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Description: E-LESSON-1 SOCIOLOGY-1


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B.A.English 2 All right are reserved with CU-IDOL INTRODUCTION TO INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY SOCIOLOGY Course Code: BAQ109 Semester: First SLM Unit : 1 E-Lesson: 1 Unit-1(BAQ-109)

INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION 33 After studying this unit, you will be able to: Sociology is a science of society. It means Give a definition of sociology Sociologists study society. To have an understanding of the Nature of Society is a web of social relations. It is a Sociology. network of social relations. To view the Development of Sociology as a Science. Understand Relevance of Sociology . . Unit-1(BAQ-10190)9) INASlTl ITriUgThEt OarFeDrIeSsTeArNvCeEd AwNitDh OCNUL-IIDNEOLLEARNING

TOPICS TO BE COVERED 4 > Definition & Development of INTRODUCTION TO sociology SOCIOLOGY > Nature of Sociology > Relevance and Influence of Sociology Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

SOCIOLOGY • Sociology is a discipline that helps us to understand our social 5 world, while at the same time helping us to question the arrangement of it. • Sociology begins with the assumption that no one is an island, we are not simply individuals with complete autonomy and self- determination, but rather social beings. • Sociology, as compared to other social sciences, like economics and political science, is a young discipline. • One could say, it is about a hundred-and-fifty years old but there has been a more rapid development of the subject in the last fifty to sixty years. • This is partly due to desire, particularly, after the Second World War, to understand more about the behaviour of people in social situations. • All social science subjects are concerned with the behaviour of people but each of them studies different aspects. Sociology, however, is concerned with social relations in general, and with social groups and institutions in particular. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

SOCIOLOGY 6 All right are reserved with CU-IDOL • Sociology is a way of understanding the world that requires empirical research and what American Sociologist C. • Wright Mills called a “sociological imagination,” the ability to connect our individual lives to the world around us, as well as to the lives of those with which we share this world. • The term Sociology was coined by Auguste Comte, a French philosopher, in 1839. • The teaching of sociology as a separate discipline started in 1876 in the United States, in 1889 in France, in 1907 in Great Britain, after World War I in Poland and India, in 1925 in Egypt and Mexico, and in 1947 in Sweden. Unit-1(BAQ-109)

7 • Sociology is the youngest of all the Social Sciences. • The word Sociology is derived from the Latin word ‘societies’ meaning ‘society’ and the Greek word ‘logos’ are meaning ‘study or science’. • The etymological meaning of ‘sociology’ is thus the ‘science of society’. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

DEFINITIONS 8 All right are reserved with CU-IDOL • Prof. Ginsberg accordingly defines it “as the study of society, which is of the web or tissue of human inter-actions and inter- relations.” • In other words, Sociology is the study of man’s behaviour in groups or of the inter-action among human beings, of social relationships and the processes by which human group activity takes place. • ‘Sociology is the science of society or of social phenomena -L.F. Ward • The subject-matter of sociology is the inter-action of human minds’. -L.T. Hobhouse • ‘Sociology is the study of human inter-action and interrelation their conditions and consequences’. -M. Ginsberg • ‘Sociology deals with the behaviour of men in groups.’ – Kimball Young Unit-1(BAQ-109)

FROM THE ABOVE DEFINITION WE FIND THE 9 FOLLOWING CONCLUSIONS: (a) Sociology is a science of society. (b) Sociology is a science of social relationships. All right are reserved with CU-IDOL (c) Sociology is the study of social life. (d) Sociology is the study of human behaviour in groups. (e) Sociology is the study of social action. (f) Sociology is the study of forms of social relationships. (g) Sociology is the study of social groups or social systems. Unit-1(BAQ-109)

NATURE OF SOCIOLOGY 10 Sociology is the branch of knowledge and it has its own characteristics. Sociology has different nature in society. It is different from other sciences in certain respects. The following are the main characteristics of sociology as enlisted by Robert Biersted in his book ” The Social Order” and they are as follows:- 1) Sociology is an independent science:- Sociology has now emerged into an independent science. It is not treated and studied as a branch of All right are reserved with CU-IDOL any other science, like philosophy or political philosophy, or history. As an independent science is has its own field of study, boundary and method. 2) Sociology is a social science not a physical science:- Sociology belongs to the family of social sciences, and not to the family of physical science. As a social science, it concentrates its attention on man, his social behaviors, social activities and social life. As a member of the family of social sciences it is intimately related to other social science like history, political science, economic, philosophy, anthropology etc. Unit-1(BAQ-109)

NATURE OF SOCIOLOGY 3) Sociology is a categorical and not a normative discipline:- Sociology “confines itself to 11 statements about what is, not what should be or ought to be”. As a science, sociology is necessary silent about question of value. It does not make any kind of value-judgment. Its approach is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. 4) Sociology is a pure science and not an applied science: – A distinction is often made between pure sciences and applied sciences. The main aim of pure sciences is the acquisition of knowledge and it is not bothered whether the acquired knowledge is useful or can be put to use on the other hand, the aim of applied science is to apply the acquired knowledge into life and to put it to use. Each pure science may have its own applied field. For example Physics is a pure science and engineering is it’s applied field. Sociology as a pure science has its applied field. Such as administration diplomacy, social work etc. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

NATURE OF SOCIOLOGY 12 5) Sociology is relatively an abstract science not a concrete science:- This does not mean that sociology is an art and not a science. Nor does it mean, it is unnecessarily complicated and unduly difficult. It only means that sociology is not interested in concrete manifestations of human events. It is more concerned with the form of human events and there patterns. For example sociology is not concerned with particular war and revolutions but with war and revolution in general, as social phenomena as types of social conflict. 6) Sociology is a generalizing and not a particularizing or Individualizing Science:- Sociology tries to find out the general laws or principles about human interaction or situation, about the nature, From, Content, and structure of human group of societies. It does not study each and every event that takes place in the society. It is not possible also. It tries to make generalization on the basic of the study of some selected events. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

NATURE OF SOCIOLOGY 13 7) Sociology is a general Science and not a special Social Science:- The area of inquiry of sociology is general and not specialize. It is concerned with human interaction and human life in general other social sciences like political Science, History, Economic etc, also study man and human interaction, but not all about human interaction. They concentrate their attention on certain aspects of human interaction and activities. 8 ) Finally, Sociology is both a Rational and an Empirical Science:- There are two broad ways of approach to scientific knowledge. One, Known as Empiricism is the approach that Empiricists experience and the facts that result from observation and experimentation. The other, known as rationalism stresses reason and the theories that result from logical inference. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCIENCE OF SOCIOLOGY 14 Sociology – a science of recent origin. Sociology as a science and particularly as a separate field of study is of recent origin. According to Prof. MacIver ‘Sociology as a more or less definite body of systematic knowledge with a distinct place and name among the family of sciences must be dated by decades rather than by centuries.’ To be more exact it was in 1839 that Auguste Comte, the French philosopher and sociologist, had coined the term ‘Sociology’ and defined the scope of this social science and the methods which it should employ. Auguste Comte is, for this reason, traditionally considered to be the ‘Father of Sociology.’ He had directed his labours towards determining the nature of human society and the laws and principles underlying its growth and development. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

15 THE GREEKS It is true that science of Sociology as we understand it today definitely emerged very late but it does not mean that no attempts were made to explain human relations and behaviour earlier than 1839. As has already been mentioned, attempts to understand social phenomena have been made since earliest times, though they were more of a speculative rather than of scientific nature. THE ROMANS Among the Romans, the most outstanding author is Cicero who in his book De Officus (On Justice) transmitted to the western world the treasures of Greek learning in philosophy, politics, law and sociology. But the Romans were mainly occupied with giving Europe “The Law and Hence they did not think in terms of non-legalistic aspect of society. They have produced few original social philosophies. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

16 THE SCHOLASTICS The period thereafter was overshadowed and overwhelmed by scholastic thinking. The scholastics propounded the Biblical thesis that man is a special creation of God. He is subject to no laws but those of God. The church men are God’s earthly representatives empowered by Him to interpret His decree:’ and enforce His will. THE MODERNS It was not until the sixteenth century that clear cut distinction was made between state and society and there appeared writers who treated life’s problems on a more realistic level. The most notable among these were Hobbes and Machiavelli. ‘The Prince’ of Machiavelli is an objective discussion of the state and statecraft and is devoted chiefly to an exposition of the principles governing the successful state, which he had been able to formulate on the basis of historical data. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

17 AUGUSTE COMTE Then came the age of Auguste Comte who is rightly called the founder of Sociology because it was he who sought to establish a science which would embrace the totality of human life and activities. He was the first thinker of the modern world clearly to set the fact that all the aspects of social life are bound in a unity and to show that this unity has an evolutionary character. THE BIOLOGISTS With the publication of Origin of Species by Darwin, considerable studies were made towards the development of Sociology. Darwin’s theory is that all complete forms of life have evolved from the simple, and through the process of the ‘survival of the fittest.’ It was left to Herbert Spencer, one of the most brilliant Englishmen of modern times, to take these principles of the survival of the fittest and natural selection and apply them to the field of Sociology. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

18 THE PSYCHOLOGISTS Herbert Spencer had many followers and his theory of organic evolution remained in vogue till the end of the 19th century. But by the beginning of the 20th century his biological interpretation of the social phenomena was displaced by psychological interpretation. DURKHEIM Durkheim—a French philosopher (1858-1917) was the first modern thinker who emphasised on the reality of society. He laid emphasis on social facts and provided a separate ground to sociology from that of psychology. According to him social facts are exterior and can be the subject of a general science because they can be arranged in categories. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

GERMAN SOCIOLOGISTS 19 The German Sociologists – Von Wiese. Tonnies, Vier Kandt, Simmel and Max Weber have also greatly influenced the development of sociology. The pioneering contributions of Max Weber are his theory of Social Action, concept of Authority, concept of Bureaucracy and concept of Ideal Type. Max Weber regarded sociology as a comprehensive science of social action. He classified social action into four types according to its mode of orientation, i.e., (i) in terms of rational orientation to a system of discrete individual ends; (ii) in terms of rational orientation to an absolute value; (iii) in terms of affectional orientation and (iv) in terms of tradition. Karl Marx (1818-1883) has exerted remarkable impact not only on human thinking but on social structure as well. His main thought is found in the ‘Communist Manifesto’ and ‘Das Kapital.’ His main sociological contributions are (i) Historical Materialism, (ii) Theory of private property (iii) Class struggle and (iv) Stateless society. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

SOCIOLOGY IN INDIA 20 The study of Sociology in India started in 1919 at the University of Bombay, but it was in 1930 that its study as a separate discipline was started. Now it is being taught at a number of universities and it is getting popular among the students. Some Indian writers like • G. S. Ghurye, • R. K. Mukerjee, • H. T. Mazumdar have also made original contribution to sociological studies. These studies pertain to Indian villages, caste system, marriage, kinship, family and social disorganisation. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

SOCIOLOGY—A SCIENCE WITH ITS OWN 21 SUBJECT MATTER Sociology is not only a science with its own subject-matter but the mother of all social sciences. It has been said surprisingly enough by some critics that Sociology does not have a subject-matter of its own and that it is hotchpotch of different social sciences. It is argued that social sciences like Economics, History, Political Science etc. are specialisations and that Sociology is a mere collection of the observation and hypothesis which are to be found in the work of the specialists in these fields. It may be stated that this view is totally incorrect and today Sociology is not only a separate science with subject-matter of its own but it has also acquired that high status which entitles it to be called the mother of all social sciences. The specific social sciences are sciences of associational forms of life and therefore can never ascend the throne reserved for Sociology, a throne tenantless until she enters into her kingdom. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

SUMMARY 22 Sociology is a science of society. It means Sociologists study society. Society is a web of social relations. It is a network of social relations. Hence, we say in every society there are individuals, social relations, social norms and social goals. All these are elements of society and the nature of these elements give a kind of pattern or form to the society. Sociology is termed as the science of social relationships and social phenomena, social groups, social institutions, collective behavior, the study of human behavior in groups. On the other hand, Psychology, is the science of mind or mental processes of humans, the science of human behavior. Although there are many common factors, these two sciences have many areas where they differ. Firstly, Sociology studies society, and The unit of study in Sociology is the society and in psychology, it is the individual. An association is termed as a group of people who have come together for achievement of a specific goal. It differs from a group and from community. A group is simply a collectivity of people without any particular goal. Whereas, an association has a definite goal. In an association, there are a group of people, who get organized, and work on the basis of rules and regulations which are laid down. This is done for the purpose of achieving a particular result. Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION 23 1. What is a society? Ans: Society is a web of social relations. we say in every society there are individuals, social relations, social norms and social goals. (For more information see SLM) 2. What is the nature of Sociology.(For more information see SLM) Ans: Sociology studies society, and Psychology studies mind. or mental processes of humans. (For more information see SLM) 3. Explain nature od Sociology. • Ans: Sociology is the branch of knowledge and it has its own characteristics. Sociology has different nature in society. • It is different from other sciences in certain respects. (For more information see SLM) 4. What is a group or community? Ans: A group is simply a collectivity of people without any particular goal. (For more information see SLM) Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1.Different methods used by the sociologist are: 24 (a) Historical (b) Survey (c) Sample (d) All of the above 2. History is more concerned with past society and _________. (a) Forces (b) Markets (c) Mind (d) Events 3. __________ is a complicated web of social relationships. (a) Folkways (b) Society (c) Group (d) Values Answers: 1.(d) 2.(d) 3.(b) Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

REFERENCES 25 • Schaefer Richard: Sociology, McGraw-Hill, 2005. • Horton and Hunt: Sociology, McGraw-Hill, Kogakusha Ltd. Leslie, Larson, Gorman: Sociology, Oxford University Press, 1998 • /3%3ACulture/3.2%3A_The_Symbolic_Nature_of_Culture/3.2J53a_Folkways_and_More • community/6231 • • Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

26 THANK YOU For queries Email: [email protected] Unit-1(BAQ-109) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

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