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M.A 2 All right are reserved with CU-IDOL English Course Code: MAE 602 Semester: First E-Lesson: SLM Unit: 5 6 Unit-6(MAE 602)

British Poetry Till 17th 33 Century OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION Student will be introduced to the political, The students will discuss the socio-political, economical and social situations of metaphysical religious, cultural, and linguistic aspects of the age UK through English literary texts. Student will be able to understand major characteristics of metaphysical age. The student will be able to identify texts as products of a historical, political and cultural The students will discuss the literary devices used processes. by the writer. Student will be able to understand critical The student will identify different forms, significance of literary terms in determining the genres and subgenres in literature. meaning of a particular text. Unit-6(MAEE 602) INASlTl ITriUgThEt OarFeDrIeSsTeArNvCeEd AwNitDh OCNUL-IIDNOE LLEARNING

TOPICS TO BE COVERED 4 > Bio note of John Donne > Metaphysical Poetry > Political, economical and Social situations of metaphysical age > Critical analysis of “Satyre on Religion” > Critical analysis of “Good Morrow” Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

John Donne 5 Born in 22 January 1572. He was an English scholar, poet, soldier and secretary born into a catholic family, a remnant of the Catholic Revival, who reluctantly became a cleric in the Church of England. He was Dean of St Paul's Cathedral in London. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets. His poetical works are noted for their metaphorical and sensual style and include sonnets, love poems, religious poems, Latin translations, epigrams, elegies, songs, satires. He is also known for his sermons. Died on 31 March 1631 Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

John Donne 6 Characteristics of Metaphysical Poetry: With a rebellious spirit, the metaphysical poets tried to break away from the conventional fashion of the Elizabethan love poetry. The diction is simple and echoes the words and cadences of common speech. The imagery is drawn from the actual life  Metaphysical Conceit  Complex  Paradox  Posed as an argument Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

John Donne's literary style 7 Donne's style is characterized by abrupt openings and various paradoxes, ironies and dislocations. These features, along with his frequent dramatic or everyday speech rhythms, his tense syntax and his tough eloquence, were both a reaction against the smoothness of conventional Elizabethan poetry and an adaptation into English of European baroque and mannerist techniques. His early career was marked by poetry that bore immense knowledge of English society and he met that knowledge with sharp criticism. Another important theme in Donne's poetry is the idea of true religion, something that he spent much time considering and about which he often theorized. He wrote secular poems as well as erotic and love poems. He is particularly famous for his mastery of metaphysical conceits. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Political Situations 8 In 1614 King James I refused Donne’s final attempt to secure a post at court and said that he would appoint him to nothing outside the church. By this time Donne himself had come to believe he had a religious vocation, and he finally agreed to take holy orders. He was ordained deacon and priest on Jan. 23, 1615, and preferment soon followed. On Nov. 22, 1621, Donne was installed as dean of St. Paul’s Cathedral, at which he carried out his duties with efficiency and integrity. The power and eloquence of Donne’s sermons soon secured for him a reputation as the foremost preacher in the England of his day, and he became a favourite of both Kings James I and Charles I. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Metaphysical Conceit 9 Wit or conceit is commonly used, but the wit or conceit is so odd that the reader usually loses sight of the thing to be illustrated. In Donne’s day, conceit simply meant: idea. Metaphysical Conceit: combination of heterogeneous ideas yoked together by violence that is sustained throughout the poem. an extended metaphor that combines two vastly different ideas into a single idea, often using imagery. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Paradox 10 Donne's poetry involves a certain kind of argument, sometimes in rigid syllogistic form. He seems to be speaking to an imagined hearer, raising the topic and trying to persuade, convince or upbraid him. With the brief, simple language, the argument is continuous throughout the poem. The poems forms force the reader to trace the argument throughout the entire poem. They always have a surface level meaning, and then an implication (explore some sort of conflict) Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Metaphysical Poetry 11 Definition of metaphysical poetry: highly intellectualized poetry marked by bold and ingenious conceits, incongruous imagery, complexity and subtlety of thought, frequent use of paradox, and often by deliberate harshness or rigidity of expression. The term metaphysical poets was coined by the critic Samuel Johnson to describe a loose group of 17th-century English poets. These poets were not formally affiliated and few were highly regarded until 20th century attention established their importance. Given the lack of coherence as a movement, and the diversity of style between poets, it has been suggested that calling them Baroque poets after their era might be more useful. Once the Metaphysical style was established, however, it was occasionally adopted by other and especially younger poets to fit appropriate circumstances. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Characteristics of Metaphysical Poetry 12 •Free from former artificial styles: Grierson attempted to characterise the main traits of Metaphysical poetry in the introduction to his anthology. For him it begins with a break with the formerly artificial style of their antecedents to one free from poetic diction or conventions. •European Baroque influences, including use of conceits: Another characteristic singled out by Grierson is the Baroque European dimension of the poetry, its “fantastic conceits and hyperboles which was the fashion throughout Europe” Wordplay and wit: The way George Herbert and other English poets “torture one poor word ten thousand ways”, in Dryden's phrase, finds its counterpart in a poem like “Constantijn Huygens’ Sondagh (Sunday) with its verbal variations on the word ‘sun’. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Characteristics of Metaphysical Poetry 13 Wordplay on this scale was not confined to Metaphysical poets, moreover, but can be found in the multiple meanings of ‘will’ that occur in Shakespeare's “Sonnet 135”. Platonic influence: Ideas of Platonic love had earlier played their part in the love poetry of others, often to be ridiculed there, although Edward Herbert and Abraham Cowley took the theme of “Platonic Love” more seriously in their poems with that title.[35] In the poetry of Henry Vaughan, as in that of another of the late discoveries, Thomas Traherne, Neo- Platonic concepts played an important part and contributed to some striking poems dealing with the soul’s remembrance of perfect beauty in the eternal realm and its spiritual influence. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Characteristics of Metaphysical Poetry 14 •The poems classified in this group do share common characteristics: •They are all highly intellectualized, •Use of rather strange imagery, •Use of frequent paradox •Contain extremely complicated thought. • However, metaphysical poetry is not regarded as a genre of poetry. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Major Themes in the Metaphysical Poetry 15 Metaphysical poetry is concerned with the whole experience of man. It means that the poetry is about showing knowledge and thoughts from different areas of experience, especially about love, romantic and sensual; about man's relationship with God and about pleasure, learning and art. Metaphysical poems are lyric poems characterised by use of wit, irony and wordplay. Wit and conceit were both aspects of a mental set shared by writers looking for connections between things. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

