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CO MPASS SERIES English language part - 1 3 Name: [email protected] Sec�on: Roll No.: School:

Preface ClassKlap partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. Our books strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. ClassKlap presents the Compass series, designed specifically to meet the requirements of the new curriculum released in November 2016 by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE). Guiding principles: The 2016 CISCE curriculum states the following as a few of its guiding principles for English language teaching:  Connecting learning to life in the outside world  Integrating English with other subjects across the curriculum  Using meaningful contexts to develop language as a whole  Making assessment for learning an integral part of the teaching-learning process  Ensuring active participation of children by using a variety of activities and tasks Each of these principles resonates with the spirit in which the ClassKlap textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books have been designed. The ClassKlap team of pedagogy experts has carried out an intensive mapping exercise to create a framework based on the CISCE curriculum document. Key features of ClassKlap Compass series:  B ooks for English are mapped to the assessment patterns of English-I and English-II in ICSE schools.  T he grammar concepts covered in English-I have a horizontal and vertical progression across the grades, providing a spiral of learning.  T he writing sections contain a wide variety of topics with a focus on process-based writing in higher grades.  T he English-II book also covers all the themes recommended by the CISCE curriculum across classes 1–5.  A hallmark of ICSE English is a wide representation of authors – Indian and foreign. The Compass series includes pieces by writers such as Charles Dickens, Rabindranath Tagore, Sarojini Naidu, Oscar Wilde and Mark Twain among others.  Vocabulary building is a key focus area for ClassKlap Pictures for word meanings are included in each lesson to help students with visual clues for new or difficult words. All in all, the Compass English books aim to generate greater engagement and enhance fluency in English communication, which spans all the four skills of Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. – The Authors

Workbook Features • Subject-related vocabulary building • Scaffolded approach for development of writing skills • Combination of inductive and deductive approaches to grammar teaching • Simple and age-appropriate explanations of grammatical concepts Grammar Engaging grammar explanations and well-crafted exercises W Writing Formal Writing inculcates writing skills by introducing formal writing styles by providing samples and adequate practice Creative Writing exercises to foster creative writing by using imagination and drawing from real-life experiences R Reading Comprehension Interesting reading comprehension passages on varied themes along with questions that focus on language building

Contents 1 Nouns ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1 W1: Make Sentences and Organise them in a Sequential Manner....... Physical Activities and Sports ������������ 7 Picture-based Description ................... Health and Hygiene ��������������������������� 8 2 Punctuation ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10 W2: Paragraph Writing ......................... Physical Activities and Sports ���������� 18 Photo-based Character Sketch .......... Self, Family, Home, Friends �������������� 19 R1: Reading Comprehension ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 20 3 One and Many ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 23 W3: Informal Letter Writing .................. Self, Family, Home, Friends �������������� 29 Dialogue Writing.................................... Art and Culture �������������������������������� 31 4 Pronouns ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32 W4: Message Writing ........................... Self, Family, Home, Friends �������������� 38 Diary Entry ............................................. The World Around Us ������������������������ 39 R2: Reading Comprehension ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 42 5 Adjectives ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 W5: E-mail Writing ................................ Self, Family, Home, Friends �������������� 51 Biography Writing ................................. Neighbourhood and Community ����� 54 6 Articles ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56 W6: Editing Exercise ............................. Animals and Plants �������������������������� 62 Story Writing .......................................... The World Around Us ������������������������ 63 R3: Reading Comprehension ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 65

1 Nouns Revision of nouns Read the following passage, underline the nouns and sort them into the table given below. Chander was excited on the first day of his new school. Sacred Heart Convent was one of the best schools in town. Its teaching staff were very efficient. Chander’s friends also studied in the same class at the same school. Chander wore his uniform, packed his bag, grabbed a bunch of grapes for lunch and walked out of the house. His parents, Ganesh and Neeru, his sister, Megha, and his dog, Milo, were waiting in the car for him. ‘Why is the entire family coming along?’ he wondered. Common nouns Proper nouns Collective nouns Now, answer the following questions about the genders of the nouns in the table. a) Write two masculine gender nouns from the table. Ans. b) Write two feminine gender nouns from the table. Ans. c) Write four neuter gender nouns from the table. Ans. d) Write two common gender nouns from the table. Ans. 1

Let us recall the different types of nouns that you have learnt earlier. Nouns (words used to name people, places, animals or things) Common nouns Proper nouns Collective nouns Material nouns General names Specific names, Words that refer to Words that refer given to given to people, groups of people, to the materials or places, animals animals or things substances from people, places, and things, that which things are animals and Examples: army, things begin with a flock, hive, bundle made capital letter Examples: bed, Examples: cotton, lake, cat, girl, Examples: Aayat, leather, gold, alarm clock Asif, Sunday, Sun plastic Gender of nouns Nouns can also be sorted according to their gender • Masculine gender nouns: These • N euter gender nouns: These are are names for boys, men and male nouns that name non-living things animals. Examples: son, uncle, without any gender. They are used nephew, prince, buck, pig for objects and places. They are also used to name the months of the • Feminine gender nouns: These are year and the days of the week. names for girls, women and female Examples: pen, box, clothes, hospital, animals. Examples: daughter, aunt, duster, sand, bus, building, pond, niece, princess, doe, sow November, Monday • C ommon gender nouns: These refer to nouns that can be male or female. Examples: child, singer, teacher, doctor, pilot, cousin, enemy, neighbour, nurse 2

