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BA/B.Com/BBA/BSci TTM 2 All right are reserved with CU-IDOL Computer Fundamentals Course Code: BA-104/BCM-104/BTT-104/BAQ-104 Semester: First E-Lesson: 3 SLM Unit: 3 www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102)

COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS 33 INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES To understand the basics of a computer system To develop an intuitive sense of how computer work and how they can be used to make work more efficient. To develop an intuitive sense of how computers Students will be able to create technical and work and how they can be used to make work complex spreadsheets for data analysis. more efficient. www.cuidol.in Understanding of introductory formatting techniques and presentation styles. Unit-3(BCM104/BBA10140/B4T/BTT1T0140/B4/ABQA1Q0120)2 ) INSTITUTE OFADllISrTiAghNtCaErAeNreDsOerNvLeIdNEwLitEhACRNUI-NIDGOL

TOPICS TO BE COVERED 4 > Classification of Computers > Applications of Computer > Basic Components of PC > Computer Architecture. www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Classification of Computer 5 ❖Classification of computer based on their data processing abilities. They are classified according to purpose, data handling and functionality. According to data handling, computers are analog, digital or hybrid. ❖Analog Computer: https://www.kullabs.com/classes/subjects/units/lessons/notes/note- detail/3429 ❑ It works on the principles of measuring, in which the measurements obtained are translated into data. ❑ Modern analog computers usually employ electrical parameters, such as voltages, resistances or currents, to represent the quantities being manipulated. ❑ Such computers do not deal directly with the numbers. They measure continuous physical magnitudes. https://hackaday.com/2019/09/23/secrets-from-a-1969-analog-computer/ www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Classification of Computer 6 ❖Digital Computer http://technoneuse.blogspot.com/2018/06/classificationof-digital-computer.html ❑ Digital Computer performs calculations and logical operations with quantities represented as digits, usually in the binary number system. ❑ They give the results with more accuracy and at a faster rate. ❖Hybrid Computer ❑ Hybrid computers incorporate the measuring feature of an analog computer and counting feature of a digital computer. ❑ For computational purposes, these computers use analog components and for storage, digital memories are used. https://www.besttechguru.com/tag/hybrid-computers/ www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Classification of Computer based 7 on its size The four basic types of computers based on their size are as under: • ​Supercomputer. • M​ ainframe Computer. • ​Minicomputer. • M​ icrocomputer. https://byte-notes.com/four-types-computers/ www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Classification of Computer based 8 on its size ❖Supercomputer : ❑ The most powerful computers in terms of performance https://www.indiatechonline.com/it-happened-in-india.php?id=164 and data processing are the Supercomputers. ❑ These are specialized and task specific computers used by large organizations. ❑ These computers are used for research and exploration purposes, like NASA uses supercomputers for launching space shuttles, controlling them and for space exploration purpose. ❑ The supercomputers are very expensive and very large in size. ❑ It can be accommodated in large air-conditioned rooms; some super computers can span an entire building. www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Classification of Computer based 9 on its size ❖Mainframe Computer: ❑ Mainframes are not as powerful as supercomputers, but https://computerhindinotes.com/mainframe-computer/ certainly they are quite expensive nonetheless, and many large firms & government organizations uses Mainframes to run their business operations. ❑ The Mainframe computers can be accommodated in large air-conditioned rooms because of its size. ❑ Super-computers are the fastest computers with large data storage capacity, Mainframes can also process & store large amount of data. ❑ Banks educational institutions & insurance companies use mainframe computers to store data about their customers, students & insurance policy holders. www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Classification of Computer based 10 on its size ❖Minicomputer: ❑ Minicomputers are used by small businesses & firms. Minicomputers are also called as “Midrange Computers”. ❑ These are small machines and can be accommodated on a disk with not as processing and data storage capabilities as super-computers & Mainframes. ❑ These computers are not designed for a single user. Individual departments of a large company or organizations use Mini- computers for specific purposes. ❑ For example, a production department can use Mini-computers for monitoring certain production process. http://arjunsahcomputer.blogspot.com/2011/09/mini-computer.html www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Classification of Computer based 11 on its size ❖Microcomputer: ❑ The micro-computers are widely used & the fastest growing computers. ❑ These computers are the cheapest among the other three types of computers. The Micro- computers are specially designed for general usage like entertainment, education and work purposes. ❑ Desktop computers, Gaming consoles, Sound & Navigation system of a car, Net books, Notebooks, PDA’s, Tablet PC’s, Smartphone's, Calculators are all type of Microcomputers. https://www.digitaltrends.com/tablet-reviews/walmart-onn-review/ www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Applications of Computer 12 www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Applications of Computer 13 www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Applications of Computer 14 www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

