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Preface ClassKlap partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. ClassKlap presents the latest version of this series – updated and revised after considering the perceptive feedback and comments shared by our experienced reviewers and users. This series endeavours to be faithful to the spirit of the prescribed board curriculum. Our books strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. The books are split into two parts to manage the bag weight. Listening, speaking, reading and writing (LSRW) are fundamental skills for any language, and students’ mastery over them is key to success at school. All these skills frequently need to be used together. Therefore, the English textbooks and workbooks strive to provide adequate opportunities for students to practise all the four LSRW skills. To this effect, the English textbooks and workbooks offer the following features:  T heme-based literature pieces across classes 1-5  S amples of Indian writing in English as well as popular English literature pieces from western countries  P ictures for word meanings in each lesson to help students with visual clues for new or difficult words  Supplementary literature pieces (without questions and answers) to enable additional reading  A speaking project and two reading comprehension passages in each unit to further hone speaking and reading skills  H orizontal and vertical progression across grades for the grammar concepts covered in the workbooks, providing a spiral of cumulative learning  S amples of format-based writing to provide for scaffolding of learning of formal writing Overall, the ClassKlap English textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books aim to generate greater engagement with and enhance fluency in English language communication and empower students to develop a genuine appreciation of the language and its literature.  – The Authors

Dictation RP VDiocctatbiounlary Q Dictation – Words from the lesson or sentences with commonly confused Helps to build vocabulary with spellings for dictation practice explanations and practice exercises Listen and answer – Questions based on an audio piece for listening practice (for Grades 4 and 5 only) GDircatmatmioanr FDoicrmtaatiloWn riting Introduces and teaches an aspect of Inculcates writing skills by introducing grammar with explanations and formal writing styles by providing samples practice exercises and adequate practice CDircetaattiivoen Writing Includes samples and pre-work to ensure proper scaffolding Fosters creative writing skills by having students draw from real-life experiences as well as encourages creative thinking

Module 7 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1 Module 8 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Module 9 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 27 Module 10 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 39 Module 11 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 54 Module 12 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 69

Module 7 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Word dictation Vocabulary Word groups Wordplay Grammar Verbs Formal Writing Subject and predicate Creative Writing Message writing Diary entry Dictation 3) 6) Exercise 1: Word dictation 9) 1) 2) 4) 5) 7) 8) Module 1 1

PR Vocabulary Q Word groups Exercise 2.1: Write at least four words that belong to each word group. One is done for you. 1) fruits mango, orange, guava, pineapple 2) vegetables _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 3) flowers _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 4) vehicles _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 5) wild animals _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 6) clothes _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 2

Wordplay If we replace ‘d’ in the word food with ‘t’, what new word do we form? Ans. t food foot If we replace ‘n’ in the word man with ‘t’, what new word do we form? Ans. mant mat If we replace 'o' in the word hot with 'a', what new word do we form? Ans. a hot hat Exercise 2.2: Change a letter in each word to form a new word. Colour the circle of the letter you are changing. One is done for you. 1) c a k e –  lake 2) c a g e –  __________________ 3) c a r e –  __________________ 4) s a m e –  __________________ 5) s e l l –  __________________ 6) b e a t –  __________________ Grammar Verbs Underline the main verbs and circle the helping verbs in the sentences given below. 1) Do you want this book? 2) Shreya is visiting Jaipur today. 3) They were cooking together. 4) Does Heena know you? Module 7 3

Remember   V erbs are action words. They show the action that the noun does. Examples: •   Anup draws beautiful pictures. •  The flowers are fresh.  The verbs ‘is’, ‘are’, 'am', ‘was’, ‘were’ are also known as 'be' verbs. When these verbs are used with another verb they become helping verbs. Examples: •   She is sick today. •  I am happy.   H elping verbs do not show any action but help the main verbs to complete their meanings. The helping verbs that you have learnt are ‘is’, ‘are’, 'am', ‘was’, ‘were’, ‘do’ and ‘does’. Examples: •   He was playing in the park. •  She is feeling unwell. Exercise 3.1: Underline the main verbs and circle the helping verbs in the given paragraph. One is done for you. Meena loves dancing. She attends dance classes every week. Meena is practising for a dance competition in this picture. She is enjoying herself. Parts of a sentence—subject, verb and object A sentence is made up of three parts. Sentence Subject Verb Object It is what or whom the It is the activity or It is the receiver of the sentence is about; it is action of the subject. subject's action—the somebody or something who/that does the action. thing or the person who is acted upon. 4

