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Home Explore 9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text

9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text

Published by IMAX, 2019-01-23 03:41:41

Description: 9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text


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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES – II TEXTBOOK – PART 2 TM Class 3 Name: ___________________________________ Section: ________________ Roll No.: _________ School: __________________________________ NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Corrected pg Done.pdf 1 12/18/2018 4:39:12 PM

Preface IMAX Program partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. IMAX Program presents the latest version of the Passport series – updated and revised after considering the perceptive feedback and comments shared by our experienced reviewers and users. Designed specifically for CBSE schools, the Passport series endeavours to be faithful to the spirit of the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005. Furthermore, to facilitate comprehensive coverage, improved understanding of diverse themes and ease of implementation, the EVS curriculum has been split into EVS – I and EVS – II. Our books are split into two parts to manage the bag weight. They also strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. The NCF 2005 advocates the creation of age-appropriate and easily relatable content that ensures that students can perceive social realities while imbibing the values of the Indian Constitution and human rights. The NCF also recommends the use of graphics, illustrations and pictures to help students to engage with concepts and ideas better. These objectives are integrated in the Passport Social Studies textbooks and workbooks to provide a holistic learning experience to students. The key features of the Passport Social Studies books are as follows.  A rrangement of concepts based on the RUAH model based on Bloom’s Taxonomy  Character and dialogue-based introductions to concepts to ground EVS – II concepts in reality to make them relatable to students  Visually engaging formats for the organisation and presentation of information  In-text activities to assist memorisation and understanding  S ubject-related vocabulary building in every lesson  Use of timelines and historical maps to help students to develop timeline, map and globe skills  U se of maps and scenario-based questions in the workbooks  Integration of values and life skills  P romotes awareness and personal responsibility through dialogue and enquiry about the world around us Overall, the IMAX Passport series aims to enhance social, cultural and analytical skills for the intuitive and harmonious growth of an individual in an interconnected and independent global community. – The Authors NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Corrected pg Preface.pdf 1 12/18/2018 4:40:57 PM

Textbook Features I Will Learn About I Remember Contains the list of concepts to Introduces new concepts to build on be covered in the lesson along the prerequisite knowledge or skills to with the learning objectives understand and achieve the objective of the topic I Think Pin-up Note Introduces the concept or Contains key retention points from the subtopic and arouses curiosity concept among students I Understand Train My Brain Explains the aspects in detail Checks for learning to gauge the that form the basis of the understanding level of students concept Includes elements to ensure that students are engaged throughout I Apply I Explore Connects the concept to Encourages students to extend real-life situations by giving an the concept learnt to advanced opportunity to apply what application scenarios students have learnt Be Amazed Connect the Dots Fascinating facts and trivia for A multidisciplinary section that students to establish a better connects a particular topic to real-life connect with the other subjects in order to enable concept students to relate better to it A Note to Parent To engage a parent in out-of-classroom learning of their child and conduct activities to reinforce the learnt concepts NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 3 12/15/2018 10:04:49 AM

Contents Class 3 7 United We Stand - I 7.1 Languages, Food and Clothing.......................................................................................1 8 United We Stand - II 8.1 Communities and Festivals ............................................................................................10 9 The Solar System 9.1 The Sun and the Planets .................................................................................................17 10 Things We Make and Do 10.1 Our Occupations ..........................................................................................................23 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 4 12/15/2018 10:04:49 AM

Lesson United We Stand - I 7 I Will Learn About 7.1 R culture, languages, clothing and food habits of different people of India. U diversity and how natural regions and climate affect culture. A ‘unity in diversity’ in India. h how the cultures of different states are similar and different. Concept 7.1: Languages, Food and Clothing I Think The Jain family is having lunch with the Irani family. Meher: Rashi, would you like to taste this patrani machchi? It is a famous Parsi fish dish. Rashi: I am sure it is very tasty. But, I am vegetarian! The whole Jain family is vegetarian. Meher: Wow! That is interesting. We know very few vegetarian families. Most of our Parsi families and friends love patrani machchi and mutton dhansak. Rashi: Have you noticed that we speak different Patrani machchi languages at home as well? You speak Gujarati, and I speak Marwari. Yet, we live in one country. Meher: We are so different and similar at the same time! NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 5 1 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM

Q. What can be said about the Irani and Jain families? (A) They are both vegetarians. (B) They both enjoy non-vegetarian food. (C) Both families speak the same languages. (D) The Iranis and the Jains speak different languages. I Remember India is one country with many different cultures. People living in different parts of India speak different languages, eat many types of food and wear special clothes. Let us learn more about these different ways of living. LANGUAGES Hindi and English are the official languages of the central government. Official languages are used by governments for their work. States choose their own official languages. The 22 official languages used in India are as follows. • Assamese • Bengali • Bodo • Dogri • Gujarati • Hindi • Kannada • Kashmiri • Konkani • Maithili • Malayalam • Manipuri • Marathi • Nepali • Oriya • Punjabi • Sanskrit • Santhali • Sindhi • Tamil • Telugu • Urdu Other than these, there are about 1600 languages in The language, food, India. Example: Bhojpuri, Tulu, Lepcha, Marwari and clothing and other habits many more. Do you speak a language that is not on of a group of people is this list? What is it? called their culture. 2 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 6

Look at the map. It shows only languages used by the majority of people in different regions. United We Stand - I 3 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 7 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM

DIFFERENT STYLES OF LIVING Indians have different kinds of food and clothing, too. Read about these people from different parts of India. Find out which state they live in 1, their language 2, their clothes 3 and their favourite food 4. Find them and their families on the map given on page 3. Assalam alaykum! I am Afshan. Khamma ghani, I am Murali. 1 Jammu and Kashmir 1 Rajasthan 2 Kashmiri and Urdu 2 Hindi and Rajasthani 3 pheran 3 bright turban, cotton 4 kulcha and rogan josh angarkha and dhoti 4 dal baati Salemu! I am Akavi. Namaskar, I am Savita. 1 Maharashtra 1 Nagaland 2 Marathi 3 parkar polka 2 Ao and English 4 bhakari (like a roti) and 3 woollen shawl bharit (made from brinjal) 4 meat, fish, rice and vegetables with tathu (tathu is a chutney) 4 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 8

Hello! I am Julie. Namaskaram, I am Lakshmi. 1 Goa 2 English, Konkani and 1 Karnataka Portuguese 2 Kannada 3 cotton frock 4 vindaloo – meat in a curry 3 sari 4 bisi bele bhath – rice cooked with spices and dals Vanakkam! I am Karthik. Write about yourself below. 1 Tamil Nadu 2 Tamil and English 1 ______________________ Paste a 3 mundu 2 ______________________ picture of 4 idli 3 ______________________ yourself in 4 ______________________ traditional clothes here. ______________________ ______________________ In India, people often speak more than one language. People who can speak two languages are called bilingual. People who can speak three or more languages are called multilingual. Most Indians are bilingual, and many are multilingual. I Understand The different languages, types of food and clothing make India diverse. Diversity means a ‘variety or range of different things’. REASONS FOR DIVERSITY India has cold mountains in the north and warm plains in the south. We have dry heat in the west and humidity in the east. The climate and physical features affect the culture of each region. United We Stand - I 5 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 9 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM

Climate and physical features also affect the crops grown. The staple diet or main food depends on what is easily available. They also affect the clothing of different regions. DIVERSITY IN INDIA Climate: It is cold in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and so on. Clothing: People use warm, woollen clothing. Kashmiri pashmina shawls and shawls from Nagaland and Manipur are famous. Food: Seasonal fruits and vegetables are used to make food. Meat is popular too. Climate: In the desert of Rajasthan and Gujarat, it is either very hot or very cold. There are very few trees, plants and flowers. Clothing: Clothes are made from light cotton cloth. They are bright and colourful. Mirrors are used to decorate clothes. Woollen shawls are used to keep warm during winters. Food: Bajra and meat are popular in the desert. Climate: In the plains, highlands and plateaus, the climate is good for agriculture. Many grains are grown. Clothing: People wear cotton dhotis, kurtas and saris in the warm season and warm clothes in the colder season. Food: Grains, seasonal fruits and vegetables are used. Climate: It is hot and humid in the coastal regions of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal. Clothing: People wear cotton mundus, dhotis and saris. These loose cotton clothes do not stick to the body. Food: Fish is an important part of the staple diet. Rice grows as well. Hence people make many dishes from rice. 6 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 10