Abstract nouns Read the following sentences: Little children have a lot You can find useful Our vacation was full of happiness and joy. of curiosity. information on the internet. The words ‘curiosity’, ‘information’, ‘happiness’ and ‘joy’ are also nouns. Do you know what kind of nouns these are? curiosity a quality information an idea or a concept happiness, joy feelings or emotions Nouns that name ideas, feelings, qualities and concepts that cannot be seen or touched are known as abstract nouns. Many abstract nouns are formed from adjectives, verbs and common nouns. However, they might differ in meaning from the nouns. Let us look at a few examples. Adjective Abstract Verb Abstract Common Abstract noun noun noun noun kind kindness obey obedience brother brotherhood strong strength grow growth mother motherhood dark darkness please pleasure child childhood brave bravery act action slave slavery wise wisdom laugh laughter scholar scholarship Nouns 3

Remember • N ouns that can be seen or touched are concrete nouns. Examples: Alka (proper noun), boy (common noun), wool (material noun), flock (collective noun) • N ouns that cannot be seen or touched are abstract nouns. They are ideas, feelings or qualities. Examples: marriage (idea or concept), weakness (feeling), beauty (quality) Exercise 1: Identify the noun types and sort them into the correct columns of the table given below. One is done for you.   a)      b)    c)     Thomas Edison diamond hospital   d)      e)    f) dancers   team Bruno Common nouns Material nouns Proper nouns Collective nouns Thomas Edison Exercise 2: Classify the given nouns as per their gender. One is done for you. rooster bush enemy empress scooter sow accountant wizard 4

Masculine Feminine a) rooster c) b) d) Common Neuter e) g) f) h) Exercise 3: Underline the abstract nouns in the sentences given below. One is done for you. a) King Solomon is known for his wisdom. b) We get knowledge from books. c) He believes in kindness. d) Health is better than wealth. e) Most of his boyhood was spent playing tennis. f) The wolves disappeared into the darkness. Exercise 4: Form abstract nouns from the words given below. One is done for you. a) child – childhood b) humble – ________________________ c) good – ________________________ d) judge – ________________________ e) free – ________________________ f) poor – ________________________ Exercise 5: Underline the nouns in the given sentences. Sort them into concrete and abstract nouns. One is done for you. a) Lara had a lot of trust in her parents. b) Param takes pride in being a doctor. Nouns 5

c) She has confidence in her team. d) The kitten had a fear of water. e) Climbing that mountain took courage. f) They have a lot of love for their family. Concrete nouns Abstract nouns a) Lara, parents a) trust Exercise 6: Underline the nouns in the following sentences and write them in the correct columns of the table given below. One is done for you. a) India gained independence in 1947. b) The cruelty of the king made the people dislike him. c) A pack of wolves caught the deer. d) Hercules was known all over Greece for his bravery and strength. e) The crowd was walking towards the palace made of marble. f) Rahul bought a bouquet of roses and a saree made of silk for his mother. Common Proper Collective Abstract Material nouns nouns nouns nouns nouns India independence 6

W1 Writing Formal Writing Make sentences Exercise 1: Make meaningful sentences with the words given below. Then, arrange the sentences to make a paragraph. Hint: You can add lines as required. a) sports : b) healthy : c) exercise : d) fresh : e) fitness : Now, write your paragraph below. 7

Creative Writing Picture-based description Exercise 2: Observe the food pyramid given below. Fill in the gaps to describe the picture and explain what each level of the pyramid shows. 8

This is a picture of a food ________________________. It shows different __________________ _______________________. The lowest level of the pyramid has _________________________ ___________________________________________________________ carbohydrates. This level has cereals such as ________________________________________________________________ _____________________________. It also has bread and seeds such as __________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. The next level shows _______________________________________________________________. There are vegetables such as _______________________________________________________ ____________________________________ as well as fruits such as _________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ in the picture. The second layer from the top has __________________________________________________ ____________ protein. There are _____________________________________________________ as well as __________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________ on this level. The top-most level of the pyramid has ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ healthy. There are __________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ on this level. The pyramid also shows ____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ and also ___________________________________________________________________________ less. From this pyramid, we understand that we should eat more of _______________________ __________________________________________ as well as fruits and vegetables. We should also eat plenty of ___________________________________________ protein-rich food. We must avoid ______________________________________________________________ and too much of chocolate. Eating healthy food ensures that ________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. Writing 1 9

2 Punctuation Punctuation Rewrite the given sentences by correcting the usage of punctuation marks and capital letters. a) when are you coming back from delhi! Ans. b) i will buy fish chips and cheese from the supermarket Ans. c) reena is very excited to be in chennai Ans. d) Wow what a beautiful painting Ans. e) papa wait for me. Ans. f) there are swings slides merry-go-rounds and monkey bars in the park Ans. 10