16 Donne's theology, like that of John Henry Newman, is principally to be found in sermons and in occasional essays and poems rather than being expounded in systematic form; this explains in part why his contribution to Anglican theology has been largely unappreciated. As a devotional writer, in verse and prose, his reputation is assured, but in studies of the development of 17th- century theology he has practically been ignored. In an article on Donne's religious development, John Sparrow wrote of the way that devotion, \"as opposed to speculative theology,\" played an increasingly important part in his life and thought as he grew older.6 Furthermore, the sermons have too often been read in a search for purple passages (or \"golden words\") rather than for the exposition of Christian faith which they contain. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Satyre on Religion 17 Satires: An age of religious controversyA warning to those who fail to prioritise spiritual truthThe challenge to ‘seek true religion'The need to follow one's conscience at all costs or risk damnation. Donne wrote a number of satires in his youth. This poem probably dates from around 1594-5, a period when Donne was trying to make a life- changing decision - whether to remain a Catholic, in accordance with his upbringing and family loyalties, or to move (as he eventually did) to become a member of the Church of England. He read widely as he sought to understand the passionately held but widely differing beliefs current at the time and tried to decide between them. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Satyre on Religion 18 Like elegies and epigrams, satires have their origin in classical literature. Literally, satires are poems which ridicule certain people or human attitudes, often trying to reform them at the same time. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

An age of religious controversy 19 In this, the third satire, On Religion, Donne addresses the search for religious truth in an age of religious conflict. In Donne's day, people were frequently imprisoned and even killed for their religious beliefs. Donne's uncle and brother had suffered directly for their Catholic faith. Finding and holding to spiritual truth mattered desperately to Donne, and the intensity of his personal struggle and turmoil gives this poem an edge and force not often seen in his earlier work. The poem has a number of key themes: A warning to those who fail to see the importance of spiritual truth The challenge to ‘seek true religion' The need to follow one's conscience at all costs or risk damnation. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

A warning to those who fail to 20 prioritise spiritual truth The poem begins with anguish and anger as Donne states the need to be devoted to ‘faire religion'. He looks back to the pagan philosophers of the classical age (before the coming of Christianity) who greatly valued and pursued virtue. Donne states that human beings should fear to be judged by God for being worse than the pagan philosophers were, despite possessing spiritual knowledge which they lacked. Donne may be speaking of his own father, a Catholic who died when Donne was young. He is, perhaps, envisaging him, safe in heaven, hearing of his son's damnation even though he had passed on to him the ‘easie' and familiar ways of his own religion. The fear of damnation (spiritual condemnation by God) is, says Donne, an appropriate response which needs true courage to face it. To avoid such a fate, men and women must know their spiritual foes: the world flesh and devil, which will destroy the soul. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

The challenge to ‘seek true religion' 21 Donne examines the options on offer under the guise of a series of names. Mirreus is a Roman Catholic; Crantz (a German-sounding name because the Reformation began in Germany) is a Calvinist or Presbyterian; Graius is Anglican; and Phrygius is a sceptic or agnostic. He satirises all these people and their reasons for belief. Donne therefore sets out the best way to search for truth, a task which will require both care and determination. The reader is urged to ‘doubt wisely' and to consider carefully, yet to get on with the job: To stand inquiring right is not to stray; To sleepe, or runne wrong, is. Discernment and courage are needed. It won't be easy and the journey may be long and arduous. Donne uses an image that has often been quoted: On a huge hill, Cragged and steep, Truth stands, and hee that will Reach her, about must, and about must goe; And what the hills suddeness resists, winne so. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

The Good Morrow 22 The Good-Morrow is one of Donne's metaphysical love poems, specifically an aubade, a morning love poem or song. It is one of many secular poems he wrote, contrasting heavily with his later sacred works. It was first published in 1633, a little after the poet's death but was probably written when he was a young man and recently married. It is a three stanza poem with a deceptively simple opening. In the first stanza the speaker is asking a conversational question to another person, a lover, about what they did till we loved? In typical Donne fashion it takes the reader right into the bedroom, which is the crucible of passion and thought. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

The Good Morrow 23 The two lovers are waking up first thing in the morning. The speaker wants to examine the state of their relationship and so asks more questions, reflecting on this time prior to their loving, pleasure and beauty, and alluding to historical events. This inspires further explanation in the next two stanzas. The poem: implies that the love the two share is like a new religion (allusion to the Seven Sleepers, persecuted Christian youths sealed up in a cave who woke after nearly two centuries to find Christianity had spread). progresses into a series of images that relate to travel, the world and cartography (map making), an extended argument for the unity of their love. uses these metaphors to relate to exploration, discovery and conquest. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Summary 24 Bio note of John Donne. Political and social situations of metaphysical age Characteristics of metaphysical poetry Over laden with Knowledge Religious elements in metaphysical poetry Metaphysical conceit Paradoxical element Critical analysis of Sytare on Religion Critical analysis of good Morrow Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Multiple Choice Questions 25 1. Which of the following was NOT a metaphysical poet? a) George Herbert b) Abraham Cowley c) Henry Vaughan d) John Dryden 2. The metaphysical poets employed many extended comparisons, also known as: a) paradoxes b) gargantuan similes c) conceits d) splendid comparisons Answers: 1. d) 2. c) Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Multiple Choice Questions 26 3. What kind of poetry did Donne NOT write? a) sonnets b) elegies c) satires d) concrete poetry 4. He wrote \"To His Coy Mistress.“ a) John Donne b) Andrew Marvell c) Richard Crashaw d) George Herbert Answers: 3.d) 4. b) Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Frequently Asked Questions 27 1. Compare and contrast the Elizabethan poetic tradition and metaphysical age. Use at least two poems each to justify your answer. Ans. Elizabethan verse refers to English poetry written around the time of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I whereas metaphysical refers to a school of poetry which rose in the Jacobean period and lasted for a few decades after; therefore there is more of an overlapping continuum rather than a sharp boundary between the two kinds of poetry. 2. Discuss John Donne as a religious poet. Ans. He is known for sleeping in a coffin to remind himself of his own mortality. He is also famous for using the fast-moving sands in an hour glass he would turn over while preaching to illustrate the speed with which human life passes and this connects him with religion. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

References 28 1. Evangelical Lutheran Worship – Final Draft (PDF). Augsburg Fortress Press. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2007. 2. Cooper, Tarnya (16 May 2012). \"John Donne nearly finished... –\". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 3. \"John Donne\". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 4. \"John Donne\". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 5. \"Portrait of John Donne (1573–1631) at the age of 49\". V&A. 6. Spencer, Stanley (1911). \"John Donne Arriving in Heaven\". Retrieved 27 October 2017. 7. Hollander, John (2 April 1964). \"This Is Your Life, John Donne\". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 8. Webster, Daniel (31 March 2009). \"Two stirring requiems: One old, the other new\". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 9. Flood, Alison. \"Unknown John Donne Manuscript Discover in Suffolk\". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 December 2018. Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

29 THANK YOU Unit-6(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

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