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Mahidol University Vol.11 No.2 April - June 2018 ISSN 1906-0536 Faculty of Nursing Special Lecture and Review Article Writing Workshop “Development of Research Affecting Health Policy” Professor Dr. Alex Molassiotis Visiting Professor from School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, The People's Republic of China D uring January 29th-February 2nd, 2018, Faculty of Nursing (FON), Mahidol University, invited Professor Dr. Alex Molassiotis, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, The People's Republic of China, to be a visiting professor and a special lecturer. The first special lecture was held on January 29th, 2018 at FON, Salaya Campus entitled “How to Write a Scientific Manuscript for International Publication”. Dr. Molassiotis provided many useful recommendations on issues for developing a research article as to get published in international journals. The sample size was one of significant issues that the investigator must take into consideration because it illustrated a representativeness of a present paper. Likewise, if the findings from previous studies did not clearly explain an existing gap in the background of re- search problem, the article would be often rejected for publication. Dr. Molassiotis suggested that the author should describe step-by-step on how to conduct the study and what results ex- pected to be reported because it would be clear and easy to understand when writing research paper. Presentation of results should follow all required display formats of submitted journal, since it needs to illustrate a consistency of published contents. A special issue in cancer research was lectured on January 3 0 th, 2018 at FON, Bangkok-Noi Campus on a title of “Peripheral Neuropathies in Cancer Patients Receiving Taxane or Platinum- Based Chemotherapy”. Dr. Molassiotis shared his experiences on the recent cancer research and demonstrated how to correctly detect peripheral neuropathy using the device called “Retracta- ble Monofilament”. After his lecture completed, research collabo- ration between two institutes was discussed. The last lecture on “Developing a Clinical Trial Design” was held on February 1st, 2018 at FON, Salaya Campus. A clinical re- search methodology has been emphasized as an important issue of this lecture. Calculating a research sample size and determin- ing an effect size should be strongly considered using a previous study that had a similar methodology. An appropriate and large enough sample size would affect on a conviction of research and decrease “Type I error” and “Type II error” in a proposed study. Additionally, a workshop on manuscript writing for a high impact journals was held. Individual consultation, discussion and feedback for improving a paper were a special focus. Ten faculty members and graduate students attended this workshop keenly. All of them were very essential activities that promoted our staffs writing manuscript ability for international publication. Faculty of Nursing, Mahidol University

Research Nursing Research Newsletter HIGHTLIGHTS Faculty of Nursing, Mahidol University Factors Influencing Sexual Behaviors among Thai Adolescents Sitanan Srijaiwong, Siriorn Sindhu, Ameporn Ratinthorn, Chukiat Viwatwongkasem Objective: This cross-sectional analysis examines the factors influencing sexual behaviors, no-sex experience, safe sexual behaviors and unsafe sexual behaviors among adolescents, and the degree of sexual risk behaviors among sexually experienced adolescents by using web-based questionnaires. Material and Method: The participants were 3,192 Thai adolescents ages 15-19 and studying at secondary and vocational schools. Data were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression analysis and multilevel regression analysis. Results: Among all participants, 769 adolescents reported having had sexual experience defined as sexual intercourse (prevalence = 24.09). Unsafe sexual behaviors escalated with age, enrollment in vocational school, greater perceived peer approval and sexual double standards. Unsafe sexual behaviors decreased with male gender, living with both parents having a higher sexual risk behavio- ral attitude and sexual message communication. Conclusion: The results revealed that school type was the greatest predictor influencing sexual risk behaviors followed by peer appro- val and sexual behaviors, type of family structure, living arrangements, sex, age, sexual risk behavioral attitude, sexual double stan- dards and sexual message communication. In today’s society, external environmental factors have greater influence on sexual risk behaviors, especially school environment. And each adolescent has different contexts related to sexual behaviors. Hence, we should consider differences in individual, family and school contexts when developing an effective health system that promotes sexual health and sexual risk behavior prevention among adolescents, one that will lead to decreased negative outcomes from sexual behaviors among adolescents. Source: Srijaiwong S, Sindhu S, Ratinthorn A, Viwatwongkasem C. Factors influencing sexual behaviors among Thai adolescents. J Popul Soc Stud 2017;25(3):171-93. Srijaiwong S, Sindhu S, Ratinthorn A, Viwatwongkasem C. (2017). Factors influencing sexual behaviors among Thai adolescents. Journal of Population and Social Studies, 25(3),171-193. Factor Analysis and Reliability of the Family Stigma in Alzheimer’s Disease Scale-Thai Version Sudarat Pianchob, Weerasak Muangpaisan, Pitiporn Siritipakorn Objective: To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Family Stigma in Alzheimer’s Disease Scale (FS-ADS) (Thai version) in family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Material and Method: One hundred ninety-three Thai family caregivers of person with Alzheimer’s disease were studied. Exploratory factor analysis with principle component analysis and varimax rotation was performed to assess factor structures. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to estimate reliability. Results: The results revealed acceptable reliability with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.77. Analysis of items in each dimension (caregivers’ stigma, lay persons’ stigma, and structural stigma) and a comparison between the original FS-ADS and the FS-ADS (Thai version) showed that two dimensions (caregivers’ stigma and lay persons’ stigma) had lower number of factors and lower cumulative percentages than the original version. However, an overall comparison between the two versions showed that each factor in the Thai version was similar to that of the original version. Conclusion: The overall results of exploratory factors analysis in the present study revealed good psychometric properties of the FS-ADS (Thai version). Accordingly, the FS-ADS (Thai version) was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing stigmatization experi- enced by the Thai family caregivers providing care to persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Some questions on the FS-ADS (Thai version) may benefit from additional modification to make this tool more appropriately adapted to a Thai sociocultural context. Source: Pianchob S, Muangpaisan W, Siritipakorn P. Factor analysis and reliability of the family stigma in Alzheimer’s disease scale-Thai version. J Med Assoc Thailand 2017;100(12):1318-24. Pianchob S, Muangpaisan W, Siritipakorn P. (2017). Factor analysis and reliability of the family stigma in Alzheimer’s disease scale-Thai version. Journal of The Medical Association of Thailand, 100(12),1318-1324. Vol. 11 No. 2 April - June 2018 2 IISSSNN 11990066-0-0535636

Methodology Nursing Research Newsletter Focus Faculty of Nursing, Mahidol University Normality Test using SPSS, Skewness and Kurtosis Statistics Many statistical hypotheses testing using parameter statistics including Independent T-Test, Paired T-Test, ANOVA, Repeated Measured ANOVA, Pearson’s Correlation and Linear regression are based upon assumption of normal distribution of data. Assumption of normality will affect a power of hypothesis testing related to reliability of results of statistical tests and discussions part especially research with small sample size (less than 30 or 40). The solution is to use a non-parametric test statistic, which yields a higher power of test than parameter statistics when the data is not normally distributed. When the sample sizes is medium or large (>30 or 40), violation of normality assumption should not cause major problems, but this problem can cause other problems, such as violation of other assumptions or non-goodness of fit of predictive model problem. For normality test, SPSS provides K-S Test with Lilliefors correction and Shapiro-Wilk normality test using analyze > explore and normality plots with test button in plots menu. For the last method, most research articles proposed that it was used for small sample sizes (less than 50). Both normality test methods would be best on null hypothesis “sampling is the normal approximation”. Another way to test the normal distribution is using the Lack of symmetry (skewness) and pointiness (kurtosis). The values for these parameters should be zero in a normal distribution. However, we can convert values of skewness and kurtosis to z-score as follows: Zskew = (Skewness - 0)/SEskew and Zkur = (Skewness - 0)/SEkur For a small sample size, an absolute value of the score less than 1.96 is sufficient to establish nor- mality of data. Then, in larges sample size (200 or more) with small standard errors, we accept values of z- score which is 2.58. This could be applied when the sample is very large. Reference: Ghasemi, G,. Zahediasl, S,. (2012). Normality Tests for Statistical Analysis: A Guide for Non-Statisticians . Int J Endocrinol Metlab. 10(2), 486-9. Please evaluate NS Research Newsletter 2018 by scanning this QR Code 3 or going online for evaluation at We love to hear from you ! Vol. 11 No. 2 April - June 2018 ISSN 1906-0536