Observe the subjects, verbs and objects in a few sentences. Sentence Subject Verb Object The snake caught a frog. The snake caught a frog. The children are singing songs. The children are singing songs. He was playing the guitar. He was playing the guitar. The students wear uniforms. The students wear uniforms. Subject and predicate Read the following sentences. The family saw the The dog chased the cat. The girls met Rohan. giraffe. A sentence can be separated into two parts: Subject Predicate (verb+object) S VO The person or thing that we are talking about is known as the subject. Something more about that person or The subject is the doer of the action. thing is the predicate. This part states what the subject is or does. It always begins with a verb. Module 7 5

Look at the table below for some more examples of subjects and predicates. Subject Predicate The words in bold are verbs. The family ate lunch. The dog was wearing a collar. The girls sang songs. Rohan eats cornflakes for breakfast. Remember A meaningful and complete sentence needs both the subject and the predicate. Exercise 3.2: Split the sentences into their subjects, verbs and objects. Then, tick the words that make up the subjects. Put stars on the words that make up the predicates. One is done for you. Sentence Subject Verb Object 1) T he lion chased the    mouse. The lion chased the mouse. 2) T he men are washing clothes. 3) Ravi is flying a kite. 4) T he monkeys wore red caps. 5) S heela ate a banana. 6) S heela kicked the ball. 6

Exercise 3.3: Rearrange the words to make meaningful sentences. Circle the subjects and underline the predicates of the sentences. One is done for you. 1) apple/shiny/the/looks Ans. The apple looks shiny. 2) was/bottle/table/the/kept/the/on Ans. 3) guilty/judge/him/found/the Ans. 4) those/themselves/helps/help/God/who Ans. 5) Mumbai/morning/I/tomorrow/leave/for/will Ans. 6) friends/best/of/one/is/he/my Ans. Module 7 7

Exercise 3.4: Fill in the blanks with suitable subjects or predicates. One is done for you. 1) The girl is playing football. 2) The river ______________________________________. 3) ______________________________________ is really interesting. 4) ______________________________________ threw the ball. 5) The Sun ______________________________________. 6) ______________________________________ are extremely sweet! Formal Writing Message writing When an event is planned people send invitations to request their family and friends to be a part of the event. You can write a short message to accept or reject the invitation. Here are some sentence starters that you can use in a message. Saying 'yes' to an invitation That’s very kind of you. Thank you for the invitation. I would like to… I would love to come. Saying 'no' to an invitation I am so sorry, but I won't be able to come. I'd love to come, but... Unfortunately… I am sorry, but I don’t think I can… I wish I could, but …. 8

Your close friend is celebrating her ninth birthday and has invited you to a party. Here is a sample message that says that you cannot accept the invitation. Sorry I cannot be there at the party 15 December 5:30 P.M. Dear Sampriti, Thank you so much for inviting me to your birthday party! I would have loved to attend, but I have some plans with my grandparents the same night as your party. Since these plans were made earlier, I cannot cancel them now. I'm really sorry to inform you that I will not be able to come. Hope you have a great party! Happy birthday in advance. Love, Srikar Exercise 4: Your friend Imran's mother, Mrs Aziz, has invited you to watch the movie Wall-E at their house. Write a message accepting the invitation. _________________________________ _______________________________ ___________________ _______________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Module 7 9

Creative Writing Diary entry Many people keep diaries. A diary is a book in which one can write about things that happen in their day-to-day lives, or special events. Many people write diary entries almost every day. People share their thoughts, feelings, hopes and dreams in their diaries. Look at a sample of a diary entry. Greeting Friday, 11 November Day and date Name Dear Diary, Contents of the diary Today was such a horrible day! entry Nothing went right! I wish I could Diary entries are do it all over again. First, I forgot always written in the that I had to wear my white shoes first person, that is today. Mr Zubeidar, the strict with the pronoun 'I'. sports teacher, made me run three rounds of the ground before the assembly! Three! Then, I went to the classroom to find that I was late for the class. So, my class teacher made me stand outside the class. I have never had a worse day in my life! I hope such a day never repeats. Farhan 10

Exercise 5: Fill in the blanks with words, phrases or sentences to complete the diary entry. ________________________________, _______________ May Dear ________________________, I had a very interesting experience yesterday. I was playing with my friends, ________________________________ and ________________________________ when a little kitten ____________________________________________________________________________. I named her Barfi. When Mummy come home from work, _____________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________. I begged her to let me keep Barfi. Finally, she said I could if Barfi did not belong to anyone. _______________________ Module 7 11

