ans. 3) Rewrite the sentences by correcting the spelling and punctuation errors. a) i am very found of signing and dancing. Ans. b) My favorite dance is kathak I like bharatanatyam to. Ans. c) I want to partisipate in a dance compitition next ear. Ans. 4) The word from the passage that means ‘relating to or based on myths’ is . 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B a) character A) supported or sponsored b) heritage B) a role in a play c) patronised C) cultural traditions that are passed down through generations 26

Passage 2 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Little Meera was a disobedient child. Despite being only eight years old, she pretended to be a grown-up. She would hardly listen to her parents or her elder sister Keira, who was twelve. Her parents and teachers were tired of trying to correct her. Her mother kept complaining to her father about her. ‘What a disobedient girl! She asks me, “What’s the use of sending me to school when I can figure out everything on the internet?”’, exclaimed Mrs Thomas to her husband. ‘Give that tiny one some time. She is only eight and doesn’t know how tough life can get.’ In the evening, while Meera was watching how to make a grilled-chicken sandwich on the internet, she requested her mother to make one for her. ‘What’s the use of making a sandwich, Meera? You can just grab a bite from the internet!’ ‘Mummy! How can I do that? It’s a screen. I will hurt my teeth instead.’ ‘Exactly! The internet can help you see and hear but not taste, touch or feel. You can learn a lot from it, but you can’t taste a sandwich or get the feel of a classroom from the other side of the screen. I hope you understand the difference between the real world and the world of computers.’ ‘Yes, Mummy! Now can we please have some sandwiches?’ The happy family of four had a delicious snack of some grilled-chicken sandwiches. As the parents sipped their tea, Meera settled down at her study table and completed her homework happily. What more could her parents ask for? 6) What kind of a child was little Meera? Ans.   Reading Comprehension 4 27

7) What did Meera’s mother want her to understand? Ans.   8) Write the genders (masculine/feminine/neuter/common) of the following nouns. a) Keira –  b) teacher –  c) sandwich –  9) The anagram of ‘brag’ from the passage is  . (Hint: Anagrams are words formed by rearranging the letters of other words.) 10) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B a) disobedient A) cooked lightly on a grill b) exclaimed B) unwilling to obey c) grilled C) spoke with strong emotion 28

9 Adverbs Underline the adverbs of manner in the following sentences. a) They were talking loudly. b) He humbly refused the gift. c) She performed well in the exam. d) Smita got into bed slowly. Remember  Adverbs describe or say more about verbs and adjectives.  Adverbs that show the way or manner in which actions are done are called adverbs of manner.  They answer the question ‘how?’. Example: softly •  Ravi spoke softly. How did Ravi speak? So, ‘softly’ is the adverb of manner.  Most adverbs are formed by adding ‘-ly’ to the ends of adjectives. Examples: •  quick –   quickly •  beautiful –   beautifully 29

Now, let us learn about two new kinds of adverbs. Adverbs of degree Adverbs of degree tell us about the degree or intensity of an action. Adverbs of degree answer the question ‘to what extent?’. How difficult is Mathematics? It’s extremely easy. Here, the word ‘extremely’ is the adverb of degree. It shows the degree of difficulty of Mathematics. to a Here are a few more examples of adverbs of degree. considerable • Be careful. You almost fell from the tree. extent ‘Almost’ answers the question ‘to what extent?’. So, it is an adverb of degree. • It is too cold to go out. to a very large extent ‘Too’ describes the intensity of the cold weather. Hence, it is an adverb of degree. The following table gives the most commonly used adverbs of degree. almost nearly hardly very completely too enough quite just extremely 30

Adverbs of place An adverb of place tells us about the place where an action is carried out or happens. Adverbs of place answer the question ‘where?’. Let us go there. Notice that the word ‘there’ answers the question ‘where?’ and tells us about the location of the movement. So, it is an adverb of place. Here are two more examples of adverbs of place: where? – outside • She went outside. – around • Amalu looked around, but she couldn’t see anyone. The words ‘outside’ and ‘around’ tell us more about the location of the action or movement. So, they are adverbs of place. The following table gives the most commonly used adverbs of place. up down around inside outside away nearby there here Adverbs 31

