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Published by IMAX, 2020-02-06 01:07:42



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4 Name: ___________________________________ Section: ________________ Roll No.: _________ School: __________________________________

Preface IMAX Program partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. IMAX Program presents the latest version of this series – updated and revised after considering the perceptive feedback and comments shared by our experienced reviewers and users. This series endeavours to be faithful to the spirit of the prescribed board curriculum. Our books strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. The books are split into two parts to manage the bag weight. Listening, speaking, reading and writing (LSRW) are fundamental skills for any language, and students’ mastery over them is key to success at school. All these skills frequently need to be used together. Therefore, the English textbooks and workbooks strive to provide adequate opportunities for students to practise all the four LSRW skills. To this effect, the English textbooks and workbooks offer the following features:  T heme-based literature pieces across classes 1-5  Samples of Indian writing in English as well as popular English literature pieces from western countries  Pictures for word meanings in each lesson to help students with visual clues for new or difficult words  Supplementary literature pieces (without questions and answers) to enable additional reading  A speaking project and two reading comprehension passages in each unit to further hone speaking and reading skills  H orizontal and vertical progression across grades for the grammar concepts covered in the workbooks, providing a spiral of cumulative learning  S amples of format-based writing to provide for scaffolding of learning of formal writing Overall, the IMAX English textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books aim to generate greater engagement with and enhance fluency in English language communication and empower students to develop a genuine appreciation of the language and its literature.  – The Authors

Dictation RP VDiocctatbiounlary Q Dictation – Words from the lesson or sentences with commonly confused Helps to build vocabulary with spellings for dictation practice explanations and practice exercises Listen and answer – Questions based on an audio piece for listening practice (for Grades 4 and 5 only) GDircatmatmioanr FDoicrmtaatiloWn riting Introduces and teaches an aspect of Inculcates writing skills by introducing grammar with explanations and formal writing styles by providing samples practice exercises and adequate practice CDircetaattiivoen Writing Includes samples and pre-work to ensure proper scaffolding Fosters creative writing skills by having students draw from real-life experiences as well as encourages creative thinking

Module 1 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������1 Module 2 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������13 Module 3 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������28 Module 4 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������42 Module 5 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������53 Module 6 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������66

Module 1 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Word dictation Vocabulary Listen and answer Grammar Prefixes Formal Writing Common gender nouns Creative Writing Collective nouns Editing exercise Picture-based description Dictation 3) 6) Exercise 1.1: Word dictation 9) 1) 2) 4) 5) 7) 8) Module 1 1

Exercise 1.2: Listen and answer 1) What nickname was given to King Ashoka because of his wickedness? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Which battle changed Ashoka’s life? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Which religion did Ashoka adopt? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) What message did Ashoka embrace? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) How did Ashoka address his people? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ PR Vocabulary Q Prefixes Prefixes are letters or groups of letters that are added at the beginning of a word to make a new word with a different meaning. Every prefix has its own meaning. Examples: • im- means not • re- means again 2

Prefixes can be used in the following cases. 1) to create a new word, with a new meaning 2) to create a new word with the opposite meaning of the original word or to turn a word into its negative form Examples: Base word Prefix + base word Type of meaning sure un + sure = unsure opposite in meaning / negative dis + respect = disrespect opposite in meaning / negative respect re + order = reorder order im + balance = imbalance new meaning in + complete = incomplete opposite in meaning / negative balance mis + use = misuse opposite in meaning / negative complete opposite in meaning / negative use Exercise 2.1: Complete the table by combining the base words with the correct prefixes. One is done for you. un- in- im- re- mis- dis- 1) fortune 1) misfortune New words 2) healthy 2) _______________________________ 3) agree 4) patient 3) _______________________________ 4) _______________________________ 5) formal 5) _______________________________ 6) _______________________________ 6) act Module 1 3

Exercise 2.2: Fill in the blanks by choosing and adding suitable prefixes to the base words given in brackets. One is done for you. un- dis- re- im- in- mis- 1) Razia was upset because of Mohan’s impolite (polite) behaviour. 2) The road was _____________________________________ (even). As a result, my mother fell down and hurt herself. 3) The teacher asked her students not to _____________________________________ (behave). 4) I enjoy reading but _____________________________________ (like) writing. 5) India became an _____________________________________ (dependent) country in 1947. 6) Did Roger _____________________________________ (turn) your pen? Grammar Nouns Read the passage and fill in the given table. It is a sunny Sunday. Aayat is sleeping in her cosy bed. The Sun is shining, and the birds are singing. Her mother calls out to her. Aayat jumps out of bed. She picks up her clothes and runs into the bathroom. Her brother, Asif, is waiting for her. Proper noun Common noun Gender masculine 4 feminine neuter