Here are the rules of punctuation that we have learnt so far. Punctuation mark Usage Examples It is placed at the end of a I will travel tomorrow. sentence or statement. Full stop It is placed at the end of a Where are we going? question. Question mark It is used to separate: W  e ate chips, cake, Comma • t hree or more words or • candies and ice cream at the party. items in a list. Hello, Anjali! • the person addressed. • • I t is placed at the • W  hat a beautiful beach! end of sentences that convey emotions (happiness, excitement, frustration or anger). Exclamation mark • I t is placed after • O  h dear! This room is interjections. so messy. Many words always start with a capital letter. Remember the acronym M.I.N.T.S. for the correct usage of capital letters. Acronym Examples M : months, names of days • Christmas is celebrated in December. • My school started on Monday. Punctuation 11

Acronym Examples I : the word ‘I’ • I  helped my friend with her homework. • I visited my grandparents. N : names of people, states, cities • My sister, Mala, studies in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. and countries – proper nouns • Our class went to Thailand last week. T : titles of books and movies • I  am going to watch Beauty and the Beast tonight. • My favourite book is Famous Five. S : start of sentences • Simran went home. She met her dogs. Punctuation in dialogue We have learnt how to use punctuation in dialogue for regular sentences. Let us read the rules to punctuate such sentences. Remember • Quotation marks ( ‘ ’ ) are used to show the part that is spoken. • The comma ( , ) is used after the quoted section. • The  first word within quotes always begins with a capital letter. However, punctuating sentences that have question marks or exclamation marks is slightly different. Read the following sentences to see how questions and exclamations in dialogue are punctuated. ‘My father is paying me a visit this Friday!’ said Anita. ‘Are you going to the street play?’ asked Roy. Remember • The exclamation or question marks in a dialogue come after the sentence, right before the close-quote mark. • W e do not add a comma after the close-quote mark for sentences that already end in a punctuation mark. Examples: •  ‘Where is my dog?’ asked Choti.  • ‘Where is my dog?’, asked Choti.  12

Colon and semicolon Read the following sentences: Rosey has only one friend: We read books by three Our football match starts at Tina. (word) authors: Roald Dahl, 8:30 a.m. (separating hours J K Rowling and Charles from minutes) Dickens. (list) Remember Notice the use of the colon (:) in the above sentences. • I t is used to introduce a word, sentence or list. It makes the reader stop and pay attention to the information. • It is also used to separate hours from minutes and in ratios. We had to stop studying; I I like milkshakes; however, I Bats are nocturnal; they had to go out for dinner. don’t like milk. hunt at night. Remember Notice the use of the semicolon (;) in the above sentences. A semicolon is stronger than a comma but weaker than a full stop. • It joins two closely related, complete sentences. • It is also placed between two complete sentences that are connected using words like ‘otherwise’, ‘however’, ‘moreover’ and ‘consequently’. Punctuation 13

Exercise 1: Rewrite the following sentences using the correct punctuation marks (full stop, question mark, comma and exclamation mark). Use capital letters wherever needed. One is done for you. a) we will travel to kolkata tomorrow Ans. We will travel to Kolkata tomorrow. b) do you think it will start snowing in some time Ans. c) the food was out of this world Ans. d) rohan has to carry a sleeping bag a mosquito repellent heavy boots and a water bottle to the camp Ans. e) C v raman and jagdish chandra bose are two great scientists from india Ans. f) w  e will send new year cards to samit asha rajam and ali. Ans. Exercise 2: Rewrite each of the given sentences using the colon or the semicolon appropriately. One is done for you. a) There are four seasons summer, monsoon, winter and spring. Ans. There are four seasons: summer, monsoon, winter and spring. b) The traffic was horrible I decided to wait. Ans. 14

c) Mix the oil and vinegar in a 1 2 ratio. Ans. d) V arun met with an accident yesterday consequently, he did not come to the party. Ans. e) Seema likes ice cream Aryan likes pizza. Ans. f) T here was one place that she loved the most the library. Ans. Exercise 3: Rewrite the given sentences by inserting the missing punctuation marks. Use capital letters wherever needed. One is done for you. a) disha we’ll go for lion king together Ans. Disha, we’ll go for Lion King together. b) rita bought pens pencils erasers and a ruler from the stationery shop Ans. c) I like three colours red orange and blue Ans. d) You may bring your sister however she may have to wait for five minutes Ans. Punctuation 15

e) They spell it as ‘Color’, we spell it as ‘colour’ Ans. f) There’s only one way to make it to the top hard work Ans. Exercise 4: Use the correct punctuation marks and capital letters in the following sentences. One is done for you. a) ,Patchy’ behave yourself!’ said Aditi with a frown! Ans. ‘Patchy, behave yourself!’ said Aditi with a frown. b) ‘Have you kept my book carefully.’ asked Lola? Ans. c) I watched television for an hour last night, said Bharat. Ans. d) Rupam asked? Did you like my payasam? Ans. e) ,I am not sure if I like ice creams’. thought Nayan Ans. f) He said Be careful! That old dog bites’. Ans. 16

