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Published by IMAX, 2020-02-06 00:32:44



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EVS – I (SCIENCE) TEXTBOOK – PART 2 3 Name: ___________________________________ Section: ________________ Roll No.: _________ School: __________________________________

Preface IMAX partners with schools, supporting them with learning materials and processes that are all crafted to work together as an interconnected system to drive learning. IMAX Program presents the latest version of the Magnolia series – updated and revised after considering the perceptive feedback and comments shared by our experienced reviewers and users. The Magnolia series endeavours to be faithful to the spirit of the prescribed board curriculum. Furthermore, to facilitate comprehensive coverage, improved understanding of diverse themes and ease of implementation, the EVS curriculum has been split into EVS – I (Science) and EVS – II (Social Studies). Our books are split into two parts to manage the bag weight. They also strive to ensure inclusiveness in terms of gender and diversity in representation, catering to the heterogeneous Indian classroom. The Magnolia EVS – I (Science) textbooks and workbooks offer the following features:  Interactive content that engages students through a range of open- ended questions that build curiosity and initiate exploration  Opportunities for experimentation, analysis and synthesis of ideas and concepts  Exposure to locally relevant environmental problem solving  Effective use of visual elements to enable learning of structures, processes and phenomena  A focus on subject-specific vocabulary building  Integrated learning of values and life skills  Promotion of participatory and contextualised learning through the engagement of all relevant stakeholders in the learning process Overall, the IMAX Magnolia EVS – I (Science) textbooks, workbooks and teacher companion books aim to inculcate healthy habits, skills and values that promote environmentally sensitive and culturally responsive democratic citizenship among students. – The Authors

Textbook Features Let Us Learn About Think Contains the list of learning objectives to Introduces the concept/subtopic and be achieved in the lesson arouses curiosity among students Understanding Remembering Explains the aspects in detail that form Introduces new concepts to build on the basis of the concept the prerequisite knowledge/skills required Includes elements to ensure that students to understand and apply the objective are engaged throughout of the topic Application Amazing Facts Connects the concept to real-life Fascinating facts and trivia related to situations by enabling students to apply the concept what has been learnt through the practice questions Higher Order Thinking Skills (H.O.T.S.) Encourages students to extend the concept learnt to advanced application scenarios Inside the Lab Provides for hands-on experience with creating, designing and implementing something innovative and useful

Contents 3Class 8 Composition of Air������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1 9 Stems and Leaves�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 1 0 Uses of Animals������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 9 Inside the Lab – B�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 14 Activity B1: My Lava Lamp Activity B2: Leaves Leaves Everywhere! 1 1 Food Diversity������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 1 2 Types of Houses���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 22 1 3 Travel with Family������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26 1 4 Communication without Speaking�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 30 Inside the Lab – C������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Activity C1: Cuisines of Different States Activity C2: Make Your Script

Lesson Composition of Air 8 Let Us Learn About R air as a mixture. U sources of components of air. A air pollution. H t he bad effects of burning firecrackers. Think Arjun woke up early in the morning to go to school. He found that the air was fresh and cool. When he came back from school in the afternoon, he felt the air was not so fresh and cool. Do you know why? Remembering We know that air is all around us. Air is a mixture of different gases. Gases are substances that can move around freely. Gases do not have any shape of their own. They can fill any available space of any shape. Oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen are the main gases present in the air. Air is mostly made up of nitrogen and oxygen. Carbon dioxide and some other gases are present in smaller amounts. Air also contains water vapour, which is the gaseous form of water, and some dust. Clean air does not have any smell or colour. 1

Understanding We have learnt that air contains different gases. Let us find out the sources of these gases. We all need air to breathe. All animals breathe in oxygen and carbon give out carbon dioxide. At dioxide the same time, plants take in carbon dioxide from the air to oxygen make their food. They give out oxygen during this process. In this way, the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the sources of oxygen and carbon dioxide in air air are maintained. What will happen to this balance, if we cut trees unnecessarily? We know that water vapour in the air comes from different water bodies. Once the air gets filled with water vapour, it changes into water droplets and falls as rain. Application Sometimes the air gets filled with smoke and dust. The presence of such harmful substances in the air is called air pollution. Substances which make the air dirty (or pollute the air) are called pollutants. Let us find out the sources of these pollutants. When we burn firewood or a kerosene lamp, it gives out firewood kerosene smoke. Smoke from vehicles and factories also pollutes lamp the air. Vehicles also blow up dust in the air. Carbon dioxide is useful at very low levels. But when its amount increases above normal levels, it becomes a pollutant. Any colour or bad smell of air shows air pollution. vehicles factory Polluted air is unhealthy. It may damage our lungs and eyes. It makes us feel tired and sick. 2

