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Published by IMAX, 2020-04-10 04:37:18



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by classklap ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES – II WORKBOOK – PART 1 Enhanced Edition 5

Preface IMAX partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. IMAX presents the latest version of the Summit series – specially crafted as an accompanying workbook series for the Maharashtra state board textbooks. The Summit series endeavours to be faithful to the spirit of the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 in conjunction with the content covered and approach adopted in the Maharashtra state board textbooks. The NCF 2005 advocates the creation of age-appropriate and easily relatable content for EVS. It also recommends the use of graphics, illustrations and pictures to help students to engage with concepts and ideas better. Below are some salient features of the Summit EVS-II workbooks series: 9Arrangement of questions based on the RUAH (Remember, Understand, Apply and Higher Order Thinking Skills) model based on Bloom’s Taxonomy 9Visually engaging timelines that summarise information from the lessons 9Stimulating Application and Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) questions that ensure students engage with the content and not just focus on rote learning 9Use of maps and scenario-based questions in the workbooks 9All textbook questions that require space for writing have been included. Overall, the IMAX Summit series aims to enhance social, cultural and analytical skills for the intuitive and harmonious growth of an individual in an interconnected and independent global community. – The Authors

Workbook Features Let us Recap ReDmicetmatbioenring An activity to be used to recap the Questions aimed at helping students to main points covered in the lesson recollect critical information regarding the ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘when’ and ‘where’ UnDdiecrtsatatinodning of the concept Questions aimed at helping students Application and HOTS engage with the ‘how’ and ‘why’ of the concept Applying the understanding of the concept to questions related to real-life Activity scenarios and challenging questions that meet the criteria of higher order Activities that can be done to enhance thinking skills learning Formative Activities that can be used for the Formative Assessments

CONTENTS Page No. Lesson 1 9 1. What is History? 19 2. History and the Concept of ‘Time’ 28 3. Life on Earth 37 4. Evolution 5. Evolution of Mankind

1 LESSON 1: WHAT IS HISTORY? 1) History is a science that tries to understand events in the past. 1 2) Past events cannot be recreated, but history is not written on the basis of imagination. It relies on scientific evidence such as written and oral records. 3) By studying history we learn about past societies, their thinking, and the consequences of their actions. 4) We can try to avoid the mistakes made by past civilizations and build a better world by studying history. 5) Our today is linked to our ancestors’ yesterday. The future is made by past actions and that is what history teaches us. What is History?

Fill in the blanks 'Yesterday' The science Sources of When we Name three indicates the that tries to history are of study the past, things that understand three types: have their own __________ the past is we learn history: while • ___________ about the called • ___________ _____________ • ____________ 'tomorrow' • ___________ of human • ____________ indicates the ___________. civilization. • ____________ future. Very Short Answer Questions Fill in the blanks 1) The special characteristic of sciences is that their facts can be tested through ___________________. 2) The method of presenting ___________________ is different from that of other sciences. 3) The time that is yet to come is known as the ___________________. 4) History helps us to know about the ___________________ of human civilization. 5) The time that has already gone by is the ___________________. 2

Mark true or false 6) History is written solely on the basis of imagination. [] 7) Traditional stories and songs are a source of history. [] 8) Every village, city and country has its own history. [] 9) Historical studies help us to know the past, but that is not very useful. ] [ ] 10) The past, present and future are linked by a continuous chain of events. [ Short Answer Questions Answer in one sentence 11) What is scientific method? (Textbook, Pg. 4) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 12) Of which action is India’s independence the result? (Textbook, Pg. 4) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 13) Mention four examples of material sources of history. 3 Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What is History?

________________________________________________________________________ Short Answer Questions Answer in one or two sentences 14) Why is history considered to be a scientific discipline? (Textbook, Pg. 4) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 15) What does the study of history make possible? (Textbook, Pg. 4) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 16) What is it that puts obstacles in the way of village development? (Textbook, Pg. 4) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 428 17) Explain how every science has a history. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ 5 ________________________________________________________________________ Long Answer Questions Answer the following 18) Identify any two advantages of studying history. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 19) How does the future depend on past events? Give one example. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What is History?

Short Answer Question Think and answer 20) Classify the sources of history using the chart given here. (Textbook, Pg. 5) Sources of history: coins, letters, forts, traditional songs, pots, copper plates, old structures, stone inscriptions, folk songs, pillars, biographies, rock-cut caves, folk tales . Material Written Oral Ans. Long Answer Question Answer the following 21) Complete the concept chart. (Textbook, Pg. 5) What can you say about the relation between you and history from the concept chart? 628

Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 22) Collect information and pictures of the historical structures and ancient 7 religious places in your village/city/neighbouring area. (Textbook, Pg. 5) What is History?

Hints:  Try to find out about the significance of some of these places.  Why were they important then and what is their relevance today?  Do they tell you about different groups of people? 23) Make a list of the sources that you would use to find out the history of your school. Write down the kind of information that you could get from each of them, for example: the foundation stone of the school-the date of foundation, the person who inaugurated it, etc. (Textbook, Pg. 5) Hints: Also find out about:  the first batch that graduated from the school  the first principal  any students who went on to become famous  any competitions the school won and so on 828

2 LESSON 2: HISTORY AND THE CONCEPT OF ‘TIME’ 1) Time is divided into periods for our convenience. The method of dividing 9 time into bigger and bigger units is known as the unilinear division of time. 2) The calendar used almost all over the world is based on the Common Era or the Christian Era, written in short as CE or AD (‘Anno Domini’). 3) History is calculated from the time of the formation of our solar system, a billion years ago. Time in history is divided into the prehistoric period and the historic period. 4) Information on events that occurred before the Common Era can be obtained with the help of evidences buried under the ground. 5) Carbon-14 analysis and Tree-rings analysis are some of the scientific methods that act as dating techniques, to learn how old the layers of soil and the artefacts found in them are. History and the Concept of ‘Time’

Fill in the blanks ________ or Before CE or ________________________ Common/Christian Era • The first year of this Era is shown • It is also called _____________ (BC) with the number _____. • The first ____________________ of this • The first century of the Common Era is written as '1 - 1000 CE'. • The years of my life so far can be Era is written as ______________. written as ' _______ CE - 2019 CE'. • The lifetime of Gautama Buddha is written as '563 BC to ____ BC'. Very Short Answer Questions Fill in the blanks 1) The Hijri Era was started to commemorate the migration of Prophet Muhammed from _______________ to Medina. 2) Our solar system came into being about _______________ years ago. 3) AD stands for _______________ which means ‘in the year of Our Lord’. 4) History is divided into two periods, namely the _______________ and 1208 _______________ periods. 5) A period of 1000 years is called a _______________.

Answer in one or two words 6) The movement of the Earth that leads to the occurrence of day and night: Ans. _______________________________________________________________________ 7) The new era that was started to commemorate the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj: Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ 8) The era used by the Parsi community in India: Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ 9) The period for which no written records are available to construct history: Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ 10) Tree-ring analysis method is also known as: Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ Short Answer Questions Answer in one sentence 11) Which scientific methods are used to estimate the age of the layers of soil and the remains found in them? (Textbook, Pg. 9) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 11 12) What are the units of measuring time? (Textbook, Pg. 9) History and the Concept of ‘Time’

Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 13) State when Vardhaman Mahavir and Gautama Buddha were born. When did they die? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Short Answer Questions Answer in one sentence 14) How is the first century of the Common Era written? (Textbook, Pg. 9) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 15) What is meant by the unilinear division of time? (Textbook, Pg. 9) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 1228 ________________________________________________________________________

16) Differentiate between the ‘prehistoric’ and ‘historic’ periods of history. 13 Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 17) Explain why day and night occur. Ans. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Long Answer Questions Answer the following 18) Write a short note on the methods, other than the Christian Era, used to measure time. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 19) How can the age of evidence buried under the ground be established? History and the Concept of ‘Time’

Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Short Answer Question Answer the following 20) Given below are some important events in the history of India. Create a timeline marking these events: a) Gautama Buddha passes away – 483 BC b) Ashoka becomes Emperor – 272 BC c) Vasco da Gama visits India – 1498 AD d) The British form the East India Company – 1600 AD e) First Indian War of Independence – 1857 AD 1248 f) Quit India Movement – 1942 AD g) India becomes independent – 1947 AD

h) India tests nuclear devices – 1998 AD i) India launches ‘Mangalyaan’, a space probe to orbit Mars – 2013 AD Long Answer Question Answer the following 21) Why do you think it is important to measure and divide the past or history into different stages? Hints:  Understand patterns in history better  Impossible to grasp all the years together  It is the only way we can measure time that is gone Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 15 ________________________________________________________________________ History and the Concept of ‘Time’

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 22) Prepare a monthly plan for yourself on the lines of the one given below. (Textbook, Pg. 10) February Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 1 23 4 5 Cricket 6 7 8 Music 13 14 9 Friend’s 10 11 match class birthday Receiving 12 15 Aunt 16 17 19 Birth 20 Visit to 21 22 Music 18 Maths anniversary of Grandma class test Shivaji Maharaj 23 24 Village 25 26 27 Marathi 28 fair Day Programme Hints:  Choose a month of the year. 1268  Ensure you fit in all your weekly events into your monthly plan.

 Pay attention to any public holidays and/or local festivals and plan accordingly. Formative A Timeline for Your Family  Stage 1: Speak to two elders of your family. Ask them to tell you the story of their lives. Write the year and the event. For example: ‘1950 – Grandpa was born in Paratwada.’ Year Event  Stage 2: Place all these events on a timeline. If you need a long paper, attach the ends of two or more sheets to create a long sheet of paper. Your timeline will look like this: 17 History and the Concept of ‘Time’

1950 1969 1972 1975 1976 • Grandpa • Grandpa • Grandpa • Grandpa • Mother was was born in began moved to started a born. Paratwada. working in Mumbai. shop in his father's Mumbai. shop.  Stage 3: Just like the modern calendar uses the birth of Jesus Christ as a starting point to calculate years, choose one event from the table to create your own time-periods like BC and AD or (BCE and CE) using a key event. For example, ‘My Grandpa moved to Mumbai city - GM.’ Mark it as ‘1’. ‘BGM’ means before Grandpa moved to Mumbai and ‘AGM’ means after Grandpa moved to Mumbai. 22 BGM 3 BGM 1 3 AGM 4 AGM • Grandpa • Grandpa • Grandpa • Grandpa • Mother was was born. began moved to started a born. working in Mumbai. shop in his father's Mumbai. shop. 1288

3 LESSON 3: LIFE ON EARTH 1) The circular motion and great speed of an enormous, hot cloud of gases and dust caused it to divide into several portions and create the sun and the planets which revolve around it. 2) After the formation of Earth, it took about 80 crore years for its surface to cool down and for water bodies to be formed on it. 3) Various kinds of unicellular living organisms first appeared in water. 4) Multicellular living things developed from unicellular ones. 5) Animals of some species lay eggs and their young ones are born from eggs. Animals of some species give birth to their young ones. 19 Life on Earth

Fill in the blanks A spinning The _____________ ______________ cloud of very ______________ organisms organisms cooled down developed hot appeared in from these __________and and water the water. unicellular _____________ bodies formed They are organisms. was formed in known as on it. '_________'. •After many space. thousands of years •After 80 crore • After some more •4.5 billion years years thousand years ago Very Short Answer Questions Fill in the blanks 1) After the formation of the Earth, it took about _______________ years for its surface to cool down and for water bodies to be formed on it. 2) _______________ living beings developed from unicellular ones. 3) _______________ is an example of a unicellular organism. 4) Unicellular organisms cannot be seen with the _______________ eye. 5) There are _______________ planets that revolve around the Sun. Strike out the wrong option 2208 6) Earth, Mars, gases 7) unicellular, world, multicellular 8) animals, plants, young

9) eyes, tiny, small 10) eggs, food, breathe Short answer questions 11) What instrument do we need to see a unicellular organism? (Textbook, Pg. 14) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 12) Where did the protozoa appear first? (Textbook, Pg. 14) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 13) What are the two ways in which animals are born? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 21 Life on Earth

Short Answer Questions Answer in one sentence 14) Define ‘protozoa’. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 15) What does the living world on Earth consist of? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 16) Write any two characteristics of animals. (Textbook, Pg. 14) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 17) Name the eight planets that revolve around the Sun. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ 2228 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Long Answer Questions 23 Answer the following 18) Explain how life began on Earth. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 19) How were the sun and the planets in our solar system created? (Textbook, Pg. 14) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Life on Earth

