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Published by IMAX, 2020-04-15 07:35:06



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Preface IMAX partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. IMAX presents the latest version of the Pinnacle series – especially crafted as an accompanying workbook series for the Tamil Nadu state board textbooks. The Pinnacle series endeavours to be faithful to the spirit of the Tamil Nadu Curriculum Framework, 2017, in conjunction with the content covered and approach adopted in the Samacheer textbooks. The IMAX English workbooks and Grammar & Composition books for the Pinnacle series strive hard to provide adequate opportunities for students to practise all the four skills of Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing (LSRW). Below are some salient features of the Pinnacle English workbooks series:   Summaries of the Samacheer English textbook lessons   Meanings of difficult words from the lessons provided, along with example sentences  Coverage of all textbook questions that require space for writing along with adequate space for writing  ‘Quick Check’ questions at the start of every workbook lesson to recapitulate details of the textbook lesson  Inclusion of questions based on comprehension, vocabulary, judgement & appreciation and speaking skills Here are some salient features of the Pinnacle Grammar & Composition series:  The grammar concepts covered have a horizontal and vertical progression across grades, providing a spiral of cumulative learning  Inclusion of age-appropriate picture reading for grades 1 & 2, and reading comprehension passages for grades 3, 4 & 5  Inclusion of samples for format-based writing to provide for scaffolding of learning of formal writing  Provision of a listening to audio section for honing of listening skills for different purposes for grades 4 & 5 Overall, the IMAX English Pinnacle series aims to generate greater engagement with and enhance fluency in English language communication, while providing students the opportunity to develop a genuine appreciation of the language and its literature. – The Authors Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 2 04/10/2019 11:52:56

GrammarFeaantduCreosmposition Dictation Words from the textbook or sentences with commonly confused spellings for dictation practice PR VoDcicatbautilaorny LisDteicntiangtioAnudio Q Questions based on an audio piece for Practice exercises to help build and listening practice enhance age-appropriate vocabulary GrDaimctmataior n Writing Engaging grammar explanations and Formal Writing inculcates writing skills by well-crafted exercises introducing formal writing styles by providing samples and adequate practice R ReDaicdtiantgioCnomprehension Creative Writing exercises to foster Interesting reading comprehension creative writing by using imagination and passages on varied themes along drawing from real-life experiences with questions that focus on language building Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 3 04/10/2019 11:52:56

Class 4 10 Module 10 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1 R5 Reading Comprehension �������������������������������������������������������������������� 14 11 Module 11 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 12 Module 12 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 30 R6 Reading Comprehension �������������������������������������������������������������������� 42 13 Module 13 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 46 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 4 04/10/2019 11:52:57

Module 10 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Sentence dictation Listening Audio Listen and answer Vocabulary Use of ‘enough’ and ‘too’ Grammar Prepositions Formal Writing Informal letter writing Creative Writing Story writing Reading Passage 1 Comprehension Passage 2 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 1 1 04/10/2019 11:52:57

Dictation Exercise 1: Sentence dictation 1) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) ____________________________________________________________________________________ Listening Audio Exercise 2: Listen to the audio and answer the questions. 1) What did Akbar love doing? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) How many roads were there at the junction? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) According to the young man, which of the roads went to Agra? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) What was the young man’s name? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) What did Akbar gift the young man? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 2 04/10/2019 11:52:58

PR Vocabulary Q Use of ‘enough’ and ‘too’ The word ‘enough’ is used to mean ‘sufficient’ or ‘as much as required’. Examples: •  Your shirt is big enough to fit me. •  The room is big enough to fit 50 people. In negative sentences, we use ‘not’ with ‘enough’ to mean ‘less than sufficient’ or ‘less than required’. Examples: •  There is a lot of work and not enough people to do it. •  You are not working fast enough to finish your homework on time. ‘Too’ is used to mean ‘more/less than required’. Examples: •  He was talking too fast for me to understand. •  I think the room is too small for me. ‘Too’ is often used to mean ‘also’ or ‘as well’. Examples: •  Is Salma coming to the party too? •  She too understands my fear of ghosts. Comparing ‘enough’ and ‘too’ He is strong enough to lift heavy weights. He is too weak to lift heavy weights. Module 10 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 3 3 04/10/2019 11:52:58