BASIC FUNCTIONS OF 15 COMPUTER The computer performs basically five major operations : ❖ It accepts data or instruction by way of input. ❖ It stores data. ❖ It can process data as required by the user. ❖ It gives results in the form of output and. ❖ It controls all operations inside a computer. Input accepts data https://foclearn.weebly.com/parts-of-a-computer-system.html Processing processes data Output produces output Storage stores result www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Computer Architecture 16 https://www.easycomacademy.com/block-diagram-of-computer-system/ www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describes 17 the functionality,organisation and implementation of computer systems. Block diagram consists of mainly four components: 1. Input Unit: ➢ This is the process of entering data and programs in to the computer system. ➢ In this raw data is taken as input and then transfer the control signals into the information processing system giving out the processed output. ➢ All the input unit devices provide the instructions and, data are transformed into binary codes to the processor unit. ➢ Examples of input unit devices are keyboard, mouse, scanner, joystick, MICR, magnetic tape etc. www.cuwiwdwol.c.iunidol.in https://www.examplesof.net/2017/08/10-examples-of-input- devices-of-computer.html#.XfhzbWQzbIU Unit-1(BA-U1n0i4t-/3(BBCCMM1-1004/4B/BBAT1T0-41/B0T4T/1B0A4Q/B-A1Q0140)2) INSTITUTE OF DAlIlSTriAgNhtCaEreArNesDerOveNdLwINithE CLUEA-IDRONLING

18 2. Memory Unit: Memory ➢ Memory unit is also known as Storage unit. Primary Secondary Memory Memory ➢ This unit supplies the information to other unit of computer and also stores the data and the instructions when required RAM ROM for processing. ➢ The capacity of storage is expressed in terms of Bytes ➢ Memory unit is divided into two categories: Primary memory and Secondary memory. DVDs Hard CD Floppy Disks ROMs Disks www.cuwiwdwol.c.iunidol.in Unit-1(BA-U1n0i4t-/3(BBCCMM1-1004/4B/BBAT1T0-41/B0T4T/1B0A4Q/B-A1Q0140)2) INSTITUTE OF DAISllTAriNghCtEarAeNreDseOrvNeLdIwNiEthLCEUA-RIDNOINL G

Difference between Primary and 19 Secondary Memory Primary Memory Secondary Memory It is known as the main memory where the data It refers to the external memory where data is and instructions are temporarily stored. permanently stored. Processing unit can directly access the data. Data cannot be accessed by Processing unit. It is volatile in nature i.e. data cannot be It is non-volatile in nature i.e. data can be retained in case of power failure and it is faster retained in case of power failure . They are than Secondary memory. usually slower than a primary memory. Its like battery backup. Primary memory can be categorized into cache memory and random access memory(RAM). These are permanent storage memory like The memory devices used are semiconductor CD,DVD,f loppy disc etc. memories. The memory devices used are magnetic and optical memories. www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

20 3.Central Processing Unit(CPU): ➢Computer processor is one of the most important element of the Computer system. ➢All functions and processes done on a computer is performed directly or indirectly by the processor, therefore called the brain of the computer. ➢The main chip in a computer is the microprocessor chip, which is also known as the CPU . ➢CPU is consist of transistors, that receives inputs and produces output. ➢Transistors perform arithmetic and logical operations which https://computer.howstuffworks.com/computer-evolution.htm is called processing. www.cuwiwdwol.c.iunidol.in Unit-1(BA-U1n0i4t-/3(BBCCMM1-1004/4B/BBAT1T0-41/B0T4T/1B0A4Q/B-A1Q0140)2) INSTITUTE OF DAIlSl TrAigNhCt aEreArNeDseOrvNedLIwNitEh LCEUA-IRDNOILNG

Components of CPU 21 • Components of CPU: Control Unit Register Set (CU) • There are three main components of CPU. Arithmetic and Logical ❖ Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU). Unit(ALU) ❖ Control Unit (CU). ❖ Registers. www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Components of CPU 22 ❖ALU: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/324399979378544687/ ❑ ALU stands for Arithmetic and Logical Unit. ❑ It takes the data from the Memory registers. ❑ It perform all arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication ,division and logical operations of the computer system. ❑ It is the building block of CPU.The coordination of control unit and memory unit is done by ALU. ❖CU: https://www.zf.com/products/en/cars/products_29301.html ❑ CU stands for Control Unit. ❑ Control Unit coordinates how the data moves around the CPU. ❑ It tells the computer's memory, arithmetic/ logic unit and input and output devices how to respond to a program's instructions. www.cuwiwdwol.c.iunidol.in Unit-1(BA-U1n0i4t-/3(BBCCMM1-1004/4B/BBAT1T0-41/B0T4T/1B0A4Q/B-A1Q0140)2) INSTITUTE OF DAIlSl TrAigNhCt aEreArNeDseOrvNedLIwNitEh LCEUA-IRDNOILNG