Exercise 5: Rewrite the following passage with the correct usage of punctuation marks and capital letters. One line is done for you. I am learning to ride a bicycle. At first, I fell down a few times. Ouch, i got scratches on my elbows, hands and knees. that made me afraid to try again. Mother said, ‘Do you know how old I was when I learned to ride?. Mother learned how to ride in her late twenties. This story was very motivating: It made me want to keep trying. I hope to start riding as soon as possible!  Exercise 6: Fill in the blanks in the following passage with the correct punctuation marks. One is done for you. ‘I think Spain is a beautiful country_____, said Betsy. There were two things that she loved about Spain_____ the food and the beaches. She had visited Spain at least twice before_____ once in June 2013 and then in December 2015. Paella_____ fried milk and tapas are a few dishes that she loved. But what she missed the most was the friends she had made there_____ Punctuation 17

W2 Writing Formal Writing Explanatory paragraph writing with linking words Exercise 1: Do you sometimes fight while playing games? Fill in the gaps to complete the paragraph that explains ways in which we can play games without fighting. Use linking words to join the sentences. Any game can turn bad if the players don’t have a sporting spirit. For a game to be fair, ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________. Remind each other about the importance of a sporting spirit. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________, but do not give up or think that your opponent is better. If you are winning, _____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________. _____________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ and to never give up without trying their best. ____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ over  the idea of winning or losing. A game well enjoyed is never a loss in its truest sense. 18

Creative Writing Photo-based character sketch Exercise 2: Look at the photograph below and complete the character sketches of the girls. Leena and Sheena __________________________________________ _____________________________. They are the best ______________ _____________________________________________________________. You will never see them  _____________________. _______________________________________ quiet and shy, while Sheena is ________________________________ ____________________________________________________________. But that does not stop them __________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. Even when they fight, ______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. Their parents are also happy because ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. Writing 2 19

R1 Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Long ago, in a distant land, there was a queen named Rukmini. She had a large kingdom. The people of the  kingdom loved and respected her a lot. One day, it was  her daughter’s birthday. A lot of people, friends and  relatives were invited to the party. The king and queen received them graciously. The children played happily as everyone interacted with each other. All except one child. He was very well dressed but went around bullying and picking fights with the other children. No one scolded him or tried to stop him. At one point, he pushed a small girl. She fell and started crying. At this point, Princess  Onkara came and stood right in front of him. ‘You have no right to do that; apologise to the girl’, she said. ‘Apologise to a girl, never!’ was the reply. ‘This is not acceptable’, said Onkara firmly. Nobody had spoken to the boy like this. He got scared and ran to his father who was the king of an equally powerful kingdom. His father asked him what the matter was. The boy narrated the incident as the king listened keenly. Then, he spoke out loud and clear, ‘Go and apologise to the small girl and the princess. You cannot talk and behave like this with anyone.’ The boy sheepishly walked up to the girls and apologised. 1) Why were the people invited? Ans. 2) What did the king ask his son to do? Ans. 20

3) Write the past tense forms of these words from the passage. a) invite – ______________________________________________ b) speak – ______________________________________________ c) receive – ______________________________________________ 4) The meaning of the word ‘apologise’ is . 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B a) sheepishly A) polite and respectful b) gracious B) overpowering; dominating c) bullying C) with shame Passage 2 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. The emperor was very sad after the queen’s death. He would often sit in his beautiful garden and watch a fleet of swans, a flock of ducks or a herd of deer that roamed about freely. The deer had been gifted by the king of a faraway country. But nothing seemed to cheer him up. A troupe of dancers also  performed at the court but to no avail. Everyone wanted to help the emperor come out of his sadness, but nothing seemed to work. One day, a priest in the palace saw a few children playing with dolls. The dolls made shadows on the floor that appeared to dance while the children played. They tried to catch the shadows and laughed as they played. The dancing shadows of the dolls gave the priest a brilliant idea. He hurried home and got down to work. The priest first made a puppet with cotton and painted it to look like the queen. Once the puppet was ready, he invited the emperor for a special puppet show. The emperor was not willing at first to come for the show but he finally agreed. The priest was an old friend; the emperor accepted the invitation. The priest said, ‘Your Majesty, the puppet show is specially meant for you. Kindly come.’ The emperor nodded, ‘If you so insist, I’ll be there.’ Reading Comprehension 1 21

6) What would the emperor watch as he sat in his garden? Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 7) What did the priest see in the palace one day? Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 8) Fill in the blanks with the correct pronouns. a) ______________ is dreaming. (Ravi) b) ______________ is green. (The blackboard) c) ______________ are watching TV. (My mother and I) 9) The antonym of the word ‘seldom’ from the passage is ________________________. 10) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B a) flock A) not take no for an answer b) brilliant B) group c) insist C) very clever 22