Read the table below for more examples of ‘enough’ and ‘too’. enough too You have enough food on your plate. You have too much food on your plate. There isn’t enough sugar in my milk. You might not be able to finish it. There is enough time to catch the last train. There is too much sugar in my milk. There is too little time to catch the last train. We might miss it. Exercise 3.1: Fill in the blanks correctly with ‘enough’ or ‘too’. 1) Prakash ate __________________________ breakfast before leaving for office. He felt good. 2) Arun was driving __________________________ slow to reach on time. 3) Priya had made __________________________ cupcakes to feed all the children in the school. Everyone loved the cupcakes. 4) It was not __________________________, but it was all that he could do for me. 5) The boy was __________________________ short for the ride at the amusement park. He wasn’t allowed on it. 6) She is a chef __________________________. Exercise 3.2: Complete the answers to the questions below using ‘enough’ or ‘too’. Add a full stop when you complete a sentence. 1) Can she vote? No, she can’t. (old) She isn’t ____________________________________________________________________________ 2) Can he lift the bag? No, he can’t. (strong) He’s not ____________________________________________________________________________ 3) Will Sumi come to the party? No, she won’t. (tired) She’s ______________________________________________________________________________ 4) Would you like some ice cream? No, thank you. (cold) It’s _________________________________________________________________________________ 5) Can your dog do tricks? Yes, she can. (smart) She’s ______________________________________________________________________________ 4 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 4 04/10/2019 11:52:59

6) Will you go to the market today? No, I won’t. (hot) It’s _________________________________________________________________________________ Grammar Prepositions Look at the pictures given above and fill in the blanks with the appropriate preposition for each picture. Use prepositions that you have learnt in earlier classes. They are given in the word box on the next page. Some pictures may match with more than one preposition, and a few other prepositions may not apply to any picture. Module 10 5 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 5 04/10/2019 11:53:02

in on under near over behind above at at the side of below next to beside in front of around between Let us learn about a few more prepositions. It means 'to be along with or surrounded by several things, people or objects'. Examples: The black sheep is The boy is sitting among The hen is standing among the white sheep. his toys. among its chicks. among It means 'to be at the same place as one or many things, people or objects'. It shows the interaction between two or more people or things. Examples: The baby bird is flying The cat is playing with a Raju is playing with Asifa. with the mother bird. ball of wool. with 6 04/10/2019 11:53:03 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 6

It means ‘in the direction of’. It shows the place, person or thing that someone or something moves towards. Examples: They drive to Mumbai I sent the package to every Saturday. my mother. Rina walks to school every day. to It is used to show the place where someone or something starts. It also denotes the time when something starts. Examples: Lunch will be served The petrol prices will from 1:00 p.m. increase from tomorrow. She sent me a postcard from Switzerland. from Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 7 Module 10 7 04/10/2019 11:53:04

Exercise 4.1: Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions from the options given in brackets. One is done for you. 1) Meet me at (on/at) 9:00 p.m. 2) The fox jumped ___________________ (over/in) the donkey. 3) Can you keep this box ___________________ (in/among) the storeroom? 4) Divide this cake ___________________ (around/among) yourselves. 5) I will be free ________________ (from/above) the 24th of June. 6) I have set the painting ___________________ (between/above) my fireplace. Exercise 4.2: Look at the picture and make sentences based on the given prompts. One is done for you. 1) owl bed – The owl is on the bed. 2) ball bag –  3) gift dog –  4) table dog –  8 04/10/2019 11:53:04 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 8