Train My Brain 1) What does ‘majority’ mean? 2) Which food is popular in the mountains and deserts? I Apply Which languages are hidden in these jumbled letters? • UNPBIAJ – _____________________ • UUDR – _____________________ • IDHNI – _____________________ • DOOB – _____________________ Read about the following people in the table on pages 4 and 5. Find out about the languages they speak 2. Tick those who are bilingual. Circle those who are multilingual. Savita Karthik Lakshmi Julie Akavi Murali Afshan How many languages do you speak? Are you bilingual? Are you multilingual? Indians are diverse. At the same time, we are all united as people of India. We sing the same national anthem and celebrate the same national festivals such as Independence Day and Republic Day. All Indians are also united by the same constitution. The Constitution of India contains the laws followed in India. It states that all Indians are equal before the law. Thus in India there is unity in diversity. United We Stand - I 7 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 11 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM

I Explore (H.O.T.S.) 1) Choose any two states along with a partner. Find out the following. • the official languages in the states • one traditional food item from each state Find a picture of the traditional clothes worn in those states. Make a chart and compare them. Be Amazed There are more than 100 ways to wear a sari. Here are four popular ways. Connect the Dots Science Fun Very small living organisms in food can change the food. The look, smell and feel of the food changes. This is called fermentation. Dishes such as idli are made by fermentation. English Fun Many words from Indian languages have become a part of English. The Gujarati word ‘bangalo’ is used in English and spelt as 'bungalow'. It means a low-rising house, usually of one storey and with a large verandah. 8 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 12

A Note to Parent Organise a small fancy dress party for your child and their friends. Ask them to wear their traditional dresses to the party. Their parents can bring the food they cook at home. Enjoy the diversity of India through this event. New Words 1) unity – being together; feeling like a part of one group 2) vegetarian – of the people who do not eat meat 3) majority – most of a certain group 4) humidity – the amount of water (vapour) in the air 5) climate – the usual weather conditions of a place United We Stand - I 9 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 13 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM

Lesson United We Stand - II 8 I Will Learn About 8.1 R different communities of India. U the reasons for celebrating festivals. A how communities are created. h my classroom community. Concept 8.1: Communities and Festivals I Think Rashi: Meher, I am sorry I fought with you three months ago. An agiary A derasar Meher: Oh! You said sorry that same day. Why are you saying sorry again today? Rashi: Today is ‘Paryushana Parva’. On this day, we Jains say sorry for the wrong things we did. We do this every year. It usually falls in August or September. Do Parsis do special things like this? Meher: Of course, we do! We celebrate Parsi New Year or Nowruz. Mom has the whole house cleaned. On this day, we go to the agiary to pray. Rashi: A Jain temple is a derasar. So, an agiary is a Parsi temple, correct? Meher: Yes, you are right. Also, Rashi, I forgive you for that fight. Rashi: Oh thank you, Meher! 10 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 14

Q. What are Meher and Rashi talking about? (A) their hobbies (B) their family celebrations (C) their classmates (D) their experiences at school I Remember India has many different communities. They have A community is a group different languages, food and clothing habits. They of people who share a also work on various forms of art such as music, common culture. dance, drama, drawing, painting and writing. COMMUNITIES IN INDIA Communities are formed in many ways. People from a place form the community of that place. People from Mumbai form Mumbai’s community. Communities from the same place may share the same language. People who speak Assamese form the Assamese community. A religious community has people who follow the same religion. Some major religions practised across India are the following. • Hinduism ● Islam • Buddhism ● Jainism • Christianity ● Sikhism • Zoroastrianism FESTIVALS Followers of the major religions of India People of the same religion usually celebrate the same festivals. A festival is a celebration of an event. We can learn about a community’s culture and traditions through its festivals. United We Stand - II 11 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 15 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM

I Understand Different communities celebrate different festivals throughout the year. Many festivals are celebrated with new clothes, special food and traditional dances. Festivals can be broadly divided into national, harvest and religious festivals. NATIONAL FESTIVALS Three days are very important in all parts of India: Republic Republic Day Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti. These are celebrations known as national festivals. Republic Day is celebrated on 26 January. Independence Day is celebrated on 15 August. Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated on 2 October. They remind us of the people who made India a free country. HARVEST AND RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS Many festivals celebrate the harvest season. Crops are gathered from the fields at the time of harvest. Farmers celebrate these festivals to thank nature for the crops. Some common harvest festivals are mentioned below. Harvest festival Community which celebrates Baisakhi Punjabi people Assamese people Magh Bihu Malayali people Onam Tamil people Pongal The New Year’s days for different communities are also important festivals. Name of the festival Community which celebrates Gudi Padwa Marathi and Kannada people Poila Boisakh Bengali people Ugadi Kannada, Andhra and Telugu people Nowruz People of the Parsi community Some festivals celebrate the end of a long religious period. Muslims fast during the month of Ramadan. Eid-ul-fitr celebrates the end of Ramadan. Some Christians fast during the period of Lent. After Lent ends, Easter is celebrated. 12 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 16

Can you guess which festivals are shown in the given pictures? Fill in the blanks. __e__ub__i__ D__ __ B__i__a__h__ G__d__ Pa__w__ Events in the lives of gods and goddesses are also celebrated. For Hindus, Bonalu, Diwali and Ganesh Chaturthi celebrate visits of gods and goddesses to the Earth. Durga Puja and Dussehra are celebrated to mark good winning over evil. Christmas is an important celebration for Christians. It marks the birthday of Jesus Christ. OTHER SPECIAL DAYS Some special days are also celebrated all over India to remember the birthdays of important people. Date Special day Why is it celebrated? 14 April Ambedkar Jayanti Dr B R Ambedkar was a freedom fighter who helped to make laws for India. 5 September Teacher’s Day S Radhakrishnan was the President of India. He dreamed of excellent teachers in India. 14 November Children’s Day J Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India. He believed children were very important for India. There are many other festivals celebrated in India. Do you know of any other festivals of India? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ United We Stand - II 13 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 17 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM

Train My Brain 1) Where is Ugadi celebrated? 2) What happens at the times of harvest? I Apply You can belong to many communities at the same time. Example: You can be a Bengali Christian, a Bihari Muslim or a Tamil Buddhist. Many people move from one state to another. Your parents or grandparents might have been from a different state. You may feel like you belong to your old state as well as your new state. People who share the same interests form communities. They celebrate their own festivals. People who love reading can form one community. People who love football can form another community. A person can thus belong to more than one community. Nowadays, people with similar interests create communities even on the internet. They share their ideas and stories. I Explore (H.O.T.S.) Discuss the following with a partner. Make a booklet with their information and photographs. Use the following points. An example has been provided for you. • language or languages they speak • their family’s religion • state or region their ancestors belonged to • two hobbies • their favourite actor or actress 14 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 18

Were there any similarities or differences between you and your classmate? Be Amazed In a place called Lopburi in Thailand, there is a festival for monkeys. People leave fruit and treats on the road for monkeys to eat. Thousands of monkeys come to Lopburi to eat these fruit. People believe these monkeys bring good luck. Connect the Dots Maths Fun Ravana from the Hindu epic, Ramayana, had 10 heads. If there were 3 Ravanas, how many heads would there be in all? Science Fun Many communities start their New Year with the spring harvest season. Can you name some of these communities? Name them. United We Stand - II 15 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 19 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM

A Note to Parent While celebrating festivals, explain why you celebrate them and what it means to belong to a community. Encourage your child to participate in festivals of other communities. Introduce them to the different cultures and communities of India. New Words 1) religion – belief in a particular system of faith and worship 2) fast – not eat for a certain period of time 3) ancestor – someone related to us who lived a long time ago 4) epic – a grand story about gods, goddesses, kings and queens, armies and wars 16 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 20

Lesson The Solar System 9 I Will Learn About 9.1 R the solar system. U how the solar system fits into the universe and why the Earth is a living planet. A space exploration. h s olving riddles to identify heavenly bodies. Concept 9.1: The Sun and the Planets I Think The children and Mrs Irani are watching the night sky on The night sky their terrace. Mrs Irani: Look at the bright stars tonight. All these stars are far off in space. Rashi: But what is ‘space’? Morad: Space is the place beyond the Earth, where all the stars and planets are. Meher: What is the difference between a star and a planet? Is the Earth a star or a planet? Q. What is the Earth? (A) a star (C) a satellite (B) a planet (D) an asteroid NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 21 17 12/15/2018 10:04:50 AM

I Remember We live on a planet called the Earth. It is a part of A set of planets and a large system called the solar system. Our solar heavenly bodies that system is made up of the Sun, eight planets and constantly move their satellites and other heavenly bodies. around a star is called a planetary system. PLANETS Our planetary system is called the solar system. A planet is a very big ball-shaped object found in space. Look at the picture and find the planets 4) Mars numbered as following. 8) Neptune 1) Mercury 2) Venus 3) Earth 5) Jupiter 6) Saturn 7) Uranus Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system, and Jupiter is the largest. Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system. Mars is also called the 'red planet'. Saturn has rings of ice and dust around it. Uranus' axis is very tilted. Fast storms blow on Neptune. Our solar system 12/15/2018 10:04:51 AM 18 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 22

STARS The planets continuously move around the Sun. The Sun is a star. A star is a burning, ball-shaped object in space. It is made up of gas. It shines with its own light. A star is very hot. We can feel the heat of the Sun on Earth. NATURAL SATELLITES A star The Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth. A A planet with its natural satellite is a ball-shaped object which travels natural satellites around a planet. Natural satellites do not have their own light. So, why does the Moon shine? Point a torch at a mirror. You will see a light. However, it is not the mirror’s own light. The light from the torch is seen in the mirror. Natural satellites are like mirrors. They do not have their own light. They reflect the light of the stars. OTHER HEAVENLY BODIES Other than planets and stars, many objects are found in space. Some rocks found in the solar system are called asteroids. The rocks between Mars and Jupiter make up the asteroid belt. A comet is a bright, speeding heavenly body that is found in space. It is made up of ice, gas and dust. It forms a bright tail The asteroid belt when it is close to the Sun. A famous comet is the Halley’s Comet. It takes about 75 years to travel around the solar system and pass by the Earth. It was last seen in 1986. It will pass close to the Earth again in 2061. The Halley’s Comet 19 The Solar System 12/15/2018 10:04:51 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 23

I Understand OUR UNIVERSE You are a part of your class; your class is a part of your school, and your school is a part of your city. Similarly, the Sun, the Earth and neighbouring planets make up the solar system. A collection of many planetary systems and clouds of gas and dust is called a galaxy. There are countless galaxies. The name of our galaxy is the Milky Way. All these galaxies are a part of the universe. OUR LIVING WORLD The Earth is the only known planet where Position of the Earth in the solar system living things are found. What makes it possible for living things to be on the Earth? The planets very close to the Sun are very hot. Venus is the hottest planet. Its atmosphere traps the heat of the Sun, making it the hottest planet. As we go farther and farther away from the Sun, the planets become cooler. Neptune is the coldest planet in our solar system. Since the Earth is the third planet from the Sun, it receives the right amount of light and heat. There is also plenty of water on Earth. Water, air and heat are needed for living things to grow. This is why the Earth is called the ‘living planet’. Train My Brain 1) What do ‘heavenly bodies’ mean? 2) What is the name of our galaxy? 20 12/15/2018 10:04:51 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 24

