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CO MPASS SERIES science textbook part - 1 3 Name: Learn@Home Sec�on: Roll No.: School:

Preface ClassKlap partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. Our books strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. ClassKlap presents the Traveller series, designed specifically to meet the requirements of the new curriculum released in November 2016 by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE). Guiding principles: The 2016 CISCE curriculum states the following as its guiding principles for Science:  Theme-based learning  Relating science learning to the daily-life experiences of students  Focus on skill/process development  Providing opportunities for knowledge construction  Infusion of environmental issues into the content Each of these principles resonates with the spirit in which the ClassKlap textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books have been designed. The ClassKlap team of pedagogy experts has carried out an intensive mapping exercise to create a framework based on the CISCE curriculum document. Key features of ClassKlap Traveller series:  Theme-based content that holistically addresses all the learning outcomes specified by CISCE curriculum  Opportunities for experimentation, analysis and synthesis of ideas and concepts  Exposure to locally relevant environmental problem solving  Focus on science-specific vocabulary building  Promotion of participatory and contextualised learning through the engagement of all relevant stakeholders in the learning process All in all, the Traveller Science books aim to enhance the learning of science, development of scientific temper and curiosity towards scientific activities along with the inculcation of healthy habits for environmental protection. – The Authors

Textbook Features • Use of simple, age-appropriate language • Activity-based approach to learning • Use of infographics and pictures to explain concepts and terms • Focus on subject-related vocabulary building I Think I Will Learn About • Introduces the concept/ • Lists the key learning subtopic in a manner as to outcomes of the lesson arouse curiosity and interest among students ? In-text Questions Pin-Up-Note • Oral discussion questions to check for learning and to • H ighlights the key points or gauge the understanding definitions level of the child Connect the Dots A Be Amazed • F osters interdisciplinary • Fascinating facts and trivia thinking by connecting other related to the concept subjects to an aspect of the taught concept Inside the Lab A Note to Parent • H ands-on experience • Engaging activities to be done provided for creating, at home along with parents to designing or implementing reinforce the concept something innovative and/or useful based on the concept learnt

Contents 1 Living and Non-living Things ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1 2 Organs and Organ Systems ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 3 Birds ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 4 Insects ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Inside the Lab – A ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 25 Activity A1: See How We Breathe Activity A2: Show the Birds that You Care 5 Plants – Parts and Functions ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 28

1Lesson Living and Non-living Things I Will Learn About • living and non-living things around us. • features of living things. • features of non-living things. • types of non-living things. • differences between living and non- living things. I Think Meenal’s grandmother was watering the plants in her garden. Meenal saw this, and ran inside the house to bring an artificial plant. She asked her grandmother to water it too. Her grandmother laughed and said that it didn’t need water. Meenal wondered why. Can you tell the reason? Living and non-living things around us We see different things around us, such as plants, animals, stones, water and so on. They can either be living things or non-living things. Living things are the things that need air, water and food to live. They breathe, grow and give birth to young ones. They can also move. Some examples of living things are as follows: Tree Boy Parrot 1

Non-living things do not breathe, eat or drink. They do not grow or give birth to young ones. Some examples of non-living things are as follows. Things that breathe, eat, grow, move and give birth to young ones are called living things. All other things are called non-living Table Bag Ball things. Features of living things All plants and animals are living things. Here are some of their features. 1) Living things need food and water to live: We eat food every day. Like us, animals also eat plants or other animals to grow. Plants make their food by using sunlight, air and water. 2) Living things grow: Living things grow in size with time. For example, a Living things need food and water small baby grows into an adult with time; plant seeds grow into big trees. Living things grow ? N ame any one thing that grows. 3) Living things breathe: All living things need air to breathe. Some animals breathe through their noses. Fish have special organs called gills to breathe, while plants breathe through the tiny openings on their leaves. 2

Living things breathe Gills Breathe in Breathe out Gills of fish Plants breathe through openings on their leaves 4) Living things can move: All living Living things move things can move. You must have seen animals moving from one place to another. But, have you seen plants move? Some parts of plants can move. For example, a sunflower moves itself to face the Sun. 5) Living things give birth to young ones: All living things give birth to young ones who look similar to the parents. For example, dogs give birth to puppies; hens lay eggs that hatch into chicks; human beings give birth to babies; baby plants are grown from plants seeds. 6) Living things can feel: Living things Living things give birth to young ones can feel the changes happening around them with the help of sense organs. They can react to touch, heat, cold or light. Some plants also react to touch. For example, the touch-me- not plant closes its leaves when it is touched. Living things feel A butterfly feels with its Leaves of the touch-me-not antennae plant Living and Non-living Things 3

