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Home Explore NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt_Reduced


Published by IMAX, 2021-06-03 05:11:17

Description: NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt_Reduced


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ENVIRONMENTAL 2 STUDIES TEXTBOOK Name: ___________________________________ Section: ________________ Roll No.: _________ School: __________________________________ NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 1 11/30/2017 4:56:56 PM

Preface IMAX partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. Our books strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. IMAX presents the Traveller series, designed specifically to meet the re uirements of the new curriculum released in November 2016 by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations CISCE . Guiding principles: The 2 1 CISCE curriculum states the following as its guiding principles for Environmental Studies E S : E S learning needs to be theme-based rather than topic-based Relating the child’s local knowledge to what is learnt in class will discourage the rote memorisation and encourage the developmentally age-appropriate learning isuals illustrations play a very pivotal role in E S learning Activities and uestions have an important place in E S learning Each of these principles resonates with the spirit in which the IMA textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books have been designed. The IMA team of pedagogy experts has carried out an intensive mapping exercise to create a framework based on the CISCE curriculum document. Key features of IMAX Traveller series: Theme-based content that addresses all the specified learning outcomes holistically. Student engagement through age-appropriate, visually appealing and activity-based content. Diverse presentation and activities to address the differential learning styles of students. A variety of uestion types based on Bloom’s taxonomy to build specific thinking skills. ocus on E S-specific vocabulary building. All in all, the Traveller series aims to promote an interdisciplinary learning of the environment and its dynamic interactions with humans subtly in order to promote concern and sensitivity towards the environment as a vital entity that supports the existence of life. – The Authors NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 2 11/30/2017 4:56:56 PM

Textbook Features se f si e a e a r riate an a e cti it based a r ac t earnin se f inf ra ics and ict res t e ain c nce ts and ter s c s n s b ect re ated cab ar b i din I Think I Will Learn About • I ntroduces the concept • Lists the key learning subtopic in a manner as to outcomes of the lesson arouse curiosity and interest among students ? In-text Questions Pin-Up-Note • O ral discussion uestions to check for learning and to • H ighlights the key points or gauge the understanding definitions level of the child Connect the Dots A Be Amazed • osters interdisciplinary • ascinating facts and trivia thinking by connecting other related to the concept subjects to an aspect of the taught concept Inside the Lab A Note to Parent • H ands-on experience • Engaging activities to be done provided for creating, at home along with parents to designing or implementing reinforce the concept something innovative and or useful based on the concept learnt NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 3 11/30/2017 4:56:58 PM

Contents 1 Me and My Body ...................................................................................................... 1 2 My Big Family ............................................................................................................ 9 3 What Should I Eat? .................................................................................................. 16 4 Water for Life ........................................................................................................... 23 5 Our Need – Shelter ................................................................................................. 29 Inside the Lab – A ........................................................................................................... 38 Activity A1: Body Map Activity A2: Family Tree 6 Our Need – Clothing .............................................................................................. 41 7 Our Need – Air ......................................................................................................... 48 8 Clean, Safe and Healthy ........................................................................................ 54 9 Our Need – Public Places ...................................................................................... 60 10 Parts of Plants .......................................................................................................... 66 Inside the Lab – B ........................................................................................................... 72 Activity B1: First-aid Box Activity B2: Art with Grains and Seeds! 11 Animal Behaviour ................................................................................................... 75 12 Vehicles and Fuels ................................................................................................. 83 13 Our Need – Communication ................................................................................. 89 14 The World Around Me ............................................................................................. 94 15 Time, Space and Direction .................................................................................. 102 Inside the Lab – C ......................................................................................................... 107 Activity C1: Make Your Script Activity C2: Roller NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 4 11/30/2017 4:57:01 PM

1Lesson Me and My Body I Will Learn About • body parts and their functions. • locating different body parts in a human body. • how our likes, dislikes and hobbies make us different from one another. • the need to respect the hobbies, likes, dislikes and feelings of others. I Think Ajay and his younger brother Aman were riding bicycles. Aman fell down and started crying. His father took him to a doctor. The doctor said that Aman has hurt his ankle. Ajay did not understand which body part the ankle is. Do you know? Do you remember the three main parts of our body? They are the head, trunk and limbs. Also, we have learnt about sense organs. Can you tell their names? Five senses: See Hear Smell Taste Touch Sense organs: , , , , Now let us learn more about our body parts. NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 5 1 11/30/2017 4:57:01 PM