If the air is polluted, we should wear masks. Masks filter the air and allow only clean air to enter our nose. How can we keep the air clean? 1) Plant trees: Plants absorb carbon dioxide and give out child wearing a mask oxygen. They help to keep the air clean and healthy. So, we feel fresh when we are in a field, garden or a forest. It is, therefore, important to plant trees. 2) Use smoke-free lamps and stoves: We should avoid using cooking stoves and lamps which give out smoke. 3) Stop burning garbage: We should not burn garbage in our neighbourhood. Plastics in the garbage give out harmful gases on burning. 4) Use well-maintained vehicles: Vehicles that are not maintained or are old give out harmful gases. Amazing Facts As we go higher, the level of oxygen in the air decreases. So, the people who climb mountains carry oxygen cylinders with them. Higher Order Thinking Skills (H.O.T.S.) People burst firecrackers (crackers) on festivals and special occasions. Do you think firecrackers are good for the environment? Firecrackers are made up of chemicals which catch fire easily. They make a lot of noise. They also add harmful smoke to the air causing air pollution. People who make firecrackers in factories suffer from skin and lung problems. firecrackers people who make firecrackers It is dangerous to work in places where they are made or stored. Still, at some places, even small children are forced to work in firecracker factories. We should, therefore, stop bursting firecrackers. Composition of Air 3

Lesson Stems and Leaves 9 Let Us Learn About R different types of stems and leaves. U functions of stems and leaves. A uses of stems and leaves. H why plants shed leaves. Think Nitin’s teacher showed him four types of leaves. She asked him to find the difference between them. What differences did Nitin find? Remembering You have learnt about various types of plants. You have also learnt that a plant has different parts. Now, let us learn about the stems and leaves of plants in detail. THE STEM stem leaf The stem is usually seen above the ground. It is generally green when young and later becomes woody and dark brown. The stem is different in different types of plants. 4

The stem of a big tree is called the trunk. tree trunk stem with stem without Stems may be with branches or without branches branches branches. For example, mango trees have branches but coconut trees have no branches. Stems are usually erect, but in some plants they can be creeping or twisted. For example, pumpkin plants have creeping stems. The stem of the rose plant has thorns on it. creeper stem thorns on a hair on the In some plants, stems are covered with of pumpkin rose stem stem of a tulsi small hair. plant The stem of the bamboo is smooth, while the stem of the mango tree is rough. We have learnt about the different types of stems in plants. Now, let us learn about the different kinds of leaves. THE LEAVES Leaves are important parts of plants, just like the bamboo stems rough stem or bark stems. They are of different size, shape and colour. of a mango tree They are arranged in different ways in different plants. Shapes Arrangement Edges Let us take a look at some leaves. Banana plants have big leaves and tulsi hand plants have small ones. shaped Peepal trees have heart-shaped leaves. spear simple smooth Lotus plants have round ones. shaped Some leaves have toothed edges. heart compound toothed Example: neem shaped Some leaves have a special smell. round Example: tulsi needle compound lobed different types of leaves Stems and Leaves 5

Understanding We have learnt about different types of stems and leaves. But, why do plants need stems and leaves? Let us see how stems and leaves are helpful to plants. Functions OF STEMS 1) The stem allows the plant to stand upright and holds up the branches and leaves. It holds the leaves in such a way that they trunk helps the tree can get maximum sunlight. to stand upright 2) The stem carries water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves. It carries food prepared in the leaves to the different parts of the plant. 3) Some stems store food for the plant. Example: sugar cane sugar cane FUNCTIONS OF LEAVES Plants need food to live. Leaves make sunlight oxygen food for the plant. They also help plants to water carbon dioxide breathe. How do leaves make food? To make food, leaves need sunlight, water and carbon dioxide gas. They use the carbon dioxide gas from the air. Water from the roots reach the leaves through the stem. In the presence of sunlight, leaves combine water and carbon dioxide to make food. During this process, they give out oxygen. So, they are called ‘the kitchen of the plant’ or ‘food factory of the plant’. 6