You have learnt about nouns in the previous classes. Let us revise the different types of nouns. Remember • C ommon nouns are general names given to people, places, animals or things of the same kind. They do not begin with a capital letter. Examples: lady, hospital, cheetah, duster hospital • Proper nouns are specific names given to people, places, animals or Tiggy things. They always begin with a capital letter. Examples: Enid Blyton, Amit, Nagpur, Tiggy Gender of nouns Nouns can also be sorted according to their gender. Masculine gender nouns: Feminine gender nouns: Neuter gender nouns: These are names for boys, These are names for These are nouns that name men and male animals. girls, women and female non-living things without animals. any gender. They are used for objects and places. Examples: son, uncle, Examples: daughter, aunt, They are also used to name nephew, prince, horse, niece, princess, mare, the months of the year and gander goose the days of the week. Examples: ruler, box, clothes, library, table, stone, truck, building, ocean, July, Monday Common gender nouns These refer to nouns that can be male or female. Examples: child, singer, coach, engineer, pilot, cousin, referee, parent child singer pilot Module 1 5

Exercise 3.1: Read the poem and identify the gender of the underlined nouns. Write 'M' for masculine, 'F' for feminine, 'C' for common and 'N' for neuter gender nouns in the circles beside the words. One is done for you. Baa, baa, black sheep, C Have you any wool? Yes sir, yes sir, three bags full! One for the master One for the dame, And one for the little boy Who lives down the lane! Exercise 3.2: Sort the given nouns according to their gender. One is done for you. shepherdess cave stick emperor student bride Masculine Feminine shepherdess Neuter Common 6

Collective nouns Read the passage below. bunch of grapes Kriti’s father took her to her grandfather’s farm brood of hens last Thursday. A few students from her class also went along. For breakfast, her grandfather treated everyone to fresh bunches of bananas and grapes. Then, he took them around the farm. They saw a herd of cows, a flock of sheep, a brood of hens and a gaggle of geese. They also spotted an army of ants near an ant hill. flock of sheep gaggle of geese Do you know what the words in bold in the passage are? They are collective nouns. Collective nouns are words that refer to a group of people, animals or things. Here are some more examples. Groups Collective noun Groups Collective noun soldiers, ants army bees hive sheep, birds flock flowers, fruits bunch ships fleet geese gaggle wolves, dogs pack brood class hens herd students cows, horses, buffaloes, cattle Exercise 3.3: Complete the sentences using the correct collective nouns. One is done for you. fleet army pride family bouquet troupe 1) Jack wanted to meet my family. 2) I saw an _____________________________ of ants in my garden. Module 1 7

3) I gave my mother a _____________________________ of flowers. 4) Kunal saw a _____________________________ of lions on television. 5) The _____________________________ of ships were moored at the shore. 6) The _____________________________ of dancers performed well. Exercise 3.4: Read the passage given below and underline the nouns. Then, answer the given questions. One is done for you. Arsha, Raj and Leena are good friends. They make a great team. They are polite to their parents and help the other little boys and girls in their school. They always share their books with one another. Recently, they donated a pile of books to the library. 1) Write a masculine proper noun from the passage. Ans. Raj 2) Write a collective noun from the passage. Ans.  3) Write a common gender noun from the passage. Ans.  4) Write a feminine common noun from the passage. Ans.  5) Write the collective noun for 'books' from the passage. Ans.  6) Write a neuter gender noun from the passage. Ans.  8

Formal Writing Editing exercise To learn how to write correctly, we must first be able to spot errors in writing. Here are a few points that we can follow to spot and correct errors in texts that we read. Punctuation and Does every sentence end Does every sentence start capital letters with a punctuation mark? with a capital letter? Do all proper nouns start Have commas been used with capital letters? correctly? Spelling Highlight the words that you Are the plural forms of Sentence construction feel are incorrectly spelt. words spelt correctly? Check for subject-verb agreement. The passage given below has spelling, punctuation, capitalisation and grammatical errors. Highlight the errors with a colour pencil. Then, check the answers given at the bottom of the page. last weak! my grandmother made us a big meel for dinnir i ate so much that I taught my stomach wud burst. My sister spilled sum noodles in his wite dress we laughed so hard. I helped my sister wipe of the stain. I love it when granny make noodles. It makes me very happie, Last week, my grandmother made us a big meal for dinner. I ate so much that I thought my stomach would burst. My sister spilled some noodles on her white dress. We laughed so hard! I helped my sister wipe off the stain. I love it when Granny makes noodles. It makes me very happy. Module 1 9