5) pillow owl’s head –   6) cat bed –  Exercise 4.3: Complete the paragraph by using the appropriate prepositions. One is done for you. (Hints: More than one preposition may be appropriate for some blanks.) Roxy walks to the grocery store that is _____________________________ her house. Since it is not far away, she does not carry her umbrella though it is cloudy. She reaches the store and puts everything that she needs _____________________________ a shopping cart. While returning, it starts to rain. The rain starts falling _____________________________ Roxy. She holds her shopping bag _____________________________ her head and runs home. She is delayed and reaches home _____________________________ seven o’clock because of the heavy shower. Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 9 Module 10 9 04/10/2019 11:53:04

Writing Formal Writing Informal letter writing Exercise 5: Your friend Simran is very fond of wildlife and camping. So, when you came to know about the Ranthambore National Park camp for children, you couldn’t wait to attend it with her. Write a letter to Simran, asking her to join you at the camp. Hints: •  Greet your friend. •  Give the details of the camp: the last date for registration, exact location and so on. •  W rite why you think she will enjoy the camp. •  Mention why you look forward to her company at the camp. 10 04/10/2019 11:53:05 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 10

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Creative Writing Story writing Exercise 6: Your class went on its annual school outing. Write a story about an exciting adventure that you had on that day. Hints: •  Where was your class going? •  What was the unexpected, exciting adventure? •  How did it end? •  How did you feel about it?  04/10/2019 11:53:05    12 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 12

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R5 Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. ‘It is a wonderful book, Maa’, Barun replied happily. ‘I am reading about Rakesh Sharma right now.’ ‘So you are reading about the first Indian to go to space’, said his mother. She sat on the bed beside her son and asked him, ‘Have you read about Kalpana Chawla?’ Barun hadn’t. So, he started reading about Kalpana Chawla in the evening. Kalpana Chawla was born in 1962 in Karnal in the state of Haryana. Nicknamed ‘Montu’ by her family, she went to school at the age of three. Later, she studied Aeronautical Engineering at Punjab Engineering College, India. In 1982, Kalpana went to the USA to study at the University of Texas at Arlington. In 1988, she became a research scientist at the NASA Ames Research Centre in Sunnyvale, California. 14 04/10/2019 11:53:06 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 14

In November 1996, Kalpana joined the STS-87 mission aboard space shuttle Columbia. The shuttle took off in November–December 1997, during which Kalpana spoke with the then Prime Minister of India, Mr Inderjit K Gujral, from the orbit. On 16th January 2003, Kalpana went into space again. She was on board the space shuttle Columbia. After a successful flight, Columbia was lost with its crew during reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere on 1st February 2003. A hill on Mars and a star in deep space have been named after Kalpana. Her story shows the value of hard work and sincerity that is remembered even after one’s time. 1) Who was the first Indian to go to space? Ans.   2) Where was Kalpana Chawla born? Ans.   3) Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions from the options given in brackets. a) Barun started reading about Kalpana Chawla _____________________ (on/in) the evening. b) She was _____________________ (next to / among) a group of astronauts who travelled to outer space. c) The rocket flew _____________________ (over/with) the Earth’s atmosphere. 4) Another word for ‘answered’ in the passage is  . 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) space shuttle a) honesty 2) crew b) spacecraft 3) sincerity c) team Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 15 Reading Comprehension 15 04/10/2019 11:53:06

Passage 2 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Kite flying is one of the world’s oldest sports. No one knows for certain who invented kites. Some historians believe that the Egyptians were the first to fly kites. Ancient Egyptian carvings depict men flying objects attached to strings. Some believe that the Ancient Greeks invented kites, while some others believe that the Chinese made the first kites. In China, people used to fly different coloured kites to send different messages. Throughout the centuries, kites have been used for various purposes. Once, a Chinese emperor who had been imprisoned was saved by a kite. His followers flew a huge kite over the tower in which the emperor was imprisoned. Recognising the kite, the emperor took hold of the huge ropes hanging from the kite and flew away to freedom. Benjamin Franklin used a kite to prove that lightning is a form of electricity. He flew a kite in a thunderstorm and was almost killed when lightning travelled down the wet string and lit up his instruments. The kite was also responsible for the invention of aeroplanes. The Wright brothers flew many kinds of kites and studied their movements before making the first aeroplane. Also, the first aeroplane was a huge kite glider that was specially made to carry an engine and a person. 16 04/10/2019 11:53:07 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 16

