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CO MPASS SERIES social studies Textbook part - 2 3 Name: Learn@Home Sec�on: Roll No.: School:

Preface ClassKlap partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. Our books strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. ClassKlap presents the Traveller series, designed specifically to meet the requirements of the new curriculum released in November 2016 by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE). Guiding principles: The 2016 CISCE curriculum states the following as a few of its guiding principles for Social Studies teaching:  Connecting learning to life in the outside world  Integrating Social Studies with other subjects across the curriculum and arts  Using meaningful contexts to develop interpersonal and life skills  Making assessment for learning an integral part of the teaching-learning process  Ensuring active participation of children by using a variety of activities and tasks Each of these principles resonates with the spirit in which the ClassKlap textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books have been designed. The ClassKlap team of pedagogy experts has carried out an intensive mapping exercise to create a framework based on the CISCE curriculum document. Key features of ClassKlap Traveller series:  CISCE framework  Develops the knowledge and skills necessary for informed and thoughtful participation in society  Introduces children to timelines and historical maps in order to help them develop timeline, map and globe skills  Helps in developing observation, reporting, analysis and critical-thinking skills  Promotes awareness and personal responsibility through dialogue and enquiry about the world around them  Engages students through an interactive, age-appropriate, visually enhanced infographics and activity-based content All in all, the Traveller Social Studies books aim to generate greater engagement and enhance social, cultural and analytical skills for the intuitive and harmonious growth of an individual in an interconnected and interdependent global community. – The Authors NR_BGM_9789388402248-TRAVELLER-G03-SOCIAL_STUDIES-WORKBOOK-PART1_Text.pdf___2 / 32

Textbook Features • Use of simple, age-appropriate language I Will Learn • Activity-based approach to learning • Use of infographics and pictures to explain C ontains the list of learning objectives to be concepts and terms covered in the lesson • Focus on subject-related vocabulary building I Think Introduces the concept ? In-text Question or subtopic in a manner as to arouse curiosity and Gauges the understanding interest among students level of the student by testing both skills and Pin-Up-Note knowledge through oral discussions Highlights the key points or definitions A Be Amazed Connect the Dots Aims to establish better real-life connect with the Fosters interdisciplinary concept by presenting thinking by connecting fascinating facts and trivia other subjects to an aspect of the concept A Note to Parent Engages parents in out-of-classroom learning of their child to conduct activities to reinforce the learnt concepts NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 3 12/14/2018 4:52:52 PM

Contents 7 India: A Land of Diversity������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1 8 India: A Land of Rich Heritage���������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Infographic 2 - Heritage of India....................................................................12 9 Leaders of India�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 10 Our Solar System������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 20 11 Representing the Earth��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26 Art Education - 2��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 33 12 The Environment������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 4 12/14/2018 4:52:52 PM

7Lesson India: A Land of Diversity I Will Learn About • important local and national festivals, epics and folk tales and national symbols. • d iverse traditions, festivals and celebrations. I Think Rashi M eher, I am sorry I fought with you three Q. months ago. What are Meher and Meher Oh! You said sorry that very day. Why are Rashi talking about? you saying sorry again today? (A) their hobbies Rashi Today is ‘Paryushana Parva’. On this day every year, we Jains say sorry for the (B) their family wrong things that we did. Do Parsis have celebrations a similar occasion? (C) the difference Meher O f course, we do! We celebrate the Parsi between boys New Year, Nowruz. On this day, we go to and girls the agiary to pray. Rashi A derasar is a Jain temple. So, an agiary is (D) their experiences a Parsi temple, correct? at school Meher Yes. Also, Rashi, I forgive you for that fight. Rashi Oh! Thank you, Meher. NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 5 1 12/14/2018 4:52:52 PM

Often, when describing India, people say we have ‘unity in diversity’. What does this mean? The students in your school Different communities live together may follow different peacefully in India. religions. Different students may speak different languages at home. They may even celebrate different festivals. Yet, all of you study peacefully in the same school. When different people from different communities live together in peace, we achieve unity in diversity. Let us read how we have different practices and at the same time share common bonds. Stories from Indian communities Every community has its folk tales. Most folk tales are based on historical or religious figures or animals. These tales are meant for entertainment. However, they also have moral messages. Two famous collections of folk tales are as follows. • the Panchatantra: a collection of animal stories Panchatantra story of with lessons about good behaviour the foolish lion and the clever rabbit • the Jataka tales: moral stories based on Buddha’s teachings Epics are grand stories about gods, kings, armies Panchatantra story and wars. The two most famous epics of India of the monkey and are the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. The Mahabharata is the longest epic poem in the world. the crocodile It is about two groups of cousins who fought a great war against each other. They were the Pandavas and the Kauravas. 2 12/14/2018 4:52:52 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 6