3 One and Many Irregular plurals The paragraph has many regular and irregular plural nouns. Can you underline them? The Story of Jim Once upon a time, there lived a baker named Jim. He baked delicious bread and cakes. His garlic bread was famous across many cities. Everyone loved Jim’s bread. In fact, they came from far and wide to buy loaves of bread from him. The rich and the famous came in their grand coaches just to taste his bakery products. Whoever passed by his shop could smell the sweet smell of freshly baked products. Jim loved his customers. He gave them candies and balloons. Other bakers wondered why Jim’s garlic bread tasted so yummy. ‘Had he attended secret baking classes?’; ‘Did he use special dishes, spoons and knives?’ Nobody knew for sure. There were two colourful boxes on the top shelves of Jim’s shop. Everyone tried to guess what was inside them. Perhaps they contained the secret recipes! Days rolled into months, and months into years. The boxes were forgotten. Many years later, after Jim’s death, the colourful boxes were finally opened. Two small chits were found, one in each box. They read ‘Bake with love’ and ‘Bake slowly and happily’. Everyone remembered kind Jim, and there were echoes of ‘Long live Jim! We love you, Jim!’ in the streets. Remember • R egular plural forms are created by adding ‘-s’ to the ends of words. • I rregular plural forms are made in other ways than simply adding ‘-s’. 23

Let us revise a few rules for forming irregular plurals. Remember • T o form the plural forms of words that end in ‘-x’, ‘-o’, ‘-s’, ‘-ch’ ‘-sh’ and ‘-ss’, we add ‘-es’ to the ends of the words. E xamples: tax – taxes, buffalo – buffaloes, lens – lenses, church – churches, bush – bushes, kiss – kisses • To form the plural forms of words that end in a consonant + ‘-y’, we drop the ‘y’ and add ‘-ies’. E  xamples: family – families, party – parties, diary – diaries, enemy – enemies • To form the plural forms of words that end in ‘-f’ or ‘-fe’, we change ‘-f’ or ‘-fe’ to ‘-ve’ and then add ‘-s’. For a few exceptions, we add ‘-s’ to make plural forms of words that end in ‘-f’ or ‘-fe’. Examples: knife – knives, thief – thieves, roof – roofs, cafe – cafes • A few words do not change at all when they are converted into their plural forms. Examples: sheep – sheep, fish – fish, deer – deer, trout – trout Irregular plurals without rules Many words form their plurals in different ways. They do not follow any of the above rules. Singular Plural tooth teeth foot feet die dice goose geese mouse mice oxen ox cacti cactus men women man children woman people child person 24

Exercise 1: Match the following singular nouns and plural nouns. One is done for you. Singular Plural a) bench F A) families b) fairy B) cargoes c) cargo C) scarves d) family D) fairies e) scarf E) roofs f) roof F) benches Exercise 2: Tick the correct irregular plural forms of the nouns from the options given in brackets. One is done for you.  a) man – (man/men/mans) b) trout – (treet/trout/trouts) c) medium – (medii/median/media) d) moose – (mouse/moose/mise) e) die – (dies/dice/die) f) ox – (oxen/oxex/oxes) Exercise 3: Rewrite the sentences by changing the singular nouns into their plural forms. Make changes to the sentences so that they are grammatically correct. One is done for you. a) A child was playing with his toy car. Ans. Children were playing with their toy cars. b) The girl chased the goose away. Ans. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ One and Many 25

c) This person is protesting against the president. Ans. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ d) Smita went to the dentist to get her tooth checked. Ans. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ e) The woman over there wants to meet the manager. Ans. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ f) The air hostess loaded the aircraft with food. Ans. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Countable and uncountable nouns You have learnt that some nouns can be counted and others cannot be counted. Let us recall them. Remember • Anything, singular or plural, that can be counted is called a countable noun. • We use ‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘one’ before singular countable nouns. • W e use words such as ‘any’, ‘many’, ‘a few’, ‘some’ and numbers greater than one before plural countable nouns. • Many nouns, such as names of materials (rubber), food items (rice), resources (iron) and abstract ideas (love, happiness, information), cannot be counted. They are called uncountable nouns. • U ncountable nouns do not have plural forms. We cannot use ‘a’, ‘an’ or numbers before uncountable nouns. • T o show the quantity of uncountable nouns, we use words such as ‘some’, ‘any’, ‘a bag of’, ‘a lot of’, ‘much’ and ‘less’. • W e can define the quantity of uncountable nouns by assigning some kind of measurement to them. Examples: 1 kg of rice, 2 cups of water, a pinch of salt 26

Exercise 4: Read the sentences and write ‘C’ if the underlined noun is countable and ‘U’ if the underlined noun is uncountable. One is done for you. a) The girls fell asleep after coming back from the picnic. – C b) Pottery items are made of clay. – _______________ c) The fire trucks rushed to the accident site. – _______________ d) Rina likes tea; Rehman hates it. – _______________ e) Pune weather is excellent in July. – _______________ f) Her child loves to play tennis. – _______________ Exercise 5: Write whether the given nouns are countable or uncountable. One is done for you. a) b)   c)   fire men food Ans. uncountable Ans. ______________________ Ans. ______________________ d)   e)    f)   spectacles cups of coffee sunlight Ans. ______________________ Ans. ______________________ Ans. ______________________ Exercise 6: Read the sentences given below and write whether the common nouns are countable (C) or uncountable (U). There may be more than one noun in each of the sentences. One is done for you. a) Seema spread jam on the bread. Ans. jam – U and bread – U b) Do you think the cat drank the milk? Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ One and Many 27

c) Pass me some sugar, please! Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ d) Don’t make noise; the baby is sleeping. Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ e) Anish served them tea when they reached home. Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ f) He fried the vegetables in oil. Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 28

