Important Announcement
PubHTML5 Scheduled Server Maintenance on (GMT) Sunday, June 26th, 2:00 am - 8:00 am.
PubHTML5 site will be inoperative during the times indicated!

Home Explore CU-MA-PSY-SEM-III-Positive Psychology and Well Being (Elective-I)- Second Draft

CU-MA-PSY-SEM-III-Positive Psychology and Well Being (Elective-I)- Second Draft

Published by Teamlease Edtech Ltd (Amita Chitroda), 2021-05-06 06:46:48

Description: CU-MA-PSY-SEM-III-Positive Psychology and Well Being (Elective-I)- Second Draft


Read the Text Version



CHANDIGARH UNIVERSITY Institute of Distance and Online Learning Course Development Committee Prof. (Dr.) R.S.Bawa Pro Chancellor, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Punjab Advisors Prof. (Dr.) Bharat Bhushan, Director – IGNOU Prof. (Dr.) Majulika Srivastava, Director – CIQA, IGNOU Programme Coordinators & Editing Team Master of Business Administration (MBA) Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) Coordinator – Dr. Rupali Arora Coordinator – Dr. Simran Jewandah Master of Computer Applications (MCA) Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA) Coordinator – Dr. Raju Kumar Coordinator – Dr. Manisha Malhotra Master of Commerce (M.Com.) Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.) Coordinator – Dr. Aman Jindal Coordinator – Dr. Minakshi Garg Master of Arts (Psychology) Bachelor of Science (Travel &Tourism Management) Coordinator – Dr. Samerjeet Kaur Coordinator – Dr. Shikha Sharma Master of Arts (English) Bachelor of Arts (General) Coordinator – Dr. Ashita Chadha Coordinator – Ms. Neeraj Gohlan Academic and Administrative Management Prof. (Dr.) R. M. Bhagat Prof. (Dr.) S.S. Sehgal Executive Director – Sciences Registrar Prof. (Dr.) Manaswini Acharya Prof. (Dr.) Gurpreet Singh Executive Director – Liberal Arts Director – IDOL © No part of this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording and/or otherwise without the prior written permission of the authors and the publisher. SLM SPECIALLY PREPARED FOR CU IDOL STUDENTS Printed and Published by: TeamLease Edtech Limited CONTACT NO:- 01133002345 For: CHANDIGARH UNIVERSITY F3 Institute of Distance and Online Learning CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

First Published in 2021 All rights reserved. No Part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from Chandigarh University. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this book may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. This book is meant for educational and learning purpose. The authors of the book has/have taken all reasonable care to ensure that the contents of the book do not violate any existing copyright or other intellectual property rights of any person in any manner whatsoever. In the event the Authors has/ have been unable to track any source and if any copyright has been inadvertently infringed, please notify the publisher in writing for corrective action. 4 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

CONTENTS Unit 1: Positive Psychology.......................................................................................................6 Unit 2: Historical Perspectives.................................................................................................18 Unit 3: Pillars Of Positive Psychology ....................................................................................47 Unit 4: Well-Being...................................................................................................................69 Unit 5: Flow .............................................................................................................................96 Unit 6: Happiness...................................................................................................................111 Unit 7: Happiness And The Facts Of Life .............................................................................131 Unit 8: Forgiveness ................................................................................................................169 Unit 9: Positive Emotions And Their Influences ...................................................................210 Unit 10: Empathy And Altruism............................................................................................252 Unit 11: Workplace And Positive Psychology ......................................................................298 5 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

UNIT 1: POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Structure 1.0 Learning objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Definition 1.3 Assumptions and goals of positive psychology 1.3.1 Understanding positive psychology 1.3.2 Assumptions of positive psychology 1.3.3 Contributions to happiness 1.3.4 Flow and happiness 1.3.5 Personality traits and happiness 1.3.6 Biology of happiness 1.3.7 Happiness and culture 1.3.8 Authentic happiness 1.3.9 Goals of positive psychology 1.4 Summary 1.5 Keywords 1.6 Learning activity 1.7 Unit end question 1.8 References 1.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, students will be able to:  State the definition and describe the subfield of positive psychology  Explain the origin of Positive psychology  Outline the Goals of Positive Psychology  Outline the various assumptions of Positive Psychology  List the contributions of Positive Psychology to human civilization 6 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

1.1 INTRODUCTION Positive psychology is one of the most modern branches of psychology to emerge. This specific region of psychology focuses on how to assist people prosper and lead healthy, glad lives. While many different branches of psychology tend to recognition on disorder and extraordinary behaviour, tremendous psychology is focused on assisting people end up happier. Positive psychologists declare that psychology as a whole has greater often than not centered at the 90shortcomings of individuals in comparison with their potentials. Whilst this declare may also or won't be actual for all areas of psychology (as an example, cognitive psychology studies the inner mental processes of often flawlessly nicely-functioning individuals), the wonderful psychology technique locations a specific emphasis on the potential of individuals and on discovering factors that make existence worth living. Nowadays, positive psychology is an unexpectedly developing discipline that has helped to dramatically reshape our know- how of happiness as its central phenomenon of hobby through the development of several reliable measures and an ordinary boom in related research outputs. Positive psychology will have a number of real-international programs in areas such as training, therapy, self-assist, strain management, and place of work issues. Using techniques from superb psychology, instructors, coaches, therapists, and employers can inspire others and assist people recognize and broaden their strengths. Simply positioned, high-quality psychology is the scientific take a look at of what makes people thrive. It makes a specialty of behaviour that can cause a more optimized body of thoughts as well as on concept styles that result in extra practical behaviour. 1.2 DEFINITION Martin Seligman, who is widely considered as the father of positive psychology defines positive psychology as \"the scientific study of positive human functioning and flourishing on multiple levels that include the biological, personal, relational, institutional, cultural, and global dimensions of life.” 1.3 ASSUMPTIONS AND GOALS OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Positive Psychology's number one attention is on what human beings do proper to attain and keep optimum happiness (Compton, 2005), via striving to apprehend and assist people expand traits that lead to extra personal fulfilment. The premise of effective psychology is to promote factors that allow individuals to thrive and flourish through encouraging a change of awareness in psychology from a preoccupation with repairing the worst things to an extra emphasis on coming across and constructing upon superb qualities. 7 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

1.3.1 Understanding Positive Psychology As a technological know-how, wonderful psychology is the clinical examine of high-quality experiences and wonderful character developments. It is a field concerned with wellbeing and best functioning and objectives to expand the focus of scientific psychology beyond suffering. Positive psychology denotes that stricken people want more satisfaction, contentment and pleasure no longer just less unhappiness and worry. The notion is that people who go through want to construct the strengths and no longer just accurate their weaknesses (Duckworth, Steen & Seligman, 2005). The time period Positive Psychology became coined via Martin Seligman, a beyond president of the American Psychological Association (APA), in 1998. Positive Psychology is focused on the following: It takes interest in subjective studies which include subjective well-being/happiness, glide, pleasure, optimism and desire. It has a hobby in the thriving man or woman, paying precise interest to individual strengths and virtues inclusive of braveness, perseverance, open-mindedness and information. It aims to identify observe and enhance the ones qualities that enhance on the positive subjective reports and adaptive persona developments of individuals (Robbins, 2008). Positive psychology is firmly based on humanistic theory. The premise of this subject, just like the humanistic method, focuses on enhancing human potential. Positive psychology recognizes that people can and do adapt and modify to lifestyles in relatively creative methods allowing them to feel good about life. In this context, effective psychology has an eager hobby in locating out what works and what is right with people and the manner they pick out to live their lifestyles, paintings and relate (Joseph & Linley, 2006). At the individual stage, effective psychology is ready fine character trends: the potential for romance and vocation, braveness, interpersonal skills, aesthetic sensibility, perseverance, forgiveness, originality, future mindedness, spirituality, high skills and awareness. At the group stage, it's far about virtues and the institutions that move people towards better citizenship, duty, nurturance, altruism, civility, moderation, tolerance and paintings ethic (Joseph & Linley, 2006). 1.3.2 Assumptions of Positive Psychology The maximum fundamental assumption of advantageous psychology is that human goodness and excellence are as true as disorders and distress and consequently deserve equal attention from intellectual fitness practitioners. The discipline of advantageous psychology is often centered at the merchandising of the good existence. The good life refers to those elements that make contributions maximum predominately to a nicely-lived existence. Qualities that define the good existence are those that enrich our lives, make existence well worth living and foster strong man or woman (Compton, 2005). 8 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Seligman (2002) defines proper existence as an aggregate of three factors: Positive connection to others or tremendous subjective revel in; Positive man or woman traits and; Life regulation characteristics. Positive connection refers to components of our behaviour that make a contribution to positive connectedness to others. It is the fine subjective reviews that consist of the capability to like, forgive, and the presence of non secular connections, happiness and lifestyles delight that integrate to help and create an experience of deeper that means and motive in lifestyles. Positive man or woman traits may additionally include things like a sense of integrity, the capability to be innovative, and the presence of virtues together with courage and humility. Life regulation qualities are those qualities that permit us to modify our everyday behaviour in any such way that we will accomplish our dreams. Some of those characteristics encompass an experience of individuality or autonomy, a high diploma of wholesome self- control and know-how to manual behaviour. According to positive psychology, the best lifestyles have to also consist of the connection with different people and the society as a whole (Park & Peterson, 2008; Duckworth, Steen & Seligman, 2005). A number one intention of what might be termed as the advantageous psychology motion is to be a catalyst for change within the attention of psychology from a preoccupation with repairing the worst matters in lifestyles to also constructing nice features (Joseph & Linley, 2006). This is specially applicable to the therapeutic context given that superb psychologists would argue that the role of the therapist isn't always to truly alleviate misery and depart the character free from symptomatology, however also to facilitate wellbeing and fulfilment which isn't simplest a worthwhile aim in its very own right, it additionally serves as a preventive characteristic that buffers in opposition to destiny psychopathology and even recuperation from contamination (Joseph & Linley, 2006). 1.3.3 Contributions to Happiness The idea of happiness is the cornerstone of the assumptions of high-quality psychology. Happiness is characterized by the enjoy of extra common fantastic affective states than bad ones in addition to a perception that one is progressing closer to important lifestyles dreams (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006). Identifying elements that make a contribution to happiness has confirmed to be difficult. Interestingly although, one component that does stand out inside the research so far is that the attainment and pursuit of satisfaction might not always result in happiness. Certain kinds of environmental factors or conditions are related to happiness and consist of things like; person profits, labour market repute, fitness, family, social relationships, ethical values and lots of others (Carr, 2004; Selim, 2008; Diener, Oishi & Lucas, 2003). Ultimately, inside the pursuit of understanding happiness, two essential theoretical views awareness on addressing the question of what makes human beings sense exact and satisfied. These are the hedonic and eudemonic approaches to happiness (Keyes, Shmotkin, & Ryff, 2002). 9 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Hedonic nicely-being is primarily based on the belief that accelerated satisfaction and reduced ache results in happiness. Hedonic concepts are based totally at the notion of subjective nicely-being. Subjective properly-being is a systematic time period this is normally used to indicate the 'satisfied or exact lifestyles. It accommodates an affective element (excessive fine have an effect on and occasional negative have an effect on) and a cognitive aspect (pleasure with existence). It is proposed that an individual reports happiness when fine affect and delight with lifestyles are both excessive (Carruthers & Hood, 2004). Eudaimonic nicely-being, then again, is strongly reliant on Maslow’s ideas of self- actualization and Roger's concept of the completely-functioning person and their subjective well being. Eudaimonic happiness is consequently based totally on the idea that human’s sense happy if they experience lifestyles cause, demanding situations and increase. This technique adopts Self-Determination Theory to conceptualize happiness (Keyes et al., 2002; Deci & Ryan, 2000). Self-willpower theory indicates that happiness is related to fulfilment inside the regions of autonomy and competence. From this perspective, via carrying out eudemonic hobbies, subjective well-being (happiness) will arise as a spinoff. Thus, lifestyles reason and higher-order which means are believed to produce happiness. It seems that the consensus is that happiness does no longer end result from the pursuit of delight but from the improvement of person strengths and virtues which ties in with the idea of tremendous psychology (Vella-Brodrick, Park & Peterson, 2009). The variations between eudemonic and hedonic happiness are listed beneath (tailored from Carruthers, C.P., & Hood, C.D., 2004). Hedonic (Subjective Wellbeing): Presence of positive mood Absence of terrible mood; Satisfaction with diverse domains of lifestyles (e.g., Paintings, enjoyment); Global life pride. Eudaimonic (Psychological Wellbeing): Sense of manipulate or autonomy; Feeling of which means and cause; Personal expressiveness; Feelings of belongingness; Social contribution; Competence; Personal growth; Self-popularity. Positive Psychology perspectives happiness from each the hedonistic and eudemonic view in which they define happiness in terms of the satisfactory lifestyles, the good lifestyles and the meaningful life (Norrish & Vella-Brodrick, 2008). Peterson et al. Identified three pathways to happiness from the tremendous psychological view: Pleasure is the system of maximizing tremendous emotion and minimizing terrible emotion and is known as the fine lifestyles which entails enjoyable and positive reviews. Engagement is the manner of being immersed and absorbed inside the challenge to hand and is known as the good lifestyles which involves being actively worried in life and all that it requires and needs. Thus, the good existence is considered to end result from the individual cultivating and making an investment their signature strengths and virtues into their relationships, work and leisure (Seligman, 2002) thus making use of the fine of self at some point of challenging 10 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