Exercise 4: The passage given below has 15 spelling, punctuation, sentence formation and grammatical errors. Correct the errors and rewrite the passage in the space given. Go through the points given before editing the passage. Preeti ankush and Tara went two the store pet. Ankush brought a big bag off food for his cat whiskers? Preeti loked at a tank of fish and said, Oh, i wants one too. Tara fed sum parrots and played with them. Before leaving the store they went to play with the puppies!  Creative Writing Picture-based description Exercise 5: Observe the given picture and write down a few points about it. Use these points to then complete the description of the picture by filling in the gaps in the paragraph. 10

Hints: • Describe what you see in the picture. • How do you think the animals feel? • Fill in the gaps with reasons for why you think that animals should not be locked up in zoos. What is the name of the place in the Which animals do you see? picture? What are the animals doing? How do you feel when you see them? Module 1 11

This is _____________________________. There are _____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ animals in the picture. There is __________________________________________________________ at the centre. There are two _____________________________ and _____________________________ each. The flamingos are standing _______________________________________________________________ ______________________. A monkey is _______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________. There are many people __________________________________________________________. An alligator is __________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________. However, looking at this picture makes me sad. The animals look like ________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________. I think we should not lock animals up in zoos because _____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________. Their lives should not be ____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________. Baby animals are sometimes removed from their families, when ________________________________________________________________________________. This also makes them sad and unhappy. Animals should be free too. Even if ________________________________________________________ _________________________________________, they should not become ________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________. This is why ________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________. 12

Module 2 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Sentence dictation Vocabulary Listen and answer Grammar Antonyms Formal Writing Creative Writing Punctuation Message writing Diary entry Dictation Exercise 1.1: Sentence dictation 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  Module 1 13

Exercise 1.2: Listen and answer [    ] 1) What was the fee given by the swans for using the lake? [    ] a) golden rocks b) a golden coin [    ] c) five normal feathers d) golden feathers [    ] 2) What did the homeless bird plan to do? [    ] a) go to a faraway land b) make the river its home c) compete with the other birds d) shoo away the other birds from the lake 3) Why did the golden swans refuse to give shelter to the homeless bird? a) The bird was new to the lake. b) The golden swans were jealous. c) It did not have golden feathers. d) They were afraid of the bird. 4) What did the homeless bird do after she was insulted by the swans? a) She cried. b) She went to the king with her complaint. c) She fought with the swans. d) She flew away and never came back. 5) How did the king punish the golden swans? a) He ordered them to leave the river. b) He killed all of them. c) He asked them to apologise. d) He made them servants to the homeless bird. 14

RP Vocabulary Q Antonyms Exercise 2.1: Complete the crossword puzzle with the antonyms of the words given in the clues. You can also use the pictures as hints. 1 2 3 4 Clues: Down Across 1) an antonym of ‘beautiful’ 2) an antonym of ‘idle’ 2) an antonym of ‘top’ 3) an antonym of ‘bitter’ 3) an antonym of ‘deep’ 4) an antonym of ‘adult’ Exercise 2.2: Fill in the blanks with the antonyms of the words given in brackets. Then, colour the symbols next to the correct options. One is done for you. 1) It is very warm here. (cool) cold warm sleepy Module 2 15

2) Please meet me __________________________ dinner. (after) during at before 3) __________________________ to my room. (go) Come Going Look 4) This dress is very __________________________. (cheap) light cold expensive 5) He came __________________________ in the race. (last) middle first home 6) He travels by bus __________________________. (never) today always sometimes Grammar Punctuation Rohan received an e-mail from his pen friend in Thiruvananthapuram. He opened the mail in excitement. Here is the e-mail. hi rohan, how are you i want to invite you to the onam celebrations at my house onam is an important harvest festival it is celebrated for ten days yippe i am so excited to think that you may join us for onam this year do tell me about your plans waiting eagerly to hear from you, rajam The e-mail completely puzzled Rohan. Rajam had written it in a hurry. He had missed adding commas, question marks and full stops in all the required places. He had also not used capital letters where needed. 16

Insert the correct punctuation marks and capital letters. Rewrite the e-mail so that Rohan can understand the message easily.  Punctuation marks are the traffic signals of writing. They help us to pause, stop and start our sentences. They are symbols that make a written message clearer and reduce miscommunication. They are used to structure and organise writing. Let us now revise the punctuation marks that we have learnt till now. full stop I am placed at the end of a sentence or statement. Example: I will travel tomorrow. It is too late to travel today. comma •  I am used to separate three or more words or items in a list. Example: He bought vegetables, milk, fruits and cheese from the market. •  I am used to separate the person addressed from the rest of the sentence. Example: Rohan, sit down. Module 2 17

question mark I am placed at the end of a question. exclamation mark Example: Where are we going? •  I am placed at the end of sentences that show emotions (happiness, excitement, frustration or anger). Example: W hat a beautiful beach! •  I am placed after interjections. An interjection is used to express a sudden burst of feeling or emotion. (Alas!, Hurray!, Wow!) Example: Wow! This room is so big. Some words always start with a capital letter. Remember the acronym M.I.N.T.S. for the correct usage of capital letters. Acronym Examples M : months, names of days • My birthday is in September. • I go to church on Sundays. • I bought a new pencil. I : the word ‘I’ • She can eat my food because I am not hungry. N : n ames of people, states, cities • My friend Sandeep lives in Kochi, Kerala. and countries—proper nouns • I plan to visit Norway next month. T : titles of books and movies • I am going to watch Titanic tonight. • My favourite book is Black Beauty. S : start of sentences • I have a new friend. Her name is Fatima. 18

Exercise 3.1: Rewrite the following sentences by using capital letters wherever  required. One is done for you. 1) peter pan is one of the most popular children’s stories. Ans. Peter Pan is one of the most popular children’s stories. 2) ambika is reading a book titled alice in wonderland. Ans.  3) ronaldo is a great footballer. Ans.   4) Disney’s new movie frozen releases this friday. Ans.   5) the movie midnight’s children is based on a book by Salman Rushdie. Ans.   6) 'The Little Mermaid' is a story by hans christian andersen. Ans.   Exercise 3.2: Read the following conversation between two friends. Fill in the blanks with the correct punctuation marks. One is done for you. Krish Hey, Josh! Josh Hi, Krish! Krish Are you going to Riya's birthday party____ Module 2 19

Josh Of course, I’m very excited____ Krish Josh Are you going with someone____ Krish Yes, I’m going with Arjun____ Kevin and Bipasha. Do you want to come with us? All right. I will come with you____ Exercise 3.3: Underline the places with incorrect or missing punctuation marks in the given paragraph. Also, point out where capital letters have not been used correctly. My favourite pastime is reading books? The authors that I like to read are Roald Dahl. JK Rowling and ruskin Bond. The day my summer holidays began, i found a brown package under my bed. yipee, My mother had gifted me my favourite detective series for the vacation. Can you think and tell me what your favourite pastime is. Now, rewrite the paragraph by correctly using punctuation marks and capital letters. One sentence is done for you. Ans. My favourite pastime is reading books. 20

Apostrophe for singular possession The apostrophe is also used to show belonging or possession (that something belongs to someone). We use the apostrophe with the letter ‘s’ to show belonging. Examples: • This is Haris jacket. incorrect • This is Hari’s jacket. correct The apostrophe has been used to show that the jacket belongs to Hari. There are two main rules for adding the apostrophe to show singular possession. Let’s understand them. Rule 1 : If the noun is singular, add the apostrophe + ‘s’. Example : the tail of a dog = the dog’s tail Rule 2 : If the noun is singular and ends in ‘-s’, still add the apostrophe + ‘s’. Example : the wheel of the bus = the bus’s wheel Look at the table below for more examples. singular nouns •  My pen’s lid is missing. singular nouns ending in ‘-s’ •  Tell me an elephant’s story. •  That cactus’s leaves are thick and spiny. •  This is my boss’s cabin. Apostrophe with possessive pronouns Sometimes, we may get confused between contractions and possessive pronouns. Remember that possessive pronouns do not need the apostrophe. Module 2 21