Body parts and their functions Head Trunk Human body Limbs Hair 11/30/2017 4:57:01 PM Forehead Ear Eye Nose Tooth Mouth Neck Shoulder Chest Elbow Arm Stomach Hand Finger Leg Knee Ankle Foot Toe 2 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 6

The head is the uppermost part of the body. It has hair, two eyes, two eyebrows, two Hair ears, a nose, two cheeks and a mouth. Hair keeps our head warm and safe. Eyebrow The eyes help us to see. The ears help us Eye to hear. The nose helps us to breathe and Ear smell. Cheek Nose Mouth The mouth helps us to speak, eat and drink. Head It is covered by a pair of lips. Inside the mouth are a set of teeth and a tongue. The teeth help to bite and chew food, and the tongue helps to taste it. Lip ? Name the body part Teeth that helps us to chew food. Tongue Lips and teeth The trunk is the middle part of the body. It has the shoulders, chest and stomach. It holds all our body parts together. The neck joins the head to the trunk. Neck Shoulder Trunk Chest Stomach NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 7 ? Name the body part that joins the head to the trunk. Me and My Body 3 11/30/2017 4:57:01 PM

Limbs are our arms and legs. Arms have elbows and hands. Hands have wrists, fingers and nails. Legs have knees, ankles, feet, toes and nails. Hand Nail Ankle Elbow Fingers Nail Toe Wrist Arm Hand Knee Foot We do many things with our arms and legs. Can you recollect how they help us? Hands help us to hold, and . Legs and toes help us to walk, , Our body has different parts. and . These parts are different in shape, Why do we have nails? They protect the tips of size and number. our fingers and toes. They help us in different ways. We have skin all over our body. It covers and protects all the body parts. Locating different body parts in a human body Try this! You have learnt about the different body parts. Let us now try to locate the different body parts in the human body. The outline of a human body and images of different body parts are given on the next page. Locate the positions of these body parts in the human body. One has been done for you. 4 11/30/2017 4:57:02 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 8

Eyebrow Hair Eye Ear Neck Cheek Lips Teeth Nose Mouth Tongue Knee Finger Arm Nail Chest Hand Ankle Foot Stomach Wrist Toes Shoulder Elbow Leg Be Amazed A We grow tall only up to a certain age. But, our nose and ears grow throughout our life. Me and My Body 5 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 9 11/30/2017 4:57:02 PM

Look at the picture of two boys, Ajit and Sujit. What do you see? Both of them have the same body parts, and both of them are wearing the same type of clothes. What makes them different from one another? Let us see. Ajit likes to play games Sujit likes to paint pictures. Ajit likes Ajit and Sujit to eat chocolates Sujit likes to eat fruits. Ajit likes to share his things with others while Sujit does not. How our likes, dislikes and hobbies make us different from one another Like Ajit and Sujit, every one of us has different likes and dislikes. Like our likes and dislikes, our hobbies are different too. There are different kinds of hobbies. or example, reading, singing, painting, dancing, cooking, gardening, photography and so on. They help us to learn new things. They keep us fit and fine. Some hobbies like dancing and sports teach us to work in groups. Various hobbies Painting Badminton Swimming Dancing What are your hobbies? Do your friends have the same hobbies? The need to respect the hobbies, likes, dislikes and feelings of others Nisha reads books during her free time, but her friend Nidhi goes for dance classes. Nidhi always makes fun of Nisha when she reads books. Nisha feels sad. Is it good to make fun of others’ hobbies? How would you feel if someone makes fun of your hobby? Our likes, dislikes and hobbies make us special and different from others. So, we should respect the likes, dislikes and hobbies of others. 6 11/30/2017 4:57:02 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 10

We should not make fun of them. In class 1, you have learnt about feelings. Can you name some feelings? What do you do when you feel angry? Some people shout at others and use bad words when they get angry. Do you think this is right? How would you feel if someone shouts at you? You will feel bad. So we should not shout at others when we are angry. What do your parents do when you are sad? They ask you what makes you sad. They do things to make you happy. What do you do when you see that your friend is sad about something? Do you try to make him her happy? Connect the Dots English Fun Rashi is your friend. You have decided to exchange postcards with each other. Use the postcard given below to fill up your personal details. You can paste your photograph too. My name is . I am years old. My father’s name is . My mother’s name is . I live in . I go to school. I study in Class . I like to . I do not like to . My hobbies are and . Me and My Body 7 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 11 11/30/2017 4:57:02 PM