activities that result in growth and a sense of competence and pleasure that brings about happiness. Meaning is the technique of having a higher cause in existence than ourselves and is called the meaningful existence which includes the usage of our strengths and private features to serve this better cause. A significant existence, just like the appropriate lifestyles, entails the individual making use of their signature strengths in sports, but the distinction is that those activities are gave the impression to contribute to the extra properly in the significant life. Ultimately, it's miles a combination of every of these 3 factors defined above that positive psychology shows might constitute true and stable happiness (Vella-Brodrick, Park & Peterson, 2009; Carruthers & Hood, 2004). 1.3.4 Flow and happiness Another key contribution fine psychology has made to our information of the qualities and attributes of well-being is in the concept of go with the flow. Flow is defined as a foremost country of engagement, happiness and top enjoy that happens whilst a person is absorbed in an intrinsically motivating project (Norrish & Vella-Brodrick, 2008). Flow is normally characterized with the aid of being immersed in a selected hobby that incorporates the following elements: Concentration towards the undertaking handy that appears handy and isn't associated with intellectual stress or competitive efforts to repress or control questioning (Vella-Brodrick, Park & Peterson, 2009), Involvement within the mission to the factor where there's no want to think about what wishes to be executed before it's far completed (Vella-Brodrick, Park & Peterson, 2009), and Enjoyment through being involved in and doing the precise hobby (Vella-Brodrick, Park & Peterson, 2009). The kingdom of waft has been implicated in the pathways to happiness and for this reason expands further the idea of happiness past the pleasure country. To conclude at the influence of waft Csikszentmihalyi (1990) suggests that happiness is delivered on by using the enjoy of float that lets in humans to revel in existence and characteristic better in numerous distinct contexts. 1.3.5 Personality Traits and Happiness Personality research indicate that glad and sad people have distinctive persona profiles. For instance, satisfied people have a tendency to be greater extroverted, constructive and generally have high vanity. Happiness is also taken into consideration to be an emotion produced by way of tremendous and bad events and experiences (Selim, 2008). Interestingly, several reviews have shown that extroverted individuals are happier than introverted people inside the context of an extensive variety of existence studies (Carr, 2004; Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006; Furnham & Christoforou, 2007). 11 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

This has been attributed to the concept that extroverts react greater strongly to wonderful stimuli designed to set off fantastic feelings whilst as compared to introverts. Extraverts are also mentioned to have a better suit with their social environment that may cause advantageous feelings of happiness. As such, extroverts are more likely to revel in happiness than introverts who won't thrive in similar social settings (Furnham & Christoforou, 2007; Carr, 2004). Happiness has also shown to be associated with easy sociability that involves herbal, first-rate interaction with different human beings, another characteristic ordinary of the extrovert. The happiness of extraverts can be partly explained via their preference of enjoyable conditions whilst those that are socially unskilled (e.g., Introverts) can also avoid such conditions. In evaluation, sad humans have a tendency to have high stages of neuroticism. Neuroticism is the tendency to be vulnerable to emotions of tension and despair when faced with probably stressful situations. Thus, sad human beings are believed to be extra reactive to unpleasant emotional stimuli compared to happier opposite numbers below the identical situations (Diener, Oishi & Lucas, 2003). Hofer, Busch and Kiessling (2008) assist this factor of view in declaring that neuroticism is negatively associated with subjective well-being (happiness) at the same time as openness to enjoy, agreeableness, extraversion and conscientiousness are positively associated with subjective well being (happiness). 1.3.6 Biology of happiness This view purports that Individuals are born with the genetic make-up to be both “very” satisfied, moderately content, or chronically upset. Positive feelings were proven to coincide with better degrees of hobby at the left aspect of the brain’s prefrontal lobes. A key player seems to be the neurotransmitter dopamine, which incorporates “experience top” messages among brain cells. High ranges of dopamine have been implicated in emotions of happiness even as low degrees may result in feelings of despair. Lykken and Tellegen (1996) concluded from their examine of twins that most people have a mean level of happiness or a “set point” this is innate in them and therefore unbiased of environmental factors. They endorse that after we modify to the outcomes of transient highs and lows in emotionality (as an instance, happiness and unhappiness) we go back to our organic \"set factor\". While it is understood that very intense emotions of pleasure or unhappiness may also keep human beings off their \"set point\" for somewhat longer intervals, it's miles believed that in the end, everyone returns to their baseline level of well-being this is believed to be set by way of genetics (Compton, 2005) From the organic angle, relying on an man or woman’s genes, a few people may also have a herbal enthusiasm for existence, deriving delight from ordinary sports, or may additionally require uncommon adventures. But irrespective of what makes us glad, a quiet walk or a jungle safari, after the preliminary high, we return to our happiness set-factor regulated by way of our level of dopamine. 12 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

For some people, it's far counseled that their setpoint may additionally lean closer to advantageous emotionality (high stage of dopamine) wherein they may have a tendency to be pleased most of the time. Those with a fixed factor directed more closer to negative emotionality (low dopamine) will have a tendency to gravitate toward various tiers of pessimism and anxiety. It is also proposed that the biologically programmed set-point isn't always a factor, it is a variety. In this context, we will impact this variety for that reason being capable of adjust our \"set point\" through growing surroundings that is extra conducive to emotions of happiness. That is why factors including own family surroundings, education stage, and cultural elements all have an impact on a person's sense of happiness and wellbeing (Compton, 2005). Thus, in preference to being a carte blanche on the person's nation of happiness, the organic view nonetheless considers environmental factors to be a power on the greater enduring trait of happiness however handiest within the confines of a fixed-point range. 1.3.7 Happiness and Culture When it involves happiness, way of life is considered to play a considerable function. Researchers have concluded that most people across the globe do choice a few shape and diploma of happiness. But that pursuit of happiness varies greatly relying on one’s way of life and circumstances (Carr, 2004). For instance, very bad nations and those in dramatic political alternate always record the bottom ranges of subjective well-being. Conversely, among the rich and democratic Scandinavian nations continuously file the best levels of happiness. But lifestyle can also be poor in assets and rich in happiness. Latin American countries, as an example, appear to have a more tremendous orientation and fee happiness extra than other nations (Maddux, 2004). At the other cease of the dimensions, East Asian and African nations often vicinity other values beforehand of happiness, inclusive of mastery and desirable one's family or organization (Carr, 2004). Thus, how we for my part define and experience happiness has as a good deal to do with our cultural impacts as it does with our persona, biological tendencies, non-public desires and different man or woman elements. What this means is that even as the general public in practically each society will likely choice some form of well-being (each psychologically and physically), what they price will substantially decide what shape that pursuit of happiness is and what it will seem like once received. Because of such cultural variance in what factors make a contribution to high stages of happiness and nicely-being, it needs to be concluded that there are more determinants to happiness beyond the scope of what tremendous psychology currently is familiar with. What is perhaps crucial to apprehend is that every subculture finds its sources of nicely-being and maximizes those by means of building from their cultural assets to pursue their happiness. 13 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

1.3.8 Authentic Happiness Thus, actual happiness suggests that we all have signature strengths that we use in hard times to bring about trade. The idea is that people have to attention on their strengths and no longer their weaknesses to reap actual happiness. The recognition is on drawing on those strengths and the usage of them as equipment to maximize meaningful life. Greater authenticity became also related to less despair and less perceived pressure and fewer complaints of physical problems, developing a conducive weather for happiness (Compton, 2005). Seligman (2002) differentiates between strengths and skills as they're often harassed inside the identification of individual signature strengths. It is recommended that strengths are moral tendencies whilst talents are innate. Talents are said to be tremendously automatic while strengths are more voluntary. Although talent does now not contain a choice about possessing it, there is a desire of whether or not to burnish it and where to installation it. Strength on the other hand entails selections approximately whilst to apply it and whether or not to hold building it (Seligman, 2002). It is argued that signature strengths are built from the discovery and possession of the strengths that a person already possesses. Seligman and his colleagues have recognized 24 signature strengths and 6 virtues which are believed to be vital for one to obtain genuine happiness. 1.3.9 Goals of Positive Psychology Positive Psychology's concept of well-being may be equated with the closing purpose of humanity – finding personal which means and fulfilment in our lives. In the philosophic studies of historic Greece, academies of humans asked themselves and each other, \"what's the best purpose of existence and the way will we achieve it?\" Positive psychology offers 5 core factors of the manner to acquire non-public that means and fulfilment in existence. 1. Positive feelings. Feeling right and having an experience of happiness is prime. The great part right here is that superb emotion may be measured and it avoids the tautology of getting happiness be defined as having a sense of happiness. 2. Engagement. Also measurable, engagement is becoming immersed or wrapped up in a challenge to hand. It's a mixture among losing oneself within the motion and being conscious that you are letting move of yourself. 3. Interest. Interest plays a position. It’s natural to pursue what we adore and are curious about. Curiosity met with knowledge translates into hobby. 4. Meaning. The exceptional element approximately which means is that it is all made up. We as humans have grown to be masters at taking a scenario and assigning meaning to it. This capacity to create meaning is what offers us our humanity and the fantastic mixture of idea, emotion, and movement that make up our personalities – who we're, what we do, and the way we do it. 14 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Five. Purpose. Purpose comes from the Latin word poser that means place. Purpose approach what we location forward in our lives. It's what we stay for it really is larger than us. These five elements are contained simplest within the person. But every of them must be present to a few degrees for real happiness or flourishing, to exist. 1.4 SUMMARY • Martin Seligman, who's widely taken into consideration as the father of positive psychology defines high-quality psychology as \"the scientific look at of high-quality human functioning and flourishing on a couple of degrees that include the biological, private, relational, institutional, cultural, and worldwide dimensions of life.” • Positive Psychology's primary consciousness is on what humans do right to attain and preserve ultimate happiness (Compton, 2005), by using striving to recognize and assist human beings expand features that cause extra private fulfilment. • Positive psychology is firmly primarily based on humanistic idea. The premise of this discipline, like the humanistic method, focuses on improving human capacity. Positive psychology acknowledges that human beings can and do adapt and adjust to lifestyles in tremendously innovative ways allowing them to feel good about lifestyles. • Positive Psychology views happiness from each the hedonistic and eudemonic view in which they define happiness in phrases of the best lifestyles, the best lifestyles and the significant lifestyles. 1.5 KEYWORDS  Hedonic (Subjective Wellbeing): Presence of positive mood Absence of negative mood; Satisfaction with various domains of life (e.g., work, leisure); Global life satisfaction.  Eudaimonic (Psychological Wellbeing): Sense of control or autonomy; Feeling of meaning and purpose; Personal expressiveness; Feelings of belongingness; Social contribution; Competence; Personal growth; Self-acceptance.  Authentic happiness: Positive psychology uses the term authentic happiness to describe the combination of behaviour that constitutes happiness and a good life 1.6 LEARNING ACTIVITY 1. List out the things that make you happy and evaluate whether they are hedonistic or eudemonic in nature. ___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 15 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