7) Lifespan: Living things can live up to a certain age. This is called lifespan. It differs for different living things. For example, a dog can live up to the age of 10 to 12 years, while a tiger has a lifespan of about 20 to 26 years. Features of non-living things Unlike living things, non-living things do not breathe, do not need food and water, do not grow and they do not give birth to young ones. They cannot move on their own and cannot feel. Types of non-living things Non-living things can be divided into two categories. Non-living things Natural non-living things Man-made (artificial) non- Examples: mountains, rivers, living things rain, soil, stones and so on Examples: cars, books, chairs, tables, beds and so on ? Name any one natural non-living thing. Differences between living and non-living things Let us compare the features of living and non-living things. Living things Non-living things • need food and water to live • do not need food and water to live • grow and develop • do not grow and develop • breathe • do not breathe 4

Living things Non-living things • can move • cannot move on their own • give birth to young ones • do not give birth to young ones • can feel the changes • cannot feel the changes happening happening around them around them • have a certain lifespan • usually do not have a certain lifespan Be Amaze A d Some living things around us are very small. They are so small that we cannot see them with our eyes. We need a microscope to see these tiny living things. Some of them can even make us ill. Microscope Connect the Dots English Fun Find related words and colour them using the same colour. living things non-living peacock things elephant lamp shirt lifeless breathe feel Living and Non-living Things 5

Maths Fun In a zoo, there are 356 living things and 326 non-living things. How many things are there in the zoo in all? Number of living things in the zoo = _______________ Number of non-living things in the zoo = ___________ Therefore, the total number of things in the zoo = Number of living things in the zoo + Number of non-living things in the zoo = __________ + ___________ = ____________ A Note to Parent Help your child to group all the things in the house into living and non-living things. Discuss the features of the things while classifying them as living or non- living things. For example, a car is a non-living thing as it cannot breathe, cannot grow, cannot move on its own and so on. S.No. Name of thing Feature Living/Non-living 6

Organs and Organ 2Lesson Systems I Will Learn About • internal organs and organ systems of the human body. • the respiratory system and its organs. • the breathing process in human beings. • deep breathing. • the harmful effects of breathing polluted air. I Think When we breathe, we use air. What happens to the air we take in? Internal organs and organ systems of the human body We have some special body parts that help us to do important work. They are called organs. We see some organs that are present on the outside. But there are some organs that are present inside our body. We cannot see them. They are called internal organs. Let us discuss some of them. Food pipe Windpipe Brain Stomach Lungs Kidneys Heart 7

Brain: It is present inside the head. Windpipe: It is a tube, which It helps us to think. connects the throat to the lungs. When we breathe Heart: It is located a little to the in air, it goes to the lungs left of the middle of our chest. It is through the windpipe. about the size of our fist. It pumps blood to all parts of the body. Lungs: We have a pair of lungs in our chest. The Food pipe: It is a tube, which lungs are protected connects the mouth to the by the rib cage. Both stomach by passing through lungs are not of the the throat. It takes food from same size. The left lung the mouth to the stomach. is smaller than the right Stomach: It is a sac-like organ. lung. The lungs help us in When we eat food, it goes the breathing process. into the stomach through the food pipe. Like a grinder, the Kidneys: We have a pair stomach breaks down the food of kidneys too. They are into smaller parts. bean-shaped. They filter the blood. During this process, urine is generated as a waste product. Some organs inside our body form a group to do specific tasks. Such a group of organs is called an organ system. There are many such organ systems in the human body. The groups of organs ? What is the shape of our kidneys? inside the body that do specific tasks are called organ systems. The respiratory system and its organs The organ system that helps us to breathe is called Nose the respiratory system. It consists of the following Mouth parts: Windpipe 1) A nose with a pair of openings called nostrils 2) A windpipe Lungs Diaphragm 3) A pair of sac-like lungs The human respiratory system 4) A diaphragm is a dome-like part below the lungs. It separates the lungs from the stomach. 8