Module 8 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Sentence dictation Vocabulary Synonyms Grammar Tenses Formal Writing Explanatory writing Creative Writing Dialogue writing Dictation Exercise 1: Sentence dictation 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  1221

PR Vocabulary Q Synonyms A synonym is a word or a group of words that has the same meaning or a similar meaning as another word. Exercise 2.1: Match the words in Column A with their synonyms in Column B. One is done for you. Column A Column B  a) inexpensive 1) brave b) uneven c) odd  d) pointed e) timid 2) cheap f) courageous  3) sharp  4) strange  5) rough  6) shy  Module 8 13

Exercise 2.2: Replace the underlined words in the following sentences with suitable synonyms. One is done for you. 1) Kabir shut the door behind him. Ans. Kabir closed the door behind him. 2) Meena wears beautiful dresses. Ans. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3) We must behave ourselves and not be impolite. Ans. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 4) I was very unhappy when my dog died. Ans. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 5) Mira helped the aged woman to cross the road. Ans. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 6) The wealthy merchant built a big house. Ans. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 14

Grammar Tenses Read the sentences given below. Sam paints every day. Neha and Atif go to school My grandfather reads at seven o’clock. the newspaper in the afternoon. All these sentences describe actions that happen regularly or often. They are in the simple present tense. Can you think of an action that you do every day? Write a sentence for the activity that you do. 1)   Module 8 15

Remember  The simple present tense describes habits, events and actions that happen regularly or things that are always true. Rule: subject + base verb (+ '-s'/'-es') + object  Add ‘-s’ or ‘-es’ to verbs that follow ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’ and singular nouns.  Do not add ‘-s’ or ‘-es’ to verbs that come after ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’ or plural nouns. Examples: •  Heena jogs every morning. •  We go to Varanasi every year. Read the sentences given below. It rained last week. I cleaned my room Nupur mopped the floor yesterday. last night. All these sentences talk about finished or completed actions. They are in the simple past tense. Write an action that you did yesterday. 1)   16

Remember  The simple past tense describes actions that are finished or completed. Rule: subject + past tense form of verb + object  The past tense forms of most words are made by adding ‘-d’, ‘-ed’ (or ‘-ied’ for some words that end in ‘-y’). Examples: •  They kicked the football hard. •  John cried when he hurt his knee.  In the simple past tense, the following happen: is and am was are were Examples: •  Azarmi is tired. Azarmi was tired. •  I am sleepy. I was sleepy last night. •  The students are late for class. The students were late for class. Irregular verbs in the past tense Till now, we have only read about regular verbs that are changed to the past tense form by adding ‘-d’, ‘-ed’ or ‘-ied’. However, many verbs change to the past tense form without following any fixed rule. Such verbs are called irregular verbs. Read and remember the following list of irregular verbs and their past tense forms. Base verb Past tense form Base verb Past tense form (present tense (present tense came ate form) found form) got gave made come eat find get give make Module 8 17

Base verb Past tense form Base verb Past tense form (present tense (present tense met said form) saw form) sat took told meet began say broke see sang sit won take tell begin break sing win Some verbs are the same in the present tense and the past tense. Examples: •  cut – cut     •  put – put     •  hit – hit Exercise 3.1: Fill in the blanks with the correct past tense forms of the irregular verbs given in brackets. One is done for you. 1) Sumit fell (fall) down two days ago. 2) I _________________________ (get) my report card yesterday. 3) Nita _________________________ (think) that she had missed her bus. 4) Rohit _________________________ (take) the library book home. 5) Luke _________________________ (put) the kettle on the stove. 6) I _________________________ (sit) by the seashore. 18

Read the sentences given below. I will go to the swimming We will travel by train next Kiri will dance at the show on Sunday. pool tomorrow. week. All these sentences talk about actions or events that will happen later. They are in the simple future tense. Write about an action that you plan to do next week. 1)   Remember  The simple future tense describes actions or events that will happen later or in the future.  It also tells us about promises, decisions or hopes about a later time. Rule: subject + will + base verb + object Examples: •  I will become a pilot when I grow up. •  I will give you the book tomorrow.  To talk about events or actions that will NOT happen, we use the word ‘not’ between ‘will’ and the ‘base verb’. Example: •  We will not go to Madurai this year.  We can also use the words ‘going to’ to talk about future events. Examples: •  They are going to go to Goa in October. •  She is going to meet her best friend on Saturday. Module 8 19

Read the sentences given below. Aryan is making I am reading my favourite They are playing breakfast. book. cricket in the park. All these sentences talk about actions or events that are happening right now. They are in the present continuous tense. Remember  The present continuous tense describes actions that are taking place at the time of speaking. Rule: subject + is/am/are + '-ing' form of the verb + object Examples: •  Billu is giving Koko a haircut. •  I am doing my English homework. •  The birds are flying in the sky. Exercise 3.2: Follow the instructions and rewrite the sentences. One is done for you. 1) The lion hunted in the jungle. (Change this to the simple future tense.) Ans. The lion will hunt in the jungle. 20

2) Kira looks for her pen. (Change this to the present continuous tense.) Ans.  3) Saif will visit his grandmother. (Change this to the simple past tense.) Ans.  4) Rajat drank his juice before breakfast. (Change this to the simple present tense.) Ans.  5) We enjoyed our ice cream cones. (Change this to the simple future tense.) Ans.  6) They will greet us. (Change this to the present continuous tense.) Ans.  Past continuous tense—what was happening before? Read the following sentences. The dog was barking It was raining heavily last We were reading because it was hungry. night. together at midnight. These sentences talk about actions that went on for some time in the past. They are in the past continuous tense. Module 8 21

Remember  In the past continuous tense as well, we use the -ing form of the verb.  H owever, we use ‘was’ or ‘were’ before the ‘-ing’ form of the verb. was for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’ and singular nouns were for ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘they’ and plural nouns Rule: subject + was/were + ‘-ing’ form of verb + object Examples: •  I was studying for my exam. •  Ayan was listening to music. •  You were sleeping in the afternoon yesterday. •  We were brushing our teeth. Exercise 3.3: Complete each sentence by changing the base verb in brackets to its past continuous form. One is done for you. 1) The children were learning a new song. (learn) 2) Ajay ___________________________________ on the telephone. (talk) 3) The students _________________________________ for the bus. (wait) 4) My father _____________________________ a letter to his friend. (write) 5) She __________________________________ very fast. (run) 6) My friends _________________________________ football yesterday. (play) 22

Exercise 3.4: Draw a star over the verbs that are in the simple past tense. Underline the verbs that are in the past continuous tense. One is done for you. 1) You were working all day yesterday. 2) It snowed last winter. 3) We drank lemonade at the party. 4) The teacher explained the sum. 5) Eddy and Lisa were looking out of the window. 6) I was watching a movie with my friend last night. Formal Writing Explanatory writing Exercise 4: Write a paragraph to explain how a sandwich is made. Hints: • What type of sandwich is it? • What things do you need to make the sandwich? • What are the steps to be followed from the start to the finish? • A re there any important things to keep in mind while making the sandwich?  Module 8 23


Creative Writing Dialogue writing Exercise 5: Write a dialogue between two friends about their favourite Indian food items. Use the hints given below. Hints: • Make sure the friends greet each other. • They should then start talking about their favourite Indian food item. • They can discuss which states their favourite food items are from. • They should mention why those food items are their favourites. • The friends should mention how their favourite food items are made. • The friends should end the discussion by saying goodbye to each other.  Module 8 25


Module 9 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Word dictation Vocabulary Outdoor games and activities Grammar Adverbs Formal Writing Friendly letter Creative Writing Write a rhyme Dictation 3) 6) Exercise 1: Word dictation 9) 1) 2) 4) 5) 7) 8) Module 1 27

PR Vocabulary Q Outdoor games and activities frisbee Some games and activities can be played or done outside, and some can be played or done inside. Games or activities that can be played or done outside are called outdoor games and activities. Some examples of outdoor games and activities are frisbee, hopscotch, cricket, football and kho-kho. Exercise 2.1: Fill in the missing letters in the names of the given outdoor games and activities to complete the word search puzzle. One is done for you. 1) I F Z Q X P G C N L P F Z W C V E U J Y H I K I NGG R L S E T B MM T E N N I S Y D OQ Y A X V S J B T MW X I CG X HIKING N Z WH R Y G T P S E U NWG 2) GQ T O R N A S I F Z I QW P J S C PM Z QH N T D K DGC N P O S M S OQG I D H B R D GF HCE I UNRQLO I S D ___ O ___ ___ O I WO S P D X I F G K L Z Z L S N T R B S N E K K H Y MM 3) F H Y C O W B M J E L O O C N X I S H HWD L T R F J O J B F NNNA S K F Y V POS CV NGO P GO X E E GN U B T N ___ ___ ___ H ___ N ___ 4) 5) 6) H ___ ___ S ___ ___ T ___ ___ ___ ___ N ___ ___ S K ___ ___ - ___ H ___ 28