1.7 UNIT END QUESTIONS A. Descriptive Questions Short Questions 1. Describe the origin of Positive Psychology. 2. Explain the basic assumptions of Positive Psychology. 3. Distinguish hedonic wellbeing and eudemonic wellbeing with one example each. 4. Delineate the five goals of positive psychology. 5. What is flow and what are the elements that characterize it? Long Questions 1. Explain the biology of happiness in detail. 2. Explain the contributors to happiness in detail. 3. Describe authentic happiness in detail. 4. How is happiness related to culture? Explain in detail. 5. Explain the relationship between flow and personality with happiness. B. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Who is widely considered the father of Positive Psychology? a. William Wilhelm Wundt b. Sigmund Freud c. Elon Musk d. Martin Seligman 2. Which one of the following is a concern of positive psychology? a. Generalized anxiety disorder b. Schizophrenia c. Happiness and flow d. Study of the endocrine system 3. What is the ultimate aim of humanity? a. To find meaning and fulfilment b. To get at the top of one’s career and earn a lot of money c. To find one’s soulmate d. To get into positions of political power 16 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

4. Which one of the following is the neurotransmitter that carries ‘feel good’ messages to the brain? a. Epinephrine b. Norepinephrine c. Corticosteroids d. Dopamine 5. The notion that increased pleasure and decreased pain leads to happiness is called which one of the following? a. Hedonic wellbeing b. Eudaimonic wellbeing c. Physical wellbeing d. Psychological wellbeing Answers 1.d 2.c 3.a4. d 5.a 1.8 REFERENCES  Kumar, U., Archana, & Prakash, V. (2015). Positive psychology – Applications in work, health and well-being. Delhi & Chennai, India: Pearson.  Joseph, S. (Ed.) (2015). Positive psychology in practice: Promoting human flourishing in work, health, education, and everyday life. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.  David, S. A., Boniwell, I.& Ayers, A. C. (2013). The Oxford handbook of happiness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Boniwell, I. (2012). Positive Psychology in a Nutshell: The Science of Happiness (3rd edition). London: McGraw Hill.  Baumgardner, S. R. & Crothers, M. K. (2009). Positive psychology. New Delhi, India: Pearson.  Linley and Joseph (2004). Positive Psychology in Practice. Taylor and Francis  Seligman, M. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: Free Press. 17 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

UNIT 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES Structure 2.0 Learning Objectives 2.1 Positive psychology in relation to other fields 2.1.1 Positivity psychology and sociology 2.1.2 Positives psychology and health 2.1.3 Positives psychology and human resource management 2.2 Historic perspective of positives psychology 2.2.1 The agenda of positive psychology 2.2.2 Positives psychology and the Aristotelian foundation 2.2.3 The place of social and moral motivation within positives psychology 2.2.4 Positives psychology and the universalistic perspective 2.2.5 Positives psychology and Humanistic and Existential psychology 2.2.6 The paradigm of growth and optimal functioning and positives psychology’s research and practice conclusion remarks 2.3 Summary 2.4 Keywords 2.5 Learning Activity 2.6 Unit End Question 2.7 References 2.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this unit, students will be able to:  State the relationship between positive psychology and other fields of study  Explain the historical perspectives of positive psychology  List the historical pathways that lead to the development of positive psychology  List the origins of positive psychology 18 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

2.1 POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY IN RELATION TO OTHER FIELD The thoughts of positive psychology have now firmly taken root within an expert psychological exercise. In the intervening years, there had been applications inside the contexts of work, fitness, groups, counseling, and education, as well as in expert disciplines out of doors psychology consisting of sociology, social work, education, and public policy. There appears little need 10 years directly to argue the case for wonderful psychology. The belief that psychology had centered too much at the remedy of issues with scant interest to what is going right in existence is now not controversial. It is now extensively standard that it's miles of identical value to attend to what makes life really worth dwelling as it is to what goes incorrect, and its miles critical to search for methods to help people lead lives in which they are happier, have a feel of meaning and purpose, and come in the direction of gratifying their potential. These are the targets of superb psychology, which broadly expressed can be stated to be \"the observe of the situations and methods that make a contribution to the flourishing or ultimate functioning of people, companies, and establishments\" (Gable & Haidt, 2005, p. 104). Positive psychology offers a commonplace identification for all pupils and practitioners interested in human flourishing and nicely-being. Some might also discover themselves broadly speaking as fine psychologists, in particular the ones who have graduated from the new courses during the last decade or won doctorates in advantageous psychology topic. Fig 2.1 For others, nice psychology can be a secondary identity due to the fact they view themselves first and main as medical, counseling, developmental, educational, forensic, health, control, occupational, character, or social psychologists. They may be academics or practitioners, however all percentage the identical challenge in what makes for a great lifestyle, but in a manner that now encompasses the idea that we must be involved no longer only inside the 19 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

comfort of problems but also within the advertising of optimal functioning. For a few, tremendous psychology has been a brand-new manner of wondering altogether. For others, it has supplied a way to recognize and provide voice to what it was they usually aspired to gain. 2.1.1 Positive Psychology and Sociology The positive psychology movement sought to redress the dominant mental focus on disorder and infection by way of developing a research agenda on fantastic emotions, engagement, relationships, that means and accomplishment. Similarly, in current many years, sociology has centered on the deficits that ward off human flourishing and the not unusual good. Although sociologists have generated crucial information approximately the causes and effects of social inequalities, describing social problems is not the equivalent of describing the situations that sell human flourishing or foster the commonplace exact. Similar to how advantageous psychology shifted the focal point from disorder to health; nice sociology will study the social preconditions of human flourishing and the commonplace properly. Rather than seeing the human accurate as reducible to at least one main element, high-quality psychology sees human goods as plural, and as a consequence there are numerous versions of a flourishing existence. Similarly, sociologists can describe top notch variant in subculture, traditions, and narratives that have an impact on what flourishing and the common exact includes. Both psychologists and sociologists’ debate whether there's a common human nature and, in that case, what its residences are. Positive psychology did now not try and clear up the nature-nurture debate in psychology, but nice psychology studies what free humans pick to do. Similarly, nice sociology can replicate on human personhood in order increase while not having to resolve philosophical debates approximately personhood. For instance, acknowledging that human nature is encouraged via social structures and subculture does no longer necessarily require a relativistic viewpoint concerning human flourishing or the commonplace top. In truth, without some idea of a shared human nature and human freedom, the very principles of human flourishing and the not unusual exact could now not make feel. Furthermore, acknowledging external affects and constraints on human behaviour and cognizance does no longer must get rid of human freedom. Without some idea of human freedom to resist or exchange social systems, it'd be tough to assume future-orientated behaviour that could cause social variations. 2.1.2 Positive Psychology and Health Concern with superb health ends in an exam of health assets, person-level factors that produce wonderful fitness in one or extra of the methods that it might be described, over-and- above the frequently studied threat factors for negative health, like high cholesterol, weight problems, smoking, immoderate alcohol use, and a sedentary way of life. Among the psychosocial danger elements frequently examined concerning negative fitness are anger, tension, melancholy, and social isolation. By the good judgment of a nice perspective, the 20 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

mere absence of these bad states and developments is not all that matters for physical fitness. Important as properly is advantageous states and trends, and the contribution of those of their very own proper needs to be studied, controlling for poor states and traits in addition to other typical-suspect chance elements. There had been great studies on negative mental factors which includes stress, depression, hostility, and their effects on an increased risk of numerous health problems. However, less recognized is whether or not positive fine mental elements play a protective function towards health dangers. Research has proven that effective and bad feelings aren't opposite and are most effective modestly correlated. Experiencing each of these feelings is likewise concerned inside the activation of various mind regions. For the past numerous years, researchers have tested the contributions of fitness property, especially psychological ones, to proper health, whilst they have controlled for set up risk factors. Researchers need to study both threat factors and health assets to understand relationships between each nice and negative psychological factor as they together make contributions to health results. Carefully performed studies suggests that high-quality health belongings certainly are expecting right health assessed in a ramification of approaches. Among the nice psychology health property foreshadowing proper health are • Positive feelings • Life pleasure • Optimism • Forgiveness • Self-law • Vitality and zest • Life that means and reason • Helping others and volunteering • Good social relationships • Spirituality and religiosity There has been developing proof that fine mental traits have an effect on fitness and toughness using numerous studies strategies along with longitudinal potential and experimental designs. Perhaps, most of the maximum well-known long-term research that showed the possible link between advantageous mental belongings and fitness results is The Nun Study. An organization of American nuns who were members of the School Sisters of Notre Dame wrote autobiographical essays in their early 20s once they joined the Sisterhood. Six a long 21 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

time later, researchers who had accessed the convent archive scored the emotional content of 180 essays in terms of positivity and investigated whether they were associated with the mortality of nuns. Indeed, tremendous emotional content turned into substantially associated with sturdiness. The nuns who expressed greater fine feelings (the ones inside the upper 25%) in their essays, strikingly, lived on average 10 years longer than those expressing fewer positive emotions (the ones inside the bottom 25%). In other phrases, happier nuns lived longer than much less satisfied (but not depressed) nuns. Putting this in context, dangerous behaviour like smoking prices on common 7 years of one's life. In another experimental have a look at, Cohen and his colleagues tested the relationships among tremendous feelings and the vulnerability of catching a commonplace bloodless. With 334 wholesome grownup volunteers in the network, they first measured both nice emotional experience, such as glad, pleased, energetic, and comfy, and bad emotional reviews, together with despair, anxiety, and hostility, over a few weeks using self-reports. Afterwards, members were invited to the examine lab and uncovered to rhinoviruses thru nasal drops and monitored in quarantine for the development of the common bloodless. The researchers located that higher fine emotional reports had been associated with a decrease threat of developing cold and less reports of signs, whilst poor emotional reviews had been no longer significantly related to catching a chilly, but related to reports of more symptoms. In brief, this takes a look at showed that experiencing fantastic feelings became connected to extra resistance to growing the commonplace bloodless. The fitness advantages of fantastic mental property have been documented in exclusive cultural settings as well. For instance, in Japanese subculture, the maximum usually used indicator of subjective nicely-being is the experience of “lifestyles worth residing” (ikigai). In a population-primarily based prospective cohort look at with 43, 391 adults in Ohsaki, Japan, lack of the experience of “life really worth living” (ikigai) changed into considerably related to a higher risk of all-reason mortality over time. Those who mentioned having an ikigai in their lifestyles in a survey have been more likely to be alive at a 7-year follow-up as compared to their counterparts who did no longer discover an experience of ikigai. Interestingly, the growth in mortality chance changed into due to an increase in mortality from cardiovascular disorder and external reasons which include suicide, but now not to mortality from most cancers. Having a feel of \"life well worth dwelling\" (ikigai) often approach having a cause in lifestyles and understanding the fee of being alive that can serve as a motivation for dwelling. One of the methods to obtain a feel of lifestyles which means and motive is thru helping others and doing regular volunteer work in groups. Research has proven that among elders, those who volunteer often are healthier and stay longer. In a longitudinal study with a nationally consultant pattern of community-residing older US adults, a have a look at observed that volunteerism expected a decrease risk of hypertension four years later. That is, those who had volunteered at least two hundred hours within the previous 12 months have 22 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