Let us understand how the respiratory system helps us to breathe. The breathing process in human beings Breathing consists of two steps: Breathe in Breathe out 1) Breathing in (inhaling) air into the lungs 2) B reathing out (exhaling) air from the lungs Breathing in and out happen due to the up Breathing process in humans and down movement of the diaphragm. When it moves down, air rushes into the lungs through the nose and the windpipe. The diaphragm moves up to push the air out of the lungs. ? What do we name the process of taking in the air into our lungs? Be Amaze A d We can live up to three weeks without eating food and upto a week without drinking water. But, we can only live for three to four minutes without air. Deep breathing Deep breathing Try this! 1) Sit down comfortably on a mat. 2) Slowly, take a deep breath. Breathe in through the nose. Notice that your belly swells up as you breathe in. 3) Hold your breath for a second or two. 4) Slowly, breathe out through the nose. Notice that your belly goes in as you breathe out. This exercise is called deep breathing. It helps to relax the body and calm the mind. Organs and Organ Systems 9

The harmful effects of breathing polluted air Polluted air contains dust and smoke. When we breathe in this air, some of the dust gets filtered while passing through the nostrils. But, the remaining dust gets deposited on the walls of the windpipe and the lungs. This deposition of dust leads to coughing, sneezing, trouble in breathing and so on. Exposure to dust and smoke for a long time can cause respiratory diseases and allergies. Coughing Sneezing Trouble in breathing Connect the Dots English Fun You know that one meaning of the word ‘organ’ is a body part with specific work. What is the other meaning of this word? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Social Studies Fun In hilly areas, some people have trouble breathing and need to take deep breaths. They may get a headache and stomach ache. This is because in hilly areas, there is less air available to breathe. 10

A Note to Parent Discuss with your child some measures to keep the air clean. Help him/her to make a poster explaining this. (Hints: planting trees, using smoke-free stoves, using well-maintained vehicles and so on) Organs and Organ Systems 11

3 BirdsLesson I Will Learn About • birds around us. • body parts of birds. • how birds fly. • food habits, habitats and communication among birds. • taking care of birds around us. I Think Aman’s teacher showed him the given pictures. She asked him to identify the bird. Aman quickly gave the correct answer. How did Aman spot the difference between a dog and a bird? Birds around us If we look around, we see many birds. Can you identify and name the following birds? 12

Which features make birds look different from other animals? Their beaks, wings and feathers make them look different from other animals. Let us now learn about the body parts of birds. Body parts of birds Birds have two feet, a beak, a pair of wings and a tail. Their body is covered with feathers. Feathers are soft hair present on the body of birds, including their wings and tails. Birds do not have teeth. They use their beaks to bite and chew food. Birds have different types of beaks based on their food habits. Wing Eye Head Tail Beak Claw Feather Body parts of a bird Birds have two feet with claws. Claws are long, curved nails present on the feet of birds. Birds use their feet for climbing, protecting themselves, holding food, The main body parts of birds swimming and so on. include – two feet, a beak, a pair of wings and a tail. Birds 13

How birds fly Most birds can fly. Birds have hollow bones that make their bodies lighter. Also, their body shape is designed to help them while flying. Birds have wings attached to their bodies with the help of strong muscles. Birds flap their wings upwards and downwards while flying. They use their tails to change the direction while flying. Some birds cannot fly. For example, Penguin Ostrich a penguin spends most of its life in Name a bird the sea. It does not use its wings to fly. ? that cannot fly. It uses them to swim. Birds such as the ostrich cannot fly. Food habits, habitats and communication among birds Food habits of birds: We know that birds have different types of beaks depending on their food habits. But, what do birds eat? Birds eat different types of food. Their food includes nectar, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, meat, fish, small insects and worms. Some large birds also eat other birds. Let us see what birds around us eat. Sunbirds suck nectar Kingfishers eat fish. Eagles and hawks hunt from flowers. and eat small birds and animals. Parrots eat fruits, nuts Sparrows eat seeds and Vultures eat the flesh of and seeds. worms. dead animals. ? Name a bird that eats seeds. 14

Habitats of birds: Birds mostly live on trees. They build nests to lay eggs, feed their young ones and keep them away from harm. Nests are made using grass, twigs, leaves, thread, straw, mud and feathers. Different birds build different kinds of nests. Some examples of different nests are given below. Weaver bird’s nest Tailor bird’s nest Penguin’s nest Woodpecker’s nest Some birds do not build nests. For example, the cuckoo. Cuckoos lay their eggs in the nests of other birds. Communication among birds: Have you heard birds making sounds? Some birds make sounds during sunrise. For example, cocks. Birds make a variety of sounds to talk to other birds. Some Cuckoo of them are given below. 1) Sharp, loud sounds are used to warn other birds of danger. 2) Young birds make different types of sounds to call out to their parents. These are crying sounds. 3) When birds travel in groups or when they want to signal to each other, they use different types of sounds. 4) S ome birds sing. Birds use songs to attract other birds. They also use songs to Be Amazestop other birds from entering their area or nest. A d Siberian cranes travel from Siberia to India in large numbers during winters to avoid the extreme cold there. Siberian crane Birds 15