W3 Writing Formal Writing Informal letter writing We write informal letters to our friends and family members. The tone of such letters is friendly and not formal. Read the given sample of an informal letter carefully. Observe the different parts of the letter and study the format. There is no need to B 12/3 Your address include the address Purbasha Estate of the person to Shillong Date whom you are writing. 22nd July 2022 Introduction Salutation/Greeting In the first paragraph, You can use a Dear Ruman, explain why you person’s first name. are writing. Use How have you been? I heard from friendly language Body Uncle that you regularly participate throughout. This is the part in skating competitions now. That in between the sounds very interesting, and I would Closing paragraph introduction and the like to hear about that sometime. Ask a question or closing paragraph make a suggestion so where you talk I wanted to write to thank you for that the person can about the main idea the great gift you got grandma. send a reply. of the letter. She was still recovering from her ankle injury and had not been able Signature to walk properly ever since. But Sign your name. How now, with the help of your walker, you sign off shows she has been practising walking how you feel about again with its support. Her morale the person to whom has grown stronger, and we all you are writing. believe that it was an extremely thoughtful and useful gift. Looking forward to you visiting us sometime. Lots of love, Bharat 29

Exercise 1: In the morning, Rahul had a fight with his friend Shyam about who the better football player between the two was. By evening, Rahul started feeling bad and wrote a letter to his friend. Complete the letter by filling in the gaps. H. No. 12 . _________________________________ . Mumbai . _________________________________ Dear Shyam, . I am writing this letter to  . Football is a game . Football cannot be If both of us were equally good, I promise you that Both of us Your loving friend, Rahul 30

Creative Writing Dialogue writing Exercise 2: Write a short dialogue between two classmates who discuss their favourite activities and choices of school clubs. Hints: • They discuss the various clubs in school. • They talk about why they enjoy these clubs. • They discuss what they plan to do as club members. Writing 3 31

4 Pronouns Pronouns Read the paragraph and underline the pronouns. Are they subject, object, reflexive, possessive or demonstrative pronouns? Ravi and Sujal went to the park. They played on the slide. The boys loved it. The slide was very slippery. Meher joined them. She brought a ball. She told everybody that it was hers. She wanted to play with the ball by herself. ‘This is my ball. I want to play with it’, Meher said. You know that naming words are nouns. A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. Let us recall the different types of pronouns that you have learnt so far. Name of pronoun Definition Example Subject pronouns They perform the action in a sentence. (I, we, you, he, she, it, they) You ran a race. Object pronouns They receive the action in a sentence. (me, us, you, him, her, it, them) Rama is going to the party with him. 32

Name of pronoun Definition Example Reflexive pronouns They are used when we The children cooked for refer to the subject of the themselves. sentence again. In other words, these pronouns are used when the object of a sentence is the same as its subject. (myself, yourself/yourselves, himself, herself, themselves, itself, ourselves) Possessive pronouns They show ownership. (mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, its, theirs) The bicycle is hers. Demonstrative They point out the nouns pronouns (people, place, things) in the sentences. (this, that [singular], these, This is my house. those [plural]) That is your house. Relative pronouns Read the following sentences: • The man who was trying to cut the tree was taken to the police station. In this sentence, ‘who’ is a pronoun that relates to the noun, ‘man’. • The country that I would love to visit is Italy. In this sentence, ‘that’ is a pronoun that relates to the noun, ‘Italy’. Both ‘who’ and ‘that’ are relative pronouns. Remember Relative pronouns point out which person or thing is being talked about. They refer to the noun introduced earlier or later in the sentence and provide additional information about it. Pronouns 33

Relative pronoun Examples who/whom • M eera, who is very kind, is also my friend. (Who relates to the person being spoken about whose – ‘Meera, who is also my friend’.) which when • T he girl whom you were talking to is my cousin. where (Whom relates to the girl who is also the cousin. Whom makes it clear that she is the same person.) • T he boy whose book I borrowed is my brother's friend. (Whose relates back to the boy.) • C an you tell me which road I should take? (The word which tells us that we are talking about a particular road.) • S ummer is the time when we go swimming. (When relates to summer time.) • This is the playground where we play football. (Where relates to the place – the playground.) that • I like the dress that you gifted me for Christmas. (That refers to the dress that was a Christmas gift.) Remember • W e use who and whom for people. Use ‘who’ when you can replace the word with ‘he’ or ‘she’. Use ‘whom’ when you can replace the word with ‘him’ or ‘her’. • Which is used while referring to things. • T hat is usually used for things. However, in many cases, it is also used for people or animals. • If the words that follow contain important information that is necessary for the sentence to be grammatically correct, use ‘that’. Otherwise, ‘which’ is fine Example: Dogs that bark scare me. • If the information is supplementary, use ‘which’. Example: Dogs, which make great pets, can be expensive. 34

Exercise 1: Write the correct subject or object pronoun that can replace the underlined words in each sentence. One is done for you. a) Richa switched off the fan before she left the room. – She b) Mother and I went for a walk this morning. – __________________ c) Give the card to Aslam. – __________________ d) My father is taking Rahul and me to the museum. – __________________ e) Our dogs finished all the milk. – __________________ f) Please ask Lavika and Rina to bring my book. – __________________ Exercise 2: Read the sentences and fill in the blanks with the correct possessive or reflexive pronouns. One is done for you. a) Robert prepares his morning meals by himself. b) The red basket is _____________________________. c) We ate up all the sweets by _____________________________. d) Is this book _____________________________? e) The house beside the river is _____________________________. f) She cut _____________________________ on broken glass. Exercise 3: Choose the correct pronoun for each sentence and fill in the blanks. One is done for you. a) That is the playground that does not have a slide. (That/Which/Where) b) Your school is much bigger than ___________. (our/ours/us) c) I could not find out ___________ pen it was. (who/whose/whom) Pronouns 35

d) Have you seen Sameer? I think this bag is ___________. (his/its/him) e) ___________ are the fields that my uncle owns. (This/These/That) f) Megha’s parents, ___________ are retired now, live in Coimbatore. (that/which/who) Exercise 4: Fill in the blanks with the correct relative pronouns from the options given in brackets. One is done for you. a) I saw the dog who (whom/who) ate the cake. b) We did not know the tune ___________ (that/who) had been playing. c) I have a friend ___________ (whose/which) cat is cute. d) This is the place ___________ (when/where) we met. e) Puneet is the man to ___________ (who/whom) this watch belongs. f) The car, ___________ (which/whom) was green, drove by. Exercise 5: Rewrite the sentences by using the correct relative pronouns. One is done for you. a) This is the cake where Minu baked. Ans. This is the cake that Minu baked. b) We don’t know the person that donated this money. Ans. c) He went to the same school when my father studied. Ans. d) This is the dog whose doesn’t like me. Ans. e) Sana was the person to who the letter was addressed. Ans. f) This is the man which house is on fire. Ans. 36

Exercise 6: Write down the types of the underlined pronouns. Write another sentence using the same pronouns. One is done for you. relative   demonstrative   object   possessive   reflexive   subject a) T  he stadium where the match took place was renovated two months ago. Ans. Relative pronoun That is the cave where the thief hid. b) I had forgotten my bottle, but she had got hers. Ans. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ c) They were at the store yesterday. Ans. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ d) I cleaned the house by myself. Ans. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ e) This is my mother’s handbag. Ans. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ f) Priti looked after her. Ans. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Pronouns 37

W4 Writing Formal Writing Message writing A message is a short piece of communication to inform somebody about something. Read the sample of the message given below to understand its different parts. Salutation/Greeting Dear Sanjana, Body of the message How you address the TdmeyhLroeoxeaepcsutnattruakeoonsussryusgrowtaamoufinotlohyttfrootogdmrttnorihcnaeMenom.tiemtYCeuGroid.hnnuIRiegenrwoexsbtuaatosypewdnttpt.heatoeekoriktn.g Keep it short and to the person depends on how point. close you are. Your loving friend, Soha Signature How you sign off also depends on how close you are to the person. Exercise 1: Write a message to your mother, thanking her for taking you to an ‘Aqua and Fish Exhibition’. Fill in the message with the help of the prompts given below. Dear Mummy, I can’t tell you how happy __________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. You know me so well and understand _______________________________________________ 38

_____________________________________________________________. ______________________ _________________________________________ for taking me. You took a day off from work ____________________________________________________________________________________ _______________. ____________________________________ best mother in the world! Your loving daughter, ____________________________ Creative Writing Diary entry A diary is a book in which one can write about things that happen in everyday life. People write diary entries to remember things that happen in their day-to-day lives. People share their thoughts, feelings, hopes and dreams in their diaries. Look at the sample of a diary entry below. Salutation/Greeting Friday, 3rd August Day and date Signature Dear Diary, Contents of the diary entry My half-yearly exams are going on. Diary entries are I had my English exam today. Even always written in first though I studied quite hard for the person. exam, it did not go as well as I had hoped. I ran out of time and could not finish the last two answers. What hurts even more is that those were writing exercises, and I usually do well on those! Anyway, I have Science on Monday, and I have promised myself to write quickly from the beginning. Adil Writing 4 39

Exercise 2: Imagine that you have visited a new place and are writing about it in a diary. Use the hints given below to help you write your diary entry. Hints: • Where did you go? • Did you go with friends or relatives? • W as it a town, a tourist spot, an adventure park or the countryside? • What is special about the place? Describe it. • What impressions and feelings did you carry back? 40

Writing 4 41

R2 Reading Comprehension Passage 1 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. The kingfisher is a small- to medium-sized, colourful bird, generally found close to water. There are nearly 100 different species of kingfisher around the world. Kingfishers feed mainly on fish but also eat insects, frogs and crayfish. Kingfisher species that live in the woodlands occasionally eat reptiles, birds and even small mammals. There are three main types of kingfishers around the globe: the river kingfishers, the tree kingfishers and the water kingfishers. All of them have large heads, long, sharp, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. Kingfishers are well known for their brightly coloured feathers that range in colour from black to red to green. A few species of kingfisher have tufts of feathers on their heads that stick upwards, although many species of kingfishers have smooth, flat feathers covering their bodies. Due to their generally small size, kingfishers have a number of predators wherever they exist around the world. Main predators of kingfishers are foxes, raccoons, cats and snakes, but kingfishers are also preyed upon by other small mammals and large birds. Many kingfisher species are considered to be threatened species as their numbers have been declining, mainly due to habitat loss. These threatened kingfisher species inhabit woodlands and forests. Their habitat is being destroyed due to deforestation, which is occurring in many areas around the world. 1) What do kingfishers mainly feed on? Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 42

2) Who are the main predators of kingfishers? Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3) Write the comparative forms of the adjectives given in brackets. a) Kingfishers are _________________________ than eagles. (small) b) Kingfishers have _________________________ heads than many other birds. (large) c) Kingfishers have ________________________ feathers than many other birds. (bright) 4) T  he meaning of ‘habitat’ is ___________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________. 5) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B a) species A) sometimes b) occasionally B) animals that hunt other animals c) predators C) type or kind Passage 2 Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Joginder sat down comfortably on a chair and said, ‘Well, well. One question at a time, dear. Let me begin by saying that Abraham Lincoln was one of the greatest leaders of America. He was the 16th President of the United States, from 1861 to 1865.’ Sarita bent forward and asked, ‘Daddy, was his father also a President?’ ‘No, he wasn’t. In fact, Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin in Kentucky to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. Abraham had an older sister and a younger brother who died in their infancies. The Lincolns moved from Kentucky to Indiana due to a few land problems in 1817. They made a living by hunting and farming on a small plot of land. When Abraham was nine years old, his mother passed away due to ‘milk sickness’. After a few months, Reading Comprehension 2 43

his father remarried. Abraham’s stepmother was a strong and affectionate woman named Sarah Bush Johnson. She had three children of her own. Abraham Lincoln grew close to her, and she encouraged him to read. Sarita looked shocked. ‘But do you mean to say that he never went to school?’ ‘He was mainly self-educated. He received formal education for just about eighteen months, perhaps a few days or weeks at a time. You will be amazed to know that he was very fond of reading. He would often walk miles to borrow books.’ ‘What kind of books did he like to read?’ ‘He read all the popular books at that time, such as Aesop’s Fables, Robinson Crusoe, Pilgrim’s Progress and, of course, the family Bible.’ 6) How did the Lincoln family make a living? Ans. 7) What kind of books did Abraham Lincoln like to read? Ans. 8) Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjectives. a) The Lincolns farmed on __________________ plot of land. b) L incoln read all __________________ books with interest. c) Sarita could not believe __________________ ears when she heard that Lincoln had not received formal education. 9) T  he meaning of ‘encouraged’ is . 10) Match the words with their correct meanings. Column A Column B a) infancy A) proper b) affectionate B) early childhood c) formal C) loving 44

5 Adjectives Degrees of comparison Underline the adjectives in the sentences given below. Identify the degrees of comparison of the adjectives and fill in the table given below. a) The mango is the sweetest fruit.  b) The fox was cleverer than the crow. c) I like hot tea. d) It was an old quilt. e) My house is smaller than his. f) Suman’s dress is brighter than Leena’s dress. Positive degree Comparative degree Superlative degree Remember Adjectives have three degrees of comparison. • The positive degree shows the quality of something or someone. Example: I have a big dog. • T he comparative degree is used to compare two things or people with the same quality. Example: My friend’s dog is bigger than mine. • T  he superlative degree is used to compare more than two things or people. It singles out one from the rest. Example: My neighbour’s dog is the biggest that I have seen. 45

Regular adjectives The comparative and superlative degrees of most regular adjectives are formed by adding ‘-er’ and ‘-est’ to their positive degrees. The comparative and superlative degrees of words that end in ‘-y’ are formed by replacing ‘-y’ with ‘-ier’ and ‘-iest’ respectively. Examples: Positive degree Comparative degree Superlative degree black blacker blackest bold bolder boldest brave braver bravest clever cleverer cleverest costly costlier costliest hard harder hardest heavy heavier heaviest narrow narrower narrowest quick quicker quickest strong stronger strongest funny funnier funniest In a few regular adjectives that end in ‘-e’, a single ‘-r’ is added in the comparative degree and ‘-st’ in the superlative degree. Examples: Positive degree Comparative degree Superlative degree simple simpler simplest nice nicer nicest late later latest 46

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