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Preface ClassKlap partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. Our books strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. ClassKlap presents the Compass series, designed specifically to meet the requirements of the new curriculum released in November 2016 by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE). Guiding principles: The 2016 CISCE curriculum states the following as a few of its guiding principles for Mathematics teaching: D evelop mathematical thinking and problem-solving skills and apply these skills to formulate and solve problems. A cquire the necessary mathematical concepts and skills for everyday life and for continuous learning in Mathematics and related disciplines. R ecognise and use connections among mathematical ideas and between Mathematics and other disciplines. R eason logically, communicate mathematically and learn cooperatively and independently. Each of these principles resonates with the spirit in which the ClassKlap textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books have been designed. The ClassKlap team of pedagogy experts has carried out an intensive mapping exercise to create a framework based on the CISCE curriculum document. Key features of ClassKlap Compass series: Theme-based content that holistically addresses all the learning outcomes specified by the CISCE curriculum. The textbooks and workbooks are structured as per Bloom’s taxonomy to help organise the learning process according to the different levels involved. Student engagement through simple, age-appropriate content with detailed explanation of steps. L earning is supported through visually appealing images, especially for Grades 1 and 2. Increasing difficulty level in sub-questions for every question. Multiplication tables provided as per CISCE requirement. All in all, the Compass Mathematics books aim to develop problem-solving and reasoning skills in the learners’ everyday lives while becoming adept at mathematical skills as appropriate to the primary level. – The Authors

Textbook Features I Will Learn About I Think Contains the list of concepts to be covered Arouses the student’s in the chapter along with the learning curiosity before objectives introducing the concept I Recall I RUenmdeermsbtearndand Pin-Up-Note Recapitulates the Elucidates the basic Highlights the key points or prerequisite knowledge for elements that form the definitions the concept learnt previously basis of the concept ? Train My Brain I Apply I Explore(H.O.T.S.) Checks for learning to gauge Connects the concept Encourages the child to the understanding level of the to real-life situations by extend the concept learnt student providing an opportunity to more complex scenarios to apply what the student has learnt Maths Munchies Connect the Dots Drill Time Aims at improving speed of Aims at integrating Revises the concepts with calculation and problem Mathematical concepts practice questions at the solving with interesting facts, with other subjects end of the chapter tips or tricks A Note to Parent Engages the parent in the out-of- classroom learning of their child

Contents 5 Time 5.1 Sequence and Duration of Events .......................................................1 6 Subtraction 6.1 Subtract 1-digit Numbers and 2-digit Numbers .............................13 7 Money 7.1 Introduction to Currency Notes and Coins ....................................23 8 Measurement 8.1 Introduction to Measurements ........................................................30 9 Data Handling 9.1 Collect, Represent and Interpret Data...............................................42

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8Chapter Measurement I Will Learn About measuring short lengths using non- uniform units like a hand span, cubit, foot and pace. compare weights using a scale. ordering various containers in terms of their capacity and volume. 8.1 Introduction to Measurements I Think Sunny went to the supermarket with his mother. She bought some fruits and vegetables. She gave him two bags to hold. Sunny felt that holding one of the bags was easier than the other. Why do you think it was so? I Recall We have learnt to compare the: lengths of objects. short distances between objects. heights of objects. heavy and light objects. 30

Let us recall them. Short Tick as directed. One is done for you. Tall 9 Low High Near Far Measurement 31

Thin Thick Marker Heavy Light I Remember and Understand In the olden days, people measured lengths and distances using: Hand span Cubit Foot Pace Here are a few examples. Hand span, Cubit, Foot and Pace are Example 1: Measure the following objects with called non-standard a hand span. Write their lengths as units of measurement the number of hand spans. One is of length. done for you. 32

Object Measuring the length of the Number of object hand spans 3 We compare the weights of objects using a simple balance. The pan of the simple balance with the heavier object goes down. The pans are balanced if the objects on them are of the same weight. Measurement 33

The orange is heavier The watermelon is lighter Both the bottles are than the banana. than 4 footballs. of the same weight. Example 2: Tick the object that is heavy and cross the object that is light. One is done for you. Simple balance Objects 98 34

Simple balance Objects ? Train My Brain Name an object each, whose length is equal to your: a) Hand span b) Cubit c) Foot Measurement 35

I Apply We can compare and order the lengths of several objects. Example 3: Number the objects from the shortest to the longest. Write 1 for the shortest one and 4 for the longest one. One is done for you. a) 213 b) c) 36

Example 4: Write numbers from 1 to 5 to order these objects. Write 1 for the lightest one and 5 for the heaviest one. One is done for you. a) 1325 4 b) c) d) e) I Explore (H.O.T.S.) Look at these containers of different sizes. Measurement 37

They have different heights and weights. They hold different amounts of water or milk or oil. A bigger container can hold more water than a smaller one. Example 5: Tick the object that can hold more water. One is done for you. a) 9 b) c) Maths Munchies 1 cubit is nearly equal to 2 hand spans. 1 foot is nearly equal to one hand span. The Egyptians (people who live in Egypt) came up with these units. They wanted to measure lengths correctly. 38

Connect the Dots English Fun Given below are pictures of non-standard units of length. Identify and circle them in the word search puzzle. One is done for you. P AC E E D T B Y I T E D B D BOUGH AAC S F KCAUG L A U PGDHN LW WV B R B P F OO T R P I E R H E MW I OL T AAY L AR T T A E CNV L D J E E YDHDDX E YD W E G E X E Y I WQ H A N D S P A NOO EVS Fun The smallest and the lightest bird in the world is the ‘hummingbird’. Measurement 39

Drill Time 8.1 Introduction to Measurements 1) Look at the picture given and answer the following questions. a) Which pencil is the longest? A B b) Which pencil is the shortest? C c) Which pencil is of medium length? 2) Tick the heavier object and cross the lighter object. Simple balance Objects 40

3) Observe the given picture and answer the following questions: :KLWHEDOO )RRWEDOO %DOORRQÀOOHGZLWKDLU a) Which out of the three weighs the most? b) Which out of the three weighs the least? A Note to Parent Record the measurements of your dining table, chair seat and sofa with hand span as well as cubit. Record the measurements taken by you and your child in different columns. Compare them to show the difference between the sizes of your hand and his or her hand. Measurement 41

9Chapter DHaatnadling I Will Learn About collect, record and interpret simple information by looking at visuals. 9.1 Collect, Represent and Interpret Data I Think Sunny has a collection of different toys. He knows the total number. He wants to know how many toys he has of each type. How can Sunny ÀQGWKLVRXW\" I Recall We have learnt how to count the number of objects. Let us recall the same. 42

Observe the given animals on the farm and answer the questions. a) Count the number of sheep. [] E+RZPDQ\\EXWWHUÁLHVFDQ\\RXVHH\" > @ F+RZPDQ\\GXFNVFDQ\\RXFRXQW\" > @ d) Count the number of dogs. [] I Remember and Understand Let us learn to identify a collection and form its data. Example 1: Here are a few Collection: A group of similar collections of objects. type of items or objects taken Name them. One is done together is called a collection. for you. Data: A collection of facts, such as numbers, words, measurements and so on is called data. Data Handling 43

A collection of A collection of A collection of pencils _________________ _________________ A collection of A collection of A collection of __________________ __________________ _________________ Now let us see the following example. Example 2: Observe the collection of balls and answer the questions. a) How many balls are there Solution: DOWRJHWKHU\" b) How many balls are red in FRORXU\" c) How many balls are blue in FRORXU\" d) How many green balls are WKHUH\" H: KLFKFRORXUHGEDOOLVRQHLQQXPEHU\" a) Total number of balls is 11. b) There are 2 red balls. 44

c) There are 3 blue balls. d) There are 5 green balls. e) Pink From a collection, we get some data. From this data, we get some information. ? Train My Brain a) b) c) This is a collection of This is a collection of This is a collection of ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ I Apply We collect data to get some information from it. Let us see a few examples of data collection. Example 3: Radha went to a vegetable Solution: market. She bought the vegetables shown on the right. Make collections of each type of vegetable. The collections of each type of vegetable are: Vegetable Collection No. of vegetables 10 Data Handling 45

Vegetable Collection No. of vegetables 5 3 Example 4: Ravi kept some pencils, erasers Eraser and sharpeners in a box. Make collections of each type of item. Eraser Solution: The collections of each type of item are: Eraser Eraser Item Collection No. of items 4 5 Eraser 4 Eraser Eraser Eraser Eraser I Explore (H.O.T.S.) Now, let us see another example. Example 5: Observe the collection of birds in a zoo. 46

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