Taking care of birds around us Bird bath Bird feeder There are different types of birds around us. We should take care of them, especially during the hot summers. We can help the thirsty birds by placing bird baths for them. Bird baths are shallow containers that contain water. We can also keep food for them in bird feeders. Connect the Dots English Fun Collective nouns are the names for a collection or a group of people or things. There are many collective nouns that are used to describe groups of birds. For example, a murder of crows, a parliament of owls, a wedge of swans and so on. Find out more such collective nouns used A wedge of swans for birds. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 16

Maths Fun A study done on pigeons showed that pigeons can identify different numbers and learn mathematical rules. Alex, an African grey parrot, could count and talk. It had the intelligence of a five-year-old human. A Note to Parent Take your child for a nature walk. Show him/her different types of birds found around us. Discuss their food habits, shapes of their beaks and claws. Expose him/her to hobbies like birdwatching. Birds 17

4Lesson Insects I Will Learn About • insects around us. • body parts of insects. • social insects. • the life cycle of a honeybee. • how some insects can be harmful. I Think Rajat found a small, green animal creeping on a leaf. He wants to find out more about that animal. Can you guess what it is? The creeping animal which Rajat found in his garden is a caterpillar. It has six legs but appears to have many legs. Insects around us We see many such small animals in and around our house. Do you know their names? An ant A housefly A cockroach 18

A butterfly A grasshopper A mosquito These small animals are called insects. They creep and crawl. Some of them can fly. For example, butterflies, bees, mosquitoes and so on. There are many varieties of insects around us. What all body parts do they have? Body parts of insects The body of an insect is divided into three parts – head, thorax and abdomen. An insect has six legs on its thorax. It also has antennae to sense its surroundings. Some insects have wings attached to the thorax too. Antenna Wing Head Thorax Abdomen Leg Body parts of an insect Insects are small animals with six legs. ? How many legs does an insect have? They may or may not have wings. Do you know where insects live? Some insects live in soil. Some are found on trees. Insects 19

Social insects Some insects such as honeybees and ants live in colonies. Such insects are Be Amazecalled social insects. A d Have you ever seen anthills or beehives? These are the colonies of ants and honeybees. Ants – Anthill Honeybees – Beehive Some of these social insects can be useful for us. • Honeybees store honey in their hives. We take this honey and use it in preparation of our food and medicines. • B eehives are made up of beeswax. We use this wax in medicines. Beeswax is also used to make candles. Honey Candles made from beeswax We have learnt that honeybees are useful to us in many ways. Let us now understand the various stages in a honeybee’s life. The life cycle of a honeybee The queen bee lays eggs. The honeybee that hatches There are four stages from the egg is in the form of a larva. It then turns in the life cycle of into a pupa. And the pupa later changes to an adult a honeybee – egg, honeybee. In this way, a honeybee changes its shape larva, pupa and and size many times before it becomes fully grown. adult. 20

Life cycle of a honeybee Eggs Larva Larva Pupa Pupa Adult ? Name the stages in the life cycle of a honeybee. Honeybees are useful to us in many ways. But, sometimes they can be harmful too. They may sting us to defend themselves when they are disturbed by us. How some insects can be harmful Have you seen insects in your house? Is it good to have insects in your house? No. Some of these insects may be very harmful to us. Insects such as flies, mosquitoes, bedbugs and head lice may cause harm to our bodies. Flies and mosquitoes carry germs. Flies live on rotting food and faeces. Mosquito biting They pick up germs on their legs and transfer them to uncovered food when they sit on it. Eating this food may cause diseases. Mosquitoes pass on the germs to our body through their bites. Head lice that live in hair cause itching. Insects such as cockroaches and ants eat food items in our homes. They can also damage our clothes. Insects such as termites damage wooden furniture. Insects 21