The Ramayana is the story of Prince Rama, his ? Name two famous wife Sita and his three brothers. It tells the story collections of Indian of how Rama defeats the demon-king Ravana folk tales. to rescue Sita. Apart from the folk tales mentioned earlier, different communities have their own tales and stories. At the same time, stories from the epics are popular among many communities in India. In fact, some incidents from the epics are celebrated as festivals by Indian communities today. For example, Dussehra celebrates the victory of Rama over Ravana. Festivals of Indian communities A festival is a celebration of an event. Different communities celebrate different festivals throughout the year. A regional festival is celebrated only by the members of a certain area. Harvest festivals are examples of regional festivals. Harvest festivals A festival is a celebration of an event. Many festivals are celebrated when farmers harvest their crops. They are celebrated to thank nature for the crops. Different communities celebrate harvest festivals at different times of the year. Let us read about a few of these festivals. You can find out the following. • when they are celebrated during the year • where they are mostly celebrated in India  Pongal Magh Bihu  January  January  Tamil Nadu  Assam Baisakhi Onam  April  August or  Punjab September  Kerala India: A Land of Diversity 3 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 7 12/14/2018 4:52:52 PM

Other festivals A few festivals are celebrated by all the members of a certain religion, wherever they may live. Many religious festivals are celebrated with prayers, new clothes, special food and traditional dances. They often celebrate events from the lives of gods and goddesses or prophets. Christians celebrate Christmas on 25 December. It is the birthday of Jesus Christ. Gurpurab is the celebration of the birth or death anniversary of a Sikh Guru. Vesakha, also known as Buddha Purnima, is a Buddhist celebration. It remembers the important stages of Gautama Buddha’s life. For Hindus, Bonalu, Diwali and Ganesh Chaturthi are celebrations of gods and goddesses visiting the Earth. Holi, Durga Puja and Dussehra are celebrated to mark the victory of good over evil. Holi is a spring festival celebrated in February or March. It is also known as the ‘festival of colours’. Paryushana Parva is the most important religious period for Jains. A few festivals celebrate the end of a long religious period. Muslims fast during the month of Ramadan. Eid-ul-fitr celebrates the end of Ramadan. Some Christians fast during the period of Lent. After Lent ends, Easter is celebrated. National festivals National festivals are celebrated all over India. Republic Day, Gandhi Jayanti and Independence Day are examples of national festivals. Republic Day is celebrated on 26 January. Independence Day is celebrated on 15 August and Gandhi Jayanti on 2 October. National symbols A few important symbols represent India. These are called national symbols. These national symbols unite different communities as all Indians recognise these symbols. national flag national emblem national anthem (Lion capital) (Jana gana mana) 4 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 8

national bird national animal national fruit (peacock) (tiger) (mango) national flower national currency national song (lotus) (Indian rupee) (Vande mataram) The national flag has three colours, saffron, white and green, with the Ashoka chakra in the middle. ‘Jana gana mana’ is the national anthem. The Lion Capital from the Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath along with the motto ‘Satyameva Jayate’ became our national emblem in 1950. Appreciating diversity We have read about many things that are different for all communities of India. We have also read about many things that are the same for all Indians. respecting religious beliefs of different communities is important. These differences should not lead to disputes. We can follow a few simple steps to reduce disputes between communities. 1) Make friends with members of different communities. 2) Invite people to celebrate the festivals and events that you celebrate. 3) C elebrate the festivals and events of What steps can you other communities. ? follow to respect 4) L earn about as many different religious beliefs of communities as you can. different communities? India: A Land of Diversity 5 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 9 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM

Be Amaze d A The national anthem was taken in 1950 from a song composed by Rabindranath Tagore. It was first sung on 27 December 1911. It takes about 52 seconds to play the national anthem. Connect the Dots English Fun Did you know? A short story with animals walking and talking is called a ‘fable’. Can you name a few common fables? ________________________________________________________ Science Fun Many communities start their new year with the spring harvest season. How many seasons are there in a year? Name them. _________________________________________________________________________ New Words 1) religion – belief in a particular system of faith and worship 2) prophet – a person who spreads the word of god 3) fast – not eat for a certain period of time 4) represent – show something with the help of a picture or a model 5) dispute – disagreement A Note to Parent You can encourage your child to read about other communities and their celebrations. Talk about all the positive aspects of different celebrations and interact with different communities whenever possible. 6 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 10

