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M.A 2 All right are reserved with CU-IDOL English Course Code: MAE 602 Semester: First E-Lesson: 4 SLM Unit: 5 Unit-5(MAE 602)

British Poetry Till 17th 33 Century OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION Student will be introduced to the literary terms. In this unit we are going to learn about the structure of various literary terms.. Student will be able to understand major technicalities of language. The student will be able to understand significance of literary terms how they are Student will be able to understand critical helpful in determining the meaning of a text. significance of literary terms in determining the meaning of a particular text. The student will be introduced to the development of various technical devices in English Literature. Unit-5(MAEE 602) INASlTl ITriUgThEt OarFeDrIeSsTeArNvCeEd AwNitDh OCNUL-IIDNOE LLEARNING

TOPICS TO BE COVERED 4 > Assonance, Ballad, Blank Verse, Neo classicism and Romanticism. Conceit, couplet, Elegy, Epic. > Figure of Speech, Heroic Couplet, Iambic Pentameter, Lyric, Metaphor, Simile. Metonymy, Synecdoche. > Meter, Ode. > Pastoral, Personification, Rhyme, Sonnet. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Literary Terms 5 Literary terms refer to:  Technique  Style  Formatting These devices are used by writers and speakers to masterfully emphasize, embellish, or strengthen their compositions. Literary terms can refer to playful techniques employed by comedians to make us laugh or witty tricks wordsmiths use to coin new words or phrases. They can also include the tools of persuasion that writers use to convince and drive audiences to action. With their carefully crafted speeches geared towards both logical and emotional thinking, they challenge our everyday modes of thinking. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