I Apply For hundreds of years, people wanted to Yuri Gagarin Rakesh Sharma explore space. Long ago, people could only Mangalyaan look at the sky and try to study it. The first person to travel into space was Yuri Gagarin from Russia (formerly known as the USSR) in 1961. Rakesh Sharma was the first Indian to travel into space. The Moon is the only heavenly body that people have travelled to. Machines sent into space help us learn about our neighbouring planets and heavenly bodies. Example: Mangalyaan was sent to study Mars in 2013 by India. It takes photographs of Mars and the space around it. Mangalyaan is famous as it was successful on the first try. Space exploration is expensive and dangerous. So, all missions have to be very well-planned. I Explore (H.O.T.S.) Solve these riddles. 1) I am a ball-shaped natural object found in space. I shine with my own light. What am I? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________ 2) I am a group of rocks found between Mars and Jupiter. What am I? Ans. ____________________________________________________________________________ Be Amazed The Earth has one moon. Did you know that Jupiter has many moons? Scientists say that Jupiter has 79 moons! The Solar System 21 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 25 12/15/2018 10:04:51 AM

Connect the Dots English Fun Write the English names of the following planets. Shani ― _________________________ Mangal ― _________________________ Budh ― _________________________ Shukra ― _________________________ Prithvi ― _________________________ Maths Fun Write the ordinal positions of the following planets. One has been done for you. Venus ― second Saturn ― _________________________ Neptune ― _________________________ A Note to Parent Information about space and the universe is constantly being updated. Encourage your child to read the newspaper and understand the new discoveries being made about space and our universe. New Words 1) heavenly bodies – the natural objects found in space 2) reflect – throw back the same light 3) neighbouring – very close to; next to; around 4) u niverse – all of space which includes the planets, stars, galaxies and the spaces between them 5) explore – to find out more about something 6) expensive – something that costs a lot of money 22 12/15/2018 10:04:51 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 26

Lesson Things We Make and Do 10 I Will Learn About 10.1 R the meaning of occupation. U different kinds of occupations. A how occupations are changing. h occupations that are not common anymore. Concept 10.1: Our Occupations I Think Rashi was not well. Her mother took her to the doctor. The doctor asked her to take medicines and eat green leafy vegetables. Now, they are on their way to buy medicines and vegetables. Rashi: Ma! Will I get better after I have the medicines? Mrs Jain: Yes, Rashi. You will be fine. Rashi: But I do not like medicines. They taste bitter. Mrs Jain: You have to eat them, dear. Now let us hurry up. A doctor checking Mrs Jain: Come, we need to go to the greengrocer. a child The doctor said you need to eat green leafy vegetables to become strong. Q. Who sells medicines that the doctor asks us to take? (A) teacher (B) chemist (C) police (D) greengrocer NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 27 23 12/15/2018 10:04:51 AM

I Remember Greengrocers, doctors and chemists are occupations that people have. ‘Occupation’ means the job or work that people do to earn money. They spend that money to buy things and pay bills. People choose occupations according to the following. • their interests • what they learn • their skills Example: Some people are interested in sports and fitness. They may become sportspersons or join the police or army. When people work, they either do some action or make something. Example: A teacher teaches. A potter makes pots. Here are some occupations that involve people doing some actions. Doctor Sweeper Teacher Policewoman Greengrocer Driver 24 12/15/2018 10:04:51 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 28

Here are some occupations that involve people making things. Farmer Factory worker Chef Potter Carpenter Construction worker I Understand Let us find out the differences between the 'people who do' and the 'people who make'. People who do People who make Their actions are the main part of their They help us by creating or making occupation. things. Example: Sweepers sweep the streets to Example: Farmers grow crops we eat. keep them clean. We can only see the actions they do. We can see, touch and feel the things they make. We can see the work they do every day. They may take days, weeks or even Example: We can see a teacher months to make things. teaching every day. Example: Farmers take about 100 days to grow onions. Example: teachers, doctors, sweepers, Example: farmers, potters, factory police, nurses workers, chefs, carpenters Things We Make and Do 25 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 29 12/15/2018 10:04:51 AM