A cockroach Ants taking Cloth eaten Termites in furniture eating a slice of stored grains by ants bread Some insects are harmful to the plants we grow. They eat up their leaves and fruits. You may have seen holes in the leaves of plants. Termites damage tree trunks and branches. How can we prevent the harmful effects of insects? 1) W e should not allow water to stagnate (get collected) in our surroundings. Mosquitoes lay eggs in such water. 2) W e should use mosquito nets or mosquito repellent creams to avoid mosquito bites. 3) W e should wear full-sleeved clothes to protect ourselves from mosquito bites. 4) We should be careful while working or playing in a garden to avoid insect bites. 5) We can keep naphthalene balls in the cupboards to avoid the damage to clothes caused by insects. 6) We should not leave food uncovered or spill any Naphthalene balls food while eating. Otherwise, ants or cockroaches may gather there to eat the food. 7) W e should keep our houses, washrooms and public places clean. 8) We may use certain chemicals to avoid the growth of harmful insects on plants. 9) We should always keep food covered to keep flies away. 10) We should use chemicals to protect our wooden furniture from termites. 22

Connect the Dots English Fun Read the poem. Act it out. Buzz like a bee. March like an ant. Crawl like a caterpillar. Maths Fun Prepare the shapes of various insects using a tangram and paste them below. One has been done for you. Tangram butterfly Insects 23

A Note to Parent Show your child different kinds of insects around your house. Help him/her to name and draw them. You may take him/her on a field visit to show the insects found there. 24

A Inside the Lab Make sure you do these activities only with the help of a teacher or an adult. Activity A1: See How We Breathe You will need: three balloons, a pair of scissors, a knife, a large plastic bottle, two straws (that can be bent), clay and duct tape. You need to: 1 2 Bend the straws at an Insert the bent ends angle. of the straws inside the balloons as shown in the picture. Secure them using the duct tape. 3 4 Attach the straws to Add a ball of clay each other forming a around the straight ‘Y’ shape as shown in ends of the straws, the picture. leaving the holes of the straws open as shown in the picture. 5 Place the straws in a bottle, and secure the opening of the bottle with clay as shown in the picture. 25

6 Cut the bottom of the bottle. Remove the neck of a balloon. Stretch the balloon to cover the bottom of the bottle. Secure it with a rubber band as shown. (The teacher should help the learners while cutting.) 7 N ow, blow air into the straws. What do you see? When the air comes out from the bottle, what do you see? The balloons in the bottle act as the lungs, and the balloon that is stretched at the bottom of the bottle acts as the diaphragm. When you blow air into the balloons, they expand. When the air comes out of the balloon, they return to their normal size. This is how we breathe in and breathe out air. Activity A2: Show the Birds that You Care Do you want to attract birds to your garden or balcony? Then, let us make a bird feeder. A bird feeder helps us to feed birds. You will need: an empty plastic bottle with a cap, a knife, strings, strong glue, wooden spoons and food grains. You need to: 1) M  ake holes on the sides of the bottle so that you can insert the spoons. 2) E  nsure that the spoon is tilted downwards so that food grains automatically comes on it. (The hole on one side should be at a slightly higher level than the hole on the opposite side). 3) Y  ou can make two similar holes and insert one more spoon away from the first one. This will 26

allow two birds to eat at the same time. 4) F  ill the bottle with food grains from the top. 5) M  ake a hole in the cap of the container. 6) T  ie a knot at the end of the string and make the string pass through the cap with a knot at the bottom in order to hang it. Close the bottle. 7) H  ang your feeder near a window, on a nearby tree branch or on an outdoor hook. Keep your feeders well-stocked. Birds come to rely on them and will go hungry if you forget. Inside the Lab – A 27

Plants – Parts 5Lesson and Functions I Will Learn About • parts and subparts of a plant and their functions. • different kinds of seeds. • structure of a seed and seed germination. • the need of water, air and warmth for germination. • care of plants. I Think Richa’s mother was working in her garden. Richa saw her mother removing a dried up plant. After looking at its roots, Richa asked her mother, “Do roots also have hair like us?” Parts and subparts of a plant and their functions We have learnt about the different parts of plants in previous classes. Some plants have beautiful flowers while some have tasty fruits. Different plants have leaves of different shapes and sizes. Let us learn about the parts of a plant such as Root hair roots, stem, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds in detail. Root: Roots fix the plant to the ground. They are Plant roots mostly under the ground. They have thin hair-like structures on them called root hair. Root hair help the roots to absorb water, nutrients and air from the soil. Roots supply these to the plant. 28