Maths Fun I have eight friends. our of my friends like chocolates and the others do not. How many of my friends do not like chocolates? Total number of friends = Number of friends who like chocolates = Number of friends who do not like chocolates = − = A Note to Parent Discuss your child’s hobbies with him her. Tell him her the importance of having a hobby. 8 11/30/2017 4:57:02 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 12

2Lesson My Big Family I Will Learn About • members of our extended family. • the family tree of extended family members. • the role of extended family members, friends, neighbours and pets. • celebration with friends, neighbours and extended family members. • taking care of our family members. I Think Roshan told Leena that he would be going to his village to meet his cousins during his vacation. Leena wants to know who her cousins are. Do you know your cousins? Do they stay with you? We learnt in Class 1 that a family is a group of people who are related to one another. Our parents and siblings are part of our family. Now, let us learn about a few other members of our family. Members of our extended family Our cousins, aunts, uncles and grandparents are Grandparents, our extended family members. They may or may uncles, aunts and not live with us. cousins are our extended family • Sisters of our mother or father are called our members. aunts. NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 13 9 11/30/2017 4:57:02 PM

• Brothers of our mother or father are called our uncles. • Children of our aunts and uncles are our cousins. In a joint family, all the extended family members live together. In nuclear families, extended family members live in different places. Do your extended family members live Name any two extended family members. Be Amaze ?with you? When do you meet them? A d Narasinganavar family is a family of about 1 members living together. The entire family lives in the village of Lokur, arnataka. The family tree of extended family members Do you remember what a chart of our family is called? We call it a family tree. It looks like a tree. It has us, our parents and grandparents. Let us draw a family tree of all our extended family members. How different will it be? It will be a bigger tree with many branches. It may also have the parents of our grandparents. They are our great- grandparents. All the members who lived before our grandparents are our ancestors. ? What do we call the members of our family who lived before our grandparents? Look at the family tree of Priya. It shows the extended family members and ancestors of Priya. 10 11/30/2017 4:57:02 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 14

Great-grandparents Grandparents Aunt Uncle Parents Cousins Sibling Priya Extended family tree of Priya This family tree shows great-grandparents of Priya on top. Then it shows her grandparents, parents and finally her. The role of extended family members, friends, neighbours and pets Our extended family members are there for us in times of need. We share our joys and sorrows with them. Cousins may also be our closest friends. We share our things with them. We play with them. Our grandparents look after us and tell us stories. We should also do our bit by helping in small tasks. We can make our bed every morning. We can keep our toys in place. We can water the plants. Our neighbours and friends are not a part of our extended family. But we play, eat and celebrate with them. Some of our friends and neighbours take care of us like our family members do. My Big Family 11 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 15 11/30/2017 4:57:02 PM

Some families have pets like dogs, cats or fish at their houses. Do you have a pet? Have you ever heard about pets taking care of small children at home? We should also take care of our pets by feeding them on time, giving them enough water, bathing them, keeping them clean and so on. We should never hit them. They are Animals as a part of the family not able to speak like us. So, we should understand their needs. We should feed them when they are hungry. We should comfort Pets them when they are scared. We should not leave them when they are old. Celebration with friends, neighbours and extended family members It is exciting to meet our extended family members on special occasions Can you name a few occasions when the entire extended family gets together? estivals, birthdays and weddings are more fun because of our family. This is a good time for cousins to bond with each other. How do you celebrate festivals and special occasions? Families celebrating festivals 12 11/30/2017 4:57:02 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 16

We celebrate by: • wearing special clothes. • giving sweets and gifts to one another. • decorating our houses and the neighbourhood. • playing games, playing music, dancing and singing together. We often go to different places to visit our extended family during our holidays. Sometimes, we may go on a trip with them. When was the last time you took a holiday with your family? Where did you go? Different families may celebrate different festivals. But we all celebrate national festivals together. Republic Day and Independence Day are our two important national festivals. We celebrate them in school Celebration of national festivals at school and in the neighbourhood. We celebrate national festivals like one large extended family. On these days, we hoist our national ? Name any two national a and sing the national anthem. festivals. Taking care of our family members Many family members, neighbours and friends may need extra help and care. Old family members and babies need help to walk, find their belongings and take their medicines. Each member of our family is our responsibility. We must respect them and take care of them. My Big Family 13 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 17 11/30/2017 4:57:02 PM