8Lesson India: A Land of Rich Heritage I Will Learn About • the rich, glorious art and architecture of our country. • discussing or writing about the feeling of pride regarding our rich heritage. I Think Rashi recently went to Delhi. Meher and Morad are Q. excited to know the things that Rashi did there. Which of the following Meher What did you do on your visit, Rashi? is an example of a monument? Rashi My aunt and I visited different places such as the Red Fort, the Qutub Minar and (A) Jaisalmer Fort Humayun’s tomb. We took a lot of pictures! (B) a school Meher Humayun’s tomb is a beautiful building. (C) an office building Rashi M y aunt did not call Humayun’s tomb a (D) a housing society ‘building’. She called it a ‘monument’. Meher W hat is a ‘monument’? Morad Monuments are famous buildings. They play an important role in telling us about the past. NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 11 7 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM

For thousands of years, different communities have lived in India. Many communities travelled from faraway places to India. Each community had different food and clothing habits, religions and art forms. Some examples of art forms are music and dance, painting, sculpture and carvings. Different communities also had different styles of Sculptures at the Ellora Caves constructing buildings. As a result, various types of famous monuments were built long ago. Food and clothing habits, religion, monuments and ? Name an art together is called culture. Travelling communities art form. which came to India brought their cultures with them. Each community learnt the culture of When a community’s the other. culture is passed on The culture of a group of people is passed down for many years, it is from the elders of the community to the younger called its heritage. members. When a community’s culture is passed on for many years, it is called the community’s heritage. Art forms of different communities are very important parts of India’s heritage. Let us read about the paintings and monuments that are a part of India’s heritage. Paintings Many paintings are found done on the walls or on the ceilings of buildings. Most of the earliest paintings were made in caves. The paintings in the Ajanta caves are very famous. Look at the images of paintings given below. A painting at the Wild animals painted A painting in the Laxminarayan Temple on cave walls Ajanta Caves 8 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 12

Many paintings are so small that you can hold them in the palm of your hand. At the same time, they are very detailed. Many paintings were about the lives of kings, queens, gods, goddesses and demons. Look at the examples of these very small paintings given below. A maharaja and Lord Krishna A prince his soldiers and Radha Paintings were also made on leaves, animal skins and paper. Paints were made from natural materials such as plants, vegetables, minerals, precious stones, gold and silver. Monuments Taj Mahal Many famous buildings were built for special reasons. For example, to remember important people or events of the past. Such buildings are called monuments. Some monuments are very old. They are called historical monuments. You may have heard of the Taj Mahal. This is an example of a historical monument of India. Let us read about a few other monuments of India. Tawang Monastery It is an important place of worship in Arunachal Pradesh. It is a monastery where Buddhists go and pray. It is the largest monastery in India. Vijayanagara Tawang Monastery Many cities that were built long ago still remain today. One such city is Vijayanagara in Karnataka. India: A Land of Rich Heritage 9 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 13 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM

A special feature of Vijayanagara is the presence of ? Name two 56 musical pillars in a temple in the city. They make famous different musical sounds when they are tapped. This monuments city has several historical monuments. of India. Buland Darwaza This monument was built to mark Emperor Akbar’s victory in an important war. It is a historical monument in Uttar Pradesh. Musical pillars in temple Buland Darwaza Basilica of Bom Jesus at Vijayanagara Basilica of Bom Jesus This is the church where the body of St Francis Xavier is kept. It is more than 400 years old. It is an important historical monument in Goa. Ashoka Pillars There was once a famous king An Ashoka Pillar at An Ashoka Pillar at named Ashoka. He built many Vaishali in Bihar Sarnath in tall pillars in different parts of the country. They are called the Ashoka Uttar Pradesh Pillars. Look at the given pictures of two Ashoka Pillars. The Lion Capital atop the Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath is part of India’s national emblem. Importance of heritage Community members usually take care of their heritage at a local level. The government of India takes care of the heritage of its states. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is an important 10 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 14

group of people from different countries. They protect the heritage of the different communities of the world. Why is this protection needed? The heritage of a community shows us the history of that community. Protecting the heritage of different communities is a way of respecting them. Heritage can be destroyed in many ways. People carve things on the walls of monuments. They litter and do not clean up after picnics. Also, many heritage sites are affected by pollution. For example, the Taj Mahal is slowly turning yellow because of the air pollution from nearby factories. The heritage of a community can be a part of natural heritage: nature as well. These can be hills, forests and the Western Ghats of India rivers that are important to the community. Natural heritage is destroyed by pollution too. How can we help to protect our heritage? Along with the government, we must make an effort to take care of India’s heritage. We can do as follows. •   Keep our monuments clean. •  learn about the lives of the members of our community. Learning about our community’s culture can help us to protect our heritage. •  learn about the culture of other communities as well. In these ways, we can save our heritage from workers cleaning the disappearing. Taj Mahal Be Amaze A d In the past, India was considered to be a very rich land. So, many people from other places came to India to buy cloth made in India. Lothal in Gujarat was one of the oldest docks in the world where traders came by sea. India: A Land of Rich Heritage 11 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 15 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM

Infographic 2 Taj Mahal an Ashoka Pillar Buland Darwaza Basilica of Bom Jesus 12 Vijayanagara

Tawang Monastery An Ashoka Pillar Laxminarayan Temple A cave painting Ajanta Caves 13 India: A Land of Rich Heritage NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 17 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM

Connect the Dots English Fun The word ‘monument’ comes from from the Latin word ‘monumentum’ which means ‘something that reminds’. Maths Fun This picture shows how the Taj Mahal would look from the sky. If you join the four towers, a square is formed. Name this square using any four letters of the alphabet. Example: LMNO New Words 1) tomb – a monument for a dead person 2) art form – a special way of making art 3) sculpture – m aking three-dimensional (3D) shapes out of wood, stone, metal and other hard materials 4) cave – a hole-like space in a hill or a mountain 5) demon – a powerful being in stories who sometimes troubles gods, goddesses and humans 6) minerals – the materials that are found naturally in the Earth 7) government – a group of people who run the country according to the rules of the country A Note to Parent You could plan a family trip to the nearest historical monument. Ask your child to read about the monument before the trip. You could ask your child to be your tour guide and explain the features of the monument to you. 14 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 18

9Lesson Leaders of India I Will Learn About • the qualities of a great leader. • the achievements of great national leaders. I Think Rashi, Morad and Meher are watching the news. Q. A few people are holding signs saying ‘We will not give up!’ Who was asking the people to focus on Rashi Morad, what is going on? their goal? Morad These people want an increase in their (A) the government salary. They are on a hunger strike. This is when you do not eat for a long time in (B) their leader order to bring about change. Look, their leader is asking them to focus on their (C) Morad goal. Meher Wow! I would not want to stay hungry like (D) the news that! Are they sure that their hunger strike will work? Did their leader decide to start this? Morad Their leader must have thought about this to get the government’s attention. Even Mahatma Gandhi used this method to force the British out of our country! NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 19 15 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM

A herd of elephants is generally led by the oldest female elephant. She takes the herd to places where there is food and water. She is responsible for the safety of the herd. Thus, she is a leader. A leader is someone who is in charge of a group and guides all the group members. A leader has the responsibility of taking care of everyone in the group. The principal of your school is a leader. She or A leader leading her herd he leads the teachers to help all the students at school. You may have leaders in your class to help you in different ways. India has had many leaders. They have guided ? Who has the the people of our country in times of need. responsibility of taking When there were difficult problems, they care of everyone in have helped people to solve them. But most the group? importantly, they have inspired people. Let us read about a few important leaders of India. Swami Vivekananda was a social reformer. A Swami Vivekananda person who works to bring about changes and Jamsetji Tata improves our society is called a social reformer. People used to believe in many superstitions. He taught them to ask more questions about those things. He asked people to find out the scientific truth instead of believing it all to be magic. He inspired Indians of all religions to live together peacefully. He also wrote many books. Jamsetji Tata is called the ‘Father of Indian Industry’. He started a number of companies called the Tata Group. This group has done many things for our country. A few of them are as follows. •  making the alloy called steel (Tata Steel Company) •   making salt (example: Tata Chemicals Limited) •  making cars (example: Tata Motors) •  starting colleges, universities and research centres (example: Indian Institute of Science, Tata Institute of Social Sciences) 16 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 20

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is known to many as Mahatma Gandhi. He is called ‘Bapu’ as the ‘Father of the Nation’. The British ruled over India for a long time. He helped Indians to become free from the British by using non-violent methods. Non-violence means using only peaceful methods to get what we ask for. Mahatma Gandhi He used the method Non-violence means of hunger strikes. using only peaceful He was sent to jail methods to get what several times, but he we ask for. did not stop working for India’s freedom. Dr B R Ambedkar Dr B R Ambedkar is famous for writing the laws of India. He played an important role in framing the Indian Constitution. The laws followed by Indians are contained in the Constitution. He was the first law minister of the Indian government after independence. He worked to help the group of people known as ‘Dalits’ who were treated very poorly by the rest of the Indian society. He began working to make sure that all Dalits were treated fairly and with more respect. Mother Teresa is also known as the ‘saint of the Gutters’. She spent most of her life taking care of those who were very poor and unwell. She started the Order of the Missionaries of Charity, which is a group of women who work to help the poor, the sick and the differently abled. Indira Gandhi was the first woman Mother Teresa Prime Minister of India. She was the third Prime Minister of India. She supported farmers who wanted to grow different types of crops. She helped them to use better tools and farming methods. So, Indian farmers were able to produce a lot of good crops. This was known as the Green Revolution. India thus did not need to buy crops from other countries. Indira Gandhi Leaders of India 17 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 21 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM

Dr A P J Abdul Kalam was the 11th president of India. He was also a scientist. He was an expert in military missiles. Therefore, he was called the ‘Missile Man of India’. Dr Kalam wanted all the children of India to have a good education. So, he worked hard to improve the condition of the schools in the villages. ? Which Indian leader is famous for writing the laws of India? Dr A P J Abdul Kalam Kiran Bedi was the first woman to become an officer of the Indian Police Service (IPS). Before this, she was a famous tennis player who won many awards. As a police officer, she understood that criminals could be made better people. She started yoga classes in prisons and many other activities to help them learn new things. All of these inspiring leaders have helped to improve the lives of people. Many of them were ordinary Kiran Bedi people who worked hard to help other members of the Indian community. There are many more great leaders of India. Find out about three other national leaders who inspire you. Be Amazed A 26 May is celebrated as Science Day in Switzerland. It is because this was the date on which Dr A P J Abdul Kalam had visited the country. Connect the Dots English Fun The leading sheep in a flock with a bell around its neck is known as the ‘bellwether’. 18 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 22

Maths Fun Mother Teresa was born in the year 1910. She got the Bharat Ratna award in the year 1980. Can you find out the age of Mother Teresa when she got the Bharat Ratna? _________________________________________________________________________ New Words 1) responsibility – a duty or task that needs to be completed 2) inspire – to make people feel that they have the power to do something great 3) superstition – a belief that things such as magic or luck have the power to affect your life 4) alloy – a mixture of hard materials used to make cars, aeroplanes, kitchen utensils and so on 5) missile – a flying weapon that can be sent to hit a target that is far away 6) criminal – a person who has done a crime A Note to Parent The world is filled with many kinds of leaders. Help your child to find a leader whom they really like and are inspired by. You could also guide them to read about the winners of the Nobel Prizes in different fields. Tell them that the Nobel Prize is given to a person who has made a great discovery or invention in their field of study. Leaders of India 19 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 23 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM

10Lesson Our Solar System I Will Learn About • the planets of the solar system. • the uniqueness of the Earth in the solar system. I Think Mrs Irani and the children are watching the night Q. sky from their terrace. Can you guess what Mrs Irani L ook at all the bright stars tonight. All the Earth is? these stars are far away in space. (A) a satellite Rashi But what is ‘space’? (B) a planet Morad Space is the place beyond the Earth, where all the stars and planets exist. (C) a star Meher What is the difference between a star (D) an asteroid and a planet? Is the Earth a star or a planet? 20 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 24

Our solar system A set of planets and heavenly bodies that The Earth is part of a planetary system known constantly move as the solar system. The Sun, eight planets around a star is called a and their natural satellites are part of our solar planetary system. system. There are other heavenly bodies in the solar system as well. These planets and ? What do heavenly bodies constantly move around the ‘heavenly bodies’ Sun on a fixed path. mean? Planets A planet is a very large ball-shaped object that is found in space. Look at the picture below and find the planets numbered as follows. 1) Mercury 2) Venus 3) Earth 4) Mars 5) Jupiter 6) Saturn 7) Uranus 8) Neptune Our solar system Let us learn a few things about the planets. Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system, and Jupiter is the largest. Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system. Mars is also called the ‘red planet’. Our Solar System 21 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 25 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM

Saturn has rings of ice and dust around it. Uranus’ axis is very tilted. Fast storms blow on Neptune. Stars The Sun is a star. A star is a giant ball-shaped The Sun object that is found in space. It is made of gas and is constantly burning. It shines with its own light. We get light and heat from the Sun. Natural satellites The Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth. A natural satellite is a ball-shaped object that travels around a planet on a fixed path. Natural satellites do not have their own light. Then how does the Moon shine? Point a torch at a mirror. You will see a light. The Earth and the Moon However, this is not the mirror’s own light. The light from the torch is seen in the mirror. Natural satellites are like mirrors. They reflect the light of stars. Other heavenly bodies There are other heavenly bodies in space such as large rocks. These are known as asteroids. Many such rocks can be found between Mars and Jupiter. This is called the asteroid belt. A comet is a bright speeding heavenly body that is found in space. It is made up of ice, gas and dust. It forms a bright tail when it is close to the Sun. Halley’s Comet is a famous comet. It takes about 75 years to travel around the solar system and pass the Earth. It was last seen in 1986. It will pass close to the Earth again in 2061. Our universe You are a part of your class; your class is a part of your school, and your school is a part of your city. Similarly, the Earth, the Sun and the neighbouring planets are parts of larger groups of heavenly bodies. A collection of many stars and planetary systems along with clouds of gas and dust is called a galaxy. There are countless galaxies. The name of our galaxy is the Milky Way. All these galaxies are part of the universe. 22 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 26

? What is the name of our galaxy? Position of our Earth in the universe The shape of the Earth The shape of the Earth is like that of the other planets. The Earth is an oblate sphere. This means that it is almost round but flattened at the top and bottom and bulging around the middle. Our living world The Earth is the only planet where living Shape of the Earth beings have been found. It is known as the ‘living planet’. What makes it possible for living beings to exist on the Earth? The right amounts of sunlight, air and water are needed for living things to grow. Sunlight The planets nearest to the Sun are very hot as they receive a lot of sunlight. Mercury and Venus are very close to the Sun. so, temperatures on these planets are very high. Living beings cannot exist in such heat. Venus is the hottest planet. Its atmosphere traps the heat of the Sun, making it the hottest planet. As we go further away from the Sun, the planets become cooler. Neptune is the coldest planet in Our Solar System 23 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 27 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM

dour solar system. Since the Earth is at the right distance from the Sun, it receives the right amounts of light and heat. The Earth is neither too hot nor too cold. Air The Earth is surrounded by air. It is like a cushion between the Earth and space. This air supports life. The oxygen in air is needed by most living beings. They breathe it in. the oxygen helps their bodies to work. Water Around three-fourths of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. Much of it is salty and found in the oceans and seas. A very small portion of the water on the Earth is fresh water that living beings need to survive. Be Amaze A The Earth has one moon. Did you know that Jupiter has many moons? Scientists say that Jupiter has at least 79 moons! Connect the Dots English Fun Write the names of the following planets in your mother tongue. • Saturn ― _________________________ • Mars ― _________________________ • Mercury ― _________________________ • Venus ― _________________________ • Earth ― _________________________ 24 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 28

Maths Fun Write the positions of the following planets in the solar system. For example, the position of Mercury would be ‘first’ as it is closest to the Sun. • Venus ― _______________________________________________ • Saturn ― _______________________________________________ • Neptune ― _______________________________________________ New Words 1) heavenly body – natural object found in space 2) reflect – throw back the same light 3) neighbouring – very close to; next to; around 4) universe – all of space which includes the planets, stars, 5) bulging galaxies and the spaces between them 6) survive – sticking out – stay alive A Note to Parent The available information about space and the universe is constantly being updated. Tell your child about the new space missions carried out by various countries. Encourage them to read the newspaper and understand the new discoveries being made about space and our universe. You can tell them about the equipment like the Hubble Space Telescope which is used to study the heavenly bodies in space. Our Solar System 25 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 29 12/14/2018 4:52:53 PM

11Lesson Representing the Earth I Will Learn About • physical and political maps. • the differences between a globe and a map. • how to use a globe and a map. I Think Q. What should Rashi use Rashi and her friends are planning a holiday. They to plan her holiday? are reading travel magazines when Rashi’s father walks into the room. Rashi Papa! What is the best way to plan our (A) the internet and next holiday? newspapers Mr Jain You should surely use a globe and a (B) a globe and map. A globe shows you where your a map holiday spot is on the Earth. Maps help you find railway stations, hotels and other (C) m aps and her landmarks. school textbooks Rashi Oh! You are right! I will get the globe (D) a globe and a from the living room right away! magazine Our planet, Earth, is very big. How can one person look at the whole Earth if they need to? To make this easy, we show the Earth in different ways. Two of the most important tools for doing this are maps and globes. 26 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 30

Maps A crow flies high over Rashi’s school. It can see the top of the buildings, the roads and the playground. Let us look at what the crow can see. the top view of Rashi’s school a map of Rashi’s school A map is a drawing of a place or an area as seen A map is a drawing from a position above the place. It shows where of a place on a flat things are in that place. A map is usually drawn on surface as seen from a flat surface. a position above the place. There are different types of maps. Here are a few important types of maps and what they show. Political map Physical map Thematic map – borders of countries and – landforms and water – information related to states bodies a particular theme – national capitals, state – the heights of different – e xample: major crops, capitals places rainfall in different parts of the country and so on – other important cities – natural regions Different types of maps Representing the Earth 27

Parts of a map Let us find out about the important parts of a map. N Scale: 1 cm = 360 km km km 180 0 180 360 Parts of a map Directions and compass What does the arrow with the letter ‘N’ on a map mean? It shows the north. It is one of the four directions. The other main directions are east (E), south (S) and west (W). They are used to help with the position or location of a place on a map. We use a compass to find directions. A compass has a needle that spins freely. The needle always points towards the north. N WE ? What does the letter ‘N’ stand for? S A compass Directions 28

Using maps We use a map to find our position or the location of a place. How do we do this? Look at the map below. Rashi and Meher are going to the park. In which direction would they walk from the bookshop to go to the park? Globes Another way to show the Earth is by using a globe. The word ‘globe’ comes from the Latin word ‘globus’. It means ‘something that is round’ or ‘a sphere’. A globe is a model of the Earth. It is a small copy of the Earth and shows us how the Earth looks. A globe is a small model or copy of the Using globes 1) A globe helps us to understand the shape of Earth and shows how the Earth and the position of places better. the Earth looks. 2) A globe shows accurate shapes of countries and ? Why do we water bodies on the Earth. use a globe? Representing the Earth 29 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 33 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM

3) We can spin a globe to see any part of the Earth. 4) A globe shows many important points and lines. Let us read about a few of these important points and lines on a globe. N WE A few important points and lines on the globe S 1) The North and South Poles: There is an imaginary line that runs through the middle of the Earth. It is called the Earth’s axis. The poles are two ends of the Earth’s axis. They are found at the top and bottom of the globe. 2) The Equator: It is an imaginary line drawn around the middle of the globe to divide it into two equal parts or hemispheres. Above the equator, that is, to its north, is the northern hemisphere. Below the equator, that is, to its south, is the southern hemisphere. 3) T he Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn: These are two imaginary lines drawn around the globe on either side of the equator. The Tropic of Cancer is in the northern hemisphere, and the Tropic of Capricorn is in the southern hemisphere. 4) T he Prime Meridian: It is an imaginary line that runs from North Pole to South Pole. The Prime Meridian makes a circle with another line that lies opposite to it. This circle divides the globe into the eastern and western hemispheres. 30 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 34

What is the difference between maps and globes? Maps Globes • Can see the whole Earth • can only see one part of the at a time on a world map. Earth at a time. • A drawing of a place on Earth on a • a small model or copy of the Earth flat surface as seen from above which shows us what it looks like • Can provide detailed information. • shows the whole Earth and cannot be too detailed. • easy to carry around • difficult to carry around dBe Amaze A A traveller called Martin Behaim made a globe more than 500 years ago that still exists. He was able to create it after travelling around the world. Connect the Dots N Maths Fun Mehul’s Riya’s Payal’s house house house Riya walks 5 km to the east in a straight line to go to Payal’s house. Then, they walk 7 km to the west together to reach Mehul’s house. From Mehul’s house, the three decide to go back to Riya’s house for lunch. How many kilometres will they have to travel and in which direction? __________________________________________________________________________ Representing the Earth 31 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 35 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM

Science Fun The Earth does not take exactly 24 hours to rotate. It actually takes 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds to rotate. New Words 1) landmark – a famous building or place that you can see and recognise easily 2) information 3) detailed – facts about someone or something – including a lot of facts A Note to Parent Encourage your child to find the start and end points of a journey on a map. When you travel, show your child the route that you will take using a web-based map service or an app which shows maps on your mobile phone. 32 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 36

Art Education - 2 Clay Art/Sculpture You have learnt about the different ways to represent the Earth. Now, make your own sculpture of the Earth. You can make dough to play with using simple household items. Get some help from your parents and teachers. Gather the following. • 1 cup of refined flour (maida) • ½ cup of salt • 2 tablespoons of oil • 1 cup of water • 4 drops of food colour (optional) • 1 teaspoon of vanilla essence (optional) You will need to do the following. • mix the ingredients and make dough. • make sure that the dough is not too hard or soft. Use your dough or pre-packed play dough to make shapes that look like the following. Sculpture of the Earth Clay art showing a map of the Earth Art Education - 2 33 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 37 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM

12Lesson The Environment I Will Learn About • the causes of pollution. • the need for a clean environment. • developing good habits related to the environment. I Think Meher and Morad are digging a pit in the garden. Q.Rashi Hey, Meher! What are you doing? Meher We are making a compost pit. Rashi W hat is that? Why are Meher and Morad digging a pit? Morad It is where we bury the food waste from (A) to find treasure the kitchen under the ground, add some earthworms and watch the magic! (B) to look for earthworms Rashi E ew! Why do you want to play with earthworms? (C) to make Rashi angry Meher The earthworms in the compost pit turn the garbage into rich soil for the plants. (D) to bury the food waste from their Rashi Oh! That is interesting. Can I bring you the kitchen under the food waste from my kitchen as well? ground Morad Absolutely! Everyone should use their kitchen waste to make a compost pit. 34 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 38

Our natural environment includes all the things that come from nature. For example, living and non-living things such as air, soil, water, plants, animals and so on. We need the following things from the environment. • clean air to breathe Name one thing ?• clean water to drink that we receive from the • g ood soil to grow environment. crops Every human activity uses something from the environment. These activities produce some unwanted things. These unwanted things are called waste. Waste can be of many types. Some types of waste such as vegetable peels break down Our natural environment naturally. Other types such as plastic does not break down naturally. The first type of waste does not lead to pollution. The second type of waste causes pollution. Pollution and its types Pollution is the process of adding waste to the environment. Pollution can be of different types. Have you noticed these different types of pollution around you? Which one do you dislike the most? Why? Water pollution Pollution is the process of adding waste to the environment. Air pollution Nnoise pollution ? Describe one way Different types of pollution in which water gets polluted. Let us read about each of these kinds of pollution. Water pollution Water pollution is the addition of waste into water bodies such as rivers, lakes and oceans. Example: waste from factories and homes in rivers and oil spills The Environment 35 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 39 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM

Causes of water pollution Cause How it causes pollution farming Flowing water carries chemicals used in farms into water bodies. homes and Waste from sinks and toilets go into water bodies. Waste from factories factories also goes into water bodies. festivals and during some festivals, people immerse idols in rivers. The paint other events and clay from these idols pollute the water. Air pollution is the addition of waste into Air pollution the air. Example: smoke from burning plastic and from vehicles Causes of air pollution Cause How it causes pollution farming Pesticides are sprayed on plants. The wind blows a lot of homes and pesticides into the air. It is bad for animals and humans if they transportation breathe it in. factories Wood and other materials are burnt in stoves to cook food. This creates smoke. Vehicles let out smoke as well. This pollutes the air. Many factories let out smoke through chimneys. Noise pollution results from unwanted sound nNooiissee pollutiioonn or noise in area. Example: noise from vehicles and honking of horns Causes of noise pollution Cause How it causes pollution homes and transportation Vacuum cleaners, mixers and grinders can be very noisy. events Cars, buses, aeroplanes and trains make a lot of noise as well. Factories and Loudspeakers, especially at parties, places of worship and construction other events and celebrations can be very noisy. Machines used in factories and those used for making buildings or digging machinery cause noise pollution. 36 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 40

What does pollution do to the environment? Pollution harms the environment. A few ways in which this happens are as follows. 1) P olluted air acts like a blanket around the Earth. Imagine using a thick blanket in summer. What will happen? You will start to feel very warm. Just like that, air pollution makes the Earth very warm. This makes it difficult for plants and animals to live. 2) O ften, people throw garbage that contains plastic in open areas. This results in land pollution. Animals and birds eat the plastic waste as they cannot separate plastic from food. This makes them fall sick. Need for a healthy environment If the environment is polluted, people suffer too. A few examples are given as follows. • Drinking polluted water causes illness. • Breathing polluted air causes breathing problems such as coughing. • Hearing loud sounds for a very long time can cause deafness. How can we keep our environment clean? • M any soaps and cleaners used in our homes are made from things that harm the environment. Some are made from natural things. These are called organic cleaners. Using organic soaps and cleaners can reduce water pollution. We can reuse things in order to reduce waste. • P rivate vehicles carry few people. So, there are more of them on the road. This increases air pollution. Using buses, local trains and shared public transport helps to reduce air pollution. They carry many people to the same place at the same time. Riding cycles does not pollute the air either. • We can reduce the use of loudspeakers while celebrating events and festivals. Organic soap or chemical detergents public transport in India soap made from or cleaners made from chemicals natural things The Environment 37 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 41 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM

Tree plantation – a way to stop pollution Trees help to reduce air pollution. Trees take in carbon dioxide and let out oxygen in to the air. This makes the air pure and fresh. Jadav Payeng planted trees on an island Brahmaputra River where there were no trees in Assam, India. Molai forest in Assam After 30 years, that area is now a forest. There are tigers, rhinoceroses, deer, rabbits, birds and even elephants in this new forest. It is called the Molai forest. Afforestation is the process of planting trees in a place where there were none. Molai forest is an example of a place where afforestation was done. Reforestation is another important way of reducing pollution. Reforestation means to again plant trees in an area where there was a forest earlier. It can also refer to planting trees in a place where the number of trees is decreasing. It increases the green cover. Be Amaze A d Plastic waste is polluting the oceans. Imagine that every minute, lots of plastic is dumped into the ocean. By 2050, there will be more plastic than fish in the ocean! Connect the Dots English Fun Guess these words. They all mean ‘waste’. __ A R B __ __ E T __ A __ H J __ __ K 38 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 42

Science Fun There was a garbage museum in the United States of Dinosaur made America (USA). It helped people to learn about ways from trash to reduce waste. It showed many ways of using waste to make useful things. New Words 1) oil spill – when oil gets into the sea or any other water body 2) chemical – a material made by mixing certain materials that 3) immerse may or may not be natural 4) pesticide 5) chimney – lower something in water 6) construction – a chemical used to kill bad insects 7) deafness – a pipe-like part of a building through which smoke is let out – the process of building something – a condition in which no sounds can be heard A Note to Parent It is important to recognise the damage that people cause to the environment. You should encourage your child to play an active role in creating and maintaining a clean environment. They could take part in local initiatives to protect the environment. The Environment 39 NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 43 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM

NR_BGM_9789388700689 TRAVELLER G03 SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 44 12/14/2018 4:52:54 PM

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