Short Answer Question Answer the following 20) Look at the pictures below and w rite down which animals lay eggs and which animals give birth to their young ones. ________________ ______________ _____________ ________________ _________________ ____________ 2248

Long Answer Question Answer the following 21) ‘Mangalyaan’ was a successful space mission to Mars accomplished by India. Find out about at least two important Indian space missions. Describe the purpose, the dates and the names of the astronauts who helped accomplish them. Which is the organisation that conducts these missions? Hints: 25  First mission to the Moon: Chandrayaan-1.  ULV or Unified Launch Vehicle is a launch vehicle being developed by ISRO.  INSAT (Indian National Satellite System) is a series of geostationary satellites launched by ISRO. Life on Earth

 Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth observation satellites, which are built, launched and maintained by ISRO. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 22) Make a model of the Solar System using balls of different sizes. (Textbook, Pg. 14) Hints:  You can paint the balls as per the colours usually used to represent the planets.  You may also label the planets.  You can try using wires to place the planets around the sun.  This model can be made in groups and displayed in the classroom or 2268 during a school exhibition. 23) Visit a zoo or make a list of the animals that are seen in your neighbourhood and note their characteristics. (Textbook, Pg. 14)

Hints:  Are they land, air or water animals?  Do they lay eggs or give birth?  Are they herbivores or carnivores? 27 Life on Earth

4 LESSON 4: EVOLUTION 1) Evolution is a gradual and continuous process by which certain internal physical changes occur in some animals of a species. 2) Species of animals which are not capable of adapting to these changes become extinct in the process. Enormous dinosaurs became extinct, due to some sudden natural disaster or environmental change. 3) Protozoa, the unicellular organisms, gave rise to many multicellular living things. 4) The stages of evolution of animals are invertebrates and vertebrates, which include aquatic animals, amphibians, birds and mammals. 5) Apes that moved around on the ground instead of trees are said to have gradually evolved to give rise to the human species. 2288

Fill in the blanks Very Short Answer Questions Give an example for each of the following 1) invertebrates – ______________________ 2) aquatic animals – ______________________ 3) amphibians – ______________________ 4) reptiles – ______________________ 5) mammals – ______________________ 29 Evolution

Fill in the blanks 6) The word ‘dinosaur’ comes from the Greek words ‘deinos’ and ‘saurus’ which mean ______________________. 7) Animals without a backbone are called ______________________. 8) Animals that crawl are called ______________________. 9) ______________________ are the most evolved animals among vertebrates. 10) The first scientist to give us a systematic explanation of the concept of evolution was ______________________. 11) The ape species that moved around the grasslands gradually evolved and became ______________________. Short Answer Questions Answer in one sentence 12) What do we call animals that live in water and also on land? (Textbook, Pg. 18) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 13) Name two animals that are considered to be mammals even though they lay eggs. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ 3208 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

14) Where did the first humans appear? (Textbook, Pg. 18) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Short Answer Questions 31 Answer the following 15) Anteaters are considered mammals. Why? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 16) What kind of species can survive the process of evolution? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 17) Explain what is meant by becoming ‘extinct’. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Evolution

________________________________________________________________________ 18) What is ‘evolution’? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Long Answer Questions Answer the following 19) What are the stages of evolution of animals? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 20) Write a short note on the evolution of the human species from apes. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ 32 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Short Answer Questions Give reasons for the following 21) In the course of time, a new species with characteristics different from the original species is created. (Textbook, Pg. 18) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 22) The species of dinosaurs, which were enormous in size, suddenly became extinct. (Textbook, Pg. 18) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 33 Evolution

Long Answer Question Answer the following 23) Why is it that we do not see the evolution of species happening around us? Describe some ways in which human beings have evolved. Can you make some predictions of the ways in which human beings will evolve in the coming centuries? Hint:  Think of the kind of lifestyle modern human beings lead, which can impact the way they evolve. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 34 ________________________________________________________________________

24) Make a model of a dinosaur. (Textbook, Pg. 18) Hint:  You can use this link to get some ideas: 25) Collect pictures of invertebrates and vertebrates. Stick them in a notebook and write down their characteristics. (Textbook, Pg. 18) Formative This New Form 35  Stage 1: Find out:  Which scientists study the ancient animals who lived before humans? P_ l a e _ _ t _ lo _ ists  What do these scientists find? F _ s s _ l s  How do these scientists know which stage of evolution came first? Hint:  The remains of the animals are found buried under the Earth.  Stage 2: The stages of the evolution of the horse are shown below:  Fill in the three missing names.  Find out how the hooves changed from the Eohippus to the modern horse. Evolution