Application We have learnt about the functions of stems and leaves. Now, let us see how we use stems and leaves in our day-to-day life. Uses of stems Some stems are used: • as food, for example, potato and onion. The sugar cane stem is used to make juice, sugar and jaggery. • to make furniture as they are hard and strong. Teak and mahogany are a few examples. • to make medicines. Example: tulsi, neem • to make useful things like rubber and jute. The milky juice from the stem of the rubber tree is used to make rubber. The stem of the jute plant is used to make jute. We make ropes and bags using jute. Uses of leaves Some leaves are used: • as food. Leafy vegetables such as spinach and fenugreek (methi) are some examples. Leaves of the tea plant are used to make tea. • as spices in cooking. Example: bay leaves, coriander • to make medicines, for example, the leaves of the tulsi and neem plants. • to cook and serve food. Example: turmeric leaf, banana leaf • as decorations during festivals and special occasions. bay leaves cooking food using a leaf serving food on a leaf Stems and Leaves 7

Amazing Facts The green colour of leaves is due to a substance called chlorophyll. Leaves turn brown due to a substance called tannin. Tannin also gives the colour to your tea. Higher Order Thinking Skills (H.O.T.S.) During the winter season, some trees shed all their leaves. Leaves of some trees also change their colour. Do you know why they do so? Try to find out. shedding of leaves leaves changing colours There are some trees where leaves are not in their normal form. For example, cactus plant. The leaves of cactus are reduced to spines. cactus plant with spines 8

Lesson Uses of Animals 10 Let Us Learn About r animal products. u trained animals. a people who depend on animals for their livelihood. h kindness towards animals. Think Have you ever wondered where we get woollen clothes from? Or where does the milk that you drink every morning come from? Remembering We find many animals around us. Some of them are very useful. Animals give us food and other things that we can use. Let us see how animals are useful to us: Some animals and birds provide food. Animals such as cows, buffaloes and goats give milk. They are called milch animals. We use milk to drink and to prepare milk products/dairy products. Curd, butter, ghee and cheese are some milk products. milk and milk products cow buffalo 9

Birds such as hens and ducks give us We get honey from honeycombs. We eggs. The meat of various animals use honey in food and as medicine. and birds is used as food. hen eggs meat honeycomb honey Some aquatic (water) animals such as fish and prawns are also used as food. Animals like sheep and rabbit give us wool. Wool is used to make woollen clothes. They protect us from the cold. fish prawns We get leather from the skin of animals sheep wool woollen such as cows, pigs, goats, sheep, clothes crocodiles and kangaroos. Bags, purses and belts are made from leather. We get Lac insects give us lac. It is used to fur from the skin of some animals such as make dyes. It is also used to make minks, foxes and rabbits. Fur is also used bangles. to make purses and coats. lac lac lac bangles insect leather from bags, purses, Silkworms give us silk threads. They are animal skin shoes, belts used to make silk cloth. silkworm silk thread silk cloth animal fur fur coat Oyster, a kind of sea animal, gives us Animal waste is used to produce pearls. cooking gas. In village areas, dried cow dung is used instead of firewood. oyster pearls dried cow dung used as firewood 10

Understanding We have learnt about the useful things we get from animals. Now, let us discuss about some other uses of animals. Some animals are trained to help humans in their work and transport. 1) Animals like horses, elephants and camels are trained to carry people and goods. Horses and bullocks pull carts. There are some places where modern modes of transport do not work. In such places animals like mules and camels help us in transport. Mules are trained to climb hills carrying goods. horse cart animals used for riding mules carrying goods camels in the desert Camels can move across the desert sand easily. They are called the ship of the desert. 2) Dogs are trained to help us in many ways. Police train dogs to catch thieves or to smell bombs. Dogs can be trained to guard our houses. They can be trained to help people with special needs like the blind people. police dog guard dog guide dog Uses of Animals 11

3) Some animals are trained to help us in farm work. bullocks used in farm 4) In a circus, wild animals like elephants, monkeys and parrots are trained to do tricks. Sea animals like dolphins are also trained to perform in front of people. Nowadays, to stop animal cruelty, a circus is not allowed in many countries. monkeys entertaining people talking parrot trained dolphin Application We have seen various uses of animals in the form of products, transport and safety. Many people depend on animals for their work. Let us see how. People like milkmen and fishermen depend on animals for their livelihood. Some people rear goats and sheep for their milk and meat. To rear is to take care of animals until they are fully grown. People rear birds like hens and ducks for their meat and eggs. It is called poultry farming. fish farming goat farming poultry farming Snake charmers perform tricks using snakes to earn money. Some people train monkeys and use them to perform tricks. Have you seen such animal charmers? How do you feel when you look at those animals? Human beings used to hunt wild animals for food since ancient times. We came to know about it through rock paintings. Have you seen any such ancient rock paintings? 12

snake charmer monkey charmer ancient rock painting Amazing Facts An Indian sheep can yield about 5 kg wool per year. This roughly means that every year the wool got from each Indian sheep can be used to make fourteen sweaters. Higher Order Thinking Skills (H.O.T.S.) So far, we have seen that animals are very useful to us. In our country, people worship animals like cows, elephants, snakes and so on. This is to respect their usefulness to us. We should treat all animals with kindness. We should not hurt them. We should take care of the animals around us. Here are some ways to take care of animals: 1) We should give enough food and water to the animals we rear. We should keep them in clean and airy shelters. 2) We should not put heavy loads on the animals used for transport. We should not beat them. 3) We should not hurt the animals while training them. 4) We should keep them healthy and get an animal doctor (veterinarian) to check them regularly. These days, killing wild animals for their skin, fur, nails, horns or tusks is not allowed as per the law. Keeping them in a cage is also not allowed. Uses of Animals 13

Inside the Lab – B Make sure you do these activities only with the help of a teacher or an adult. Activity B1: My Lava Lamp A lava lamp is a tube-shaped light. It has a coloured, oily liquid inside it that flows up and down. Let us try to build a lava lamp. It is very easy and a lot of fun! You will need: a cup of water, a clear plastic bottle, vegetable oil, food colouring, ENO fruit salt (or other antacid tablets) and glitter (optional) You need to: 1) pour water into the plastic bottle until it is around one-quarter full. lava lamps 2) pour the vegetable oil until the bottle is nearly full. 3) wait until the oil and water have separated from each other. 4) add around twelve drops of food colouring to the bottle. You can add glitter too. 5) watch as the food colouring goes through the oil and mixes with the water. 6) add some ENO into the bottle; things should start getting a little crazy, just like a real lava lamp! 7) add some more ENO when the bubbling stops and enjoy the changes. 8) shine a torch behind or underneath your lava lamp to see it glow. How do you get the movement inside the lava lamp? When we add ENO, it mixes with water to form carbon dioxide gas. This gas causes colour bursts and movements inside the lava lamp. [Note: Oral intake of ENO or antacid tablets should be strictly avoided during the activity.] 14

Activity B2: Leaves Leaves Everywhere! We see many different types of leaves Shapes Arrangement Edges around us. They differ in colour, shape, smooth size, arrangement and so on. hand toothed shaped Go on a nature walk to a local park or a garden in your school premises to see spear simple the different types of leaves shaped You will need: heart shaped a paper bag, a pencil, an eraser and a set of colour pencils compound round You need to: needle 1) take a paper bag and collect as compound lobed many types of leaves as you can. different types of leaves 2) m ake sure that you pick 3–4 leaves of the same plant. 3) g  roup all the leaves by shapes, arrangements and edges (as shown in the picture). 4) trace the shapes of the leaves in your notebook. 5) colour the leaves with your favourite colours. Show your colourful leaf journal to your friends. trace and paint leaves Inside the Lab – B 15

Lesson Food Diversity 11 Let Us Learn About R food diversity. U the reasons for food diversity. A changes in the food habits of people. H important food crops in India. Think Have you noticed what your friends bring for lunch daily? Is it the same kind of food which you bring from home? Remembering You might have seen that your friends bring different dishes for lunch. At home, we take different types of food for breakfast, lunch and dinner. The food we eat on different days is also not the same. The food which people eat regularly in large quantity is called staple food. The staple food is not the same in different places. 16

For example, rice is the staple food in southern India, whereas wheat is the staple food in northern India. 1) People in southern India may prefer idli, dosa and rice. 2) People in the north may like roti, parantha and dal. 3) People in the east may eat food in food in more of fish, dal and rice. South North India India 4) People in western India may enjoy pav bhaji, thepla and so on. Food in different states is different food food too. in East in West For example, in Punjab, people India India prefer lassi and paranthas. In West Bengal, people like fish curry and rice. Let us see what people eat in different countries. In China, people eat rice, noodles and so on. In the United States of America (USA), the popular food items are hot dogs and burgers. In Italy, people eat pizza, pasta and so on. Chinese food noodles rice American food Italian food hot dog burger pizza pasta Food Diversity 17

Understanding There is a variety of food across places. Now, let us find out the reasons behind this diversity in food. 1) Availability of raw food: The weather and climate of a place help in the growth of some specific food crops. A crop is a plant grown for food, clothes, medicines or any other uses. For example, in areas of heavy rainfall, rice and coconut are grown. People in these areas eat more rice. In areas of low rainfall, wheat, bajra and jowar are grown. So, people eat rotis made from the flour of these grains. In coastal areas, fish is available in abundance. Seafood like fish is common in these regions. cooked chutney bread rice idli coconut cookies rice plants barfi roti coconut trees wheat plants roti fish fry khichdi laddu prawn curry bajra plants jowar plants fishes 2) Culture and tradition: People from different cultures eat different food. We celebrate festivals by making special types of food. For example, • during Eid, people make biryani, kebabs and sweets. • Christmas is celebrated with a variety of meat dishes, cakes and cookies. • Bhog is a special food prepared during Durga puja. • People make modak during Ganesh festival. • Pongal is another festival food prepared during the Tamil festival of Thai Pongal. 18

Eid Christmas biryani kebabs sweets cookies Christmas cake turkey Durga puja Ganesh festival Thai Pongal bhog modak pongal 3) Cooking methods: Food also differs because of the cooking methods used. Boiled rice and fried rice are very different. In the same way, chappatis and puris look and taste different. boiled rice fried rice chappatis puris Earlier, people ate only locally grown food. Food items from other places were not available to them easily. These days, food items from different places are easily available to us. Application We have seen various reasons for food diversity. But sometimes, food habits differ because of the needs of the body. 1) Work habits: Food habits also depend on the type of work people do. For example, people doing a lot of physical work need more of energy rich food. Food Diversity 19

2) Age: According to the age of the people, different types of food items are prepared at home. For example, baby food differs from the food grown-up people eat. A new- born baby drinks only milk. School-going children need a variety of food items to grow. Very old people eat soft food items like dal-rice and roti soaked in milk. baby food food of an adult person 3) Seasons: Our food habits also change according to the seasons. In summer, we eat more fruits and vegetable dishes. In winter, we eat food and drinks that keep us warm. Find out the different types of seasonal food available in your area. winter food summer food 4) Health: Food habits also change according to health conditions. When you are ill, you eat less food. Your parents may give you soups, light food with less oil and so on. Amazing Facts Tomato, potato, sugar and chilli are not originally from India. They were brought to India by the Portuguese. 20

Higher Order Thinking Skills (H.O.T.S.) You have learnt that one of the reasons behind food diversity is the variety of crops. The major crops in India can be divided into four groups: 1) Food grains such as rice, maize, wheat and so on 2) Fruits and vegetables 3) Cotton, jute, sugarcane and tobacco 4) Tea, coffee, coconut and rubber Find out the different types of crops grown in your area. Also, learn about the changes in the crops grown throughout the year. Food Diversity 21