Examples: Possessive pronouns Correct usage Incorrect usage Correct usage Incorrect usage  yours  your’s  theirs  their’s  hers  her’s  mine  mine’s  its  it’s  ours  ours’ or our’s Difference between plurals and possessive pronouns Remember • The plural form of a word shows that there is ‘more than one’ of something. Example: •  The teachers came to school early. • A possessive noun or pronoun says ‘who or what owns or has something’. Example: •  The teacher’s pen is on the table. Exercise 3.4: Choose the correct option from the brackets to fill in the blanks. One is done for you. I have a big family. I live with my parents (parent’s/parents)and grandfather. My _____________________ (father’s/fathers) brother and his ____________________ (son’s/sons) also live with us. I have a younger brother as well. His name is Kishore. His ____________________ (pranks/prank's) always amuse us. Kishore's closest friend is Adil. Kishore spends his weekends mostly at his ____________________ (friend’s/friends) place. Our ____________________ (families/family's) are also friends. 22

Formal Writing Message writing A message is a way to communicate or share your thoughts and feelings. Let us look at a few situations in which you can write messages. Messages to apologise Everybody makes mistakes sometimes, and it is important to apologise when we do so. A short apology message will make both you and the other person feel better. When you write a message of apology, say that you are sorry and also mention what you are sorry for. Here are some expressions you can use. 1) I am sorry for being late yesterday. 2) I apologise for forgetting to … 3) I am sorry I was rude to you. 4) I am sorry that my actions or words hurt you. Messages to express thanks We have often been in situations where we have needed people to help us. Writing a short message of thanks is a nice way to thank them for their help. Here are some useful expressions that you can use. 1) Thanks so much for… 2) Thanks a lot for… 3) Thank you, I really appreciate… 4) Thank you, I couldn’t have… without your help. Module 2 23

Messages to express sympathy Often, when people go through difficult situations, they feel lonely. They feel that nobody can understand their pain other than themselves. You can write a sympathetic message to let them know that you care about them. You can include the following sentences in your message. 1) I am saddened by your loss. 2) I am with you in this time of sorrow. 3) Words cannot express how sad this makes me feel. 4) Please know that my thoughts and best wishes are with you at this time. Your friend Rishab’s pet dog Leslie passed away last night. Leslie was with Rishab for 12 years. They were very close. Rishab is sad. Write a message to Rishab, sharing your sympathy for his loss. Sorry about your dog 26 October 2:00 p.m. Dear Rishab, I am sorry to hear the news of Leslie, passing away. I know that you were very close to her. She made you laugh even during difficult times. I cannot imagine how hard it must be for you right now. Try to think of the good memories that you and Leslie shared. I am here if you feel like talking. Take care Rishab. Love, Mehek 24

Exercise 4: Write a message to your aunt, thanking her for taking you to an art exhibition. Fill in the message with the help of the prompts given below. Thanks for the exhibition trip _________________ _________________ Dear Aunty, I can’t tell you how happy ________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________. You know me so well and understand _____________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________. ____________________________________________________ for taking me. You took a day off from work ____________________________________________________________________ _____________________. ____________________________________ best aunt in the world! Your loving niece, ____________________________ Creative Writing Diary entry A diary is a notebook in which one can write about things that happen in everyday life. We write diary entries to remember day-to-day things and to share our thoughts, feelings, hopes, disappointments and dreams. Module 2 25

Look at the following sample of a diary. Day and date Salutation/ Tuesday, 12 April Greeting Dear Diary, Contents I really had a great day today. I of the diary turned nine years old. I had my entry favourite cake: black forest. My best friend, Yasser, got me a big Diary entries jigsaw puzzle. I am waiting to are always open it and play with it! My other written in first friend, Nitya, made a beautiful person. wall hanging of a dog for me! She knows that I love dogs. My parents Use informal are planning a trip to Kerala this language. weekend so that we can celebrate my birthday. I am feeling so happy and loved! Puja Name 26

Exercise 5: Imagine you were given a chance to explore the world. Where would you go? What would you like to see? Write the details of the trip in your diary. Friday, 15 ___________________________ _____________________________________, I was lucky enough to win a trip for two in a competition. So, Mummy and I went to ___________________________________________________________________________! We saw ___________________________________________________________________________________ such as ___________________________________________________________________________. Mummy and I also visited __________________________________________________________ and went to a few popular restaurants in the city. The trip was _______________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________! Both Mummy and I learnt a lot. I wish we ____________________________________________ _________________________ more days. But we had to return in ________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________. If we had some more time, _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. ________________________ Module 2 27

Module 3 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Word dictation Vocabulary Listen and answer Grammar Compound words Formal Writing Singular and plural nouns Creative Writing Countable and uncountable nouns Friendly letter Character sketch Dictation 3) Exercise 1.1: Word dictation 6) 9) 1) 2) 4) 5) 7) 8) 2882