been much less likely to broaden high blood pressure chance as compared to people who did no longer volunteer. However, lower degrees of volunteering did now not lower the fitness hazard of hypertension. It seems that dosage and intentions of volunteering subjects for its health benefits. In any other take a look at, people who often volunteered for self-oriented motives did not showcase lower danger for mortality 4 years later, even as those who often and regularly volunteered for other-oriented motives confirmed a lower danger of subsequent mortality. In conclusion, it is ideal to be precise! One of the properly-studied fitness-related advantageous psychology topics is optimism. Optimism is every so often visible as Pollyannaism, a naively rosy view of the world coupled with a “don’t worry, be happy” attitude. However, optimism the manner researchers study it is a disposition to an expectation that the future will entail more superb events than poor ones. Optimists are neither in denial nor naive about challenges and problems in lifestyles. They surely attend to and acknowledge the fantastic. Empirical studies shows that optimism—generally assessed with self-record surveys— pertains to good fitness and long life. According to research, among asymptomatic guys with HIV, optimism slowed the onset of AIDS over an 18-month follow-up. Over an 8-yr observe- up, optimism anticipated higher pulmonary feature among older men, even when smoking became controlled. In a longitudinal examine of older women and men, optimism expected not most effective better health but additionally lower degrees of ache. Our research organization these days reported a examine of a massive nationally consultant pattern of older adults (elderly >50 years) in the United States showing that over 2 years, optimism predicted a lower chance of stroke, even after controlling for continual ailments, self-rated fitness, and applicable socio demographic, organic, and mental elements. Besides, the importance of social assist and superb relationships on desirable fitness and properly-being has lengthy been documented. Supportive social relationships were related to toughness, less cognitive decline with getting older, greater resistance to infectious disorder, and better management of chronic ailments. Enough nicely-designed studies exist in support of the basis that fitness belongings are expecting top health to warrant further research. Research to this point gives compelling proof that nice psychological fitness property is expecting or are associated with diverse fitness results and sturdiness among healthful populations. However, what's tremendously unknown are the effects of nice fitness belongings for restoration and lengthy-term fitness consequences among those with critical health problems including cancer. Furthermore, earlier than we remember interventions that intentionally encourage those property to lessen morbidity and mortality and to boom bodily properly-being, some problems want to be addressed. 23 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

2.1.3 Positive Psychology and Human Resource Management Positive psychology is, at coronary heart, the take a look at of human excellence and flourishing, and as such has clean software to the paintings of HR Directors and other organizational leaders. Research on this area demonstrates the unique organizational functions together with social capital, positivity ratios and the usage of character strengths could make to an organization's profitability and productivity and the nicely-being of its staff. For example, Gittell et al. (2006) had been able to demonstrate that the true management of Jim Parker of South Western Airlines and the goodwill his management had built among group of workers became a key factor in their extremely good resilience as an organization within the wake of Sep 11, despite being in the maximum adversely affected class of 'home airlines.' It seems that excessive social capital (organizational consider and interconnectivity by other names) and relational reserves (goodwill towards leadership) definitely have an effect on the potential of corporations to bounce back from adversity e.g., Organizational resilience. Further, Hodges and Asplund (2010) validated that a developmental recognition on knowledge and utilizing human being’s strengths at paintings can achieve dividends of reduced turnover and greater productiveness. Understandably environment and paintings culture have an effect on well-being and happier people generally tend to have stronger immune structures and higher cardiovascular fitness (Diener and Biswas-Diener 2008). Positive approaches of operating and behaving at work appear to undoubtedly impact engagement, personnel retention, sickness degrees and organizational potential. Two key principles: Two key standards from fantastic psychology which might be conveniently relevant in corporations and HR tactics are positivity and strengths. Positivity - positivity refers to the ratio of wonderful to bad affect skilled through people. Studies in several domain names, consisting of team performance (Losada and Heaphy 2004) and marital concord (Gottman 1994) have continually found that a ratio of at least three:1 nice to terrible interactions are needed to attain a threshold where creative approaches forward can be located. At ratios below those interactions get caught in non-productive struggle and relationships deteriorate. In greater standard phrases fine effect is shown to definitely affect our cognitive skills, our sociability, our innovation and our resilience, all of those are critical for organizational performance. Strengths - essentially our herbal and innate abilities, borne of physiology, hereditary endowment and environmental impacts. Studies in neuroscience constantly reveal that even though the mind has extra plasticity than once thought, we still expand patterns of capacity based totally on repeated use of sure neural pathways. What this efficaciously manner is that 24 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

by adulthood, and really by our overdue twenties we've got each nicely-established pathways and poorly installed pathways. Research in positive psychology has proven how investing in areas of present strengths can acquire dividends. For instance, while we're the usage of our strengths we are possibly to be extra energized, stimulated, engaged and successful. We locate it much less tiring so our productivity is likely to be higher. People want to discover ways to use their strengths efficaciously and as it should be. It appears power plus talent equals exquisite overall performance or talent. So, the invitation is to work extra to shape jobs around humans and less to in shape people into roles. Practical utility: Our information of the useful outcomes of both increasing positivity in an agency and helping human beings to recognize and use their specific strengths has many practical programs. Performance control: For instance, value determinations or performance control conversations are presupposed to be motivating, yet frequently have the alternative impact. The use of enthusiasm testimonies, feed-ahead interviews and quality self-360 comments techniques all provide opportunity methods to supporting people apprehend whilst and the way they're at their satisfactory and the way to make that greater viable. These are inherently fine and motivating methods. They also display lots about someone’s unique strengths. Management development: Management education and improvement may be revised to don't forget these advantageous psychology insights, assisting managers and leaders apprehend the significance of the 'experience-correct element in addition to introducing methods of attaining it. They can be taught how to identify strengths, and the way to address crew responsibilities in ways that create opportunities for humans to play to their strengths and complement each different. They can also be delivered to change methods that employ high-quality psychology consisting of Appreciative Inquiry. Recruitment and selection: Recruitment and choice may be revised to expose natural strengths and exuberance instead of experience or talent sets. While those may be essential, they can also be misleading as resources of motivation. When people are recruited to do what they love doing much less control power has to enter motivating them to do it. Downsizing: Positive psychology additionally offers help with a number of the extra difficult HR obligations together with downsizing. Gittell’s research has validated that present stages of social capital and relational reserves make a big distinction to the potential of an organization 25 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

to bounce back from difficult conditions. High ranges of social capital and relational reserves are produced by way of high quality and appreciative leadership and organizational behaviour. Leading via uncertainty: Positive psychology offers support to leaders confronted, as many presently are, by way of the undertaking of providing leadership all through instances of uncertainty. Pulling collectively what we recognize about motivating humans the use of positivity, strengths, and meaningfulness with participatory strategies which include Appreciative Inquiry creates methods of preserving motivation and morale thru tough times. 2.2 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Positive psychology started out as a protest in opposition to a number of the predominant taken-for-granted assumptions in mainstream psychology. Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000) seriously maintained that modern psychology gives priority to a concept of people that to too terrific a degree is based on pathology, faults, and dysfunctions—this is, a medically orientated psychology. Other horizons than those that concentrate on lacks, dysfunctions, and crises had been given a touch possibility to direct and shape cutting-edge (scientific) studies and exercise. The ideology of infection is therefore a priori given precedence inside state-of- the-art psychology. Positive psychology ambitions to be an essential corrective, and it needs of primary mainstream psychology not to retain to marginalize or exclude, but bring in again and revitalize the nice components of human nature: Positive subjective reports, tremendous man or woman developments, and civic virtues (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Rather than taking the medically oriented version as given, the man or women must, as Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000) keep, be conceptualized and understood as a being with inherent potentials for developing high-quality character developments or virtues. Seligman (2002a) formulated what became the primary assumptions of high-quality psychology: That there's a human “nature.” That motion proceeds from individual. That individual comes in two paperwork, each similarly essential—horrific individual and true virtuous (angelic) person. Seligman (2002a), furthermore, asserted the following approximately the cutting-edge popularity of these assumptions in mainstream psychology: Because all of those assumptions have nearly disappeared from the psychology of the twentieth century, the story in their upward thrust and fall is the backdrop for my renewing the belief of good character as a center assumption of superb psychology. Positive psychology for this reason geared toward renewing the attitude of the individual. Seligman (2002a) additionally argued positive 26 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

psychology's angle by way of claiming that \"Any technology that does not use an individual as a simple concept (or at the least explain man or woman and preference away efficaciously) will by no means be customary as a beneficial account of human behaviour\" (p. 128). Formally released inside the millennium difficulty of American Psychologist (edited through Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000) the motion of advantageous psychology provided and endorsed essential discussions and analyses of assumptions and perspectives taken as a right inside mainstream psychology. As Csikszentmihalyi and Nakamura (2011) a decade later looking back formulated this protest in opposition to assumptions, there have been discussions of what “have to be completed to redress the imbalance among bad and high- quality perspectives in psychology” (p. Five). However, these discussions have been most likely no longer undertaken handiest as an ability enrichment for psychology in popular. To increase fine psychology as a scientific area, it become a mandatory challenge to systematically discover which can be the essential perspectives for superb psychology, this is, that are the perspectives and theories that can't be ignored or brushed off in shaping and forming this new subject of psychology. 2.2.1 The Agenda of Positive Psychology Multiple paradigms and multiple theories inside each of the paradigms deliver superb psychology an array of horizons and assumptions from which to protest. At the Akumal 1 assembly in January 1999, a manifesto for high quality psychology became formulated. Here it became stated that “Positive psychology is the medical observe of top-rated functioning, it ambitions to find out and promote the factors that allow people and communities to thrive” (Sheldon, Fredrickson, Rathumnde, Csikszentmihalyi, & Haidt, 1999). The manifesto, furthermore, stated that high-quality psychology “need to take into account greatest functioning at multiple stages, inclusive of biological, experiential, non-public, relational, institutional, cultural, and worldwide” (Sheldon et al., 1999). The first Handbook of Positive Psychology (Seligman, 2002b) offers a greater comprehensive definition. We have discovered that there are human strengths that act as buffers towards mental infection: braveness, destiny-mindedness, optimism, interpersonal talent, faith, paintings ethic, hope, honesty, and perseverance, the potential for go with the flow and insight, to name numerous. Much of the task of prevention in this new century might be to create a science of human strength whose challenge could be to understand and research how to foster those virtues in young people. Furthermore, Seligman (2002b) underlines, “We now want to name for huge studies on human energy and distinctive feature”. And he concludes, “We need to do the ideal longitudinal research and experiments to recognize how these strengths grow (or are stunted; Vaillant, 2000). We want to broaden and check interventions to build these strengths” (Seligman, 2002b). That high quality psychology became launched as a protest in opposition to a number of the primary taken-for-granted assumptions in mainstream psychology is clearly contemplated within the introductory sentence in 27 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Seligman’s, where he factors out: Psychology after World War II have become a medical psychology in large part committed to recovery. It focused on repairing harm using a disorder model of human functioning. This nearly special attention to pathology ignored the idea of a fulfilled man or woman and a thriving community, and it left out the opportunity that building strength is the strongest weapon within the arsenal of remedy. Maddux (2002) corroborated this corrective protest whilst he mentioned that mainstream psychology become not aware of how “effective socio-cultural, political, expert, and monetary forces built the infection ideology and the DSM and retain to maintain them”. With this method and studies time table of superior functioning and human strengths and virtues, effective psychology placed itself certainly inside an Aristotelian approach to human improvement (Jørgensen & Nafstad, 2004). To recognize the technological know-how and movement of high-quality psychology, therefore, I may even start this time by using searching through Aristotle's version of human nature and improvement. As Waterman (2013a) concludes based on his evaluation of effective psychology and humanistic psychology's respective philosophical foundations, Aristotle is the philosopher \"most constantly mentioned within the writings of fantastic psychologists. 2.2.2 Positive Psychology and the Aristotelian Foundation The most fundamental assumption approximately human nature and performing from the Aristotelian angle is the teleological concept that human life and human properly-being consist in nature-fulfilment and the human being as inwardly driven by using a dynamic of ever extra best functioning. Within the Aristotelian version, with its four causal factors (causa materials, causa formalis, causa efficient, and causafinalis), boom or alternate turns into the essential dimension of the item or phenomenon. The person is hence understood as a being continuously pushed ahead by way of a dynamic principle closer to what's better or greater ideal. In Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle clarifies his optimal functioning or perfectionism concept: “Every craft and every line of inquiry, and likewise every movement and decision, seems to are searching for a few correct; this is why a few people were proper to explain the coolest as what the entirety seeks”. Thus, the Aristotelian body of know-how represents an angle of a center human nature in which change in the direction of something top, higher, or extra ideal contains the essential aspect. The suitable is what everything strives toward. The individual is for this reason a being who will introduce effective dreams and values and attempt to recognize and attain them. The Aristotelian model then takes into consideration teleological goals: the individual as a being that lives a life in which mind and ideas approximately future wonderful goals—now not best gift and beyond—also have an impact on the course of actions right here and now. The Aristotelian model introduces a difference among the individual’s opportunities or potentials on the only hand, and the man or woman’s actual traits or realization of those potentials however. Aristotle's whole metaphysics and psychology are elaborated \"from a developmental angle in which the principles of potentiality and fact are fundamental\" (Bernstein, 1986). The character is, 28 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