Exercise 2.2: Match the words with the correct pictures. 1) horse riding a) 2) cycling b) 3) basketball c) 4) swimming d) 5) badminton e) 6) judo f) Module 9 29

Grammar Adverbs She ran slowly. He spoke angrily. The children played gladly. Look at the words ‘slowly’, ‘impatiently’ and ‘gladly’. All of these words show how the actions of ‘running’, ‘speaking’ and ‘playing’ were done. Such words are known as adverbs. Adverbs tell us when, where, why or how an action happens. Exercise 3.1: The action words or verbs in the given sentences are underlined. Circle the adverbs that describe the verbs. One is done for you. 1) My granny smiled kindly at me. 2) He answered the question shyly. 3) The Sun shines brightly. 4) Jamal walked home quickly. 5) They came home safely. 6) Rama spoke rudely to her sister. 30

Adverbs of manner There are many types of adverbs. An adverb that shows the way or manner in which an action is done is called an adverb of manner. Adverbs of manner answer the question ‘How?’ Examples: Jenny finished her work Rahul drove the car well. Amita sings beautifully. quickly. How does Amita sing? How did Rahul drive the How did Jenny finish her car? work? quickly well beautifully Exercise 3.2: Look at the pictures. Colour the stars with the adverb of manner that suits each picture the best. One is done for you. 1) slowly angrily fast The snail crawls _______. softly quickly angrily 2) They are in the library. So, they are talking _______. Module 9 31

3) cheerfully silently angrily The woman scolded me _______. 4) hard correctly loudly I answered all the questions _______. 5) happily sadly lazily We played _______ on the football field. 6) sadly greedily cheerfully I greeted my friend _______. 32

Exercise 3.3: Read the actions that Twinky the monkey is doing. Circle the adverbs of manner in the sentences. One is done for you. Hints: Remember that adverbs of manner answer the question ‘How?’. 1) Twinky is holding the bananas carefully. 2) Twinky is playing actively. 3) Twinky is sleeping peacefully. 4) Twinky waves happily. Module 9 33

5) Twinky is jumping joyfully. 6) Twinky swims fast. Exercise 3.4: Fill in the blanks with the correct adverbs of manner based on the adjectives given in brackets. One is done for you. This is Aryan. He quietly (quiet) cleans his room. First, he ________________________ (neat) folds his clothes and ________________________ (quick) puts them in the cupboard. Then, he ________________________ (slow) picks up all the scraps of paper, pencil shavings and wrappers and throws them into the bin. A clean room will allow 34

him to do his work ________________________ (calm). After he is done, he helps his father in the kitchen. He ________________________ (polite) greets his grandparents who come down for dinner. Formal Writing Friendly letter Exercise 4: Write a letter to your friend, describing a scary dream (also called a ‘nightmare’) that you had. Hints: • When did you have the scary dream? • What was it about? • What happened in the dream? • Who did you see in your nightmare? • How did you feel when you woke up?  Dear ____________________________________________,  Module 9 35

Creative Writing Write a rhyme Read the following words aloud. Stress on the letters that are in bold. play way double trouble dish vanish beneath teeth 36

The ending sounds in the given word pairs are either similar or the same. Words that have the same ending sounds are called rhyming words. Use the pictures to help you think of other rhyming word pairs. Meet Mohsin and Kriti. They are playing a game. Mohsin says some words to which Kriti answers with rhyming words. The game ends when Kriti says a word that does not rhyme with Mohsin’s word. Mohsin: friend Kriti: send Mohsin: said Kriti: bed Mohsin: money Kriti: brain ‘Game over!’ says Mohsin. The ending sounds in the words ‘money’ and ‘brain’ are not the same. To find out if two words rhyme, read out the words and listen carefully. If they sound the same or similar, they rhyme. Example: Some words that rhyme with ‘float’ are 'boat', 'coat' and 'goat'. If the words sound different, they do not rhyme. Example: 'house' and 'place' do not rhyme. Identify the rhyming words in the lines given below. Underline them with the same colours. I am a little spider, Then I’ll spin my web watch me spin! to hold you tight, If you’ll be my dinner, and gobble you up I’ll let you come in. in one big bite! Module 9 37