1) Which is one of the world’s oldest sports? . Ans.   2) Who used a kite to prove that lightning is a form of electricity? Ans.   3) Write the past tense forms of the given words from the passage. a) fly   – ___________________________ b) make   – ___________________________ c) take   – ___________________________ 4) The meaning of the word ‘ancient’ is  5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) invented   a) a period of hundred years 2) historian   b) created for the first time 3) century   c) someone who studies and records history Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 17 Reading Comprehension 17 04/10/2019 11:53:07

Module 11 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Word dictation Listening Audio Listen and answer Vocabulary Use of ‘do’ and ‘make’ Grammar Conjunctions Formal Writing E-mail writing Creative Writing Diary entry 18 04/10/2019 11:53:08 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 18

Dictation 3) 6) Exercise 1: Word dictation 9) 1) 2) 4) 5) 7) 8) Listening Audio Exercise 2: Listen to the audio and answer the questions. 1) Where was Jawaharlal Nehru born? [    ] a) Ahmedabad b) Allahabad c) Bhopal d) Aligarh 2) Who was Jawaharlal Nehru’s mother? [    ] a) Kamala Nehru b) Kamala Das c) Putali Bai d) Swarup Rani 3) What was Nehru’s profession before he joined the freedom movement? [    ] a) lawyer b) professor c) scientist d) teacher 4) What was Nehru’s position after India attained independence? [    ] a) Home Minister b) Chief Minister c) Prime Minister d) President of India 5) Why is 14th November celebrated as Children’s Day? [    ] a) It is Jawaharlal Nehru’s birthday. b) It is MK Gandhi’s birthday. c) Jawaharlal Nehru loved children. d) a and c Module 11 19 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 19 04/10/2019 11:53:08

RP Vocabulary Q Use of ‘do’ and ‘make’ We use ‘do’ when we talk about a task or some work. Examples: •  Did you do your homework last night? •  Do the Maths sums before you take a break. ‘Do’ is also used when we refer to general activities. Examples: •  I want to do something good for the poor. •  Please don’t do the work now. We use ‘make’ when we talk about making or creating something. Examples: •  Can you make some pulao for dinner, please? •  Let’s make a chart on water pollution. We also use ‘make’ to show the effect of something. Examples: •  Peeling onions can make your eyes water. •  Ravi can make his sister happy by taking her for a movie. Look at the table below for more examples of ‘do’ and ‘make’. do make Let’s do these exercises quickly. Make a cup of tea, and leave it on the Ravi wants to do a yoga course. table. I will do your work if you do mine. What can make the little baby smile? Can you do me a favour? The principal will make an announcement now. Can Shazia make a plan for us to meet? 20 04/10/2019 11:53:09 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 20

Exercise 3.1: Fill in the blanks correctly with ‘do’ or ‘make’. One is done for you. 1) My father helps me do my homework on Sundays. 2) Will Rachna ________________ a paper boat for me? 3) My parents like to ________________ the laundry together. 4) I am sure that she will ________________ a good job. 5) I can ________________ good tea. 6) The children are well behaved. They hardly ________________ noise during lunchtime. Exercise 3.2: Read the following sentences carefully. Choose from the words given in brackets to complete the sentences. 1) Don’t ________________ (do/make) this a big issue. 2) We need to ________________ (do/make) something about this problem soon. 3) ________________ (Do/Make) you want to read this book? 4) Sabir was able to __________________ (do/make) some good changes to the presentation. 5) My sister has to _______________ (do/make) a decision about her career soon. 6) Ensure you ________________ (do/make) your research before submitting the essay. Module 11 21 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 21 04/10/2019 11:53:09