moreover, consistent with Aristotle, a being who is characterized through experiencing joy while workout his or her inherent or obtained capabilities and is striving closer to figuring out them in methods which might be skilled as higher, extra complicated, or more ideal. As the philosopher, Rawls (1976) states about this strongly high quality motivational dynamic principle of human beings that Aristotle formulated, \"The Aristotelian Principle runs as follows: other things same, humans enjoy the workout in their realized capacities (their innate or educated talents), and this enjoyment will increase the greater the capability is found out, or the greater the complexity\". The Aristotelian model then holds that we will be glad whilst pleasurable our destiny as precise human beings and it's far the technique of workout itself that is important to the enjoy of amusement. Furthermore, Aristotle's idea is that one must habituate humans to an attention in their positive virtues in greater best or complicated approaches, with the motive that moral goodness will become almost instinctive. Positive psychology is inspired by means of the Aristotelian version of human nature: To develop, improve, and feature optimally is for tremendous psychology an essential or center concept. Positive psychology also strongly draws at the concept of exercise and exercise. As Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000) undertake and reformulate this Aristotelian view on pleasure and workout: Enjoyment, however, refers to the best emotions human beings experience once they spoil via the bounds of homeostasis—after they do something that stretches them past what they were—in an athletic occasion, an artistic overall performance, a terrific deed, a stimulating verbal exchange. Enjoyment, in place of pleasure, is what results in private growth and long-term happiness. Within (developmental) psychology there are three sorts of theories explaining human improvement. First, endogenous or essential theories—along with the Aristotelian—describe and explain development as predominantly a result of inner affects. The emphasis is on the organism's internal nature and the concept locates trade and development mechanisms inside the internal factor of the organism (software program/blueprint for boom, hereditary plan, etc.). Second, there are theories anchored within the exogenous paradigm that explain improvement because of unique environmental elements outside to the man or woman or organism. The third kind, constructivist theories, instead of arguing improvement as being either innately or environmentally decided, view development as a synthesis of progressive agencies and reorganizations constructed, shaped and shaped inside the method of the human man or woman adapting to and interacting with the outside global (Green & Piel, 2002). As now shown, tremendous psychology adopts and revitalizes an Aristotelian body of reference and argues that the technology of psychology must yet again consist of assumptions about the essence-driven motivation toward something better— that is, greater ideal functioning. In accordance with the Aristotelian root—a critical or endogenous developmental theory—high quality psychology, furthermore, as a consequence takes as its 29 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

factor of departure that the human being is \"preprogrammed\" with ethical \"software program\" of justice, courage, fairness, and so on. The Aristotelian model—an essentialist principle—holds that the improvement of any organism, along with people, is the unfolding of herbal, fixed, or innate possibilities. Within the Aristotelian model of improvement, consequently, there may be a right, optimum, or best functioning that is teleologically constant as the realization of innate styles of increase. The Aristotelian model, moreover, sincerely underlines how the developmental method of fulfilling human nature results in properly-being. Or as Haybron (2008) factors out, \"In vast phrases, Aristotelian theories identify well-being with 'well-functioning,' which is to mention functioning or living properly as an individual: the fulfilment of nature\" (p. 35). The Aristotelian technique is, as Haybron (2008) formulates it, “The teleological concept that nicely-being consists in nature fulfilment” (p. 35; italics within the unique). Dynamic teleological determinism is thereby, as proven, worried with describing and explaining where the organism is going in place of wherein it has come from (Hopkins & Butterworth, 1990). For high quality psychology, in congruence with the Aristotelian model, goodness and morality for this reason do no longer come from outdoor the character. They do not rise up from cultural resources or the ethical regulations of society however from the potentials of the individual him- or herself. Aristotle also claims that \"none of the virtues of man or woman arises in us obviously. . .. Rather we're by nature able to gather them, and we're finished thru addiction\" (Morgan, 2001, p. 206). Thus, it's far up to the man or woman to understand his or her complete capability. Positive psychology additionally argues that strengths and virtues can be and must be cultivated, and their development and awareness is the course to happiness and properly-being. As a result, a most particular purpose for advantageous psychology is to develop and test interventions to build these strengths. As shown, the Aristotelian model focuses on the virtuous person and people inner developments, dispositions, and motives that qualify the individual to be virtuous. Within the Aristotelian version, the virtues of the soul are of two sorts: the distinctive feature of concept and the virtue of man or woman. \"Virtue of idea arises and grows by and large from coaching; this is why it needs enjoy and time. The distinctive feature of individual (i.e., of ethos) Aristotle states, that each types of virtues need to be cultivated—\"none of the virtues of person arises in us naturally\" (Morgan, 2001, p. 206). The topic of intellectual sports, giftedness, creativity, and top notch cognitive overall performance is principal to positive psychology. But equally crucial, as now shown, nice psychology stresses that there are virtues of an extraordinary type: The concept of properly character constitutes one of the different conceptual cornerstones of fantastic psychology. In the path of beyond a long time, moral idea in philosophy has centered an increasing number of on the belief of the man or woman as having virtuous reasons (Baron, Petit, & Slote, 1997) and tremendous psychology attempts to revitalize this idea of human nature. Positive psychology, information, courage, 30 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

humanity, gratitude, justice, temperance, and transcendence, as an instance, are classes of distinctive feature which are postulated to be regular virtues. To sum up, by means of setting itself sincerely in the Aristotelian version, tremendous psychology argues the view of the best character; the idea of the individual with a positive person, strengths, and given virtues; and the concept of the fundamental distinction among “man as he occurs to be” and “guy as he may be if he realized his important nature”. As proven, the Aristotelian model additionally combines realizing human telos and happiness: “Since happiness is a sure type of pastime of the social in accord with complete virtue, we must have a look at virtue, for to be able to possibly additionally be a manner to take a look at happiness better” (Morgan, 2001, p. 204). These ideas of a commonplace core nature for all humans and continuous development and cognizance of those human potentials as the source of nicely-being and happiness represent the relevant agenda for tremendous psychology. Teleological determinism, which pertains to the Aristotelian concept of final purpose, strongly argues a preprogrammed directiveness to human development. However, notions or ideas of ideal telos are at the stop created and formed in a subtle interaction with values and ideals in society. 2.2.3 The Place of Social and Moral Motivation Within Positive Psychology Positive psychology articulates the presumptions of the Aristotelian approach to human nature and improvement, and this consists of the view of the good individual—the concept of the man or woman with an effective character, strengths, and given virtues. The primary place to begin for advantageous psychology then is that the individual has given dynamic potentials for tremendous virtues or person. Science may also, in lots of approaches, be taken into consideration what the philosophically and ecologically oriented psychologist Howard (1985) phrases a \"witch's caldron\" wherein special a priori starting factors, values, axioms, and primary assumptions, as well as one-of-a-kind concrete theories, \"boil\" and vie for dominance. Every role and concrete theory therefore wish to come to be the only recognized, the only usual because the fact and an expression of truth. Another extra systematic way to explicate advantageous psychology's assumptions and foundations is, therefore, to ask what kind of theories of human motivations mainstream psychology puts into the \"witch's cauldron\" as compared with the questions that positive psychology increases. The concept of dating is one of the maximums utilized in psychology and the social sciences. As Noam and Fischer (1996) point out, \"Many of the maximum essential conventional works in social science, inclusive of psychology and philosophy, have recognized the foundational role of relationships\". Social relationships consequently comprise considered one of contemporary maximum significant concepts in analyses of human motivation and the individual as a social and ethical being. It is consequently natural to go to the big subject of social relationships wherein social motivation and human morality are core issues to greater 31 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

systematically answering this query of human motivation. Fiske (1992) continues, regarding nowadays state of affairs in mainstream psychology approximately social relationships and human social motivation: From Freud to current socio-biologists, from Skinner to social cognitions, from Goffman to recreation theorists, the winning assumption in Western psychology has been that humans are by means of nature asocial individualists. Psychologists (and most other social scientists) then usually give an explanation for social relationships as instrumental way to extrinsic, non- social ends, or as constraints at the delight of man or woman goals. And van Lange (2000) factors out, Within the domain of psychological theory, this assumption of rational self-hobby is embedded in numerous key constructs, which include reinforcement, the pursuit of delight, software maximization (as evolved inside the context of behavioristic principle, which include social getting to know theory), psychoanalytic theory, and theories of social decision making. Nafstad (2002) concludes, “Fundamentally viewed, within mainstream psychology, the individual has hence one purpose for personal actions also in social members of the family: Consideration for oneself” (p. 6). This purpose or telos for human improvement represents, therefore, an integral element of cutting-edge Western motivation theories and thereby additionally theories of morality. As this indicates, in mainstream psychology as well as inside the other social sciences, the axiomatic postulate of humans as asocial and egoistic individuals is then prioritized and tacitly taken without any consideration perspective. Within modern psychology and the other social sciences, the person is accordingly regularly a priori confined to being constantly inspired with the aid of eating the social and fabric international, to gain the quality possible blessings for him- or herself. To hold order in a society made of folks who are strongly prompted by means of person goals, hedonism, and intake, society desires norms and regulations of morality. Without such moral guidelines or social norms, the character as appearing problem could now not supply any attention to others so long as this is probably unsightly and have an effect on his or her comfort negatively. It turned into the English truth seeker Thomas Hobbes (1651) who was first to argue in prefer of the sort of view of human nature, a role that has predominated modern-day psychology's view of human motivation. The Greek philosophy that prevailed earlier than Hobbes, however, held the view that humans had been high quality and essentially social through nature. Hobbes launched the doctrine that maintained that humans had been horrific, and not plenty may be carried out about it. Thus, morality can't be something but social contracts between self-seeking, hedonistic, and ruthless people. Morality, therefore, have become similar to obedience to the law. This is a deeply bad view of human nature—a human nature without given fantastic distinctive feature potentials. 32 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