Remember  S ometimes, adverbs also describe other adverbs. Examples: • She runs very fast. • I finished my work quite quickly. adverb of adverb of adverb of adverb of degree manner degree manner Exercise 1: Complete the table with the correct adjective or adverb forms of the given words. One is done for you. Adjective Adverb a) absolute absolutely b) charming __________________________________ c) __________________________________ exceptionally d) extreme __________________________________ e) __________________________________ strangely f) high __________________________________ Exercise 2: Underline the adverb in each sentence. Write the verb or adjective it describes in each of the sentences. One is done for you. Sentence Verb/Adjective a) He worked quickly. worked – verb b) Alan annoys me terribly. 32

Sentence Verb/Adjective c) Vandana's dress is quite pretty. d) She lives here. e) She crossed the road very slowly. f) Heena nearly won the race. Exercise 3: Fill in the blanks with adverbs of degree or place from the box below. One is done for you. anywhere   really   everywhere   extremely   very   outside a) This box is very light. b) The teacher asked him to go _____________________________. c) We looked for the dog _____________________________. d) He is _____________________________ tired. He cannot walk all the way home. e) I am _____________________________ grateful for your support. f) Dennis could not find his pencil box _____________________________. Adverbs 33

Exercise 4: Look at Twinky the monkey’s twin sister, Pinky. Fill in the blanks according to the instructions to show what she is doing. One is done for you. a) Pinky paints very well. (adverb of degree) Pinky is climbing a ladder that was lying b) ____________________. (adverb of place) Pinky is ____________________ brave to hang from c) that branch. (adverb of degree) d) Pinky puts the bananas ____________________. (adverb of place) e) Pinky holds the rope ____________________. (adverb of manner) f) Pinky is standing over ____________________. (adverb of place) 34

Exercise 5: Read Sam’s diary entry. Fill in the table using adverbs (of manner/ degree/place) from the diary page. One is done for you. Friday, 13th January I woke up happily today. I dressed up and ran outside to wait for the school bus. I was really happy to return to school. I walked inside to meet my friends. We played and studied merrily. Today was a very good day. Adverbs of manner happily Adverbs of degree Adverbs of place Exercise 6: Fill in the blanks with the correct adverbs of manner, place and degree from the box. One is done for you. around   completely   bravely   silently   nearby   extremely The warrior fought bravely with her bow and arrows. She went _________________________ the battlefield and fought against all her enemies. She was ____________________________ quick with her bow and arrows. She was ________________________ engaged in battle and could not be distracted by anything. A few villagers lived ________________________. They _________________________ watched the warrior fight for them. Adverbs 35

W9 Writing Formal Writing E-mail writing Read the sample e-mail given below to understand the various elements of an e-mail. To [email protected] Subject The e-mail id or address A one-line gist of of the person or persons [email protected] the contents of whom you are sending the e-mail. the e-mail to. Request for leave Greeting and Body Dear Sir, sign-off The body expresses Greet the person the main idea of your My name is Naitik Shah, and I study in Class 4. I am addressed with e-mail. An informal or writing to request you to grant me a leave of three words like ‘Hi’ or friendly e-mail does days. ‘Dear’. not need to have an I need to attend the 2018 Science Olympiad to introduction, body or be held in Delhi. I shall require two days to travel Sign off with a conclusion. The ideas back and forth. I promise to catch up on all the parting line and can flow as you want school work once I return. your name. them to. I hope you shall kindly grant me the leave. Tools In an official e-mail, we Regards, You can edit and must include a short Naitik Shah style your e-mail introductory paragraph, with the help of and then write the these. You can main information in the also send your second paragraph. e-mails by clicking on the blue ‘Send’ button on the left. 36