We can take care of them and help them in the following ways: • Spend time with them • Read books and tell stories ? Tell any two ways to • Help them to cross streets help old people. • Carry their grocery A few people in our family need help to see, to hear or to walk. Such people are called differently-abled people. We should help differently-abled people by becoming their friends and helping them in the tasks which they find difficult. Respecting elders Differently-abled people Connect the Dots English Fun Underline the verbs action words in the list given below. people hear see father pet meet 14 11/30/2017 4:57:02 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 18

Maths Fun Aarti has four members in her family. Two of them are children. Nandita has eight members in her family. Out of these, there are three children. What is the total number of children in both families? Number of children in Aarti’s family = Number of children in Nandita’s family = Total number of children in both families = 2 = A Note to Parent Share past stories of your family with your child. Help him her make a family tree of extended family members. My Big Family 15 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 19 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM

3Lesson What Should I Eat? I Will Learn About • the need and importance of food. • food items we eat. • types of food. • healthy food and junk food. • diversity in food habits. • reasons for differences in food habits. I Think Riya has her meals on time. But she likes to eat rice and dal only. Her mother asks her to eat different kinds of food. Do you know why? The need and importance of food Can you imagine not having food for one whole day? What do you think will happen? You will become weak and fall ill. We need food to get energy to do work and grow. Our body needs to repair its wounds, stay healthy and be strong. The food we eat contains the nutrients that help our body to carry out these functions. Food items we eat What are the different types of food items we eat? 16 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 20

Rice Wheat Maize Cereals/Grains Green gram Bengal gram Pigeon pea Lentil Pulses/Dals Carrot Spinach Cauli o er Vegetables Onion Potato Tomato Fruits Mango Pineapple Orange Apple Banana Guava Jackfruit Grapes Milk Cheese Curd Paneer Milk and milk products Meat Eggs Fish eat e s an fish What Should I Eat? 17 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 21 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM

Can you tell which of these food items ? Name two dals we eat. do we get from plants? And which ones do we get from animals? Types of food Different food items help us in different ways. Based on this, there are three types of food. Some food items like cereals, oil, vegetables and fruits give us energy to do work. They are called energy giving food. We need energy to study, run, play and so on. Energy giving food Cereals Oil Vegetables Fruits Some food items like pulses, milk, meat, fish and eggs help us to grow. They also make our body strong. They are called body-building food. Body-building food Pulses Milk Fish Eggs Some food items protect us from getting ill. They prepare our body to fight against illness-causing germs. or example, fruits and vegetables. We call them protective food or resistance giving food. 18 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 22

Protective food ? Name two energy giving food items. Fruits Vegetables Healthy food and junk food ood items that are fresh, clean and rich in nutrients are known as healthy food. Eating healthy food keeps us fit and strong. Healthy food provides resistance or immunity to our body and protects us from falling sick. But, there are some food items that are not good for our health if eaten regularly. They have very low levels of nutrients. Pizzas, burgers, deep Junk food fried items like samosa and chips, chaat, fizzy drinks and so on are some such food items. These food items contain a lot of sugar, salt, cheese and oil. Such food items are called junk food. Eating too much junk food makes us unhealthy. • It is usually not fresh. Healthy food is fresh, clean and rich in • It may cause stomach problems. nutrients. Junk food is any food that • It may make us fat, weak and lazy due to the is low in nutrients. high amounts of sugar and oil in it. It contains high levels of sugar, salt, • It may affect our growth as it is low in nutrients cheese and oil. that help growth. • It may make us fall ill often. unk food does not contain nutrients that protect us from illness-causing germs. What Should I Eat? 19 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 23 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM

Be Amazed A A single can of Coca-Cola has about -1 teaspoons of sugar in it If you drink a can of Coca-Cola every day for a month, it is e ual to almost 1 kilogram of sugar Diversity in food habits People eat different kinds of food. This is known as food habits. Many people mostly eat plant products. They do not eat eggs, meat and fish. These people are called vegetarians. Non-vegetarians are people who eat eggs, meat, fish as well as plant products. Reasons for differences in food habits Why do people have differences in eating habits? Let us find out. 1) T ype of work they do: People who do a lot of physical work like construction workers, sportsmen and farmers eat more energy giving food. 2) Age: A new-born baby drinks only milk. School-going children need more food to grow. ery old people eat soft food. They eat roti soaked in milk or dal-rice. Old people eat soft food 3) T he weather: When days are hot, we eat chilled food and drinks like buttermilk and fresh juices. When the days are cold, we take food and drinks that keep us warm, for example, soups. People who live in very cold places are generally non-vegetarians. Meat keeps the body warm. Buttermilk 20 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 24