The doctrine against that of Hobbes, the view that people are born as ethical beings with a dynamic potential for goodness, become proposed by means of Rousseau (1762). Spencer (1870, 1872) and McDougall (1908, 1932) across the turn of the previous century also tried to oppose this predominating poor function of psychological egoism and hedonism within psychology. McDougall (1908) argued in reality that human beings have an empathic intuition. However, this view did not benefit approval. According to mainstream psychology at that time in addition to nowadays, the character has simplest one motivation device (Darley, 1991; Nafstad, 2002, 2004). Self-hobby is seemed as the primary and real motivation, the one from which different motives, such as ethical and social ones, derive. Thus, people as really delight-pain organisms are present day psychology's important assumption about human motivation, from which a variety of different greater bad self-hobby motivation theories have been developed (Dovidio, Piliavin, Schroeder, & Penner, 2006). Within social and developmental psychology, however, there has been learning on prosocial behaviour, beginning the manner for extra complex motivation structures. In reality, in 1751, the philosopher Hume advised that sympathy and empathy play a main function in altruistic or sympathetic behaviour. The cutting-edge philosopher Blum (1980) also strongly argued this attitude that altruistic behaviour is frequently inspired by altruistic emotions along with compassion or sympathy. Furthermore, current humanistic and existential character theorists took as their point of departure that human nature is benign. Adopting an Aristotelian attitude, nice psychology opposes mainstream psychology's foremost bad assumption of human motivational nature. Positive psychology takes as its starting point that the individual is a socially and morally motivated being. Seligman (2002a) argued this role very strongly: \"Current dogma may say that terrible motivation is essential to human nature and tremendous motivation merely derives from it, however I have not seen a shred of evidence that compels us to consider this\" (p. 211). As Seligman (2002a) formulates this declare of an alternative to the \"witch's cauldron\" about the person as a social and moral man or woman: \"This unpacks the which means of the declare that human beings are ethical animals\" (p. 133). Besides, wonderful psychology underlines that humans have a capacity for both good and evil: \"Evolution has selected each varieties of developments, and any wide variety of niches aid morality, cooperation, altruism, and goodness, just as any number help homicide, robbery, self-looking for, and badness\". By taking the perspective that humans are fundamentally social and moral, advantageous psychology again locations itself honestly inside the midst of the Greek subculture and distinctive feature ethics. In Greek philosophy, the character become not considered to be an enough-unto-itself-being, a person worried best with looking after his or her pursuits. Goods, resources, and advantages, Aristotle maintained (Barnes, 1984), were not the belongings of people to this sort of high-quality degree as is implied in our social time and tradition. Within the Aristotelian body of reference, the person who acts egoistically is making a fundamental 33 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

mistake, which in exercise excludes the person from social relationships and therefore additionally from properly-being and the best existence. Social relationships were worried with sharing, giving, and looking after others (Vetlesen, 1994). Within the Aristotelian frame of information, a friendship turned into a courting of equality and mutuality, now not a “one-manner affair” (Vetlesen & Nortvedt, 2000) in which other people are considered a method for advantage or turning into higher off. As Vetlesen and Nortvedt (2000) described the social courting of friendship in the Aristotelian technique, \"Friendship is inseparable from sharing with the other and reciprocating the emotions obtained\". Within the Aristotelian version, the man or woman thus has each characteristic that serve to keep his welfare, in addition to civic virtues which can be worried with maintaining the welfare of others. Central to Aristotle's philosophy of human nature, therefore, is that there may be a human center nature that entails effective relations and communal responsibility. Building on the Aristotelian version, positive psychology nowadays revitalizes within psychology the very idea of the moral and suitable motivating man or women and the idea of the character additionally being an awesome citizen. Thus, high quality psychology adopts and revitalizes this Aristotelian frame of reference for our time and argues that the technology of psychology should once more encompass assumptions about the good or essence-pushed motivation and the coolest man or woman within its core assumptions of what a man or women is a high-quality psychology, in congruence with the Aristotelian version, goodness and morality, to sum up, do not come from outside the person. They do not stand up from cultural assets or the moral policies of society but from the potentials of the human being him- or herself. Positive psychology, in accordance with the Aristotelian root, takes as its point of departure that the man or women is \"preprogrammed\" with moral \"software program\" of justice, courage, equity, and so forth. Aristotle claims, but, that \"none of the virtues of individual arises in us certainly. . .. Rather we're by using nature able to accumulate them, and we're completed thru addiction\". As Vetlesen (1994) formulates this Aristotelian view of human nature, \"It is most effective through such an ongoing procedure of education and habituation that the person acquires the virtues\" (p. 30). Thus, it's miles up to the man or woman to understand his or her complete capacity. People have an inherent capability for positive growth, kindness, generosity, and so forth. But it desires to be constantly exercised. To use Seligman's concept, \"fostering these virtues\" is, consequently, a principal goal for wonderful psychology. Strength interventions and energy remedy are also one of the important elements of positive psychology's research and carried out time table these days. 2.2.4 Positive Psychology and the Universalistic Perspective Positive psychology and the Aristotelian version, with its teleological determinism, is an endogenous concept and, as referred to, necessarily faces a mission when answering what's higher, extra most advantageous, more notable. It may be argued that in opposition to all 34 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

definitions of desires and teleos, critical objections may be raised: Notions or ideas about ideal teleos are ultimately unavoidably created and formed in a subtle interaction between the values and ideals in society, the social and cultural situations within which the researcher in query works, as well as the traditions of the discipline. Maintaining and giving priority to positive developmental dreams and now not others will as a result be an expression of the important values and power structures of the tradition and length in query. Seligman (2002a) also argues that “fully functioning” is a lifestyle-bound idea. Humans are born right into a sociocultural world defining and valuing what's essential in lifestyles (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). The idea of premier or \"fully\" functioning should be defined and analyzed in phrases of 5 factors or dimensions: motivation, motion, goals, physical and mental context, and (social) time. So, some distance, most desirable functioning has been discussed from a motivation, action, and intention angle. But bodily and mental context and (social) time additionally should be a part of the analysis. Hence, whilst conceptualizing in terms of what's most beneficial, top or terrible, wise or now not smart, noble or ignoble, admirable or deplorable, high quality psychology have to decide the way to deal with the effects of culture and social or ancient time. In the stop, almost all discussions approximately procedures and paradigms in psychology are related in a few ways or every other to this theme of the person, records, social context(s), and/or the interaction between them. Thus, a most vital question for psychology during its records has been: Where are the defining and stabilizing forces of man or woman functioning to be observed? Mostly within the man or woman? Primarily within the contexts? Or within the interactions between them? Within psychology, there are three kinds of theories imparting unique methods and solutions to this question: the endogenous, the exogenous, and the constructive theories. How universalistic then is effective psychology's technique? Or formulated differently, due to the fact endogenous theories emphasize environment in a different way, is positive psychology arguing in favor of a robust or an extra \"soft\" regular psychology? Aristotle argues that when we tour and meet human beings in one-of-a-kind cultures, we nonetheless “can see how every person is akin and liked to a human being” (Morgan, 2001, p. 268; italics delivered). Aristotle thus argues the placement of not unusual human functions in distinct cultural corporations. Parts of psychology and different social sciences have usually taken as a place to begin that humans in the past, gift, and future have some given commonplace capacities or characteristics. Furthermore, it's been assumed that present and adapting are reports that also deliver commonplace characteristics and similarities (see Darwin, 1859). The task then will become to explain validly that that is not unusual or universal to people. Within such a Universalist method, organizations of human beings are as a consequence as compared to illuminate factors of the assumed not unusual and homogeneous center. 35 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

As Rohner (1975) formulated the Universalist position, “The universalist approach asks about the character of human nature, or, extra especially, about researchable capabilities of ‘human nature’”. Within psychology and the alternative social sciences, but, researchers have additionally adopted a fundamentally exceptional point of departure on the person: Every individual, each society is unique and unique from all others. This assumption, the idiographic culture, takes its most important arguments from, amongst others, Kierkegaard’s philosophy. Kierkegaard’s philosophy did certainly represent a protest towards the philosophy of his time, which turned into worried handiest with what changed into common to all humans. Kierkegaard’s idea changed into, at the opposite, that it's far the man or woman, the unmarried individual, who have to be the body of reference. Moreover, the man or woman as he or she exists and lives is extra than the everyday person. The character is as a result a uniquely current being. Consequently, it isn't the species of mankind, but the single individual with whom we need to be concerned. When one studies human lifestyles and improvement, one ought to begin with the man or woman or the person. All human beings are committed to their subjective truths, and it is continually simplest the single individual who acts. The idiographic position, with the concept of uniquely subjective experience as the basis of human movements, as a consequence constitutes every other vital and relevant method within psychological studies. The influential psychologist Gordon Allport turned into the primary to be related to this debate between nomothetic as opposed to idiographic procedures inside psychology. Allport maintained that each perspective was valid, but that an idiographic basis was to be desired in research of personality. As Allport (1937/1961) formulated his function of the human character, “He is more than a consultant of his species, extra than a citizen, more than an incident inside the actions of mankind. He transcends them all”. Eysenck (1947, 1955, 1956, and 1967) held, on the other hand, the other perspective: Personality psychology, too, need to be homothetically oriented. Thus, the talk between a nomothetic as opposed to idiographic approach in psychology became in general raised in the discipline of character psychology. Within anthropology, the unique or radical relativistic technique has maintained that no cultures are alike. Consequently, it isn't viable to make generalizations. Hypotheses about go-cultural or conventional similarities and possible commonplace claims of reason and impact are impossible (Benedict, 1934, 1946). Each culture needs to be taken into consideration as a completely unique configuration and may simplest be understood in its totality. A cultural element has no which means except in its context. The single factors may be understood, and may most effective be understood, within the network of interpretations that the subculture itself represents. The project of seeking what is commonplace is thus meaningless cultures are special and unique. Nomo thetically oriented psychology and social technological know- how consequently constitute an impossible concept. Within contemporary philosophy and psychology, there also are many who argue that it is difficult or not possible to hold directly 36 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

to this idea of human nature having one of these common core potentials (Bruner, 1986, 1990; Gergen, 1991, 1994; Kvale, 1992; Shotter & Gergen, 1989). The Aristotelian concept that the individual is preprogrammed\" with a non-public and moral \"software program\" of justice, understanding, and so forth, and that such tendencies are as much as the man or woman to understand, is according to these scholars under no circumstances affordable. Gergen (1982, 1994) therefore argues in prefer of psychology involved with know-how and trying to account for social processes in phrases of social contexts and social and historical time, which create and fill a subculture's ideas, as an instance, the ideas of human nature, the character of human motivation, our personality or our self, and so forth. Each lifestyle for that reason creates at all times its content material of truth as to what human nature and correct lifestyles contain. The descriptions and ideas that psychology has at its disposal should not then be understood as something however what they certainly are: cultural and historic items. Every way of life and every historical epoch creates its discourses, its sorts of know-how, and its truths; for instance, approximately the concept of human nature and human virtues, and motivation. The nomenclature of psychology is for that reason now not given its content material thru a few forms of extra unbiased truth about how human nature \"really\" is. Consequently, the mission of seeking the commonplace virtuous being, what is not unusual and comparable amongst individuals, isn't meaningful. Every tradition will create its content material of meaning as to what human nature is. Human nature, virtues, and individuality are as a result created by using the prevailing concrete cultural styles. People must adapt to, maintain, and reproduce this pattern of cultural values and pix approximately what human nature and character are and should be. Thus, the historical-cultural method argued through the social constructivists (e.g., Cushman, 1990; Gergen, 1989, 1994; Kvale, 1992; Shotter & Gergen, 1989) maintains that it is not a significant studies trouble to are seeking for what's usual, not unusual, and comparable. The concept of ordered improvement, for instance from the simple to the greater complicated and tremendous, therefore is rejected as being an ordinary idea from the romantic and humanistic tradition in Western lifestyle. And what might be, anyhow, better or extra best functioning? Positive psychology argues, in the equal way as Aristotle, that there are some common dimensions or dispositions in center human nature. However, this doesn't mean that high-quality psychology does not be given the concept that human nature also is a fabricated from records and cultural environment. As Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2001) contended, “We are acutely conscious that what one considers advantageous is, in part, a function of one’s particular ethnic culture and social situation”. However, Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2001) additionally stressed that: We accept as true with that our common humanity is robust sufficient to indicate mental goals to strive for that reduce across social and cultural divides. Just as physical health, ok nutrients, and freedom from harm and exploitation are universally valued, so need to psychologists in the long run 37 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