Lesson Types of Houses 12 Let Us Learn About R the different types of houses. u reasons for diversity in types of houses. a keeping our houses clean. h the effects of extreme weather on houses. Think We see different types of houses around us. What kind of house do you live in? Did your grandparents ever tell you what type of house they lived in? Remembering All of us need a place to live in. We live in houses. The houses in olden times were different from the ones we live in today. Earlier, human beings used to live in caves. Then, they learnt to build houses. They used mud, wood and leaves to build cave hut them. These houses are called kutcha houses. They are not strong enough to face heavy winds or rain. Example: hut 22

As time went on, people learned to build pucca houses. These are built with bricks, cement, wood, iron rods, steel and stones. Pucca houses are stronger than kutcha houses. Example: bungalows and flats (apartments) bungalow apartments Understanding Houses vary from place to place. The types of houses found in any place depend on many factors. REASONS for diversity in types of houses 1 The climatic condition of the place: People make houses which suit the climate of that area. For example, in areas with heavy rainfall, houses have sloping roofs. The rain water can drain easily from such roofs. Stilt houses are also found in places of heavy rainfall. house with sloping roof They are commonly seen alongside rivers. These houses are made of bamboo. They are built at a height from the ground to prevent water from entering the house. In extremely cold regions, people stilt house build dome-shaped houses using blocks of snow. The dome shape helps to keep it warm inside. These houses are called igloos (snow houses). igloo 2 Lifestyles of the people: According to their lifestyles, village house people need different types of houses. In villages, people build houses to suit their farming needs. These houses may have some special areas such as cattle sheds, storage places for grains and so on. Types of Houses 23

In cities, the lifestyle is different. So, Tree people live in flats. Moreover, in cities, there is less land available to build houses houses. So, multi-storeyed buildings with many flats are common in cities. multi-storeyed buildings are built by the people tree house living in Some people wander forests and jungles. from place to place in search of their livelihood. They give protection They are called nomads. These people live in tents. from wild animals. nomads tents Building big houses needs a lot of money. Groups of people travelling together caravan Sometimes, people use houses on wheels called may not have enough caravans. A caravan may be pulled money to build them. by an animal, a car or a truck. So, they construct smaller houses. We can find houseboats in places houseboat You have learnt about having many lakes and rivers. some reasons behind A houseboat is a boat which is the diversity in houses. designed to be used as a home. Do all people have houses to live in? There are some people who cannot afford to have people using houses. You must have seen homeless people. public place Roadside or any such public place becomes a house as shelter for them. We should be kind to them. Application You have learnt about the different types of houses. A house is necessary for all of us. We should take good care of it. HOW TO MAINTAIN OUR HOUSES 1) To be healthy, we need sunlight and fresh air inside our houses. So, we should keep windows open to let in sunlight and fresh air. 2) Our house should be free from dirt and dust. We should sweep and mop the floor daily. Walls should be kept clean. All the rooms should be kept neat and tidy. 3) Garbage should be thrown in the dustbin. Dustbins should be regularly emptied. 4) Dirty water should not be allowed to collect near the house. Otherwise, disease-causing mosquitoes will lay eggs in it. This will cause diseases. 5) The toilets, bathrooms and washbasins should be cleaned from time to time. This will prevent the growth of germs. 24

Amazing Facts The tallest building in the world is in Dubai. Its name is Burj Khalifa. It has 163 floors above the ground. Higher Order Thinking Skills (H.O.T.S.) Some extreme weather conditions can cause damage to houses. For example, heavy rain, powerful winds, shaking of the ground(earthquake) and so on. These may make people homeless. houses damaged due to extreme weather conditions Have you ever heard of any such condition? What happens when people lose their houses? They need to live in temporary shelters. They are taken care of by the government. What will happen to the animal shelters in such cases? temporary shelter (camp) Find out. SPECIAL HOMES Have you ever heard about orphanages? They are the special shelters for children who have lost their parents and family. Old age home is another such special home. It is a shelter for old people who do not have anyone else to take care of them. orphanage old age home Types of Houses 25

Lesson Travel with Family 13 Let Us Learn About R planning a tour. u the need for travel. a travelling for adventure. h travelling with friends. Think Does your family go on holidays to new places? You must have seen your parents packing everything carefully before going on holidays. Do you know how they plan a tour? Remembering During holidays, people travel with their family and friends to different places. Usually, people visit new places when they go on tours. A tour is a journey for pleasure in which several different places are visited. 26

When we visit a new place, we may not know where to go and what to do. We may not even know the type of clothes suitable for that place. So, it is important to plan tours in advance. Let us now learn how to plan a tour. PLANNING A TOUR 1) Decide the duration: We first need to decide the number of days for the tour. We should not plan a tour during school days. 2) Decide the place: We decide the place according to the season, things to do and the money we can spend. For example, visiting hill stations is ideal during summers. 3) Decide the mode of travel: We can travel by road, rail or air. We need to book bus, train or plane tickets accordingly. 4) Choose the place to stay: We need to different modes of transport book a hotel room to stay in. If we have any relatives or family friends there, we can stay with them too. 5) Pack our things: We should pack our bags well in advance. Our bags should be light so that they can be easily carried. However, we must remember to carry important things like our ID cards, tickets, important documents and medicines. We must also carry our clothes, toiletries (brushes, combs, toothbrush and toothpaste). Sometimes, we may even need to carry umbrellas, warm clothes, swimsuits and food. We may also carry along a camera to record the memories of the trip. things to be carried while packing for travel Travel with Family 27

Understanding We have learnt to plan tours. Let us now find why people travel. People travel for various reasons. NEED FOR TRAVEL travelling for refreshment 1) Refreshment: Everybody gets tired or bored of daily activities. It is good to go on a tour to get refreshed. 2) Meet extended family members: People may celebrating festivals with extended also travel to visit their extended families. They family members may celebrate festivals or special occasions together during holidays. 3) Gain knowledge: Some people travel to learn about different places, people and cultures. 4) Job and business: Some people travel to different people and their cultures faraway places for work. 5) Religious tours: Some people travel to places of religious importance. Application We have learnt that people travel with their family for refreshment, knowledge, business and so on. But there are some people who travel with their family for an adventure. They may go hiking, mountaineering or camping. They may also take part in different adventure sports. • Adventure sports are dangerous. • W e should carry proper safety equipment adventure sports to perform them. • T hey should not be performed without expert supervision. • Without proper guidance, they can cause serious injuries. 28

Amazing Facts Ladakh is one of the most famous tourist places in India. The Pangong Tso lake situated in Ladakh is the largest lake in India. The water in the lake appears to have multiple colours. It displays shades of blue, green and sometimes red. It has been featured in some popular movies too. Pangong Tso lake Higher Order Thinking Skills (H.O.T.S.) We may not always go out with our family. Sometimes, we travel with our classmates or friends. Have you ever been to a school picnic or excursion? Where did you go and what did you do? Travel with Family 29

Lesson Communication without 14 Speaking Let Us Learn About R communication and its types. u types of gestures and expressions. a sign language. h Braille language. Think Have you watched cartoon movies like Tom and Jerry? They don’t have any dialogues. How do we understand the story? Remembering We use words or actions to share our thoughts with others. This process of sharing thoughts, ideas and feelings with people is called communication. Sometimes, the look on our face changes to show what we feel. Communication is mainly of two types: saying with words and saying without words. Communication with words involves speaking and writing. Communication without words involves gestures and expressions. You must have seen a traffic police on the road. How does he or she control the traffic? Either by using hand movements or by blowing a whistle. Does he or she say anything while controlling the traffic? Still, people understand the instructions. 30