Grammar Conjunctions You have learnt about coordinating conjunctions in Class 3. Read the given sentences. Circle the coordinating conjunctions and write which words, phrases or sentences they join. 1) I am late, for it is raining. Ans.  2) Maria went to the market, but she did not buy anything. Ans.   3) Do you want to eat the bread with jam or butter? Ans.   4) I don’t usually wake up at 6:00 a.m., nor do I sleep before 10.00 p.m. Ans.   5) I will go home and finish my homework. Ans.   6) They drove carefully, yet they had an accident. Ans.   7) The weather is bad, so it is better to stay indoors. Ans.   22 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 22 04/10/2019 11:53:09

Types of conjunctions There are three types of conjunctions. Conjunctions Coordinating Correlative Subordinating conjunctions conjunctions conjunctions Remember ► You have learnt that conjunctions are words that join words or parts of sentences together. ► The conjunctions you have learnt in Class 3 (‘for’, ‘and’, ‘nor’, ‘but’, ‘or’, ‘yet’ and ‘so’) are coordinating conjunctions. Let us learn the second type of conjunction: correlative conjunctions. Correlative conjunctions Meher is hungry at night. Her mother asks her what she wants to eat. Meher says that she wants neither vegetables nor fruits to eat. She says she wants either a burger or fried chicken. She also wants sweets. Her mother tells her that having junk food and too many sweets is not good. They not only lead to high cholesterol but are also bad for Meher’s teeth.  Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 23 Module 11 23 04/10/2019 11:53:10

Observe the word pairs ‘neither… nor’, ‘either… or’ and ‘not only… but also’ in the previous paragraph. These word pairs are called correlative conjunctions. Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join phrases or words that carry equal importance within a sentence. Examples: veMgeehtearbwleasnntos rnferuitihtse.r H ere, the words ‘neither’ and ‘nor’ show that Meher gives equal importance to both vegetables and fruits. She does not want either of them. Shaebwuargcnehtsirceokirethfnrei.erd Here, Meher gives equal importance to both a burger and fried chicken by saying that she would like to eat either of the two. Here, Meher’s mother gives equal importance to both the buMtotTehahheriegeyhran’slcostotheooebnlteahlysd.telefroaorld reasons for avoiding junk food. Exercise 4.1: Fill in the blanks with the correct coordinating conjunctions from the box. One is done for you. for   and   yet   so   but   or 1) The room was messy, so we cleaned it. 2) His two favourite sports are cricket __________________ kabaddi. 04/10/2019 11:53:11 24 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 24

3) The test is tomorrow, __________________ Rina is not studying. 4) Which of the two ice creams do you want – chocolate __________________ vanilla? 5) He was happy, __________________ he had won the cycling race. 6) Rajesh knows how to swim, __________________ his brother does not. Exercise 4.2: Read the sentences and colour the correct correlative conjunctions to be used. One is done for you. 1) He is __________ polite __________ kind. That is why I dislike him. neither – nor either – or not only – but also 2) This dish is __________ delicious __________ elegant. I like eating it. neither – nor either – or not only – but also 3) __________ my mother __________ my father will come to pick me up. Only one of them will be able to make it. Not only – but also Neither – nor Either – or 4) __________ Saira __________ Sohan will win the race, as they are the fastest runners. Neither – nor Either – or Not only – but also Module 11 25 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 25 04/10/2019 11:53:12