goal to recognize the superb states, tendencies, and institutions that each one cultures fee. Going lower back to the Aristotelian position, Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2001) consequently take as given and embody the Aristotelian fundamental position that (a) \"what I attempt towards as a person is a perfection of what its method to be a man\" (Vetlesen, 1994, p. 30), and (b) what is good form as a completely unique character is what is good for humans as accepted beings. As a consequence, social practices for high-quality psychology may be as compared to and evaluated inside the mild of a core human nature of virtues that could, and have to, be advanced and found out. We might therefore finish that positive psychology does now not handiest revitalize the Aristotelian concept of the fantastic person, however also the view of a greater common man or woman. Positive psychology then takes as a factor of departure that it's miles possible to compare mental constructs across cultures, and maximum of wonderful psychology's ongoing studies are go-cultural, no longer studies of 1 unique lifestyle (Gelfand, Chiu, & Hong, 2011). For instance, presently there exists within high quality psychology a massive frame of cross- cultural research reading the meaning and price of happiness the world over. A prioritized method to the concept of happiness within effective psychology, therefore, is the position that human beings in one way or some other are trying to find happiness. However, what constitutes happiness may be markedly exclusive in exceptional cultures and wishes to be explored. 2.2.5 Positive Psychology and Humanistic and Existential Psychology Through the history of any scientific field, successive bodies of theoretical and empirical knowledge are hooked up and constitute a basis for succeeding era(s). What then about wonderful psychology and its members of the family to the preceding traditions of current humanistic and existential psychology, which additionally maintain a greater effective view of the individual? Psychology was in the closing century characterized by means of grand theories. The grand theories within humanistic and existential psychology had been preoccupied with the same concept of the superb nature of the human being as is effective psychology nowadays (Frankl, 1967; Maslow, 1954; Mary, 1966; Rogers, 1961). The grand humanistic and existential theories of personality were also to a large volume theory of human motivation. Moreover, existential and humanistic persona theories were evolved as vital alternatives to that point's most important psychoanalytic framework, and psychoanalytic psychology held a strongly negative view of human motivation. The psychoanalytic horizon and theories had been on the time the observe of terrible, frequently strongly perverse human nature. Roudinesco (2009) in her examine of perversity as a component of human psychology from the Middle Ages as much as the era of Nazism in the twentieth century begins her presentation via noting \"as for the phrase shape or term 'perversion,' it has been studied handiest by means of Psychoanalyst\". 38 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Maslow (1954, 1968) and Rogers (1951, 1961), in opposition to the dominating psychoanalytic view at that point, asserted t2hat human nature is positive; that human beings try to fulfil benign potentials. According to Rogers (1951, 1961), the individual is encouraged by way of a single advantageous pressure: an innate tendency to develop optimistic and healthful capacities. Furthermore, Rogers takes a teleological angle on human nature. Maslow shares Rogers's view that human innate dynamic inclinations are predominantly optimistic and benign. Maslow's (1954, 1968) idea is a dualistic idea of motivation including both deficiency and increase motives. Growth motives include improvement and fulfilment of 1's own internal potentials and capacities in addition to non-possessive and unselfish caregiving and like to others. As Maslow (1968) pointed out, \"Satisfying deficiencies avoid illness; increase satisfactions produce fantastic health\" (p. 32). For the existentialist scientific psychologist May (1967), lifestyles are also about gratifying one's innate potentials. But this is a continuous fight; we're all too vulnerable to capability nonbeing. Therefore, May (1967) argues, \"The aim of remedy is that the patient experiences his existence as actual . . . Which includes becoming aware of his potentials, and turning into able to act based totally on them” (p. 85). Each of those grand humanistic or existentialist character theories become evolved in competition to and as a critique of the foremost strongly poor and unfavorable angle on human motivation and human behaviour stemming from psychoanalytic theory as triggered most effective by using formative years experiences. Modern humanistic and existential psychology on one hand and the movement of advantageous psychology, however, are each seeking to open up the horizon for the undoubtedly influenced and benign person. Also, Seligman (2002b) comments that \"I nicely recognize that advantageous psychology is not a brand-new concept. It has many outstanding ancestors (e.g., Allport, 1961; Maslow, 1971)” (p. 7). But Seligman (2002b) comments critically about these ancestors: “But they in some way didn't attract a cumulative and empirical body of studies to ground their thoughts” (p. 7). Science can be divided into separate but associated stages of hobby. A pragmatic department of clinical ranges of interest is used to distinguish between (a) metatheory, (b) theory, (c) layout, (d) number one method, (e) data, and (f) phenomenon. Compared to the traditions of humanistic and existential psychology, wonderful psychology has, as Seligman (2002b) truly stated, determined on different tactics concerning theory improvement, layout, and methodology. Waterman (2013a) also concluded his comparative analysis of superb psychology and humanistic psychology: Humanistic psychology has a phenomenological and ideographic underpinning and prefers qualitative methodological studies. Positive psychology alternatively prioritizes quantitative layout: the test and survey design. Thus, fantastic psychology argues for and uses layout and techniques in accordance with the quantitative methodology and the logical positivistic paradigm of studies. Mainstream psychology has, but for a while now argued for the need of the usage of mixed design; each 39 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

qualitative and quantitative processes, an each/and technique (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2003). Also, inside tremendous psychology, there's now an opening for qualitative methodology (Linley & Joseph, 2004), and inside the latest phase of superb psychology, empirical studies combining quantitative and qualitative method is being performed (e.g., Delle Fave et al., 2011). Let it also be noted that there might be greater reputation for combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies within psychology in Europe as compared to North America. In Europe, the strong impact of Piaget (1960; see additionally Dasen, 1972), who used medical interviews and widespread stimulus duties to map out normal developmental patterns, without a doubt challenged the idea that experimental control and quantitative measurements constitute the handiest method to studies of widespread standards of human (greatest) functioning. Modern humanistic psychology is concerned with the greater philosophical questions of a way to manage obvious meanings of existence and what its method to exist at one second and location in an eternity of time. This isn't like fine psychology as Waterman (2013a) concludes: \"Rather, the philosophical assumptions underlying positive psychology interventions are primarily based on pragmatics, this is, directing the purchaser's attention to what can be achieved now to make incremental upgrades in nice of life\" (p. 129). Compared to humanistic and existentialist psychology, wonderful psychology then is extra preoccupied with the pragmatics of daily lifestyles. King (2011) expresses this pragmatic approach of effective psychology as follows: I would desire that tremendous psychology stays applicable to regular human enjoy, in idea, techniques, and applications. Positive psychology could do properly to become the scientific have a look at of the everyday and the simple which are, concurrently, the swish, the lovely, and the wondrous that we see in ordinary human lifestyles. (p. 444) However, within the modern-day phase of wonderful psychology, we see systematic debates of the conceptual and theoretical links between humanistic and superb psychology (Joseph & Murphy, 2013; Linley, 2013; Linley, Joseph, Harrington, &Wood, 2006; Waterman, 2013b). 2.2.6 The Paradigm of Growth and Optimal Functioning and Positive Psychology’s Research and Practice: Concluding Remarks Stretching again over at least 15 years, tremendous psychology does not recognize disciplinary boundaries however has prioritized and provided growth and superior functioning paradigm to all sub-disciplines of psychology, arguing that this type of paradigm will enhance psychology as a technological know-how both in concept in addition to in practice. Consequently, high-quality psychology as a field of studies and exercise cannot be defined to belong to someone of mainstream psychology's special sub-disciplines, consisting of social psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, or personality psychology. 40 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Thereby, effective psychology has from 2000 initiated an educational and carried out agenda across psychology's unique sub-disciplines, analyzing the mechanisms, structures, and strategies accounting for growth and improvement at the character and social degrees. In this period, advantageous psychology has been specializing in the difficulty of how to enable individuals to increase their capacities to a greater optimal stage on the way to develop intellectually as well as socially and morally and gain choicest functioning and nicely-being (Linley & Joseph, 2004; Sheldon, Kashdan, & Steger, 2011; Snyder & Lopez, 2002). In song with this perspective of boom and greater gold standard functioning, effective psychology’s studies and practice exceptionally have become their recognition to nonclinical areas of psychology, specifically training and schooling and way of life packages. How to foster advantageous feelings, effective traits, and advantageous social relationships in lifestyles (for instance, how faculties and universities can equip young people with the understanding and competencies of responsible citizenship), has hence been a difficulty (Colby, Beaumont, Ehrlich, & Corngold, 2007). Currently, high quality schooling applications to build emotional, social, and spiritual fitness are also offered on a big scale within the military, no longer handiest for all ranks of soldiers, however also for his or her households (Cornum, Matthews, & Seligman, 2011). Positive psychology is likewise imparting the growth paradigm to the sub-subject of clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Positive psychology is therefore now facing the hassle of ways not only growing mental increase however additionally relieving suffering—an endeavour man or woman-centred remedy has been addressing for a long term (Joseph & Murphy, 2013). Paradigmatic meta-discussions, furthermore, are nevertheless very lively: Some factor out, as an instance, that high-quality psychology too often has trusted character happiness because the final results criterion of human fulfilment (Kashdan & Steger, 2011). Others declare that the outcome of interest for wonderful psychology ought not to be genuinely happiness, but the one which emerges from doing true acts. Another claim is that wonderful psychology is facing the trouble of a language of constraint in analyzing boom and most efficient or complete functioning; the illness ideology and pathological language are still too dominating (Joseph & Murphy, 2013; Maddux, 2002). Still, others are discussing that fine psychology in this phase, as in Western mainstream psychology, has prioritized the person at the value of the societal degree because the simple unit of evaluation and practice. As a consequence, the nicely-being of the community and society is not noted. Another relevant discussion is that tremendous psychology as presently evolved has now not addressed more systematically the complex problem of ways socio- cultural contexts, establishments, and public policy occasionally do no longer create or recreate reports that could enhance person tremendous increase and high-quality of life. However, searching lower back on those 15 years, possible conclude that main psychologists around the world within psychology's diverse sub-disciplines are involved in doing primary 41 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

and carried out studies and exercise stimulated by using Aristotelian fashions of increase and choicest functioning, thereby strongly broadening the scope of present day psychological technological know-how and exercise. Howard (1985) concludes by using referring to Mahatma Gandhi, who argued that there are seven sins in the global: wealth without paintings, pleasure without judgment of right and wrong, information without character, trade without morality, technology without humanity, worship without sacrifice, and politics without principle. What did Gandhi imply by using technology without humanity? The meaning might be very one of a kind for every technological know-how. Given the concern of psychology, the man or women, the solution is of course critical. Howard (1985) had concluded, \"Our legacy might be an impoverished vision of humanity. By viewing humans from an unduly slim attitude, we might also perpetuate paralyzing myopia that serves to decrease in place of make bigger people' potential as people and as species\". Experts also advise Howard's (1985) method of the venture for psychology: \"Our challenge, then, is to construct a technology of human beings built upon a picture of humanity that reflects and reveres human nature in all its diversity, complexity, and subtlety\". Since its launch in 2000, effective psychology has represented a dynamic and sturdy revitalization of paradigmatic discussions within psychology. Positive psychology has initiated and established new and vital empirical studies and practice fields of boom, virtues, strengths, engagement, and unique methods or routes to the way to live a very good lifestyle. Maybe future psychologists will appearance lower back in this time as a turning point—the point of time whilst psychology in research and exercise with strong consequences for selling man or woman and community well-being paradigmatically reinvented the person as a clearly accurate, socially responsible, and virtuous organism. 2.3 SUMMARY • The ideas of high-quality psychology have now firmly taken root inside an expert psychological exercise. • In the intervening years, there had been packages within the contexts of work, health, organizations, counseling, and coaching, as well as in expert disciplines out of doors psychology which includes sociology, social work, training, and public coverage. • Although sociologists have generated vital expertise about the reasons and effects of social inequalities, describing social problems isn't the equal of describing the situations that sell human flourishing or foster the not unusual proper. Similar to how advantageous psychology shifted the focus from sickness to wellness; fine sociology will study the social preconditions of human flourishing and the commonplace excellent. • For the past numerous years, researchers have examined the contributions of fitness property, in particular psychological ones, to precise fitness, even as they've managed for established hazard factors. Researchers need to look at each threat factors and fitness property 42 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