Exercise 1.2: Listen and answer 1) What are the names of the children in the story? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) According to Uncle Thomas, who haunts the lake? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Where had the fog settled? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) What had Uncle Thomas packed for the children? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) Was there really a ghostly creature that haunted the lake? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ PR Vocabulary Q Compound words A compound word is formed when two different += words are joined to make a new word. jelly fish jellyfish There are three forms of compound words. Module 3 29

Closed form Hyphenated form Open form The words are blended or mixed and written as a The words are simply joined The words are used together and single word. by a hyphen or hyphens. convey one idea or meaning. However, they are spelt as Examples: separate words. •  lifeless •  outdoors Examples: Examples: •  day-to-day •  wooden dolls •  cut-outs •  glove puppets Exercise 2.1: Look at the picture clues given below. Pick out the words that make up the compound words shown in the pictures and write them down. One is done for you. light bee board ball skate foot house hive sea star fish shore 1) seashore 2) ________________________________ 3) ________________________________ 4) ________________________________ 5) ________________________________ 6) ________________________________ 30

Exercise 2.2: Tick the boxes that have compound words. Choose any two compound words and make a sentence each using them. 1) 2) 3) basketball flower igloo 4) 5) 6) toothbrush raindrops paper Sentences: 1) ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Grammar Singular and plural nouns Read the passage given below. Underline the plural nouns. Write their singular forms in the given table. My friends and I got a few candies from our teachers. We ate it during recess. We ate our lunch and washed our dishes, spoons and glasses. While going home, we tied scarves around our necks. We visited some churches. We could hear echoes inside a few of these churches. Module 3 31

Plural Singular Plural Singular ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Remember • R egular plurals are formed by adding -s to the ends of words. Examples: car – cars, pen – pens • Many plurals are formed in different ways and not just by adding -s to the ends of words.  To form the plurals of words that end in -x, -o, -s, -ch, -sh and -ss, we add -es to the ends of the words. Examples: fox – foxes, hero – heroes, bus – buses, bunch – bunches, wish – wishes, address – addresses  To form the plurals of words that end in -y, we change -y to -ies. Examples: fly – flies, bunny – bunnies, berry – berries  To form the plurals of words that end in -f or -fe, we change -f or -fe to -ve and then add -s. Examples: life – lives, wolf – wolves, self – selves For some exceptions, we add -s to form plurals for such words. Examples: chief – chiefs, roof – roofs More on plurals Here are a few nouns that do not change at all in the plural. You have to understand from the sentence whether one or many are being spoken about. Examples: There is a sheep in the field. 32

There are two sheep in the meadow. In the first sentence, ‘a’ sheep is spoken about. This means that there is only one sheep. Here, ‘sheep’ is singular. In the second sentence, there are ‘two’ sheep. Here, more than one sheep is mentioned. So, ‘sheep’ is a plural noun in the second sentence. Here are two more examples. There are three fish Eight deer are in the pond. grazing near the river. Exercise 3.1: Fill in the blanks with the correct plural forms from the options given in brackets. One is done for you. 1) People say that cats have nine lives. (lifes/lives) 2) I saw a few ____________________________ playing in the zoo. (leopard/leopards) 3) The __________________________ are sleeping. (deer/deers) 4) I grew two ____________________________ taller over the summer holidays. (inches/inchs) 5) There are many good ____________________________ in the old city. (libraries/librarys) 6) Look at those ____________________________ in the sky. (aircraft/aircrafts) Exercise 3.2: Change the underlined singular nouns to plural. Make other changes to the sentences so that they are grammatically correct. One is done for you. 1) I saw a boy run behind the deer. Ans. I saw boys run behind the deer. Module 3 33

2) Sumit is planting a tree. Ans.   3) I took a photograph of the moose. Ans.   4) The member of the winning country will get a prize. Ans.   5) The thief was stealing a cargo of cars. Ans.   6) I attended the birthday party of my friend. Ans.   Countable and uncountable nouns Look around your classroom. Can you name a few things (nouns) in the room that can be counted? Nouns that name things that we can count are called countable nouns. Examples: book (We can count the number of books.) • a dog, three cats, an animal, one man • many bottles, a few boxes, six pens • a table, three chairs one book three books 34