5) __________ the car __________ the auto is big enough for fifteen people. We need a bus. Neither – nor Either – or Not only – but also 6) Neha __________ finished her work __________ helped her brother to complete his. Hence, they could both get their work done on time. either – or not only – but also neither – nor Exercise 4.3: Complete the passage with the correct coordinating and correlative conjunctions. One is done for you. Suzy was sad. Neither her friends nor her mother remembered her birthday. She was shocked that nobody remembered! The year before, her mother had __________________________ baked a cake __________________________ gifted her a new bicycle. Her friends Heena __________________________ Rahul were always the first to wish her, but this year __________________________ Heena __________________________ Rahul even visited her. This made Suzy sad, and she started crying. As Suzy was lying on her bed and sulking, her mother suddenly entered her room. She had a brightly wrapped present and Suzy’s best friends with her. They had planned a surprise birthday party for Suzy! Suzy accepted the present and guessed that it could have a new video game __________________________ a badminton racquet. She was sure that the gift was one of these. She hugged her mother and friends. She was not sad __________________________ gloomy anymore. In fact, she was very happy and excited! 26 04/10/2019 11:53:12 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 26

Writing Formal Writing E-mail writing Exercise 5: Write an e-mail to your friends, inviting them to spend a day at an animal shelter with you. Hints: •  Write the e-mail addresses of the friends you want to invite. •  W rite an introductory sentence as the subject of your e-mail. •  Write why you want to visit an animal shelter. •  Mention which animals you will see at the shelter. •  Explain how visiting the shelter will help you all. •  Greet and sign off as you have learnt earlier.  Module 11   27   04/10/2019 11:53:12     Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 27

Creative Writing Diary entry Exercise 6: Write a diary entry about the preparations you have made for the Republic Day celebration in your society or building. Hints: •  Write about the celebration and all the events that will take place on that day. •  Write about your role in the celebration and what you are responsible for. 28 04/10/2019 11:53:12 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 28

•  Describe how you have prepared for your role. Module 11 •  Write how you are feeling about your upcoming performance. 29   04/10/2019 11:53:13                   Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 29

Module 12 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Sentence dictation Listening Audio Listen and answer Vocabulary Antonyms Grammar Types of sentences Formal Writing Editing exercise Creative Writing Autobiography writing Reading Passage 1 Comprehension Passage 2 30 04/10/2019 11:53:13 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 30

Dictation Exercise 1: Sentence dictation 1) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5) ____________________________________________________________________________________ Listening Audio Exercise 2: Listen to the audio and answer the questions. 1) Who signs in the visitors at the hospital? [    ] a) the nurse b) the doctor c) the receptionist d) the compounder 2) Why are cooks important in a hospital? [    ] a) Patients have to follow diets. b) Many people visit the hospital. c) Cooks can make food that is tasty. d) Hospitals can make money through the food served. 3) What is a cafeteria? [    ] a) an operation theatre b) a lab c) a place for all the workers of the hospital to eat d) a place where only doctors eat 4) Why do doctors have to keep learning? [    ] a) as medical science keeps changing b) as they keep forgetting c) to try new techniques d) to experiment on patients Module 12 31 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 31 04/10/2019 11:53:14

5) Choose a suitable title for the passage that you heard. [    ] a) Nurses b) Jobs at the Hospital c) Receptionists d) Doctors PR Vocabulary Q Antonyms You have learnt that antonyms are words that have opposite meanings. Exercise 3.1: Complete the crossword with the help of the clues given. One is done for you. Note: The answers are the opposites of the words in bold given in the clues. 1M 2O L 5  L D 3X E 4  L S T 6  O Across Down 2) I think it was a very brave act. 1) Rajeev was boastful of his victory. 3) This is a very cheap watch. 4) The pond is quite deep. 6) The knot is tight. 5) We didn’t know that we would win. Exercise 3.2: Write the antonyms of the words given below. 1) rough  × ________________________   2) narrow     × ___________________________ 3) swift   × ________________________    4) advantage × ___________________________ 5) likely  × ________________________   6) necessary  × ___________________________ 32 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 32 04/10/2019 11:53:15

Grammar Types of sentences Given below are some sentences. Sort them under the correct sentence types in the table given below. •  1 5th August is our Independence Day. •  I can’t wait for the party! •  Meet me at 8:00 p.m. sharp. •  Where is my new bag? •  My favourite colour is blue. •  Speak softly! •  Do you want tea or coffee? •  S uddenly, the tiger jumped in front of our jeep! Declarative sentences Interrogative sentences Exclamatory sentences Imperative sentences Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 33 Module 12 33 04/10/2019 11:53:15