to apprehend relationships among each nice and bad psychological factor as they together make a contribution to fitness consequences. • Positive psychology is, at heart, the take a look at of human excellence and flourishing, and as such has clear application to the paintings of HR Directors and other organizational leaders. • Research on this region demonstrates the specific organizational functions which include social capital, positivity ratios and the utilization of individual strengths could make to a business enterprise's profitability and productiveness and the nicely-being of its group of workers. • Positive psychology started as a protest in opposition to some of the most important taken- for-granted assumptions in mainstream psychology. Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000) critically maintained that modern psychology offers priority to an idea of humans that to too splendid a diploma is primarily based on pathology, faults, and dysfunctions—this is, a medically orientated psychology. • Positive psychologists have located that there are human strengths that act as buffers towards intellectual illness: courage, future-mindedness, optimism, interpersonal skill, religion, paintings ethic, wish, honesty, and perseverance, the ability for waft and insight, to call numerous. Much of the challenge of prevention on this new century can be to create a science of human energy whose challenge may be to understand and study how to foster those virtues in young human beings. • The most fundamental assumption approximately human nature and performing from the Aristotelian perspective is the teleological idea that human lifestyles and human nicely-being consist in nature-fulfillment and the man or women as inwardly pushed by using a dynamic of ever more most excellent functioning. • Positive psychology articulates the presumptions of the Aristotelian approach to human nature and development, and this includes the view of the coolest individual—the concept of the individual with an effective individual, strengths, and given virtues. The simple start line for effective psychology then is that the person has given dynamic potentials for superb virtues or individual. • A prioritized technique to the idea of happiness inside high quality psychology is the placement that humans in one way or any other searching for happiness. However, what constitutes happiness can be markedly exclusive in specific cultures and needs to be explored. • Through the records of any scientific subject, successive our bodies of theoretical and empirical know-how are hooked up and constitute a basis for succeeding era(s). Psychology changed into in the last century characterized by way of grand theories. The grand theories within humanistic and existential psychology have been preoccupied with the identical idea of the fine nature of the human being as is advantageous psychology these days. 43 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

2.4 KEYWORDS  Virtuous: Noble  Humanistic perspective: The view that human nature is basically good, with a potential to maintain healthy, meaningful relationships and to make choices that are in the best interest of oneself and others  Existential approach: It considers human nature to be open-ended, flexible and capable of an enormous range of experience. 2.5 LEARNING ACTIVITY 1. How can you apply the principles of positive institutions in your peer group? List three ways ___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2.6 UNIT END QUESTIONS A. Descriptive Questions Short Questions 1. Describe the agenda of positive psychology in brief. 2. Explain the two key concepts from positive psychology that are readily applicable in organizations and HR. 3. In what ways do positive psychology health assets foreshadow good health? 4. How did Maslow and Rogers oppose the psychoanalytic view of human nature? 5. How is positive psychology inspired by Aristotelian views of human nature? Long Questions 1. Delineate how positive psychology is associated with good health. 2. In what ways does positive psychology contribute to organizational structures? Explain. 3. Explain the agenda of positive psychology in detail. 4. Elaborate the place of humanistic theories in positive psychology. 5. Explain the contribution of Aristotelian views of human nature to positive psychology. B. Multiple choice questions: 1. Positive psychology provides a common identity for all scholars and practitioners interested in: a. Human flourishing and well-being b. Abnormal behaviour 44 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

c. Personality d. Parapsychology 2. Which of these models introduces a distinction between the individual’s possibilities or potentials on the one hand, and the individual’s factual characteristics or realization of these potentials on the other hand? a. Socratian b. Aristotelian c. Platoian d. Descartian 3. Which one of these psychologist’s theories does positive psychology draw inspiration from? a. Freud, Jung and Horney b. Allport, Adler and Eyesenck c. Rogers, Maslow and Frankl d. Bandura, Watson and Pavlov 4.In Japanese culture, the most commonly used indicator of subjective well-being is the sense of \"life worth living\" is called: a. Ikigai b. Samurai c. Naruto d. Miyagi 5. Among the positive psychology health assets foreshadowing good health are: a. Good social relationships and positive emotions b. Neuroticism c. Agreeableness d. Risk-taking behaviour Answers 1.a 2. b 3.c 4. a 5.a. 2.7 REFERENCES  Kumar, U., Archana, & Prakash, V. (2015). Positive psychology – Applications in work, health and well-being. Delhi & Chennai, India: Pearson. 45 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

 Joseph, S. (Ed.) (2015). Positive psychology in practice: Promoting human flourishing in work, health, education, and everyday life. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.  David, S. A., Boniwell, I.& Ayers, A. C. (2013). The Oxford handbook of happiness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Boniwell, I. (2012). Positive Psychology in a Nutshell: The Science of Happiness (3rd edition). London: McGraw Hill.  Baumgardner, S. R. & Crothers, M. K. (2009). Positive psychology. New Delhi, India: Pearson.  Linley and Joseph (2004). Positive Psychology in Practice. Taylor and Francis  Seligman, M. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: Free Press. 46 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

UNIT 3: PILLARS OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Structure 3.0 Learning Objectives 3.1 The three pillars of positive psychology 3.1.1 Positive experience 3.1.2 Positive individual traits 3.1.3 Positive institution 3.2 Summary 3.3 Keywords 3.4 Learning Activity 3.5 Unit End Question 3.6 References 3.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this unit will be able to:  State the three pillars of positive psychology  Explain how positive experiences and positive traits lead to fulfilment in human life  List how positive psychology can be used to enhance the well-being of institutions and organizations  List the scope of positive psychology in organizations  Explain various interventions of positive psychology in the organizational setup 3.1 THE THREE PILLARS OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY The Three Pillars: Positive Psychology has three central pillars: positive experiences, positive individual traits, and positive institutions. Understanding positive emotions entail the study of contentment with the past, happiness in the present, and hope for the future. Understanding positive individual traits involve the study of strengths, such as the capacity for love and work, courage, compassion, resilience, creativity, curiosity, integrity, self- knowledge, moderation, self-control, and wisdom. Understanding positive institutions entail the study of the strengths that foster better communities, such as justice, responsibility, civility, parenting, nurturance, work ethic, leadership, teamwork, purpose, and tolerance. 47 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Fig 3.1 Mind-map of positive psychology 3.1.1 Positive Experiences The extent to which we can make the most of our emotional experiences is determined in part by personal and environmental demands such as our health status, social surroundings, and cultural norms. It now is becoming clear that humans' unique ability to monitor time across their entire span of life also may determine how much energy is dedicated to emotional goals. Indeed, in Stanford’s psychologist Laura Carstensen’s (1998; Carstensen & Charles, 1998) socioemotional selectivity theory, she posits that our later years (the \"golden years\") may be valuable as we focus less on negative emotions, engage more deeply with the emotional content of our days, and savor the \"good stuff\" in life (e.g., establishing and enhancing relationships). Carstensen reasons that we can appreciate these benefits in our advanced years because we come to realize that we have a short amount of time left. 48 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

In her laboratory, Carstensen has validated that young human beings and their older counterparts manipulate emotion-laden material quite differently. In exams of interest to novel stimuli, as an instance, the more youthful contributors attended to terrible photographs more quickly, while the older contributors orientated quicker to images weighted down with effective emotions (smiling face, happy baby, puppy) (Charles, Mather, & Carstensen, 2003). Regarding remember of emotional activities, it seems that young people (college age and a bit older) remembered the positive and terrible cloth to the equal degree, however the older human beings had a positivity bias wherein they recalled the tremendous fabric faster than the bad cloth (Charles et al., 2003; Reed & Carstensen, 2012). The “positivity effect” proven in those studies suggests that the manner of interacting with emotions is one of a kind for teenagers and older adults. This said, conflicting studies consequences have been located concerning this impact due to the fact that its unique introduction to the sphere. In a recent article, Reed and Carstensen (2012) address these conflicting study’s findings with the aid of looking closely at the conditions inside the exclusive research conducted. To this factor, the kingdom, \"Positivity appears while cognitive sources are available, when experimental challenge or stimuli do not set off computerized processing, and when information processing is unconstrained by external factors which include mission instructions\". Besides, whilst pressure is on or the hazard of failure is high, the positivity impact seems to disappear. Thus, a number of the conflicting results may be artefacts of studies and their characteristics, greater than because of actual findings (Reed & Carstensen, 2012). Irrespective of our tendencies to take care of and keep in mind certain styles of events, lifestyles offer all people with blessings and burdens. Related thus far, Carstensen and her colleagues have observed that there are age cohort effects on how we handle high quality and bad everyday life experiences. After monitoring the moods of 184 human beings (age 18 and up) for a week, Carstensen, Pasupathi, Mayr, and Nesselrode (2000) determined that their older studies individuals not simplest did now not \"sweat the small stuff\" (that's how they considered bad events), however in addition they savored the tremendous activities (skilled the good residuals of high-quality activities for longer periods than their younger counterparts did). Given those findings, it appears that advantageous stories and effective emotions turn out to be our precedence as we age and recall our mortality. Besides, opposite to young people's fascination with future-oriented desires referring to acquiring facts and increasing horizons, older people seem to orient to here-and-now desires that foster emotional that means (Kennedy, Fung, & Carstensen, 2001; Reed & Carstensen, 2012). The tendency to bear in mind extra positive than poor statistics may generalize throughout different cultures. Studies show that Chinese older adults have the identical pattern of memory of advantageous and bad pics (Chung & Lin, 2012), although they'll now not have the same pattern regarding visual interest to superb snap shots (Fung et al., 2008). In the study by way of Chung and Lin, Chinese older adults remembered fewer negative snap shots 49 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

in contrast to tremendous snap shots, and that they remembered fewer bad pics in contrast to their U.S. Counterparts. Researchers hypothesize that this will be partly due to the greater terrible view of getting older held by using older adults inside the United States as compared to perspectives of growing older in China. With regard to attention, Fung and co-workers (2008) found that it was more commonplace for older Chinese (but no longer more youthful) to look far away from positive photos, showing no attentional choice in the direction of positivity. These thrilling findings ought to be explored in greater element to sincerely understand the manner at hand. As with maximum conditions, context appears to play a few positions within the equation. As mentioned earlier, some of the outcomes located can be a result of perception with the aid of older adults that time is waning for them in widespread. Ersner- Hershfield, Mikels, Sullivan, and Carstensen (2008) as compared stories of poignancy (mixed feelings associated with an ending or to dropping something meaningful) in more youthful and older adults. Both younger and older adults in the experimental situation on this observe had been taken thru a chain of guided imagery eventualities of being in a personally meaningful vicinity, finishing with a very last situation that requested them to assume that they have been at this significant vicinity for the very last time. Results confirmed that age changed into no longer a full-size aspect inside the experience of poignancy, suggesting that “a significant restricted-time situation which include an ending can produce poignancy irrespective of age” (Ersner- Hershfield et al.) The researchers posited that the better occurrence of these feelings in older adults which have been stated previously can be extra related to the sensation that point is constrained (in existence) as opposed to something organic to the growing older method. This gives us with important records about processing complex emotions and directs us closer to persevering with to search for deep emotional experiences in more youthful groups, whilst at the equal time looking toward the strengths of older adults as models for a success processing of deeply emotional experiences. Recall of high-quality revel in, savoring the coolest times and placing and making an investment in emotion-focused dreams systematically have an impact on social alternatives, emotion regulation, and cognitive processing. Overall, therefore, searching at the ageing procedure within various cultural organizations may be able to offer us with precious statistics about how fine to attempt for a deeper emotional lifestyle. 3.1.2 Positive Individual Traits At the character degree, fine psychology is ready high-quality person traits: the capability for love and vocation, braveness, interpersonal skills, aesthetic sensibility, perseverance, forgiveness, originality, destiny mindedness, spirituality, excessive talent and wisdom. At the group stage, it's far approximately virtues and the establishments that flow people in the 50 CU IDOL SELF LEARNING MATERIAL (SLM)

Like this book? You can publish your book online for free in a few minutes!
Create your own flipbook