Exercise 1: You are a member of the student council of your school. Write an e-mail to a scientist, inviting him or her to your school’s Science exhibition. To: [email protected] Cc Bcc Subject:  Dear ___________________________, My name is _______________________________, and I am a student of _________________ ________________________________________________________________ and also a student council member. I am writing this e-mail to ___________________________________________ ________________________ that will be held in our school – our annual __________________ _________________ called _____________________________. It will be held on _____________ _________________________ in our ____________________________________________________. It will be an amazing exhibition, because ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ and so on. We also have a special room dedicated to _________________________________________. We would be grateful if you would ______________________________ and ____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. I eagerly await your response. Regards, _________________________________ Writing 9 37

Creative Writing Photo-based character sketch Exercise 2: Look at the photograph below and write character sketches of the people in it. Hints: • Who do you see in the photograph? • Where are they, and what are they doing? • What kind of people do they seem to be? • Describe them, and write what you feel about them. 38

Writing 9 39

10 Prepositions Look at the pictures given above and fill in the blanks with the appropriate preposition for each picture. Use prepositions that you have learnt in earlier classes. They are given in the word box below. Some pictures may match with more than one preposition, and a few other prepositions may not apply to any picture. in on under near over behind above at at the side of below next to beside in front of around between 40

Let us learn about a few more prepositions. It means 'to be along with or surrounded by several things, people or objects'. Examples: The black sheep is The boy is sitting among the white among the toys. The blue bird is among among the other sheep. birds. It means 'to be at the same place as one or many things, people or objects'. It shows the interaction between two or more people or things. Examples: The green bird is flying The cat is playing with Raju is playing with with the blue bird. a ball of wool. Asifa. with Prepositions 41

It means ‘in the direction of’. It shows the place, person or thing that someone or something moves towards. Examples: Rina walks to school They drive to Mumbai I sent the package to every day. every Saturday. my mother. to It is used to show the place where someone or something starts. It also denotes the time when something starts. Examples: Lunch will be served The petrol prices from 1:00 p.m. will increase from She sent me a from postcard from tomorrow. Switzerland. 42

Exercise 1: Complete the puzzle with the correct prepositions from the box. Use the sentences given below it as hints. One is done for you. a among near around below at from b L A c T D e d R N Across: b) Meera turned ___________________ when her friend called out to her. d) This gift was sent ___________________ Singapore. Down: a) Shoyeb looked from his balcony at the cars parked ___________________. b) He lives at 23 B, Vishakha Society. c) The lake is ___________________ the valley. e) The teacher is standing ___________________ the students. Prepositions 43

Exercise 2: Look at the picture and write true or false for each of the sentences given below it. One is done for you. a) The clock is under a plant. –  false b) A plant is beside the counter. –   c) The oven is behind the fridge. –   d) A bowl is falling from the floor. –   e) There is nobody in the kitchen. –   f) The saucepan is among the frying pan. –   44

Exercise 3: Look at the picture given below. Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions. One is done for you. a) A bird is sitting on a tree. b) A sloth is hanging __________________________________ the branch of a tree. c) A snake is wrapped __________________________________ the trunk of a tree. d) A bird is flying __________________________________ a flower. e) There are butterflies flying __________________________________ the leopard’s head. f) A butterfly is flying __________________________________ the sloth. Prepositions 45

Exercise 4: Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions from the options given in brackets. One is done for you. a) Meet me at (on/at) 9:00 p.m. b) The comet flew ___________________ (over/in) the Earth. c) Can you keep this box ___________________ (in/among) the storeroom? d) Divide this cake ___________________ (around/among) yourselves. e) I will be free ________________ (from/above) the 24th of June. f) I have set the painting ___________________ (between/above) my fireplace. Exercise 5: Look at the picture and make sentences based on the given prompts. One is done for you. a) owl bed : The owl is on the bed. b) ball bag :   c) gift dog :   d) table dog :   e) pillow owl’s head :   f) cat bed :   46

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