Let us revise the four different types of sentences. Types of sentences Declarative sentences: They make statements and end with a full stop (.). Example: We are going to watch a movie.  Interrogative sentences: They ask questions and end with a question mark (?). Example: Will you come for a movie?  Exclamatory sentences: They show excitement or a strong feeling. They end with an exclamation mark (!). Example: •  What an entertaining movie!   • Ouch! I hurt my knee.  Imperative sentences: They give commands or make requests. They end with a full stop (.) or an exclamation mark (!). Examples: •  Karan, please drive me to the movie theatre.     •  Behave politely! Remember The four sentence types are as follows: 1) Statements (.) – declarative sentences 2) Questions (?) – interrogative sentences 3) Exclamations (!) – exclamatory sentences 4) Commands or requests (.) or (!) – imperative sentences Note: When exclamatory sentences start with Examples: • How beautiful is the rain! ‘what’ or ‘how’, there is a slight change • What a match! in the usual order of words in the sentence. 34 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 34 04/10/2019 11:53:16

Exercise 4.1: Identify the type of each sentence and fill in the table. One is done for you. Sentence Type 1) What a great playwright Shakespeare was! exclamatory sentence 2) Have you read Shakespeare’s Macbeth? 3) Tell me the story in brief. 4) Japan is a small but highly advanced country. 5) How colourful the rainbow is! 6) Did he practise any new ragas? Exercise 4.2: Rewrite each sentence in the type given in brackets. One is done for you. 1) What a sharp-eyed detective Sherlock Holmes was! (declarative) Ans. Sherlock Holmes was a sharp-eyed detective. 2) It is very unfortunate. (exclamatory) Ans.   3) The boy in the blue shirt has won the match. (interrogative) Ans.   4) Can you solve these sums? (declarative) Ans.   Module 12 35 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 35 04/10/2019 11:53:17

5) One should not waste one’s time. (imperative) Ans.   6) How humid the weather is! (declarative) Ans.   Exercise 4.3: Write sentences to describe the pictures. Make the sentences based on the sentence types given for each picture. One is done for you. 1) When will you finish your work? interrogative sentence _________________________________ _________________________________ 2) _________________________________ imperative sentence _________________________________ 36 04/10/2019 11:53:17 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 36

3) _________________________________ exclamatory sentence _________________________________ _________________________________ 4) _________________________________ interrogative sentence _________________________________ 5) _________________________________ declarative sentence _________________________________ _________________________________ Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 37 _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Module 12 37 04/10/2019 11:53:18

6) _________________________________ exclamatory sentence _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Writing Formal Writing Editing exercise Exercise 5: Akshay wrote a letter to the editor of a newspaper. However, there were many errors in it. There were errors related to spelling, punctuation, grammar, formatting and sentence formation. Can you spot at least ten errors and rewrite the letter? Dear Editor, 1 Kasturba Gandhi Road Parel 17th March 2019 I have been reading your magazine ‘Child Zone’ four the past three ears. I realy enjoys reading the magazine. I like to read articles on famous writers and the new books available in the market. I was wondering if you could add a section on book rewiews. I thinks your readers will be intrested in such views ritten by childs who have read the books, 38 04/10/2019 11:53:18 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 38

I hope U will like my idea and also gave me an opportunity to write something in your wonderfull magazine, Your’s sincerely akshay paul                     Module 12 39 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 39 04/10/2019 11:53:19

Creative Writing Autobiography writing An autobiography is an account written in the first person. It is the story of a person’s life. It can also be an imaginary object’s life story. Here are the autobiographies of a few famous people. Helen Keller Anne Frank MK Gandhi 40 04/10/2019 11:53:20 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 40