4) H ealth condition: When you are ill, you may not feel like eating food. Your parents may give you soups or khichdi. 5) T he place they live in: People living in different places have different eating habits. Some of your friends may eat chapati and curry more some may eat rice with curry. 6) T he occasion: People make special food during different festivals. Can you name some food items that are made during festivals? ? What type of food do we take when the days are cold? Connect the Dots English Fun ind two rhyming words each for: 1 c ook: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 2 f ry: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ f it: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ o il: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 5 s ick: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ What Should I Eat? 21 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 25 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM

Maths Fun In a shop, there are food items in all, of which, 7 food items are healthy. How many junk food items are there in the shop? Total number of food items in the shop = Number of healthy food items = 7 Number of junk food items = Total number of food items in the shop − Number of healthy food items = − 7 = A Note to Parent Help your child draw pictures and write the names of different kinds of food items. Also, ask him her to categorise them into the food we get from plants and the food we get from animals. 22 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 26

4Lesson Water for Life I Will Learn About • the need of water for plants, animals and humans. • sources of water – natural and man-made. • purification of water for drinking purpose. • water pollution. • ways to keep water sources clean. • how to save water at home and school. I Think Look at the given picture. You can see many animals near the stream. What are they doing? Why have all of them come to the stream? The need of water for plants, animals and humans We need water to drink, bathe, wash clothes, clean utensils and so on. If we do not get water to drink, we feel thirsty. If we do not get water for a longer time, we feel tired. We cannot live for long without water. If there is no water, we cannot take a bath and clean our surroundings. We may then even fall ill because of dirt on our body and in our surroundings. What about plants and animals? Plants and animals also need water to live. NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 27 23 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM

If plants do not get water, they dry up, droop and slowly die. ? What happens to plants if they do not get water? Plant that Plant that did Like us, animals also feel tired and got water not get water become ill if they do not get water to drink and cool themselves down. Sources of water – natural and man-made Where does water come from? We get water from different sources. In nature, we get water in the form of rain, oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, ponds and springs. These are natural sources of water. The main source of water is rain. All the natural sources get water from rain. Natural sources of water Rain Ocean River Pond Lake Stream Spring Other sources of water are made by man, for example, dams, wells, tube wells, handpumps, canals and so on. They are an ade artificia sources of water. 24 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 28

Man-made sources of water Dam Well Tube well Handpump Canal ? Name any two natural Sources of water sources of water. are of two types: natural and man- made. rificati n f ater f r drin in r se Can we use water from rivers or ponds directly Water may contain for drinking? harmful things like dirt or mud, No, we cannot drink that water because it contains dirt or mud. It may also have er s in arba e er s it. So, we need to remove all harmful things from and so on. water before drinking. To make water from different sources fit for drinking, we need to remove all harmful things from it. Let us see how we can do this. Try this! Mud remains at the surface of the cotton 1) Take a glass of muddy water. cloth 2) Take another glass and cover its mouth with a thick cotton cloth. Use a thread or rubber band to secure it. 3) Pour the muddy water into the glass, through the cloth. What do you see? Mud remains at the surface of the cotton cloth. Clear water is collected in the glass. Water for Life 25 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 29 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM

Try this! 1) Take a glass of muddy water. Let it stand still for sometime. What do you see? Mud settles at the bottom of the glass. 2) Now slowly pour the clear water to another glass. The water in the glass looks clear but it is still not fit for Mud settles drinking. It still has germs. We can boil the water to kill at the bottom of those germs. the glass Removing all harmful things from water to make it fit for drinking is called ater rificati n. ? What should we do to kill Boiling water the germs in water? kills germs Water pollution Sometimes, waste from houses and other places mixes with water. This is called water pollution. Water containing harmful substances is called polluted water. It is bad for our health. Some reasons for pollution of water bodies are: • Waste water from homes and other places mixing in the sources of water • Throwing garbage in sources of water • Washing clothes and cleaning utensils in sources of water • Bathing animals in sources of water a s t ee ater s rces c ean In order to keep water sources clean, we should take the following precautions: 26 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 30

d• We should not throw garbage in water sources. • We should avoid washing clothes, cleaning utensils or bathing animals in water sources. • We should not discharge waste water from houses and other places into any water sources. How to save water at home and school We saw that not all water available to us is fit for drinking. So, we should not waste the drinking water that we get at home and school. • Use the leftover water in your water bottle to wash hands or water plants. • Always turn off taps after using them. • Use buckets instead of hoses for washing cars and watering plants. • W ater used for washing fruits and vegetables can be reused for watering plants. Can you talk about a few more ways to save water? Be Amaze A Did you know that many food items contain a lot of water? Can you name such food items? Milk contains a lot of water in it. Fruits like oranges, watermelons and grapes are full of water. e etab es like cucumber, capsicum and spinach also contain lots of water. Orange Watermelon Grapes Cucumber Capsicum Spinach Water for Life 27 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 31 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM

Connect the Dots English Fun ind three words which can be used to describe water. or example, clean. 1 2 Maths Fun There are four members in a family. Every member needs four buckets of water daily. How much water will the family need in a day? ++ + = A Note to Parent Discuss the ill effects of drinking unclean water with your child. Also, help him her make a simple water filter at home using a piece of cotton cloth. 28 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 32

5Lesson Our Need – Shelter I Will Learn About • different types of houses. • reasons for differences among houses. • materials used for making different types of houses. • the need for decorating houses. • the need for light and ventilation in houses. • the need for and care of houses and household things. I Think We see different types of houses around us. What kind of house do you live in? Did your grandparents ever tell you what type of house they lived in? Let us first see the different parts of a house. Roof Wall Window Door Floor NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 33 29 11/30/2017 4:57:03 PM

Different types of houses Houses are of different shapes and sizes. Some are big with many rooms some are small. Some houses are strong some are weak. They are also made of different materials. Hut – Kutcha house Bungalow Apartment building House with sloping roof Stilt house – A house Tree house – House built upon stilts made inside/on a tree Mobile houses – Houses that can be moved easily from one place to another Caravan Tent Houseboat Igloo – House made of snow ? Name any two types of houses. 30 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 34

Why do people make different types of houses? Let us see. Reasons for differences among houses People build different types of houses to suit their needs. Let us learn about them in detail. 1) Life style of people: In villages, people have a lot of space around their houses. They mostly grow food plants and keep animals in this space. Some of them also have rooms to store food grains like wheat and rice. In cities, there is less land to build separate houses. So, there are fewer houses with space around them. People mostly live in apartments. These are situated in tall buildings with many levels called rs. Each floor may have many apartments on it. S ome people move from place to place instead of living in one place all the time. They are called nomads. They live in tents. People moving together may use houses on wheels called caravans. In places with many lakes and rivers, people need to travel a lot through water. Such places have houseboats. Some people live in forests and jungles. They live in tree houses. Tree houses protect them from wild animals. 2) W eather: Houses in places with heavy rainfall or snowfall have sloping roofs. Rainwater and snow easily slide off from sloping roofs. W e find stilt houses by riversides. They are built at a height. This prevents water from entering the houses. People build Igloos are the houses made of snow that are different houses built in very cold places. depending on their needs and places they live in. ? Name the type of house built on water. Our Need – Shelter 31 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 35 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM

Be Amazed A The tallest building in the world is in Dubai. Its name is Burj Khalifa. It has 1 floors above the ground. Burj Khalifa We have learnt that people live in houses that are suitable to their needs. But, how do we build different types of houses? What are the materials we use to build houses? Let us see. Materials used for making different types of houses We use different types of materials to build the walls, roofs, floors, windows and doors of our houses. Let us look at some of the materials that are used to build different types of houses. 1 W e use mud, clay and straw to ? Name any two materials make huts. used to build a hut. 2 Stilt houses are made with bamboo. People use wood and leaves to make tree houses. Houseboats are made using wood. This helps them to float on water. 5 I gloos are made from blocks of snow. We know that snow is cold. But, these igloos are warm from inside. or bungalows and apartments, we mostly use bricks, iron, stones, sand, cement, glass and wood. 32 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 36

Different types of building materials Mud Clay Straw Bamboo Wood Snow Bricks Iron Stones Sand Cement Glass NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 37 Our Need – Shelter 33 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM

7 In some houses with sloping roofs, roof tiles are Roof tiles used. These tiles have grooves for water to flow down easily. We also use different types of paints to paint walls, roofs, windows and so on. Paints protect the walls of our houses from rain and heat and make them look beautiful. The need for decorating houses Paint We take a bath every day, wear clean and tidy clothes and comb our hair properly. Why do we do that? To look nice. In the same way, we decorate our houses so that they look nice. We use wall hangings, paintings, photographs and so on to make our houses beautiful. We can also use carpets to decorate the floors of our houses. The need for light and ventilation in houses All houses have windows and doors. Can you tell why? Doors allow entry into the house and exit to the outside. Also, doors and windows keep our houses ventilated and well lit. Ventilation is a continuous flow of fresh air within rooms. This gives us fresh air to breathe. It also removes bad smell from the house. The sunlight that enters through windows and doors kills germs inside the house. This helps us to stay healthy. Windows and doors also let in natural light. So we do not have to keep our lights and bulbs switched on during the daytime. Ventilation and sunlight keep us fit an health 34 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 38

The need for and care of houses and household things We all need a house to protect us from hot and cold weather. Our house also keeps us safe from thieves and wild animals. We also need different things in our house to fulfil our needs. We need chairs to sit. We need shelves and cupboards to keep our belongings. We need a television to watch our favourite shows. We need mattresses to sleep. How do we take care of all these things? Look at the picture given below. What are the family members doing? They are taking care of their house and the household things. A few ways to take care of our houses are: 1 Sweep the floor and wipe it with soap water using a mop to remove dirt. 2 D ust different household things Mop Dusters using a duster. We can also use a vacuum cleaner to remove dust. Our Need – Shelter 35 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 39 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM

Wipe windows and doors. eep carpets, bed covers and curtains free of dust, moisture and dirt. 5 D o not write or draw on walls, and do Vacuum cleaner Glass cleaner not touch them with dirty hands. eep all things in the correct place after using them. 7 T hrow garbage into dustbins. Empty Dustbin dustbins regularly. eep windows open to let fresh air and sunlight in. D o not let dirty water collect anywhere near the house. Mos uitoes will lay eggs in it. Mos uitoes cause various illnesses. 1 Ensure regular maintenance of electrical appliances in the house. Connect the Dots English Fun List the different materials that have been used to build your classroom school building with the help of your teacher. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 36 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 40

Maths Fun Count and write the number of each type of house. ind the total number. If we remove two tree houses, how many houses will be left? Number of huts = Number of house boats = Number of tree houses = Total number of houses = = Total number of houses after removing two tree houses = Total number of houses − 2 = 2 = A Note to Parent Discuss the type of building materials used to build your house with your child. Help him her identify the different aspects of designing a house like the height of the ceiling, position of windows, type of flooring, roof style and so on. Also, help him her to make models of various kinds of houses. Our Need – Shelter 37 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 41 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM

A Inside the Lab Make sure you do these activities only with the help of a teacher or an adult. Activity A1: Body Map We have learnt about the parts of our body and how they work. Let us try to remember them. Hair You will need: a large sheet of paper and Eye coloured crayons. Nose Lip You need to: Neck 1) Spread a large sheet of paper Shoulder on the floor. Arm 2) Ask one of your classmates to Stomach lie down on the paper. Hand 3) Trace the outline of his or her Finger body. 4) Ask him or her to get up. Knee 5) Draw the parts of the face on Leg the paper. Foot Toe 6) Both of you together try to label all the body parts on the body map made by you. 7) Use different coloured crayons to colour and mark the different body parts. 38 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 42

Activity A2: Family Tree A family tree shows how the different members of a family are related to each other. It is easy to make a family tree. Let us create one. You will need: one brown paper, a few sheets of coloured paper, photographs of your family members, a scrapbook and some tools like pencil, eraser, scissors, ruler and glue. You need to: 1) List down the names of the family members you know. 2) Take help of your teacher and draw a tree on the brown paper with as many branches and sub-branches as you require to represent your family members. 3) Cut out this paper tree using scissors, and paste it in your scrapbook. (Cut the paper only with the help of your teacher.) 4) Cut a few circles from different coloured papers. (This step should be done under the teacher’s supervision.) 5) Also, cut the photographs of your family members in circular shapes and smaller than the coloured circles. (This step should be done under the teacher’s supervision.) 6) Paste these photos over the coloured circular paper pieces. Inside the Lab – A 39 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 43 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM

7) Then, paste these photos at the end of suitable branches and sub- branches of your family tree. D raw and cut leaves, flowers, fruits and birds from coloured paper. You can use these to decorate your family tree. 40 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 44

