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CU- MBA-Sem 2- MBA610 -Business Research Methods

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CHANDIGARH UNIVERSITY Institute of Distance and Online Learning Course Development Committee Chairman Prof. (Dr.) Parag Diwan Vice Chancellor, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Punjab Advisors Prof. (Dr.) Bharat Bhushan, Director – IGNOU Prof. (Dr.) Majulika Srivastava, Director – CIQA, IGNOU Programme Coordinators & Editing Team Master of Business Administration (MBA) Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) Coordinator – Dr. Rupali Arora Coordinator – Dr. Simran Jewandah Master of Computer Applications (MCA) Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA) Coordinator – Dr. Raju Kumar Coordinator – Dr. Manisha Malhotra Master of Commerce (M.Com.) Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.) Coordinator Coordinator – Dr. Aman Jindal – Dr. Minakshi Garg Master of Arts (Psychology) Bachelor of Science (Travel &Tourism Management) Coordinator – Dr. Samerjeet Kaur Co-ordinator – Dr. Shikha Sharma Master of Arts (English) Coordinator Bachelor of Arts (General) – Dr. Ashita Chadha Co-ordinator – Ms. Neeraj Gohlan Academic and Administrative Management Prof. (Dr.) R. M. Bhagat Prof. (Dr.) S.S. Sehgal Executive Director – Sciences Registrar Prof. (Dr.) Abhishek Prof. (Dr.) Inderpreet Kaur Executive Director – Management Director – IDOL Prof. (Dr.) Manaswini Acharya Executive Director – Liberal Arts © No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording and/or otherwise without the prior written permission of the authors and thepublisher. SLM SPECIALLY PREPARED FOR CU IDOL STUDENTS Printed and Published by: SCHOOLGURU EDUSERVE PVT LTD B-903, Western Edge II, Western Express Highway, Borivali (E), Mumbai - 400066 Call Us: +91 22 4896 8005 Mail Us: [email protected] For: CHANDIGARH UNIVERSITY 2 Institute of Distance and Online Learning CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

First Published in 2020 All rights reserved. No Part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from Chandigarh University. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this book may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. This book is meant for educational and learning purpose. The authors of the book has/have taken all reasonable care to ensure that the contents of the book do not violate any existing copyright or other intellectual property rights of any person in any manner whatsoever. In the even the Authors has/ have been unable to track any source and if any copyright has been inadvertently infringed, please notify the publisher in writing for corrective action. CONTENT Unit 1: Foundations Of Research-I: ................................................................................. 4 Unit 2: Foundations Of Research-II............................................................................... 19 Unit 3: Problem Identification & Formulation: ............................................................. 33 Unit 4: Literature Review............................................................................................... 48 Unit 5: Formulation Of Hypothesis................................................................................ 66 Unit 6: Research Design.................................................................................................. 80 Unit 7: Measurement .................................................................................................... 108 Unit 8: Sampling ........................................................................................................... 124 Unit 9: Probability Sample ........................................................................................... 144 Unit 10: Data Collection ............................................................................................... 163 Unit 11: Processing And Analysis Of Data .................................................................. 186 Unit 12: Interpretation Of Data Anreport Writing ..................................................... 213 3 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

UNIT 1: FOUNDATIONS OF RESEARCH-I: Structure 1.0. Learning Objectives 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Meaning 1.3. Objectives and Utility of Research 1.4. Concept of theory 1.5. Empiricism 1.6. Deductive and Inductive theory 1.7. Summary 1.8. Key Words/Abbreviations 1.9. Learning Activity 1.10.Unit End Questions (MCQ and Descriptive) 1.11.References 1.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, you will be able to:  State meaning, objectives and utility of Research  Explain Concept of Theory  Describe Deductive and Inductive Theories 1.1 INTRODUCTION Research is a process by which one acquires dependable and useful information about a phenomenon or a process. It may be broadly defined “as a systematic inquiry towards 4 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

learning a complex social phenomenon or a process”. It follows the scientific approach to gain knowledge. The most important characteristic of this approach is its thrust on objectivity. To what extent is the research using scientific approach is useful in studying the problems of society? How can we acquire reliable knowledge about the various aspects of human experience? When we observe certain objects or phenomena, we are often unaware of our biases, we do not question them and so we attribute our observations entirely to the objects or phenomena being observed. In this process, it is possible to arrive at right decision on the basis of wrong reasons or vice versa. This questions the process of observation. Was the observation error free? Every method of knowing has certain limitations. While observing are we aware of our limitations? Any study to create new knowledge or aims to increase existing fund of knowledge may it be through observation or by some other methods, is called research if it takes into account the biases, the errors and limitations. As such, research may be described as systematic and critical investigation of phenomena toward increasing the stream of knowledge. 1.2 MEANING Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. To research is to purposely and methodically search for new knowledge and practical solutions in the form of answers to questions formulated beforehand. Research is also defined as a systematic inquiry that investigates hypotheses, suggests new interpretations of data or texts, and poses new questions for future research to explore. Usually Research consists of: Asking a question that nobody has asked before;  Doing the necessary work to find the answer; and  Communicating the knowledge you have acquired to a larger audience.  Research is not a solitary activity –but an act of community. As a member of the research community, you are building on the knowledge that others have acquired before you and providing a road map for those who come after you. You are adding to a body of work that will never be complete. Research is an ongoing, collaborative process with no finish line in sight. According to Babbie, 1998, Research involves inductive and deductive methods. Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify 5 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed; deductive methods verify the hypothesized principles through observations. The purposes are different: one (inductive method) is aimed at or directed to develop explanations, and the other (deductive method) is aimed at or directed to test the validity of the explanations Research offers an opportunity for all development professionals to make differences in their practice. There is no doubt about the fact that development professionals will be more effective practitioner guided by the findings of research. Research deals with those methods and issues, which are useful in evaluating programmes and practices Scientific Research Science aims at description, explanation and learning of various objects or phenomena in nature. Research is a special endeavor, which involves systematic and critical investigation towards increasing the stream of knowledge. Now it is easier to define scientific research. We may define scientific research as a “systematic and critical investigation about the natural phenomena to describe, explain and finally to learn the relations among them”. Applied research Applied research seeks answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example medical research, urban studies or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer. The purpose of applied research is about testing theories, often generated by pure science, and applying them to real life situations. Applied scientific research can be about finding out the answer to a specific problem, such as 'Is global warming avoidable?' or 'Does a new type of medicine really help the patients? From these general descriptions we can deduce that research is used to: (1) establish or confirm facts, (2) reaffirm the results of previous research work, (3) solve new or existing problems, (4) support theorems, or develop new theories, (5) expansion on past work in the field, (6) test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, and/or, 6 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

(7) replicate elements of prior projects, or the projects 1.3 OBJECTIVES AND UTILITY OF RESEARCH The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings 1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. (exploratory or formulative research studies) 2. To describe accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. (descriptive research) 3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. (studies with this object known as diagnostic research) 4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables. (such studies are known as hypothesis testing research) According to a famous Hudson Maxim, “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention”. It brings out the significance of research, increased amount of which makes the progress possible. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking, besides promoting the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increasing in modern times. The increasingly complex nature of government and business has raised the use of research in solving operational problems. Research assumes significant role in the formulation of economic policy for both, the government and business. It provides the basis for almost all government policies of an economic system. Government budget formulation, for example, depends particularly on the analysis of needs and desires of people, and the availability of revenues, which requires research. Research helps to formulate alternative policies, in addition to examining the consequences of these alternatives. Thus, research also facilitates the decision-making of policy-makers, although in itself is not a part of research. In the process, research also helps in the proper allocation of a country’s scarce resources. Research is also necessary for collecting information on the social and economic structure of 7 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

an economy to learn the process of change occurring in the country. Collection of statistical information, though not a routine task, involves various research problems. Therefore, large staff of research technicians or experts are engaged by the government these days to undertake this work. Thus, research as a tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation: (i) investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts; (ii) diagnosis of events that are taking place and analysis of the forces underlying them; and (iii) the prognosis i.e., the prediction of future developments (Wilkinson and Bhandarkar, 1979). Research also assumes significance in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry. In several ways, operations research, market research and motivational research are vital and their results assist in taking business decisions. Market research refers to the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the formulation of efficient policies relating to purchases, production and sales. Operational research relates to the application of logical, mathematical, and analytical techniques to find solution to business problems, such as cost minimization or profit maximization, or the optimization problems. Motivational research helps to determine why people behave in the manner they do with respect to market characteristics. More specifically, it is concerned with the analysis of the motivations underlying consumer behavior. All these researches are very useful for business and industry, and are responsible for business decision-making. Research is equally important to social scientists for analyzing the social relationships and seeking explanations to various social problems. It gives intellectual satisfaction of knowing things for the sake of knowledge. It also possesses the practical utility for the social scientist to gain knowledge so as to be able to do something better or in a more efficient manner. The research in social sciences is concerned with both knowledge for its own sake, and knowledge for what it can contribute to solve practical problems 1.4 CONCEPT OF THEORY Theories are formulated to explain, predict, and learn phenomena and, in many cases, to challenge and extend existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding assumptions. The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support a theory of a research study. The theoretical framework introduces and describes the theory that explains why the 8 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

research problem under study exists. A theoretical framework consists of concepts and, together with their definitions and reference to relevant scholarly literature, existing theory that is used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate a learning of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your research paper and that relate to the broader areas of knowledge being considered. The theoretical framework is most often not something readily found within the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research studies for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power. The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways: 1. An explicit statement of theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically. 2. The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods. 3. Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to intellectually transition from simply describing a phenomenon you have observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon. 4. Having a theory helps you identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest and highlights the need to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances. By virtue of its applicative nature, good theory in the social sciences is of value precisely because it fulfills one primary purpose: to explain the meaning, nature, and challenges associated with a phenomenon, often experienced but unexplained in the world in which we live, so that we may use that knowledge and learning to act in more informed and effective ways. Strategies for Developing the Theoretical Framework 9 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

I. Developing the Framework Here are some strategies to develop of an effective theoretical framework: 1. Examine your thesis title and research problem. The research problem anchors your entire study and forms the basis from which you construct your theoretical framework. 2. Brainstorm about what you consider to be the key variables in your research. Answer the question, \"What factors contribute to the presumed effect?\" 3. Review related literature to find how scholars have addressed your research problem. Identify the assumptions from which the author(s) addressed the problem. 4. List the constructs and variables that might be relevant to your study. Group these variables into independent and dependent categories. 5. Review key social science theories that are introduced to you in your course readings and choose the theory that can best explain the relationships between the key variables in your study [note the Writing Tip on this page]. 6. Discuss the assumptions or propositions of this theory and point out their relevance to your research. A theoretical framework is used to limit the scope of the relevant data by focusing on specific variables and defining the specific viewpoint [framework] that the researcher will take in analyzing and interpreting the data to be gathered. It also facilitates the learning of concepts and variables according to given definitions and builds new knowledge by validating or challenging theoretical assumptions. II. Purpose Think of theories as the conceptual basis for learning, analyzing, and designing ways to investigate relationships within social systems. To that end, the following roles served by a theory can help guide the development of your framework.  Means by which new research data can be interpreted and coded for future use,  Response to new problems that have no previously identified solutions strategy,  Means for identifying and defining research problems, 10 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 Means for prescribing or evaluating solutions to research problems,  Ways of discerning certain facts among the accumulated knowledge that are important and which facts are not,  Means of giving old data new interpretations and new meaning,  Means by which to identify important new issues and prescribe the most critical research questions that need to be answered to maximize learning of the issue,  Means of providing members of a professional discipline with a common language and a frame of reference for defining the boundaries of their profession, and  Means to guide and inform research so that it can, in turn, guide research efforts and improve professional practice. 1.5 EMPIRICISM In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. It is one of several views of epistemology, along with rationalism and skepticism. Empiricism emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, rather than innate ideas or traditions. However, empiricists may argue that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences. Historically, empiricism was associated with the \"blank slate\" concept (tabula rasa), according to which the human mind is \"blank\" at birth and develops its thoughts only through experience. Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation. Empiricism, often used by natural scientists, says that \"knowledge is based on experience\" and that \"knowledge is tentative and probabilistic, subject to continued revision and falsification\". Empirical research, including experiments and validated measurement tools, guides the scientific method. A central concept in science and the scientific method is that conclusions must be 11 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

empirically based on the evidence of the senses. Both natural and social sciences use working hypotheses that are testable by observation and experiment. The term semi- empirical is sometimes used to describe theoretical methods that make use of basic axioms, established scientific laws, and previous experimental results in order to engage in reasoned model building and theoretical inquiry. Philosophical empiricists hold no knowledge to be properly inferred or deduced unless it is derived from one's sense-based experience. This view is commonly contrasted with rationalism, which states that knowledge may be derived from reason independently of the senses. For example, John Locke held that some knowledge (e.g. knowledge of God's existence) could be arrived at through intuition and reasoning alone. Similarly Robert Boyle, a prominent advocate of the experimental method, held that we have innate ideas. The main continental rationalists (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were also advocates of the empirical \"scientific method\" Empirical research is research using empirical evidence. It is also a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empiricism values such research more than other kinds. Empirical evidence (the record of one's direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively. Quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the evidence collected (usually called data). Research design varies by field and by the question being investigated. Many researchers combine qualitative and quantitative forms of analysis to better answer questions which cannot be studied in laboratory settings, particularly in the social sciences and in education. 1.6 DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE THEORY Inductive Approach (Inductive Reasoning) Inductive approach, also known in inductive reasoning, starts with the observations and theories are proposed towards the end of the research process as a result of observations. Inductive research “involves the search for pattern from observation and the development of explanations – theories – for those patterns through series of hypotheses”. No theories or hypotheses would apply in inductive studies at the beginning of the research and the researcher is free in terms of altering the direction for the study after the research process had commenced. 12 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

It is important to stress that inductive approach does not imply disregarding theories when formulating research questions and objectives. This approach aims to generate meanings from the data set collected in order to identify patterns and relationships to build a theory; however, inductive approach does not prevent the researcher from using existing theory to formulate the research question to be explored. Inductive reasoning is based on learning from experience. Patterns, resemblances and regularities in experience (premises) are observed in order to reach conclusions (or to generate theory). Application of Inductive Approach (Inductive Reasoning) in Business Research Inductive reasoning begins with detailed observations of the world, which moves towards more abstract generalizations and ideas. When following an inductive approach, beginning with a topic, a researcher tends to develop empirical generalizations and identify preliminary relationships as he progresses through his research. No hypotheses can be found at the initial stages of the research and the researcher is not sure about the type and nature of the research findings until the study is completed. As it is illustrated in figure below, “inductive reasoning is often referred to as a “bottom-up” approach to knowing, in which the researcher uses observations to build an abstraction or to describe a picture of the phenomenon that is being studied” Figure 1.1 Business Research Limitations of an inductive approach A conclusion drawn on the basis of an inductive method can never be proven, but it can be invalidated. 13 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Example You observe 1000 flights from low-cost airlines. All of them experience a delay, which is in line with your theory. However, you can never prove that flight 1001 will also be delayed. Still, the larger your dataset, the more reliable the conclusion. Deductive Approach (Deductive Reasoning) A deductive approach is concerned with “developing a hypothesis (or hypotheses) based on existing theory, and then designing a research strategy to test the hypothesis” It has been stated that “deductive means reasoning from the particular to the general. If a causal relationship or link seems to be implied by a particular theory or case example, it might be true in many cases. A deductive design might test to see if this relationship or link did obtain on more general circumstances”. Deductive approach can be explained by the means of hypotheses, which can be derived from the propositions of the theory. In other words, deductive approach is concerned with deducting conclusions from premises or propositions. Deduction begins with an expected pattern “that is tested against observations, whereas induction begins with observations and seeks to find a pattern within them” Advantages of Deductive Approach Deductive approach offers the following advantages: 1. Possibility to explain causal relationships between concepts and variables 2. Possibility to measure concepts quantitatively 3. Possibility to generalize research findings to a certain extent Limitations of a deductive approach The conclusions of deductive reasoning can only be true if all the premises set in the inductive study are true and the terms are clear. Example  All dogs have fleas (premise) 14 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 Benno is a dog (premise)  Benno has fleas (conclusion) Based on the premises we have, the conclusion must be true. However, if the first premise turns out to be false, the conclusion that Benno has fleas cannot be relied upon. 1.7 SUMMARY Any study to create new knowledge or aims to increase existing fund of knowledge, may it be through observation or by some other methods, is called research. Whereas the scientific research is a systematic and critical investigation about the natural phenomena to describe, explain and finally to learn the relations among them. Scientific research starts with facts and then moves towards theorizing. Theory may be defined as “a set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions and t proposition that present a systematic view of a phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of predicting and explaining the phenomena. There are several purposes to be served by a theory in the development of science. First, theory summarizes and puts in order the existing knowledge in a particular area. Secondly, theory provides a provisional explanation for observed events and relationships. Lastly, theory permits the prediction of the occurrence of phenomena and enables the investigator to postulate and, eventually, to discover hitherto unknown phenomena. Scientific method consists of three basic steps; systematic observation, classification and interpretation of data. We can classify research studies by its purposes into the following categories: Exploratory or Formulative Research, Descriptive Research, Diagnostic Research and Evaluative Research. The major characteristics of any research, are objectivity, precision, design and verifiability. Broadly, research studies are of two types; Fundamental or Basic Research and Applied Research. The major aim of Fundamental or Basic Research is to expand the frontiers of knowledge without any intention of practical application. Applied research is directed towards the solution of an immediate, specific and practical problem. 1.8 KEY WORDS/ABBREVIATIONS  Refereed Journal - A type of scholarly journal. Includes peer reviewed journals and also journals that are reviewed by an editorial board of experts rather than anonymous volunteer experts. 15 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 Research Database - A search tool that contains bibliographic information about articles (or other types of resources) and sometimes the full-text as well.  Research Question - The question that your research project is designed to answer. Your research question focuses your topic into a manageable area, helps you decide what information is relevant, and helps you organize your paper.  Periodical - A publication that is issued at regular (periodic) intervals. Includes journals, magazines, newspapers, etc.  Plagiarism - A form of academic dishonesty that involves quoting, paraphrasing or otherwise using another author’s work without properly documenting the source of the information. It is plagiarism even if it is unintentional. 1.9 LEARNING ACTIVITY 1. Discuss the role of Concept of theory in Research Methodology __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 2. Create two different hypotheses with the help of deductive and inductive theory __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 1.10 UNIT END QUESTIONS (MCQ AND DESCRIPTIVE) A. Descriptive Types Questions 1. Define the terms ‘research’ and ‘scientific research’. 2. List down the Objectives of Research. 3. Define the Concept of theory? 4. Define empiricism. 5. Compare the deductive and inductive theory. B. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is not an essential element of report writing? 16 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

a. Research Methodology 17 b. Reference c. Conclusion d. None of these 2. Testing hypothesis is a ________ a. Inferential statistics b. Descriptive statistics c. Data preparation d. Data analysis 3. What is the purpose of doing research? a. To identify problem b. To find the solution c. Both a and b d. None of these 3. Which method can be applicable for collecting qualitative data? a. Artifacts (Visual) b. People c. Media products (Textual, Visual and sensory) d. All of these 5. Which of the following is non-probability sampling? a. Snowball b. Random c. Cluster d. Stratified Answer 1. d 2. a 3. c 4. d 5. a 1.11 REFERENCES CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 Snelson, Chareen L. (March 2016). \"Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research\". International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 15 (1): 160940691562457. doi:10.1177/1609406915624574.  Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.  \"Data Collection Methods\".  Kara H. (2012). Research and Evaluation for Busy Practitioners: A Time-Saving Guide, p. 102. Bristol: The Policy Press.  Kara H (2012). Research and Evaluation for Busy Practitioners: A Time-Saving Guide, p. 114. Bristol: The Policy Press. 18 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

UNIT 2: FOUNDATIONS OF RESEARCH-II Structure 2.0. Learning Objectives 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Types of research 2.3. Main components of any research work 2.4. Research Process 2.5. Summary 2.6. Key Words/Abbreviations 2.7. Learning Activity 2.8. Unit End Questions (MCQ and Descriptive) 2.9. References 2.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, you will be able to:  Identify different types of Research  Explain main components of Research  Discuss the Research Process 2.1 INTRODUCTION Writing a research report is a valuable experience for a researcher. It is an essential part of the research process. Most research reports are either in the form of research articles or abstracts or thesis and dissertations or project reports. These reports are the vehicle for researchers to communicate the results of an investigation to others across space and time. The research journal articles, master's degree dissertations doctoral thesis and project reports, all have the common objective -to disseminate research results and findings, ideas and information. There are, of course, other ways of communicating research results, may be 19 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

through oral presentation in a seminar or conference or on-line journals in a website. Reporting research findings and results are of paramount importance in all areas of research. Because, it is hardly worth doing research if it is not disseminated. The purpose of writing a research report is to communicate the ideas and information with other people 2.2 TYPES OF RESEARCH It is imperative that a marketer has to have a broad learning of the various types of research, in general. There are eleven types of research depending on whether it is primarily “fundamental” or “applied” in nature. They are as follows: 1. Applied research, also known as decisional research, use existing knowledge as an aid to the solution of some given problem or set of problems. 2. Fundamental research, frequently called basic or pure research, seeks to extend the boundaries of knowledge in a given area with no necessary immediate application to existing problems. 3. Futuristic research: Futures research is the systematic study of possible future conditions. It includes analysis of how those conditions might change as a result of the implementation of policies and actions, and the consequences of these policies and actions. 4. Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. It tries to discover answers to the questions who, what, when and sometimes how. Here the researcher attempts to describe or define a subject, often by creating a profile of a group of problems people, or events. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present 5. Explanatory research: Explanatory research goes beyond description and attempts to explain the reasons for the phenomenon that the descriptive research only observed. The research would use theories or at least hypothesis to account for the forces that caused a certain phenomenon to occur. 6. Predictive research: If we can provide a plausible explanation for an event after it has occurred, it is desirable to be able to predict when and in what situations the event will occur. This research is just as rooted in theory as explanation. This research calls for a high order of inference making. In business research, prediction is found in studies conducted to evaluate specific courses of action or to forecast current and future values. 20 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

7. Analytical research: The researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material. 8. Quantitative research: Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. 9. Qualitative research: It is concerned with qualitative phenomenon (i.e.) phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. This type of research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires, using in depth interviews for the purpose. Other techniques of such research are word association test, sentence completion test, story completion tests and similar other projective techniques. Attitude or opinion research i.e., research designed to find out how people feel or what the think about a particular subject or institution is also qualitative research. 10. Conceptual research: Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. 11. Empirical research: It is appropriate when proof is sought that certain variables affect other variables in some way. Evidence gathered through experiments or empirical studies is today considered to be the most powerful support possible for a give hypothesis. 2.3 MAIN COMPONENTS OF ANY RESEARCH WORK Sections of a Research Report The number of sections in a final report and the order in which they appear above almost never vary. Almost all research reports contain the same components. These sections could be presented in three major headings. They are; The beginning, The main body, and the end The Beginning The beginning or the preliminary section begins with a cover page (and the second cover page).' The title page consists of the title of the study, the author's name, institutional affiliation and degree for which the report is submitted, date of submission of the report. Besides a title page this section includes acknowledgements page, table of contents, list of tables, list of figures, and an abstract. Cover Page 21 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

A cover page reflects the nature of your study. It should be brief and to the point. The title should be written either in bold letters or upper-lower case and be placed in the central portion of the top of the cover page. We have reproduced the cover page of a research report in Box. The title should be precise and descriptive. Now a-days most of the titles are used by the search engines for locating reference materials Table of Contents A table of contents is essential for any report. It indicates the logical arrangements of the sections and sub-sections in a report. The title of the chapters is written in capitals and the sections within chapters are written in small letters. List of Tables The table of contents page is followed by the page consisting a list of tables which have appeared in the main body of the report. The list contains the exact title of each table, table number and the page number on which each table has appeared. List of Figures The page containing 'list of figures' presented inside a research report comes immediately after the 'list of tables'. The difference between the two is that the figure headings are not typed in capitals where is the headings of a table are typed in capitals in the text of a report. Acknowledgements Acknowledgements are used to indicate the basis of a study, support, review of prior draft of the manuscript and assistance in conducting the research and preparing or typing a manuscript Abstract The abstract, on page 2 of the research report, describes the study in 100-150 words. Included in this a comprehensive summary of the study, the procedures used, findings and the conclusions of the study. It increases the readership of the article or a research study because it provides a review of the complete study. The Main Body The main body or the text of the thesis usually consists of four chapters. They are (i) introduction, (ii) design of the study, (iii) analysis and interpretation of data and (iv) summary and conclusion. But in a few cases you will find five chapters. 22 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Let us discuss these chapters with their functions Chapter 1 Introduction The introduction gives a broad and general overview of the subject. It introduces the research topic with a proper background and motivate the readers to read a report thoroughly. This chapter includes: Statement of the problem: A clear and definitive statement of what was studied. Purpose of the study: A brief statement of why the study was done; a reason for the research or potential uses for or contribution to be made by the results. Need for the study (significance of the study, justification for the study): An elaboration of the purpose of undertaking the study and establishing the importance of the problem. Scope of the study: The scope of the study as identified by the researcher including information on what subjects and variables were studied; what data gathering instruments were used; and the details about the methods and the time and duration of the study. Limitations: An indication of the inherent weaknesses in the study; factors that could not be controlled adequately and could have affected the results. For example, a researcher for completing a course on project work may not be able to interview J hundreds of people. Statement of objectives: The objective(s) of the study stated precisely. ! Hypotheses: Prediction of the eventual outcomes of the study. Definition of terms: A list of important terms used during the investigation and reporting. In most cases the above sub-sections of introduction chapter are common, though practices vary. Some research reports follow the 'house rules'/guidelines provided by the institution while writing this chapter. In some cases the review of related literature is also presented in the first chapter and is placed immediately after providing the theoretical background to the problem. In experimental research it becomes essential to review related studies to formulate the hypotheses. In lieu of stating hypothesis, sometimes authors may provide a list of research questions that the study proposes to answer. Regardless of the specific format and organization, after reading an introduction section the reader should have a clear learning of what is being studied and why it is being Studied. Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature It is a well-organized chapter that shows how the present study is different from other studies. Through a review, a theoretical basis and justification for the present study is formed. It is important that the authors establish the connection between their study and similar research or published materials. By citing previous research or theses pertinent to a 23 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

problem, you are able to set the stage for showing where your particular study fits into the overall scheme of a project work. While writing the review of literature one way is to pull these studies into an organized pattern i.e. using a funnel approach. You could begin with broad statements I that can then be used to isolate your research problem from the vast number of topics covered in a field. Continue this funneling systematically eliminating irrelevant research and then summaries those points that form a basis 1 for your study. One should note that the review should be the analytical summary of the related literature which tells a reader about the important studies and theories that preceded the research work. Functions It is important for you to identify the literature you have reviewed only those which are pertinent because they permit you to establish the importance of your study. Some references may be important for developing a documented rationale. The review of related literature provides a synthesis of research findings, it interrelates the research findings with existing theories and research works. For example, application or a theory or model from one field to a totally new area of study. The review provides a new perspective to the study supported by the positive and negative evidence presented in the various research documents. A synthesis is thus the argument or new creation developed from the pre- existing materials. The research review is also oriented and guided by the purpose and problem(s) of a study. The review focuses on addressing the purpose and problem(s) of a problem directly. A review presents on extended narrative that demonstrates and warrants the argument with direct quotations, citations and graphics presentation. Citation and referencing There are many styles for reporting the review of research. For this purpose the publication style manual of the American Psychological Association, 1994 could be used. While referencing and citing in a research review the reviewer should keep in mind two important issues: i) Citations are placed in the text either to refer the reader to additional relevant information on the topic or to provide credit to the original source of the idea or information presented; ii) References are provided to aid the reader in locating the original source of information cited in the review. A citation in the text is required whenever the idea or information is not the original idea of the reviewer. If a reviewer quotes directly the basic substance of the information from a source, a citation must be provided. To use the information or ideas of another researcher 24 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

author without proper acknowledgement through a citation is a serious issue. The names of the author(s) and the publication data are always provided in a citation. For example, John, W.Best, and Kahn, V. James, Research in Education (New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India, 2001), pp. 61-80. Both author and date are essential information because a specific author or group of authors may have written more than one document included in the review. Thus for a reader to learn which document is being cited, both the author and data are 45 Research Reports and Applications necessary in every citation. In case of a direct quotation (identified by the use of quotation marks the page from which the quotation was taken must be provided. Page numbers are always required for direct quotations or statistics. Design of the Study The next major chapter of a research report is the design of the study. This is the third chapter of the research report. This section is generally identified by Title, Methods or Methodology or Procedures or Design of the Study. Here the author provides a description of the procedures for selection of sample/research participants, research instruments and procedures for the administration of tools. The section is highly structured and contains detailed statement explaining the research methodology used to conduct the study. Ideally, this chapter should be written in such a way that would enable a reader to replicate the study using the same methodology This chapter includes the procedures and instruments, results, and finally the report's main body which concludes with the discussion section. The discussion section serves the function of presenting the outcomes of the study. Here the author provides interpretation of findings, culminating with a conclusion that provides an answer to the research problem. This section of a research report serves six major functions. They are: Summarizing the findings. Planning and interpreting of what the results mean to achieve meaningful conclusions and generalizations Theorizing or theory development, either as support for existing theory or for the establishment of original theory Recommendation or application - since results of a research have theoretical and practical implications for altering professional practices, the discussion section provides the platform for making recommendations. Suggesting extensions -this section of a report includes suggestions for future research. The author should concludes the main body of a report that reflects whether the original research problem is better understood, or even resolved as a result of this study. The End: The last section labeled \"References\", and \"appendices\" appear at the end of a research report. References The purpose of the 'references' section is to enable the reader to find out the 25 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

books that have been referred. The reference section is a list of works of other authors that have been cited in the report. The references are listed alphabetically according to the last name of the first author of the work. A bibliography contains a reference to all background material. The reference section lists only those works that have been referred in the report. If you have more than one work by the same author or authors, the works should be listed according to data of publication. For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle) initials followed by periods. Appendix An appendix is an optional supplement to a research report. If there is a long article that you feel is essential for learning and replication, probably should be included as an appendix. For example, complicated statistical analysis, published articles, copies of questionnaires, inventories, tabular formation, special materials or illustrations of testing equipment’s may include as appendices at the end of a report. 2.4 RESEARCH PROCESS There are a variety of approaches to research in any field of investigation, irrespective of whether it is applied research or basic research. Each particular research study will be unique in some ways because of the particular time, setting, environment, and place in which it is being undertaken. Nevertheless, all research endeavors share a common goal of furthering our learning of the problem and thus all traverse through certain basic stages, forming a process called the research process. A learning of the research process is necessary to effectively carry out research and sequencing of the stages inherent in the process. These 8 stages in the research process are; 1. Identifying the problem. 2. Reviewing literature. 3. Setting research questions, objectives, and hypotheses. 4. Choosing the study design. 26 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

5. Deciding on the sample design. 6. Collecting data. 7. Processing and analyzing data. 8. Writing the report. Figure 2.1 The research process outlined above is, in essence, part and parcel of a research proposal. It 27 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

is an outline of your commitment that you intend to follow in executing a research study. A close examination of the above stages reveals that each of these stages, by and large, is dependent upon the others. One cannot analyze data (step 7) unless he has collected data (step 6). It is also true that one cannot write a report (step 8) unless he has collected and analyzed data (step 7). Research then is a system of interdependent related stages. Violation of this sequence can cause irreparable harm to the study. It is also true that several alternatives are available to the researcher during each of the stages stated above. A research process can be compared with a route map. 1. Selecting the research area. You are expected to state that you have selected the research area due to professional and personal interests in the area and this statement must be true. The importance of this first stage in the research process is often underestimated by many students. If you find research area and research problem that is genuinely interesting to you it is for sure that the whole process of writing your dissertation will be much easier. Therefore, it is never too early to start thinking about the research area for your dissertation. 2. Formulating research aim, objectives and research questions or developing hypotheses. The choice between the formulation of research questions and the development of hypotheses depends on your research approach as it is discussed further below in more details. Appropriate research aims and objectives or hypotheses usually result from several attempts and revisions and these need to be mentioned in Methodology chapter. It is critically important to get your research questions or hypotheses confirmed by your supervisor before moving forward with the work. 3. Conducting the literature review. Literature review is usually the longest stage in the research process. Actually, the literature review starts even before the formulation of research aims and objective; because you have to check if exactly the same research problem has been addressed before. Nevertheless, the main part of the literature review is conducted after the formulation of research aim and objectives. You have to use a wide range of secondary data sources such as books, newspapers, magazines, journals, online articles etc. 28 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

4. Selecting methods of data collection. Data collection method(s) need to be selected on the basis of critically analyzing advantages and disadvantages associated with several alternative data collection methods. In studies involving primary data collection, in-depth discussions of advantages and disadvantages of selected primary data collection method(s) need to be included in methodology. 5. Collecting the primary data. Primary data collection needs to be preceded by a great level of preparation and pilot data collection may be required in case of questionnaires. Primary data collection is not a compulsory stage for all dissertations and you will skip this stage if you are conducting a desk-based research. 6. Data analysis. Analysis of data plays an important role in the achievement of research aim and objectives. Data analysis methods vary between secondary and primary studies, as well as, between qualitative and quantitative studies. 7. Reaching conclusions. Conclusions relate to the level of achievement of research aims and objectives. In this final part of your dissertation you will have to justify why you think that research aims and objectives have been achieved. Conclusions also need to cover research limitations and suggestions for future research. 8. Completing the research. Following all of the stages described above, and organizing separate chapters into one file leads to the completion of the first draft. The first draft of your dissertation needs to be prepared at least one month before the submission deadline. This is because you will need to have sufficient amount of time to address feedback of your supervisor. 2.5 SUMMARY Much has been dealt in detail in the previous lesson about the processes involved in research. The researcher may be glued into the technicalities in doing a research, however, the research effort goes in vain, if it is reported in a systematic manner to concerned decision makers. The report should be presented in a way what the decision maker needs and wishes to know. The decision maker is interested only in the results rather than complicated tables and he/she should be convinced of the usefulness of the findings. He / she must have sufficient appreciation of the method to realize its strengths and weaknesses. Research report is the only one which communicates with the decision maker. Research reports are the only tangible products of a research project and only documentary evidence on which the decision maker can make decisions. Management decisions on the problem 29 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

concerned are guided by the report and presentation. Moreover, the report should be meticulously presented as this would form part of a secondary data at a later stage. Any reference to this report should convey information in an unambiguous manner with clarity 2.6 KEY WORDS/ABBREVIATIONS  Secondary Source - A source that is someone’s analysis, interpretation, synthesis or response to primary sources. Scholarly articles and monographs are secondary sources. In doing research, you use secondary sources to inform yourself and back up (or challenge) your own ideas.  Serial - A type of publication that puts out material in successive parts on an ongoing basis. Serials include periodicals and some series of books, audio and audio video resources.  Statistical Source - A reference source that provides tables and visual presentations of statistical information.  Volume - Serials are published in numbered volumes, usually by year. Volumes are further subdivided by issue.  White Paper - A report on a particular subject by a government agency, consulting firm or group of researchers. They are often considered authoritative on their topic. 2.7 LEARNING ACTIVITY 1. Prepare a draft report of Research project keeping in mind the basic structure. __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. How the data collection plays an important part in Research Process __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 2.8 UNIT END QUESTIONS (MCQ AND DESCRIPTIVE) A. Descriptive Types Questions 1. Explain different Types of research. 30 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

2. Discuss, what are the Main components of any research work; 3. Explain Research Process? 4. Describe the citations and Bibliography? 5. Differentiate between various chapters of Research Project. B. Multiple Choice Questions 1. In group interview there are _______ a. One interviewer and one interviewee b. More than one interviewer and one interviewee c. One interviewer and more than one interviewee d. More than One interviewer and more than one interviewee 2. Which of the following are associated with behavioral observation? a. Non-verbal analysis b. Linguistic analysis c. Spatial analysis d. All of these 3. Uniting various qualitative methods with quantitative methods can be called as…….. a. Coalesce b. Triangulation c. Bipartite d. Impassive 4. Which of the following is the first step in starting the research process? a. Searching sources of information to locate problem. b. Survey of related literature c. Identification of problem d. Searching for solutions to the problem 5. A common test in research demands much priority on a. Reliability b. Useability c. Objectivity d. All of the above 31 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Answer 1. c 2. d 3. b 4. c 5. d 2.9 REFERENCES  Rozakis, Laurie (2007). Schaum's Quick Guide to Writing Great Research Papers. McGraw Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0071511223 – via Google Books.  Singh, Michael; Li, Bingyi (6 October 2009). \"Early career researcher originality: Engaging Richard Florida's international competition for creative workers\" (PDF). Centre for Educational Research, University of Western Sydney. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.  Callaham, Michael; Wears, Robert; Weber, Ellen L. (2002). \"Journal Prestige, Publication Bias, and Other Characteristics Associated With Citation of Published Studies in Peer-Reviewed Journals\". JAMA. 287: 2847–50. doi:10.1001/jama.287.21.2847. PMID 12038930.  US Department of Labor (2006). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006–2007 edition. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0071472883 – via Google Books.  J. Scott Armstrong & Tad Sperry (1994). \"Business School Prestige: Research versus Teaching\" (PDF). Energy & Environment. 18: 13–43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2011. 32 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

UNIT 3: PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION & FORMULATION: Structure 3.0. Learning Objectives 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Problem Identification 3.3. Research Questions 3.4. Research Objectives 3.5. Formulating the problem statement 3.6. Summary 3.7. Key Words/Abbreviations 3.8. Learning Activity 3.9. Unit End Questions (MCQ and Descriptive) 3.10. References 3.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, you will be able to:  Explain Problem Identification  State Research questions and objectives  Discuss Formulation of the problem statement 3.1 INTRODUCTION Before you create a research proposal, you need to identify a problem to address and then a question or questions to ask regarding your targeted problem. This chapter first discusses the nature of a research problem, where you might get ideas for a problem to investigate, narrowing down or focusing on a particular problem to address, and writing good research 33 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

questions. It then discusses finding literature that is relevant to and helpful in clarifying your targeted problem and question(s). We often think we learn problems when we don’t. For example, when students encounter difficulties with word problems in math, teachers may initially think that students have not mastered the basic skills that would allow them to carry out the needed computations. However, the difficulty may actually lie in poor reading skills, which prevent the students from identifying the words in math problems. As another example, when students do not hand in homework assignments or participate in class, some might be inclined to think that the students are not motivated. While there may be motivational issues, motivation may not be the only factor. A high school student may have an evening job that demands considerable time and energy. A younger student may be trying desperately to camouflage poor or nonexistent skills. In some cases, the chosen instructional strategy may not be well matched to the student’s cognitive or attention level. Therefore, it is crucial that researchers accurately identify the problem they want to study. 3.2 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION What Is a Research Problem? A research problem, or phenomenon as it might be called in many forms of qualitative research, is the topic you would like to address, investigate, or study, whether descriptively or experimentally. It is the focus or reason for engaging in your research. It is typically a topic, phenomenon, or challenge that you are interested in and with which you are at least somewhat familiar. Where Do You Find a Problem or Phenomenon to Study? Since a research problem is usually something you have some knowledge of, that personal experience is often a good starting point. Realistically, you have to select something that you are interested in, because you are going to commit yourself to a significant investment of time and energy. Thus, if you are not personally interested, it will be difficult to sustain the effort needed to complete the research with any measure of quality or validity. You may want to talk to teachers, counselors, administrators, psychologists, or others about some of the problems they face. For example, your ideas may come out of experiences like Johnny’s shout outs, Madeline’s reading rate, or Esmerelda’s trouble with math that were discussed in Chapter 1. You may find an interesting idea that way and, in addition, address something that may have social significance beyond your research project, thesis, or dissertation. Moreover, by addressing the questions of practicing educators, you may develop important relationships with future research partners and participants. Narrowing or Clarifying Your Problem Focus A problem statement such as “Students can’t 34 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

read,” is not clear because many aspects of reading, including discrete reading skills and strategies, may contribute to reading difficulties. Alternatively, “Students cannot find the main ideas in reading passages,” is much clearer and potentially much easier to measure and address, since one can define main idea and determine student performance related to this behavior in a number of ways. So, whether in the classroom, the physician’s office, or the mechanic’s shop, defining or diagnosing a problem is key to designing and implementing effective interventions to address it. Without adequately defining the problem, researchers may find themselves going off on a “goose chase” to tackle a vague phenomenon, trying to deal with symptoms rather than root causes, and wasting time, becoming frustrated, or even making the actual problem worse. Later in this chapter, you will read about the use of standardized test scores for entrance to undergraduate or graduate school as an example research topic. While that may be a good topic, it is not well defined; it needs to be narrowed by thinking about the kind of information that the researcher wants to find out. Whether you are interested in the kinds of tests that are used, the average cutoff scores, or the degree to which scores predict college grade point average, as examples, a topic has to be specific enough to be clearly defined and yield helpful results from a later literature search. After you have narrowed down your topic or problem, searching and reviewing existing literature may further clarify your research approach. Moreover, by identifying where the conclusions of previous research are unclear or where gaps may exist in the literature, you will be better prepared to write good research questions. 3.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS What Is a Research Question? A research question is a way of expressing your interest in a problem or phenomenon. Research questions are not necessarily an attempt to answer the many philosophical questions that often arise in schools, and they are certainly not intended to be an avenue for grinding personal axes regarding classroom or school issues. You may have more than one research question for a study, depending on the complexity and breadth of your proposed work. Each question should be clear and specific, refer to the problem or phenomenon, reflect an intervention in experimental work, and note the target population or participants. Identifying a research question will provide greater focus to your research or clarify the direction of your investigation, whether the research is descriptive or experimental. Quite significantly, a well-written research question will also shed light on appropriate research methods (e.g., specify the intended actions of the variables and how an experimental intervention might be measured). 35 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

The purpose of a problem statement is to: 1. Introduce the reader to the importance of the topic being studied. The reader is oriented to the significance of the study and the research questions or hypotheses to follow. 2. Places the problem into a particular context that defines the parameters of what is to be investigated. 3. Provides the framework for reporting the results and indicates what is probably necessary to conduct the study and explain how the findings will present this information Characteristics and Examples of Good Research Questions Given the characteristics of good research questions, let’s take a look at some examples, and non-examples, of good research questions. A few of each type and includes explanations of why a researcher would categorize them as one or the other. Here are some additional examples of good experimental research questions from existing literature: • Will the use of the Self-Regulated Strategy Development model for written expression improve the composition skills of students with ADHD (Reid & Lienemann, 2006)? • Would students in classrooms of teachers receiving professional development in early literacy skills show greater gains in cognitive development when compared to those in control classrooms (Landry, Swank, Smith, Assel, & Gunnewig, 2006)? • Would a combined repeated reading and question generation intervention improve the reading achievement of fourth- through eighth-grade students with learning disabilities or who are at risk for reading failure (Therrien, Wickstrom, & Jones, 2006)? How to create a research question 1. Determine the requirements Before you can construct a good research question you will need to determine the requirements of your assignment. What is the purpose of this assignment? Is it to test a proposition? Is it to evaluate a set of data? Is it to state and defend an argument? Check the unit guide and discuss the purpose with your tutor or lecturer. 36 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Determining the purpose will help you to choose the most appropriate topic and word your question in the most useful way. 2. Choose a topic Have you been given a list of topics to choose from or can you choose your own? Check the unit guide and if you are still in doubt discuss the requirements with your tutor or lecturer. The best approach is to choose a topic that you are interested in. If you are interested in your topic you are more likely to invest more time, effort, and creativity into your research and writing. The greater your interest, the more likely it is that you will produce an assignment that is interesting to read. 3. Conduct preliminary research Before you write your question it is advisable to read a small number of relevant academic sources. Limit your reading to recently published material and perhaps one or two influential works on the topic. The goal here is to familiarize yourself with the key debates in academic writing on the topic. Reading in order to develop a research question is different from reading in order to answer it. Focus on the main ideas and arguments (these are usually found in the introduction and the conclusion). You don’t need to read every word or take down extensive notes at this stage, as you will probably come back to the text at a later date. 4. Narrow down your topic Having conducted some preliminary research you should now be in a position to narrow down your topic. In most cases you will need to narrow down your focus to a specific issue or debate within the broader topic. This is because it is much more effective to cover a single issue or dimension of a topic in depth than to skim the surface of several. There are several ways that you might go about narrowing down your topic:  Think about the subtopics, specific issues, and key debates that exist within the broader topic.  Think about the value of focusing on a particular period of time, a particular geographical location, a particular organization, or a particular group of people. 37 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 Think about what you want to say in your assignment. What are the key points and arguments that you want to get across? Which subtopic, timeframe or other limitation would allow you to make these points in the most effective way? 5. Write your question  Now that you have narrowed down your topic you can turn your attention to the wording of your research question.  As mentioned previously, the research question must outline a clear task that you will need to complete.  Remember that you will need to keep the purpose of your assignment in mind when thinking about the wording of your question and that the purpose will differ from discipline to discipline 3.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES What are the research objectives? In general, research objectives describe what we expect to achieve by a project. Research objectives are usually expressed in lay terms and are directed as much to the client as to the researcher. Research objectives may be linked with a hypothesis or used as a statement of purpose in a study that does not have a hypothesis. Even if the nature of the research has not been clear to the layperson from the hypotheses, s/he should be able to learn the research from the objectives. A statement of research objectives can serve to guide the activities of research. Consider the following examples.  Objective: To describe what factors farmers take into account in making such decisions as whether to adopt a new technology or what crops to grow.  Objective: To develop a budget for reducing pollution by a particular enterprise.  Objective: To describe the habitat of the giant panda in China. In the above examples the intent of the research is largely descriptive.  In the case of the first example, the research will end the study by being able to specify factors which emerged in household decisions. 38 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 In the second, the result will be the specification of a pollution reduction budget.  In the third, creating a picture of the habitat of the giant panda in China. These observations might prompt researchers to formulate hypotheses which could be tested in another piece of research. So long as the aim of the research is exploratory, i.e. to describe what is, rather than to test an explanation for what is, a research objective will provide an adequate guide to the research. From research problem to hypothesis, a natural science example From research problem to hypothesis, a social science example 39 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Figure 3.1 Note: although these two examples are set out as primarily natural and social science, respectively, note that this assumes certain prior research choices (as in the research onion). Thus in the first example 'best' appears to be judged from a technical perspective of most successful meadow growth (however that is defined) without reference to more 'social' questions about cost or the desirability of meadow establishment by particular times of year. In the second example it is assumed or already known that the new technologies are effective (and this has both natural/ technical and social science elements in terms of (a) physical/biological input/output relations and (b) financial and non-financial costs and benefits 3.5 FORMULATING THE PROBLEM STATEMENT A persuasive problem statement consists of three parts: 1) the ideal, 2) the reality, and 40 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

3) the consequences for the reader of the feasibility report. Well-constructed problem statements will convince your audience that the problem is real and worth having you investigate. Your strategy is one of contrast: by situating the worth having ideal scenario next to the situation as it exists, you can not only persuade the reader that a problem exists, but then go on to emphasize the consequences of ignoring or addressing the problem. Remember, your problem statement is the backbone of the proposal and the feasibility report. By giving careful consideration to how you construct it now (for the proposal), you can use it when doing your research and writing for the proposal as well as the progress and the feasibility report. When employees show their initiative and problem-solving skills, they are demonstrating the ability to handle complex or unanticipated circumstances in the workplace. Companies rely on individuals and teams who can assess problems effectively and propose viable solutions. This article will aim to provide you with a guide to using your problem-solving skills to create a problem statement. In this article, we've included step-by-step instructions as well as a comprehensive example for reference. What is a problem statement? A problem statement is a statement of a current issue or problem that requires timely action to improve the situation. This statement concisely explains the barrier the current problem places between a functional process and/or product and the current (problematic) state of affairs. This statement is completely objective, focusing only on the facts of the problem and leaving out any subjective opinions. To make this easier, it's recommended that you ask who, what, when, where and why to create the structure for your problem statement. This will also make it easier to create and read, and makes the problem at hand more comprehensible and therefore solvable. The problem statement, in addition to defining a pressing issue, is a lead-in to a proposal of a timely, effective solution. Why is a problem statement important? A problem statement is a communication tool. Problem statements are important to businesses, individuals and other entities to develop projects focused on improvement. Whether the problem is pertaining to badly-needed road work or the logistics for an island construction project; a clear, concise problem statement is typically used by a project's team to help define and learn the problem and develop possible solutions. These statements also 41 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

provide important information that is crucial in decision-making in relation to these projects or processes. Problem statements have multiple purposes The problem statement has other purposes, too. One is to identify and explain the problem in a concise but detailed way to give the reader a comprehensive view of what's going on. This includes identifying who the problem impacts, what the impacts are, where the problem occurs and why and when it needs to be fixed. Another purpose of the problem statement is to clarify what the expected outcomes are. Establishing what the desired situation would look like helps provide an overarching idea about the project. The proposed solution and scope and goals of the solution are made clear through this statement. Problem statements help guide projects The problem statement provides a guide for navigating the project once it begins. It is continually referenced throughout the duration of the project to help the team remain focused and on track. Near the completion of the project, this statement is again referred to in order to verify the solution has been implemented as stated and that it does indeed solve the initial problem. This can help in making sure that proper steps are being taken to prevent the same problem from happening again in the future. Bear in mind that the problem statement does not attempt to define the solution, nor does is outline the methods of arriving at the solution. The problem statement is a statement that initiates the process by recognizing the problem. How to write a problem statement A problem statement is a tool used to gain support and approval of the project from management and stakeholders. As such, it must be accurate and clearly written. There are a few key elements to keep in mind when crafting a problem statement that can have a positive impact on the outcome of the project. 1. Describe how things should work. 2. Explain the problem and state why it matters. 3. Explain your problem's financial costs. 4. Back up your claims. 5. Propose a solution. 6. Explain the benefits of your proposed solution(s). 7. Conclude by summarizing the problem and solution. 42 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

1. Describe how things should work To begin, you'll want to provide some context that will make it easier to learn the problem. Start by explaining how this particular process should work. Concisely describe how the process would function if the current problem didn't exist before mentioning the problem, keeping the end-user in mind. For example, let's say that you have an idea of how to increase efficiency in a process to maximize the best use of resources. You might begin by describing a theoretical situation in which the system is more efficient and working toward your proposal from there, always keeping in mind who, what, when, where and why to keep yourself on track. 2. Explain the problem and state why it matters The problem statement should address not only what the problem is, but why it's a problem and why it's important to solve it. This will wrap the other 'W' questions in organically, in most cases. For example: Why should we fix this problem? Because it affects the efficiency of departments X, Y and Z, wasting resources and driving prices up for consumers. This addresses what the problem is, who is affected and why the problem should be fixed. You may also consider including what attempts have already been made to solve the problem and why they didn't work out. As concisely as possible, explain everything you know about the current problem. 3. Explain your problem's financial costs When you state the problem to decision-makers, you'll want to explain the costs of not fixing it. Seeing as money is the language in which businesspeople speak, it's easiest to frame the problem and proposed solution in terms of financial costs. For example, if the problem is actively costing unnecessary money, preventing the company from making more money or damaging the company's public image (indirectly costing money) make sure you explain it specifically and clearly in terms they learn. Try to pinpoint exact dollar amounts for the problem's cost. 4. Back up your claims Once you claim the problem is costing the company money, you must be prepared to support your claims with evidence. If you neglect this step, you may not be taken seriously. Do your research, cite your sources and have the data ready to present. 5. Propose a solution 43 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

The problem statement should describe your proposed solution(s) to the problem. At this point, you won't be focused on finding a single solution, but you should have a solid grasp on the causes of the problem and be prepared to propose practical approaches to learning and remedying it. State your objectives by suggesting well-thought-out plans for attacking the problem. 6. Explain the benefits of your proposed solution(s) Now, you've described an ideal scenario in which the problem doesn't exist. You've pointed out the problem, explaining the ramifications of choosing not to fix it (using dollars and solid data) and proposed some realistic approaches to finding a solution. Now is a very good time to demonstrate why this solution will work, again focusing on efficiency and the financial impact of your solution. Address what expenses the solution will decrease, how this solution will free up revenue streams and what intangible benefits, such as increased client satisfaction, your solution will bring. This should all fit into a single short paragraph. 7. Conclude by summarizing the problem and solution Now you'll move onto your conclusion. This should consist of the problem, why it needs to be fixed and a summarized argument of why your solution is the best answer to the problem. 3.6 SUMMARY Research is described as a process that moves through a number of key stages, starting with identification of the research idea and problem and finishing with the generalization or write-up. Discussions then moved on to the role of research and how data, information, knowledge, and decision-making relate to each other and research. Issues (or themes) relating to information, such as information validity and quality were raised. The influence that those who commission research have on methods, findings, and thus decision-making, was highlighted. The second half of the unit focused on the theoretical aspects of the first three stages of the generalized research process. Guidance was provided on formulating researchable problems from the initial research idea, explaining why some problems are not researchable problems. The unit then concluded by explaining how to formulate and write research questions or hypotheses and research objectives. 3.7 KEY WORDS/ABBREVIATIONS 44 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 Accuracy- In survey research, accuracy refers to the match between a sample and the target population. It also indicates how close a value obtained from a survey instrument or assessment is to the actual (true) value.  Action Research- Action research conducted to solve problems, inform policy, or improve the way that issues are addressed and problems solved. There are two broad types of action research: participatory action research and practical action research.  Between-Group Variance- A measure of the difference between the means of various groups.  Between-Subject Design- Experimental design in which a different group of subjects are used for each level of the variable under study.  Bootstrapping- A popular method for variance estimation in surveys. It consists of subsampling from the initial sample 3.8 LEARNING ACTIVITY 1. Draw a report how to write a problem statement for management and stakeholder in a company __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 2. Prepare a method to develop Problem Identification. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 3.9 UNIT END QUESTIONS (MCQ AND DESCRIPTIVE) A. Descriptive Types Questions 1. Describe Problem Identification? 2. Discuss the importance of Problem Identification? 3. Describe the Research Questions? 4. Discuss Research Objectives? 5. Draw the process of formulating the problem statement. B. Multiple Choice Questions 45 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

1. Action research means a. A longitudinal research b. An applied research c. A research initiated to solve an immediate problem d. A research with socioeconomic objective 2. A reasoning where we start with certain particular statements and conclude with a universal statement is called a. Deductive Reasoning b. Inductive Reasoning c. Abnormal Reasoning d. Transcendental Reasoning 3. Which of the following variables cannot be expressed in quantitative terms? a. Socio-economic Status b. Marital Status c. Numerical Aptitude d. Professional Attitude 4. The essential qualities of a researcher are a. Spirit of free enquiry b. Reliance on observation and evidence c. Systematization or theorizing of knowledge d. All of these 5. In the process of conducting research ‘Formulation of Hypothesis” is followed by a. Statement of Objectives b. Analysis of Data 46 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

c. Selection of Research Tools d. Collection of Data Answer 1. c 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. c 3.10 REFERENCES  Trochim, W.M.K, (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base.  Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (3rd). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 2008 ISBN 0-13-613550-1 (pages 8–9)  Shields, Patricia and Rangarjan, N. 2013. A Playbook for Research Methods: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Project Management. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press.  Gauch, Jr., H.G. (2003). Scientific method in practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2003 ISBN 0-521-81689-0 (page 3)  Rocco, T.S., Hatcher, T., & Creswell, J.W. (2011). The handbook of scholarly writing and publishing. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons. 2011 ISBN 978-0- 470-39335-2 47 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

UNIT 4: LITERATURE REVIEW Structure 4.0. Learning Objectives 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Meaning of Literature review 4.3. Different types of literature review 4.4. The function of literature reviews 4.5. Uses of literature review 4.6. Source of information 4.7. Summary 4.8. Key Words/Abbreviations 4.9. Learning Activity 4.10.Unit End Questions (MCQ and Descriptive) 4.11.References 4.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, you will be able to:  State meaning of Literature review  Identify different types of literature review  Explain the function of literature reviews  Discuss uses of literature reviews and source of information 4.1 INTRODUCTION Not to be confused with a book review, a literature review surveys scholarly articles, books 48 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

and other sources (e.g. dissertations, conference proceedings) relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, providing a description, summary, and critical evaluation of each work. The purpose is to offer an overview of significant literature published on a topic. A literature review or narrative review is a type of review article. A literature review is a scholarly paper that presents the current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources and do not report new or original experimental work. Most often associated with academic-oriented literature, such reviews are found in academic journals and are not to be confused with book reviews, which may also appear in the same publication. Literature reviews are a basis for research in nearly every academic field. A narrow-scope literature review may be included as part of a peer-reviewed journal article presenting new research, serving to situate the current study within the body of the relevant literature and to provide context for the reader. In such a case, the review usually precedes the methodology and results sections of the work. Producing a literature review may also be part of graduate and post-graduate student work, including in the preparation of a thesis, dissertation, or a journal article. Literature reviews are also common in a research proposal or prospectus (the document that is approved before a student formally begins a dissertation or thesis) 4.2 MEANING OF LITERATURE REVIEW A literature review is a comprehensive summary of previous research on a topic. The literature review surveys scholarly articles, books, and other sources relevant to a particular area of research. The review should enumerate, describe, summarize, objectively evaluate and clarify this previous research. It should give a theoretical base for the research and help you (the author) determine the nature of your research. The literature review acknowledges the work of previous researchers, and in so doing, assures the reader that your work has been well conceived. It is assumed that by mentioning a previous work in the field of study, that the author has read, evaluated, and assimilated that work into the work at hand. A literature review creates a \"landscape\" for the reader, giving her or him a full learning of the developments in the field. This landscape informs the reader that the author has indeed assimilated all (or the vast majority of) previous, significant works in the field into her or his research. \"In writing the literature review, the purpose is to convey to the reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. The 49 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

literature review must be defined by a guiding concept (e.g., your research objective, the problem or issue you are discussing, or your argumentative thesis). It is not just a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries. Analysis and synthesis Writing a literature review involves analyzing and synthesizing previous research. Analysis and synthesis may appear to be two opposing methods: ‘Whereas analysis involves systematically breaking down the relevant literature into its constituent parts, synthesis is the act of making connections between those parts identified in the analysis’ (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2012, p.84). In a literature review, however, you will notice the synergy between analysis and synthesis as you zoom-in to closely analyze an individual source, then zoom-out to consider it in relation to the broader field. After analyzing a range of sources, you should synthesize the relevant sources, connecting, linking and positioning them against each other, in order to identify the recurring themes, trends and areas of agreement or disagreement within your research field. Example of analysis and synthesis Let’s look at an example of analysis and synthesis. After reading and analyzing individual sources, you have identified a key concept relating to your research topic as well as a key resource (A) relating to that concept. The argument in resource A is supported by another article (B), which is in turn supported by article (D). However, you have also found article C, which contradicts the argument presented in resource A. One way to synthesize these texts, is to group together the texts supporting your key resource (articles B and D), and explain that article C presents contradictory results. Then, you would need to examine the methodological differences or any other possible reasons for the contradictory results. 50 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

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