We use movements of hands, shoulders and head to communicate. Such movements that help people understand without speaking anything are called gestures. Sometimes, people can only look at our face and tell whether we are feeling happy, sad or angry. How do they understand this? They know our feelings because the look on our face shows a gestures of traffic police particular emotion. These are called expressions. These are some of the examples of expressions. expressions Understanding Let us understand the different gestures and expressions we use to communicate. Here are a few examples of gestures. 1 Nod or shake your head: Sometimes, nod your shake your you just nod or shake your head. head (yes) head (no) It is a gesture to say ‘yes’ or ‘no’. 2 Waving or tapping your fingers: You wave your hand and your friends understand you are saying ‘hello’. You clap your hands to appreciate something. saying hello clap your hands Now, let us see the different types of expressions we use. Some commonly used expressions are smiling, frowning, winking, opening wide the eyes or mouth, raising eyebrows and so on. 1 When we are happy, 2 When a baby starts we have a smile crying, the mother on our face. understands that he/she smiling is hungry, sleepy or hurt. crying 3 When we are excited 4 We wink to signal or shocked, we may that we are opening wide the open wide our eyes eyes and mouth joking about or mouth. something. winking Communication without Speaking 31

5 Raising our eyebrows might communicate that raising we are surprised. It may also mean that our we don’t believe what we are hearing. eyebrows Gestures and expressions are also used while dancing and acting. Indian classical dancers use various ‘mudras’(gestures) and ‘abhinayas’(expressions) to tell stories. Indian classical dancers Kathakali Odissi Bharatanatyam mudras Application Do you know how to play the game of ‘dumb charades’? How do you express your ideas in it? We use signs for different letters, words and so on. A sign language can be used to communicate. It is mainly used by the people who have a speaking or a hearing disability. They communicate using gestures, combining hand shapes and expressions on the face. like OK dislike peace hello idea sign language 32

People who cannot speak or hear find it difficult to communicate with others. We should not make fun of them. We should help them by using gestures while communicating. Amazing Facts Symbols and marks that represented objects were the earliest forms of written communication. These are called pictographs. Higher Order Thinking Skills (H.O.T.S.) symbols and marks Braille alphabet We learnt about the sign language that people having a speaking disability used. Some people can speak, but cannot see. They use the ‘Braille’ language. This language has patterns of raised dots that can be felt with fingertips. Do you know who developed this language? Communication without Speaking 33

Inside the Lab – C Make sure you do these activities only with the help of a teacher or an adult. Activity C1: Cuisines of Different States India is a diverse country. It has so many cultures. Each state has its traditional cuisine. You will need: 2–3 sheets of paper, a pencil or pen You need to: 1) divide the students into groups so that each group has at least one student from a different state. Each group should have one sheet of paper. 2) ask the students to discuss and collect the information on the subsequent points. 3) ask him or her about a famous food of the state he or she belongs to. 4) ask him or her to note down its cuisines of different states recipe. 5) ask why it is famous. 6) ask what local ingredients are used to prepare it. 7) ask how it is suitable for the people of that state. 8) ask them to record their findings on a sheet like this. 9) ask them to stick a picture if they get one. 34

Name of the dish Dosa State Tamil Nadu Ingredients half cup urad dal (split black lentils) 1 cup raw rice (chawal) ghee for cooking Method of 1) Combine the urad dal and rice and soak it in enough preparation water for 4 hours. 2) Drain the urad dal and rice and blend in a mixer to a smooth paste using approx. 1 cup of water. 3) Transfer the mixture to the same bowl; add the salt and mix well. 4) Cover and ferment in a warm place for 12 hours. 5) Heat a non-stick tawa. 6) Pour a ladleful of the batter on it and spread it in a circular motion. Smear a little ghee over it and along the edges and cook on a high flame till the dosa turns brown in colour and crisp. 7) Fold over to make a semi-circle or a roll. Reasons for it being It is easy to ferment batter in southern Indian climate. So, famous in Tamil Nadu dosa is famous in Tamil Nadu. Local Ingredients used rice Compare the recipes of different states from your classmates. Do you find different recipes using the same ingredients? Inside the Lab – C 35

Activity C2: Make Your Script script You will need: two sheets of paper and a pencil or pen You need to: 1) write the letter of the alphabet from A – Z on the board. 2) suggest a symbol for each letter of the alphabet. Some suggestions are: @ $ <& 3) write few sentences about yourself in English. 4) write them in the new script on a different paper. 5) exchange the new script papers with your partner. 6) decode those sentences and write them down in simple English. 7) interchange papers again. 8) check if your partner has correctly translated. Such coded languages are used in the army, navy and air force to share information between them. Code language helps them communicate without the information being known to common people. 36

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