6Lesson Our Need – Clothing I Will Learn About • the need and importance of clothes. • the variety in cloth material. • types of cloth fibres and their sources. • clothes suitable for different weather conditions. • taking care of different types of cloth. I Think Ridhima got a beautiful frock as a birthday gift from her aunt. It was soft and smooth to touch. She wondered why the clothes we wear look and feel different. The need and importance of clothes We have learnt in Class 1 that we wear different types of clothes depending on the weather, occasion or work. We need clothes to keep us covered and protect us from unsuitable weather conditions. The variety in cloth material We have a variety in cloth materials. Some of them keep us warm. Some keep us cool. Some are smooth and shiny. Some are rough and thick, and some are thin and light to wear. NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 45 41 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM

They look and feel different Silk Cotton Wool because of the differences in the material used to make them. There are different types of materials used to make clothes such as silk, cotton, wool and so on. T es f c t fibres and t eir s rces If we look closely at the different clothes we wear, Clothes we wear we see that they have thin hair-like threads in are made of thin them. These threads are called fibres. hair-like fibres. Where do we get these fibres from? Let us see. Some fibres are found in nature. We call them nat ra fibres. Some of them are present in plant parts. or example, cotton and jute. We get cotton fibres from the fruit of the cotton plant. Cotton is one of the most common fibres we use. It is used to make a variety of clothes. Cotton plant Cotton fi re Cotton clothes We get te fibres from the stem of the jute plant. ute fibres are thick and rough. They are used to make bags, mats, ropes and sacks. ute lant ute fi re ute a 42 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 46

? Name a fibre we get from plants. We get some natural fibres from animals. or example, wool and silk. Wool is mainly obtained from the eece of sheep at ra fibres are or goats. leece is the thick covering of wool on a of two types: plant sheep or a goat. We also get wool from the hair fibres and animal of rabbits, yaks and camels. We use it to make fibres. sweaters, pullovers, caps, socks, shawls, blankets and other warm clothes. hee Wool oollen clothes Silk fibres are obtained from the cocoon of silkworms. Silk fibres are used to make sarees, frocks, kurta-pyjama, shirts and so on. il or cocoon Silk il froc Be Amaze A d You know that we get silk from silkworms. But do you know hundreds of silkworms are killed to make one silk saree? A person named s a a aia has come up with usu a a aiah a method to produce silk without killing silkworms. is la in a sil saree Some fibres are made by us. We call them man-made (artificia or synthetic fibres. Our Need – Clothing 43 NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 47 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM

Nylon and rayon are some commonly used man-made fibres. They are used to make clothes, bags, raincoats, ? Name any one umbrellas and so on. synthetic fibre. t es s itab e f r different eat er c nditi ns The clothes we wear should be suitable to the weather. During hot and sunny weather, we wear light and thin cotton clothes. Cotton allows air to pass through it. It soaks our sweat and keeps us cool. During cold weather, we need thick and warm clothes to protect our body from cold. So, we wear woollen clothes. They keep us warm. During rainy weather, we wear thin synthetic clothes that dry easily. Moreover, we use raincoats and umbrellas made of waterproof synthetic fibres. They do not allow water to pass through them. They protect us from getting wet. r this Take a drawing paper. Draw pictures of various types of clothes worn by men and women during different weather conditions on the paper and colour them. Taking care of different types of cloth Taking care of our clothes makes them look better and helps them last longer. Let us see how we can take care of our clothes. 1 W e need to follow the instructions written on the tag of clothes. It has washing, drying and ironing instructions on it. 44 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 48

2 Cotton and synthetic clothes should be washed well with soap or detergent. This helps to remove all the sweat, dirt and stains. Drying dark-coloured clothes in direct and bright sunlight for too long can make the colours dull. So we should dry them in shade. Ironing clothes makes them wrinkle-free. a of clothes eter ent ron 5 Woollen and silk clothes need a lot of care. They should be dry- cleaned or washed gently with cold water. ? How can we make clothes Detergent is mixed with wrinkle-free? water to remove dirt and stains from clothes. S ome small animals like moths eat away Ironing is removing wrinkles from clothes clothes. So, we should store silk and using a heated iron. woollen clothes with t ba s or dried neem leaves. These will keep moths away. Moth oth alls ee lea es NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 49 Our Need – Clothing 45 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM

Connect the Dots English Fun Adjectives are describing words. Circle the adjectives in the list given below. cloth fibre synthetic hot Maths Fun Reena wants to create a design pattern for her new skirt. Help her create it using circles , s uares and triangles . Draw the pattern in the box given below. 46 11/30/2017 4:57:04 PM NR_BGM_Traveller-G2-Textbook-EVS-FY_Txt.pdf 50

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