Stem: The stem is usually seen above Branch the ground. It is divided into branches. Trunk Branches hold the leaves, flowers and fruits. The trunk is the hard woody stem of Leaf blade a tree on which the branches grow. Vein Midrib The stem helps the plant to stand upright Parts of a stem Stalk and get the sunlight needed to grow. It carries water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves. Leaves: Leaves are usually green in colour. They grow on the stem or on the branches. Leaves are of different shapes and colours. The flat green surface of a leaf is called the leaf blade. Look closely at a leaf. You will see one or more main vein/s in the middle - this is called the midrib. There are many veins on the leaf surface. The leaf is attached to the plant by its stalk. Leaves make food for the plant. They also Parts of a leaf help the plant to breathe. Leaves have small openings on them that allow the plant to breathe. ? State any one function of leaves. Flowers: Most of the plants around us produce flowers. Flowers are the most colourful and attractive part Parts of a flower of a plant. They differ in shape, size, colour and fragrance. All Petals Petals flowers develop from buds. The buds vary in shape and size. Young buds are covered with green, leaf-like sepals. When the bud opens, petals are seen fully. Producing fruits and seeds is the Sepals Flower main function of a flower. Bud Plants – Parts and Functions 29

Fruits and seeds: Flowers turn into fruits. Most fruits have Fleshy part an outer skin and a fleshy material inside them. Many fruits contain seeds. Seed Skin Be Amaze A Parts of a fruit d The Atlantic giant pumpkin is the largest fruit that grows on Earth. Atlantic giant pumpkin Some fruits have only one seed. Some fruits have a few seeds, while others have many seeds. Some varieties of fruits do not have any seeds. For example, seedless grapes. Some seeds are present outside the fruits. For example, cashew. A mango with A papaya with Seeds inside an Seed outside a a seed inside many seeds apple cashew ? Name a fruit that has many seeds inside it. Different kinds of seeds Seeds can be of different shapes and sizes. Some are round, while others are flat or pear-shaped. Try this! 1) C  ollect different (at least ten) varieties of seeds available in your house and surroundings. 2) Separate the collected seeds based on their shape, size, colour and so on. 30

3) Put them in small plastic bags and paste them in your scrapbook. 4) Find out how these seeds are useful for us. Structure of a seed and seed germination Structure of a seed: Inside the seed, there is an Embryo embryo and the food stored for the plant. The Food store embryo is a tiny plant. The outside of a seed Seed coat has a seed coat, which protects the embryo from injury and drying out. Structure of a seed Germination of a seed: Seeds can form new plants. The process by which a seed grows into a new plant is called germination. Sprouting of a seed to form a baby plant is called germination. Germination of a seed What does a seed need in order to grow? Need of water, air and warmth for germination Seeds need moisture, air and the right Sunlight Water amount of warmth to germinate and grow. (Warmth) (Moisture) Until they have these conditions, seeds do not germinate or sprout. Air Once a seed gets all the right conditions, it turns into a baby plant called a sapling. It then grows into a big plant. ? Give any one factor that is required for a seed to grow. Conditions required for germination Plants – Parts and Functions 31

Care of plants While plants are growing, they need proper care and attention. We can do this by following these steps. 1) W e should water them regularly, depending upon their needs. Some plants need more water, while others need less water. 2) We should pay attention to the amount Compost of sunlight plants are getting. We should not keep them either in darkness or in too much of sunlight. 3) W e should add the proper amount of fertilisers or compost to the soil to make it fertile. They provide nutrients required for the growth of plants. 4) Soil should be regularly turned up with a Trowel Turning up the soil trowel so that the plant roots get air. 5) W henever plants are attacked by insects or other animals, we should spray pesticides and insecticides. 6) If a potted plant has grown in size, it will need more space. So, we need to move it to a bigger pot or plant it in the garden. 7) If we grow plants in the ground, sufficient Spraying of Moving a plant space should be given between two pesticides to a bigger pot plants. Connect the Dots English Fun Identify the verbs and nouns from the following and circle the correct options. a) germination : ( Noun, Verb ) b) grow : ( Noun, Verb ) c) breathe : ( Noun, Verb ) 32

Maths Fun Leaf prints Pattern 2 You have learnt about different types of patterns. Create two patterns using different types of leaf prints. Pattern 1 A Note to Parent Discuss with your child the need to take care of the plants around us. (Hints: Plants help us in many ways. They give us shade. They provide shelter for many birds and animals. They make our surroundings beautiful with their colourful leaves and flowers. Some of them give us fruits.) Plants – Parts and Functions 33




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