Remember • When a countable noun is singular, we use ‘a’, ‘an’, ‘the’ or the number ‘one’ before it. • When a countable noun is plural, we use words like ‘many’, ‘a few’ or numbers greater than one (two, three and so on) before it. Now, can you think of things (nouns) that cannot be counted? Nouns that name things that cannot be counted are called uncountable nouns. For example, we cannot say ‘one milk’, ‘two milk’ or ‘three milk’. We can say ‘a milk bottle’, ‘two milk bottles’ or ‘three milk bottles’. Here, we are counting the bottles and not the milk. Here are some more examples of uncountable nouns. some milk two milk bottles • lots of love, a lot of happiness, a little bit of sadness • some furniture or luggage, a lot of homework • a little rice or sugar, a lot of water, some milk Remember • All uncountable nouns are singular. There is no plural form for these words. • We use words like ‘some’, ‘little’, ‘any’ or ‘much’ before uncountable nouns when we do not use any other unit. Module 3 35

Exercise 3.3: Look at the given pictures. Write ‘C’ if they are countable nouns. Write ‘U’ if they are uncountable nouns. One is done for you. 1)       2) 3)   table honey rice U 4)     5)    6)    cheese bird star Exercise 3.4: Make the following uncountable nouns countable. One is done for you. 1) rice – two kilograms of rice 2) water –  3) milk –  4) furniture –  5) jam –  6) salt –  36

Formal Writing Friendly letter We write friendly letters to our friends and family members. Read the given sample of a friendly letter carefully. See the different parts that a letter has and study the format. Salutation/Greeting H. No. 18 - 421 - 12 Your address Forest Colony You can use a Nagpur Date person’s first name. 2 June 2019 Introduction Body In the first Dear Soham, paragraph, explain This is the part why you are between the How are you? Hope you are writing. Use friendly introduction and the enjoying your basketball language. closing paragraph. camp. I have come to visit my This is where you grandparents for the summer, and Closing paragraph should talk about I am having a really good time. Ask a question or the main idea of the make a suggestion letter. My grandparents give me many so that the person gifts and let me eat all the things I can send a reply. Signature want! They also have farms where I play with the new friends I have Sign your name. made here. My mother helped How you sign off me take pictures of the fields; I shows how you feel will show them to you when I am about the person back. to whom you are writing. I wish you and Sneha could have come too. See you soon! Please teach me basketball when I get back! Lots of love, Peeyush Module 3 37

Exercise 4: Given below is the outline of a letter written by a boy, Suraj, to his cousin, Shalu, who lives in another country. He writes about the unity of his country and also writes about the various cultures and different languages of people in India. Fill in the gaps to complete the letter. Lane 33, Bhandari Nagar JP Nagar Bengaluru ________________________ Dear Shalu, How ______________________________________________? I have been waiting to finish my school project on ‘India, the Land of Unity in Diversity’ to write to you about it. The project showed how the people of India ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ though they speak different languages and have ___________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________. Do you know that there are _________________________ ______________________ states and seven __________________________________________________? Yet, people unite in the name of ___________________________________________________________. Our cricket, hockey and other sports teams have _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ who play together for ____________________________________________________________________. People celebrate _______________________________________________________________ and share ________________________________________________________________ happily. I am very proud of __________________________________________________________________________. I wish you could _______________________________________ during Christmas. My neighbour, Susan Aunty, makes _________________________________________________________ for all of us at that time. I told you, __________________________________________________________ in India. We celebrate together! Do write and let me know ________________________________________________________________. With warm regards, Suraj 38

Creative Writing Character sketch A character sketch informs you about a person in detail—how they talk, look, act and think. Read the character sketch of Milan. Milan is a twelve-year old boy who lives in a tiny village in Shimla. He has curly brown hair and looks as thin as a skeleton. Milan has brown eyes and a loud voice. He talks very fast and is always happy and excited. Milan usually wears comfortable shorts with loose and colourful T-shirts. Milan is a caring and gentle boy. He loves animals, and they make him very happy. He is very good with dogs. He wants to become a vet when he grows up. So, he studies hard. His favourite subject is science. Milan loves to play hockey and does it regularly. However, he has the bad habit of leaving his hockey stick on the floor. Exercise 5: Write a character sketch of a friend of yours. Use the given points and questions. You can also draw your friend's picture in the given space. Think about your friend in Explain how you met them. detail. What do you like or dislike about them? Module 3 39

How do they talk? What colour are their eyes? Do they behave in a physical How is their hair? certain manner? qualities How is their voice? What types of clothes and shoes do they like? What are they good What habits do they at? have? What makes them internal What kind of sports or happy? qualities music do they like? What makes them What subjects do they sad? enjoy in school? You don’t have to follow the exact order given above, but the character sketch should contain most of the points mentioned. 40