SOME OTHER OCCUPATIONS All occupations are equally important. We should respect all the people who do or make different things. Postal workers, nurses, painters, electricians, carpenters, mechanics and plumbers are a few other occupations. Let us look at a few more occupations. Policeman and policewoman Monitors in your classroom make sure that everybody follows the rules. The police are the monitors of our country. A police station is a The police do the following. place where several • They keep our neighbourhoods safe. policemen and • They make sure that people follow rules. policewomen work. • They catch people who try to harm others. When someone does something wrong, we can complain to the police. To do this, we must go to a police station. The police help us record what happened. They write down the complaint. Sweepers Sweepers keep our streets clean. They mostly work Food we get during early mornings. This is when there is less traffic from animals on the road. Sweepers work every day. They work in all kinds of weather. They work very hard. We can respect them by throwing waste in dustbins wherever we are. Farmers Farmers grow different crops. Many farmers also rear cows, hens and goats. These animals give us many useful products. Factory workers Factory workers work in factories. They make different A factory worker things such as cars, utensils, shoes, television sets and so on. They learn how to use different types of tools and machines. 26 12/15/2018 10:04:51 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 30

Train My Brain 1) Name two occupations where people make things. 2) What does a factory worker do? I Apply CHANGES IN OCCUPATIONS OVER TIME New inventions: When new machines are invented, people who can run these machines are required. This means that new occupations are created. Example: After the camera was invented, people started A photographer working as camerapersons and photographers. Machines replacing jobs: Sometimes, machines can do things faster than humans and without mistakes. So sometimes, a machine does the work instead of people. This means people have to leave that occupation. Example: In many factories, cars are put together by Robots making cars in a robots. So, the people who put together cars had to car-manufacturing factory change their jobs. Changes in society: Sometimes, people change the way they live. Such changes result in new occupations. A babysitter Example: Earlier, women used to remain at home and look after children. Now, women have started working. Therefore, many people have started working as babysitters. Easier way of doing things: Sometimes, the occupation remains the same. However, it is done differently. Example: Earlier, cashiers working in banks used to count notes themselves. Now, banks have note-counting machines which cashiers use. A note-counting machine Things We Make and Do 27 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 31 12/15/2018 10:04:51 AM

I Explore (H.O.T.S.) 1) These days, some occupations are rarely practised. One such occupation is that of a ‘water seller’ or ‘bhisti’. With the help of adults, find out about occupations that are no longer as common. Be Amazed Before the invention of machines, ice cream was made by hand. Cream, sugar and fruit syrup were hand-mixed in a bowl and placed in a large wooden tub with ice and salt for a few hours. Connect the Dots Maths Fun Visit a greengrocer and find the price of the vegetables or fruit sold by them. Compare these prices with the prices collected by your classmates. Find out if a particular vegetable or fruit sold by your greengrocer is costlier than the one sold by your classmates' greengrocers. Science Fun Make a list of vegetables and fruit you like to eat. Find out if they are available throughout the year or only during a particular season. If they are available during a particular season, find out the name of the season. Which other fruit and vegetables grow during that season? 28 12/15/2018 10:04:51 AM NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 32

A Note to Parent Tell your child about your occupation. Also, tell them about the occupations followed by other family members. You can also talk about the occupations of your parents. Explain to them how the work everyone does in society is equally important. New Words 1) greengrocer – someone who sells fresh fruit and vegetables 2) chemist – someone who sells medicines 3) skill – an ability to do something well 4) crop – a plant grown on a farm for food 5) rear – raise and take care 6) factory – a place where things are made using machines 7) invent – make a thing that has never been created or built 8) cashier – a person whose job is to take in or give out money in a bank Things We Make and Do 29 NR_BGM_9789388751094 PASSPORT G03 EVS II TEXTBOOK PART 2_Text.pdf 33 12/15/2018 10:04:51 AM

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