 Stage 3: The scientists who find the animals do not know exactly how they look. They use the skeletons to help them understand how ancient animals could have looked.  First, complete the picture of the chicken using the skeleton to help you draw.  Research the archaeopteryx to know what scientists have imagined it as. Scientists believe that the chicken evolved from the archaeopteryx.  Draw and colour the bird as you imagine it to be using the skeleton as a guideline.  Present your bird to the class. 36 an archaeopteryx a chicken

5 LESSON 5: EVOLUTION OF MANKIND 1) After evolving from apes, humans gradually learnt to use their hands effectively to make tools. The first of the species to have achieved this was the Homo habilis who used stone tools to scrape meat. 2) The Homo erectus stood up straight and had a more developed brain. This species had learnt to fetch and use fire, although they had not learnt how to make fire. 3) The Neanderthal Man was physically big and strong. He used tools that could hunt animals and knew the art of making fire. 4) The Homo sapiens made tools to suit different tasks. They produced a range of sounds and had a well-developed language system. 5) The Homo sapiens were physically small as well as intellectual and cultured. Their efforts were no longer to find food, but to enrich their lives using creativity and skills. 37 Evolution of Mankind

Fill in the blanks Very Short Answer Questions Name the following in one or two words 1) The scientist who discovered the species Homo habilis: Ans. _______________________________________________________________________ 2) The species of humans that knew the technique of fetching fire: Ans. _______________________________________________________________________ 3) The country where the remains of the Neanderthal Man were first found: Ans. _______________________________________________________________________ 38 4) The stone that was used to make fire: Ans. _______________________________________________________________________

5) The science that studies heredity: Ans. _______________________________________________________________________ Mark true or false 6) The Neanderthal Man was more intelligent than any other human species. [] 7) The Homo erectus had mastered the technique of making fire. [ ] 8) The Neanderthals made tools like the spear and axe using stones, wood or bones. [] 9) The Homo sapiens had a well-developed language system. [ ] 10) The Homo sapiens sapiens were bigger than earlier species of human. [] Short Answer Questions Answer in one or two words 11) Who is said to have first made tools like the hand-axe? (Textbook, Pg. 23) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ 12) Where was the first evidence of ‘the skilled human’ species found? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ 13) What are the Homo sapiens known as in Europe? Which continents have their remains been found in? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ 39 Evolution of Mankind

Short Answer Questions Answer in brief 14) What is heredity? (Textbook, Pg. 23) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 15) Why was there an increase in the amount of carbohydrates in the food of the Homo sapiens? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Give reasons for the following 16) The Neanderthals became extinct. (Textbook, Pg. 23) Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 40 17) Humans could produce subtle and varied types of sounds. (Textbook, Pg. 23)

Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ 41 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Long Answer Questions Answer the following 18) Discuss the food habits of the Homo habilis in detail. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 19) What were the burial rituals established by the Neanderthals? Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Evolution of Mankind

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Short Answer Question Answer the following 20) These are facts about different human species. Write the names of the species next to the facts:  had a slightly bent spine Ans. _________________  the face and limbs were similar to apes Ans. _________________  started using a well-developed language system  used different kinds of tools based on the work to be done  primarily lived in caves Ans. _________________  established some rituals of burying the dead 42 42  knew the technique of fetching fire Ans. _________________  made tools like the hand axe

 had smaller bodies and faces Ans. _________________  rich in creativity, intelligence and skills, culturally developed Long Answer Question Answer the following 21) The changed lifestyle and diet affected the appearance of the Homo 43 sapiens. How different are our diet and lifestyle now? Write a short note on the differences in diet and lifestyle between primitive humans and modern humans today. Ans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Evolution of Mankind

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 22) Prepare a chart to show the progress of mankind at various stages of Evolution - from Homo habilis to Homo sapiens sapiens. (Textbook, Pg. 23) Hint:  The evolution and progress of human beings can be depicted using the tools, food, body structure and lifestyle. Try to incorporate all these aspects on the chart you prepare. 44

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