News Nursing Research Newsletter & Events Faculty of Nursing, Mahidol University Research Development Capacity Project: FON Plan II During December 12th–19th, 2017 at FON, Bangkoknoi Campus, Nursing Research Center conducted a continuing activity under a series of “Research Development Capacity Project for Academic Staffs” to nail down the knowledge needed for young academic staffs. This activity was a sequence of “Initiative FON Plan” and defined as “FON Plan II”. This project strengthened y ou ng academic staff capacities. The information about what research topics, and trends and issues of national research strategic plan that they should determine when conducted a research project was stated by Associate Professor Dr. Prangtip Chayaput, Associate Dean for Research, FON, Mahidol University. First of all, the staffs should always keep in mind that a project in need of country was considered as a high impact research. Moreover, those research projects must be strongly tied onto national policy and research strategic plans concern- ing the government announcement as well. Second, importantly, the staffs should practice and consecutively perform the research in their specialty of interest, yet “NOT jumping around on several different specialty areas”. Last but not least, there would be less competition to get funding support for their research project whether the young staffs could place themselves into “SHORTAGE” specialty according to a need of our country. Our twenty-one academic staffs participated in this project, presented their research study and received a critique on topic and methodology. On top of that, an introduction for writing research paper to get published in national and in- ternational academic journals was extended. Research Camp Manuscript Writing for International Publication and Proposal Development Nursing Research Center, FON, Mahidol University had provided three-day Research Camp during December 18th– 20th, 2017 at Mida Dhavaravati Grande Hotel, Nakhon Pathom. This activity was organized for supporting our staffs to develop an international manuscript, and research networking and collaboration planning. Ten faculty members from Department of Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing participated in this special activity. Improving the research methodologic planning and writing for publication, such as a determination of sample size, selection of statistical analysis methods, presentation of findings and the selection of journals were discussed and broadened among participating staffs. As a one from a series of NRC activities, a productive quality of high impact researches, internationally, would be ex- pected. Therefore, Research Camp will be offered continually as an academic activity to promote faculty staffs capacity for publishing research papers in a high-ranking international academic journals and accomplishing high impact research. NRN Dear Readers, Editorial In this second Nursing Research Newsletter, the strategic programs and activities of Nursing Research Center were illuminated. All events had been organized to encourage, Consultant Associate Professor Dr. Yajai Sitthimongkol support, and promote our faculty member capacities to establish and improve academic works and research projects quality. Editor-in-Chief Associate Professor Dr. Prangtip Chayaput At this time, Faculty of Nursing, Mahidol University, was so thankful for visiting Professor Editorial Board Miss Srisuda Klayklongjit Dr. Alex Molassiotis on his marvelous sharing of experiences and knowledge in the clinical research, especially a cancer research affecting the health policy, as well as his valuable Mr. Sutthisak Srisawad advices on article writing for international publication. Miss Sunan Klinmalee In a near future, the productivity of our operation will result in quality research and ad- vancement of our faculty members' capacity in writing research papers for publication in Graphic Design Miss Sirirut Tunsirirut high-ranking international journals. Stay tuned for our next rich and achieving academic activities. Owner Faculty of Nursing, Mahidol University Truely, 2 Wanglang Road, Bangkoknoi, Prangtip Chayaput, RN, PhD Associate Professor and Associate Dean for Research Bangkok 10700, THAILAND Editor-in-Chief Tel: 662-419-7466-80 Fax: 662-412-8415 Vol. 11 No. 2 April - June 2018 4 ISSN 1906-0536

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