Exercise 6: Given below is an autobiography of a dog. Use appropriate words, phrases or sentences to complete it. I am a pet dog. I live with _________________________________________________________________. She _________________________________________________________________. She takes me _______ ________________________________________________ and _____________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________. She gives me ______________________________________________________________________ to eat. Last week, an exciting thing happened. In the middle of the night, a thief tried to open the window and _____________________________________________________________________________. __________________________________________________________________________________________. I barked and _____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________. This scared him away and _________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________. _______________________________________________________________________ hugged me tightly, and everyone ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________. I love ___________________________________ _______________________________________ very much, and I am happy to live with _____________ __________________________________________________________________________________________. Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 41 Module 12 41 04/10/2019 11:53:20

R6 Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Spit keeps our mouths moist and softens our food when we chew. Without spit in our mouths, we would have a hard time talking and swallowing. But for some animals, spit works better after it has left the mouth. Some animals are experts at surviving because they are expert spitters. Llamas are animals that like their personal space. A llama that feels threatened or annoyed will spit slimy gobs at you to get you to leave it alone. Sometimes, llamas even spit on each other to steal food! Llama spit includes food from the llama’s stomach, and it can be quite smelly. When a llama spits on another animal, the animal usually loses its appetite and walks away, leaving its food behind. The archer-fish is a very skilled spitter. It aims and spits jets of water at insects and other small creatures to knock them into the water. Then, it gulps them down quickly. 42 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 42 04/10/2019 11:53:20

Spitting cobras are also known for their expert aim. These snakes spray venom from their fangs to protect themselves. Scientists believe that these snakes actually aim for the eyes! When the cobra’s venom gets into the eyes of an animal, the venom causes terrible pain and even blindness. This gives the snake plenty of time to get away. 1) How does spit help human beings? Ans.   2) How do spitting cobras protect themselves? Ans.   3) Write the present continuous tense form of each of the given words. a) walk –  b) believe –  c) spit –  4) The meaning of ‘appetite’ is   . 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) moist a) continuing to live 2) surviving b) poison 3) venom c) slightly wet Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 43 Reading Comprehension 43 04/10/2019 11:53:21

Passage 2 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Survival can become a difficult task for animals in the wild – especially if you are smaller or slower than your predators. How do these animals save themselves? They adapt themselves in numerous ways to survive. One of the ways animals adapt themselves is through camouflage. When the fur or the skin of certain animals changes colour to match their surroundings, it is called a ‘camouflage’. Owls, for example, have brown feathers that help them look like the trees around them during the daytime and stay concealed. Some animals have the ability to change the colour of their skin to match their environment. Chameleons are often described as the ‘quick-change artists’ of the animal kingdom, but rabbits are a great example as well. Their fur changes colour depending on the season. Some insects, instead of blending in with their environment, appear entirely different at different times. This deters animals from attacking them. The praying mantis and Phylliidae are some of the most remarkable leaf mimics. Some moths and butterflies have patterns on their wings that make them look scary and help chase away their predators. These are some of the ways in which animals survive in the wild. 44 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 44 04/10/2019 11:53:21

1) How are chameleons described? Ans.   2) Why do butterflies look scary to their predators? Ans.   3) Join the sentences using the conjunctions given in brackets. a) Survival is difficult for slower animals. Survival is difficult for smaller animals. (and) Ans.   b) Animals blend in with their environment. Animals appear entirely different. (either... or) Ans.   c) Survival is difficult for slower animals. They save themselves through camouflage. (so) Ans.   4) The word from the passage that means ‘to change the way one looks to seem the . same as one’s surroundings’ is  5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B 1) concealed a) c opy the way someone looks, speaks or moves 2) mimic b) d iscourages someone from doing something 3) deters c) hidden from sight Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 45 Reading Comprehension 45 04/10/2019 11:53:22

Module 13 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Word dictation Listening Audio Listen and answer Vocabulary Homographs Grammar Contractions Formal Writing Paragraph writing Creative Writing Dialogue writing 46 04/10/2019 11:53:22 Pinnacle_G4_T3.indb 46

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