Exercise 5: Write a poem of two lines on any topic using the given hints. Hints: What is the Write a few Write down some poem about? words that you can rhyming words that add to the poem. can be used. Example: I see shells on the seashore. I have five, but I want more! Write your poem below. Draw a picture related to your poem as well.  38

Module 10 Section Name What I Will Learn Dictation Sentence dictation Vocabulary Homophones Grammar Prepositions Formal Writing Summary writing Creative Writing Fairy tale writing Dictation Exercise 1: Sentence dictation 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  Module 1 39

PR Vocabulary Q Homophones Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. Examples: •  ‘see’ and ‘sea’ •  ‘right’ and ‘write’ Exercise 2.1: Fill in the blanks with the correct homophones from the options given in brackets. 1) ____________________ (I/Eye) am feeling happy. 2) Mariyam saw a ___________________ (hare/hair) hopping in the park. 3) Ali ___________________ (nose/knows) how to tie his shoelaces. 4) Radha ____________________ (eight/ate) only half the sandwich. 5) I need a new ____________________ (pear/pair) of shoes. 6) Mohan and Tom fed the ____________________ (deer/dear) at the zoo. 40

Exercise 2.2: Complete the puzzle with the help of the hints given below. One is done for you. 1 2 WI T CH 3 B U 4 GS W Across Down 1) a woman with magical powers 1) how heavy something is (a homophone of ‘which’) (a homophone of ‘wait’) 3) to exist (a homophone of ‘bee’) 2) a unit of time (a homophone of ‘our’) 4) the name of a flower (a homophone of ‘rows’) 3) b reathed air from the mouth (a homophone of ‘blue’) Grammar Prepositions Tick the prepositions in the following sentences. 1) My pet was hiding behind the door. 2) The birds are flying in the sky. 3) The car stopped in front of the building. 4) He fell asleep on the bed. Module 10 41

Remember Prepositions help in connecting two nouns. They tell us the positions of the nouns. Example: The sheep (noun) are in (preposition) the field (noun). ‘At’, ‘near’ and ‘around’ Let us learn three new prepositions. At: It points out a particular time, place or address and an activity. Amjad will meet me at 2 John lives at 43A, Karve Ishaan is good at painting. o’clock in the afternoon. Road. Near: It points to something or someone that is close by. The animals are grazing The house is near the The apples are lying near the fence. mountains. near the box. 42

Around: It means ‘surrounding or circling on every side’. The children are We were playing around The bees are flying dancing around the a tree. around the beehive. stools. There are some prepositions that have similar or the same meanings. Let us read about such prepositions. ‘Above’ and ‘over’ ‘Beside’ / ‘at the side of’ / ‘next to’ ‘At the side of’ and Both ‘above’ and ‘over’ ‘next to’ mean the mean ‘at a place that is same as ‘beside’. higher than someone or Examples: something’. •  The apple is beside the box. •  The apple is at the side of the box. Examples: •  The apple is next to the box. •  The apple is above the box. •  The apple is over the box. Module 10 43

Exercise 3.1: Match the positions of the owl in the pictures with the correct prepositions. One is done for you. 1) c a) between 2) b) in front of 3) c) on 4) d) around 5) e) behind 6) f) below 44

Exercise 3.2: Look at the picture and write true or false. One is done for you. 1) The child is sitting in the shopping cart. – true 2) The fridge is over the other shelves. – _________________ 3) A girl is standing behind the counter. – _________________ 4) There are many food items on the shelves. – _________________ 5) The people in the picture are standing under each other. – _________________ 6) A man is standing behind the child. – _________________ Exercise 3.3: Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions from the options given in brackets. One is done for you. Riyaz and Atul are friends. Their houses are next to (under/next to) each other. Riyaz decides to meet Atul ___________________________ (at/on) four o’clock in the evening at the park. They sit ___________________________ (in/on) a park bench and talk. There Module 10 45

are a few puppies playing ___________________________ (over/near) them. After a while, the boys go to the library ___________________________ (above/in front of) the park. The books are neatly placed on shelves. The storybooks are on the shelves ___________________________ (above/at) the history books. Exercise 3.4: Draw pictures according to the given sentences. One is done for you. 1) 2) The apple is beside the mango. The clouds float over the mountains. 3) 4) The bees fly around the flower. The fish swims in the pond. 46

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