Module 3 41

Module 4 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Sentence dictation Vocabulary Listen and answer Grammar Synonyms Formal Writing Creative Writing Pronouns Formal letter Story writing Dictation Exercise 1.1: Sentence dictation 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  4224

Exercise 1.2: Listen and answer [    ] [    ] 1) How are feathers arranged on penguins’ bodies? [    ] a) in a circular pattern b) in rows [    ] c) in columns d) without any pattern [    ] 2) How long can penguins be in the sea?  a) seven days b) 15 days c) months d) two days 3) What is a penguin’s source of food? a) fish b) leaves c) meat d) shrimp 4) What is the main difference between penguins and other birds? a) their colour b) ability to walk c) ability to swim d) solid bones 5) How are penguins’ feet? a) webbed feet b) flippers, not feet c) flat feet with toes d) scaly feet with claws PR Vocabulary Q Synonyms Synonyms are words or phrases that mean the same or nearly the same. Exercise 2.1: Write a synonym for each of the words underlined in the sentences. Use a dictionary if required. One is done for you. 1) Our school team won the cricket match with ease. – comfort 2) This book is amazing. – ______________________________ 3) The weather was pleasant in the morning. – ______________________________ 4) Assisting people in need is a good deed. – ______________________________ 5) I was eager to go to school the next day. – ______________________________ 6) I am afraid to enter that dark room. – ______________________________ Module 4 43

Exercise 2.2: Match the words with their correct synonyms. Synonyms Words a) truthful  b) answer c) huge 1) wealthy  d) strong e) rich f) smart 2) mighty  3) honest  4) intelligent  5) enormous  6) respond  Grammar Pronouns Read the paragraph given below. Underline the pronouns and choose their types from the given boxes. When Anya came into the classroom, she thought to herself, ‘Is there a test today? Why did Sheetal not tell me about it?’ Anya sat down next to Vishal and prepared for the test with him. Anya had Vishal’s blue pen. She returned the pen to him. subject pronoun object pronoun reflexive pronoun 44

Remember • Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. • S ubject pronouns perform the action in a sentence. (I, we, you, he, she, it, they) Example: I am a singer. • O bject pronouns receive the action in a sentence. (me, us, you, him, her, it, them) Example: Give that cup to me. • Reflexive pronouns are used when we refer to the subject of the sentence again. In other words, these pronouns are used when the object of a sentence is the same as its subject. In a reflexive pronoun, the subject receives the action. When reflexive pronouns are used to put emphasis on the subject, they are called emphatic pronouns. (myself, yourself/ yourselves, himself, herself, themselves, itself, ourselves) Examples: • Ramiz gifted himself a sweater.  • We finished the project by ourselves. Exercise 3.1: Underline the pronouns in the sentences. Write 'SP' for subject pronouns, 'OP' for object pronouns and 'RP' for reflexive pronouns. One is done for you. 1) She is a good singer. __S_P__ 2) Rahul was waiting for me. _____ 4) I cooked a delicious meal. _____ 3) Lily cooked by herself. _____ 6) The big dog belongs to him. _____ 5) Joy bought himself a new book. _____ Possessive pronouns — whose is it? Read the following sentences. These books are mine. This class is ours. The dog is his. That cycle is hers. The pretty parcel is yours. That house is theirs. The words in bold are possessive pronouns. They tell us that something belongs to someone. They show belonging. Module 4 45

Here is a list of subject pronouns and the related possessive pronouns. Subject pronoun Possessive Subject pronoun Possessive I pronoun he pronoun mine his we ours she hers you yours it its – – they theirs Exercise 3.2: Complete the sentences using possessive pronouns 'mine', 'yours', 'ours', 'his', 'hers', 'its' and 'theirs'. One is done for you. 1) That is your dog. That dog is yours. 2) This is our house. The house is _____________________. 3) These rabbits belong to her. These rabbits are __________________. 4) That is my bus. The bus is _____________________. 5) Those are his toys. Those toys are _____________________. 6) That car belongs to them. It is _____________________. Exercise 3.3: Fill in the blanks with the types of pronouns given in brackets. One is done for you. 1) What is she doing in the park? (subject pronoun) 2) The doctor gave medicines to ________________________________. (object pronoun) 3) This is an apple. It is __________________________________. (possessive pronoun) 4) This is your task, Chris. Can you complete it by __________________________________? (reflexive pronoun) 5) T his pen is __________________________________. Please return it to them. (possessive pronoun) 6) They hid __________________________________ inside the castle. (reflexive pronoun) 46

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