The importance of Literary Terms 6 Literary terms are important in a wide variety of ways. 1. They allow writers and speakers to make comments on society, politics, and trends. 2. Rhetorical devices can be used to strengthen arguments which persuade and convince audiences. 3. Poetic figurative language can summon emotions and visions of nature and the world in unique and compelling ways. 4. Literary terms have the power to create serious, comedic, or whimsical moods via tools of persuasion, poeticism, and wordplay. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Uses of Literary Terms 7 •Persuasion: For a rhetorician or speechwriter, writing and speaking in a convincing and persuasive manner is a profession, one which utilizes numerous tools of the trade to appeal to an audience. The power of persuasion can gain voters for a politician, convince people to take action for a cause, or get you a raise at your job. •Satire: Satire refers to a play, novel, poem, film or other composition which uses comedy, irony, mockery, and exaggeration to criticize the absurdity or weaknesses of a certain person, institution, or situation. Often, satire utilizes comedy for more serious means, such as political and social commentary. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Uses of Literary Terms 8 •Rhetorical Questions: A rhetorical question is a question asked in a form which does not in reality seek an answer but rather emphasizes a certain point. We often use rhetorical questions in everyday conversation as well as in speeches. •Figurative Language: Figurative language creates connections between unlike things which have never been considered before. It encourages complicated, creative, and poetic thought processes which give rise to beautiful, strange, and unique conceptions. Figurative language allows writers to transcend logical and typical bounds of thinking in order to present things in a new and meaningful way. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Common Terms 9 Metaphor: A metaphor is a direct and vivid comparison between two things usually considered distinct or unrelated. Metaphors discover the connections between unique things and emphasize their similarities poetically without being taken literally. Here are a few examples of metaphor: Her smile is the sun. He’s a black sheep. All the world’s a stage. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Sound and Rhythm 10 The way we word things can create rhythm, musicality, and poetry for the reader or listener. Poetry in particular operates on syllable counts, arrangement of lines, usage of certain hard or soft sounds, and pattern-making with rhyme and other devices. Soft s sounds can create calm and smoothness, whereas hard k sounds create chaos and harshness. A variety of sound and rhythm devices take advantage of connotative noises and the feelings they evoke in the audience. Sound and rhythm create powerful poetry, prose, speeches, and songs. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Assonance 11 Assonance takes place when two or more words, close to one another repeat the same vowel sound, but start with different consonant sounds. The same vowel sound of the short vowel “-e-” repeats itself in almost all the words, excluding the definite article. The words do share the same vowel sounds, but start with different consonant sounds – unlike alliteration, which involves repetition of the same consonant sounds. Below are a few assonance examples that are common. Examples:- We light fire on the mountain. I feel depressed and restle Go and mow the lawn Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Ballad 12 •The word ballad is of French provenance. • It is a type of poetry used in dance songs in ancient France. •Later on, during the late 16th and 17th centuries, it spread over the majority of European nations. •Owing to its popularity and emotional appeal, it remained a powerful tool for poets and lyricists to prepare music in the form of lyrical ballads, and earn a handsome income from it. •The art of lyrical ballad, as well as ballad poetry, lost popularity during the latter half of the 19th century. •However, it is still read and listened to with interest in most European countries, including the British Isles. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Evolution of Ballad 13 • Two schools of thought, namely the communal school of thought, and the individualist school of thought, have dominated the world of ballad throughout its development. •Communalists believe that the evolution of the ballad was a result of the joined and shared literary endeavors of many people. •Individualists negate this approach to the extent that they consider the later development as a modification of the archetype. •Most of the ballad examples in ancient times used to be passed from generation to generation through oral traditions. This is because there was no language in which to write them down. However, in the modern world, the preservation and transmission of such literary treasures has become easier. The availability of advanced technology and common languages has improved not only the documentation, but the accessibility of these resources for people in every part of the world. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Categories of Ballad 14 Following is a broad list of categories of ballad: Stall ballad Lyrical ballad Popular ballad Blue ballad Bush ballad Fusion ballad (pop and rock) Modern ballad All these categories are primarily meant to convey popular messages, stories, or historical events to audiences in the form of songs and poetry. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Function of Ballad: Dramatic Uses 15 Ballads, as stage performances, enjoyed the status of being one of the main sources of entertainment in ancient times. Legends and historical events were narrated in the form of a ballads, which would comprise song and dance. Ballad was a perfect substitute for our current day technology-based entertainment, albeit with more emotional appeal. In the 18th century, the ballad-based stage entertainment came to be known as “ballad opera.” According to ballad aficionados, the first formal ballad opera was staged in the first half of the 18th century, with the theme of “The Beggar’s Opera.” Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Blank Verse 16 •Blank verse is a type of poetry written in a regular meter that does not contain rhyme. • Blank verse is most commonly found in the form of iambic pentameter. •Many famous English writers have used blank verse in their works, such as William Shakespeare, John Milton, and William Wordsworth. • Though blank verse and free verse sound like similar concepts, there are some notable differences. •The definition of blank verse stipulates that, while there is no rhyme, the meter must be regular. •Free verse, on the other hand, has no rhyme scheme and no pattern of meter. •Free verse generally mimics natural speech, while blank verse still carries a musical quality due to its meter. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Significance of Blank Verse in Literature 17 Blank verse became popular in the 16th century when Christopher Marlowe and then William Shakespeare began incorporating it into their works. The famous work Paradise Lost by John Milton is also written in blank verse. Blank verse was also popular with Romantic English poets, as well as some contemporary American poets. Blank verse allows an author to not be constricted by rhyme, which is limited in English. Meter is generally easier to use in English than rhyme since the majority of words are short (one or two syllables), unlike in Romance languages. Thus, it was in favor with English poets for nearly half a millennium. Free verse has replaced blank verse in popularity in the most recently written poetry, however. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Sonnet 18 The Sonnet consists of 14 lines following an \"a-b-a-b, c-d-c-d, e-f-e-f, g-g\" rhyming pattern.The word sonnet is derived from the Italian word “sonetto,” which means a “little song” or small lyric. In poetry, a sonnet has 14 lines, and is written in iambic pentameter. Each line has 10 syllables. It has a specific rhyme scheme, and a volta, or a specific turn. Sonnets can be categorized into six major types: Italian Sonnet Shakespearean Sonnet Spenserian Sonnet Miltonic Sonnet Terza Rima Sonnet Curtal Sonnet Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Neo classicism 19 Neoclassicism is the 18th and 19th century movement developed in Europe as a reaction to the excesses of Baroque and Rococo. The movement sought to return to the classical beauty and magnificence of the Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. Characteristics of Neo Classicism: •Influence of Materialism •Imitation of Classics •Focus on Structure •Love for Rules and Regulations •Age of artificiality •Sameness Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Romanticism 20 Romanticism is a literary movement spanning roughly 1790–1850. The movement was characterized by a celebration of nature and the common man, a focus on individual experience, an idealization of women, and an embrace of isolation and melancholy. Characteristics of Romanticism: Love for Liberty Back to nature Variety Simplicity Colloquial Language Literature about the Common Man Rejection of industrialization Rural life Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Ode 21 •An ode is a type of lyrical stanza. •It is an elaborately structured poem praising or glorifying an event or individual, describing nature intellectually as well as emotionally. •A classic ode is structured in three major parts: the strophe, the antistrophe, and the epode. •It has a serious subject. • It has an elevated style (word choice, etc.). • It usually has an elaborate stanza pattern. •The ode often praises people, the arts of music and poetry, natural scenes, or abstract concepts. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Epic 22 An epic is a long poem or other work of art celebrating heroic feats. ... Epic can be used as an adjective to describe something historically important, lasting and complex. Perhaps your great- grandfather was a soldier in the epic struggle of World War One. The Iliad is an example of an epic poem. Characteristics: Long Narrative Conflict between good and evil Godly affair Supernatural element Grand style Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Heroic Couplet 23 Heroic Couplet: A heroic couplet is a traditional form for English poetry, commonly used in epic and narrative poetry, and consisting of a rhyming pair of lines in iambic pentameter. Double, double, toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble. These famous lines are an epic example of a rhyming couplet. As you may have surmised from the name, rhyming couplets are two lines that rhyme, but they also often have the same meter, or rhythmic structure in a verse or line. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Summary 24 All right are reserved with CU-IDOL Definition with examples of various Literary Terms. Assonance  Ballad  Blank Verse  Neo classicism  Romanticism. Conceit Couplet  Elegy  Epic. Figure of Speech Heroic Couplet, Iambic Pentameter, Lyric, Metaphor, Simile. Metonymy, Synecdoche. Meter, Ode. Pastoral, Personification, Rhyme, Sonnet. Unit-5(MAE 602)

Multiple Choice Questions 25 1. What is a sonnet? a) A poem of 10 lines b) A poem of 20 lines c) A poem of 15 lines d) A poem of 14 lines 2.Who modified the form of English sonnet? a) Marlowe b) Henry Howard and Thomas Wyatt c) John Donne d) John Keats Answers: 1. d) 2. b) Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Multiple Choice Questions 26 3. What is an elegy? a) It’s a love song. b) It’s a lamenting song. c) It’s a song about success. d) It’s a song about failure. 4. What is an epic? a) It is a long narrative. b) It is a short poem. c) It is poem about a love affair. d) It is a book on humorous incident. Answers: 3. b) 4.a) Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

Frequently Asked Questions 27 Q1.What is the difference between blank verse and free verse? Ans. Both blank verse and free verse are free from rhyme scheme. But, whereas blank verse does have a consistent meter, usually iambic pentameter. Free verse is free from both meter and rhyme. It is free from the limitations of verse poetry. Q2.What is a heroic couplet in literature? Ans. Heroic couplet, a couplet of rhyming iambic pentameters often forming a distinct rhetorical as well as metrical unit. Q3.What is an epic? Ans. An epic is a lengthy narrative poem involving extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe for their descendants, the poet and his audience, to understand themselves as a people or nation. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

References 28 1. Michael Meyer, The Bedford Introduction to Literature (Bedford: St. Martin's, 2005). 2. Battles, Paul (2014). \"Toward a Theory of Old English Poetic Genres: Epic, Elegy, Wisdom Poetry, and the \"Traditional Opening\"\". 3. Hobsbaum, Philip. Metre, Rhythm and Verse Form. Routledge (1996). 4. Ferrando, Ignasi Navarro (1996). In-roads of Language: Essay in English Studies. Universitat Jaume. 5. Alexandra Smith, Montaging Pushkin: Pushkin and Visions of Modernity in Russian Twentieth Century Poetry. 6. The exact figures are unknown. See Shakespeare's collaborations and Shakespeare Apocrypha for further details. 7. Individual play dates and precise writing span are unknown. See Chronology of Shakespeare's plays for further details. Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

29 THANK YOU Unit-5(MAE 602) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

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