Components of CPU 23 ❖Registers: ❑ Registers are the most important component of CPU. ❑ Each register performs a specific function. These registers are the top of the memory hierarchy, and are the fastest way for the system to manipulate data. ❑ Registers are to accept, store ,and transfer data and instructions that are being used by the CPU. ❑ Registers are of three types. ▪ Program Counter Register. ▪ Instruction Register. ▪ Status Register. www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

24 4.Output Unit: ➢ An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment which converts information into human- readable form. ➢ The output unit is used to present soft and hardcopy of information. ➢ It can be text,graphics,tactile,audio,and video. ➢ Examples of output unit devices are monitor, headphones, printer, projector, Visual Display Unit. https://www.google.com/search?rlz=1C1CHZL_enIN846IN846&tbm=isch&q=output+unit+of+c omputer&chips=q:output+unit+of+computer,g_1:output+device&usg=AI4_- kTk5gkiYOj0uhmxqzQ6r5p3DYIvsg&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwifxaTzr77mAhUPWCsKHYLACIsQ4lYILSg D&biw=1366&bih=608&dpr=1#imgrc=kkxOV6aPsXbK4M: www.cuwiwdwol.c.iunidol.in Unit-1(BA-U1n0i4t-/3(BBCCMM1-1004/4B/BBAT1T0-41/B0T4T/1B0A4Q/B-A1Q0140)2) INSTITUTE OF DAISllTAriNghCtEarAeNreDseOrvNeLdIwNiEthLCEUA-RIDNOINL G

Multiple Choice Questions 25 1) A hybrid computer is the one having combined properties of ________ (a) Micro & Mini computers (b) Mini & Super Computers (c) Mainframe & Super Computers (d) Analog & Digital computers 2) The fastest and most expensive computers are______ (a) Super Computers (b) Quantum Computers (c) Mainframe Computers (d) Micro Computers 3) Desktop and Personal computers are also known as_______ (a) Super Computer (b) Quantum Computer (c) Mainframe Computer (d) Micro Computer Answers: 1)-d 2)-a 3)-d www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

SUMMARY 26 ❖“Hybrid computers are those computers which exhibit features of both the analog computers and digital computers. ❖An analog computer is the one which is used to process continuously varying data. This changeable yet continuous data is generally referred to as the ❖An Analog computer is used in a variety of industrial and scientific applications like measurement of electric current, measurement of frequency and also resistance of a capacitor. ❖A digital computer stands for a class of devices which can solve many problems by processing information in a discrete form. It works on data like mag. ❖Digital data works on various kinds of data which include magnitude, letters, symbols, etc. and are expressed in binary code i.e. using numbers only. ❖The digital computer works by counting, comparing and manipulating various digits and their combinations as per the instructions which are stored in the instructions which are stored in the memory.” www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION 27 Question1: What are the 5 classification of computer? I. Answer: PC (Personal Computer) or Micro-Computers:It is a single user computer system having a moderately powerful microprocessor. It is termed as a computer that is equipped microprocessor as its CPU. II. Workstation:It is also a single user computer system, similar to the personal computer, however, has a more powerful microprocessor. III. Mini-Computer:It is a multi-user computer system, capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously. IV. Main Frame:It is a multi-user computer system, capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously. Software technology is different from minicomputer. V. Super-Computer:It is an extremely fast computer, which can execute hundreds of millions of instructions per second. Question2: The Arithmetic and logic unit of the processor performs which operations? Answer: The Arithmetic and logic unit performs all the basic operations of the computer system. It performs all the arithmetic(+,-,*,/,etc) as well as the logical operations( AND, OR, NOT, etc.). ALU is a combinational electronic circuit which basically performs all the logical or the bitwise operations and the arithmetic operations. Therefore, it is the place where the actual executions of instructions take place. www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION 28 Question 3: What is the full form of IEEE and explain it ? Answer: Institute of Electrical and electronics engineers. The IEEE is an organization of professionals in the field of electronics and electrical engineering. IEEE has given certain standards of its own which are followed in the field of computer science and electrical engineering. Question 4: Name the process of division on memory spaces and explain it? Answer: Segmentation he memory space is divided into segments of dynamic size. The programmer is aware of the segmentation and can reallocate the segments accordingly. www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

REFRENCES 29 1. Computer Fundamentals ,Anita Goel,Pearson Education India, 2010 - Computers - 500 pages 2. Introduction to Computer Applications-Pearson, New Delhi 3. file:///D:/computer/PPTS/Lesson%201%20(1).pdf 4. http://ecomputernotes.com/fundamental/introduction-to-computer/draw-the-block-diagram-of- computer-and-explain-its-various-components 5. http://www.chtips.com/computer-fundamentals/block-diagram-of-computer-system 6. http://wikieducator.org/Block_diagram_of_computer www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

30 THANK YOU www.cuidol.in Unit-3(BCM104/BBA104/BTT104/BAQ102) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL