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2 M.A. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Course Code: MAP603 Semester: First e-Lesson: 5  SLM Unit: 6 Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 33 OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION 1.Emphasize acquisition of knowledge beyond mere   memorization of facts. The unit covers the concept and the 2. Understanding of and ability to use certain  different theories that supports the factors  fundamental concepts and principles involved in that leads to aggressive behaviour human behavior.  3. It will also provide an awareness of the major  Topics related to Aggression , its types  problems and issues in the discipline of social and the factors that leads to aggressive psychology. 4. Enable students to understand the forces that behaviour are also covered.  create group differences in patterns of social behavior, understand and tolerate the. Unit-5(MAPQ610031)) INASlTlITrUigThEt OarFeDrIeSsTAerNvCeEdAwNitDhOCNUL-INDEOLLEARNING

TOPICS TO BE COVERED 4 > Aggression:- Concept SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - Determinants Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

AGGRESSION 5 •Aggression any behavior intended to harm another person who is motivated to avoid the harm. •Aggression is a form of behaviour directed towards the goal of harming or injuring or inflicting damage upon other individual who is motivated to avoid it. •It is not a motive. •It is not a negative attitude. •It is intended not an accident •It is not an emotion •According to Berkewirtz (1993), Aggression is a set of behaviour that are likely to, or have the potential to cause harm to others, or intended to cause harm, and are goal directed. Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

TYPES OF AGGRESSION 6 There are different types of aggression: •DIRECT AGGRESSION: any behavior that intentionally harms another person who is physically present. •INDIRECT AGGRESSION: any behavior that intentionally harms another person who is physically absent. •REACTIVE AGGRESSION :“hot,” impulsive, angry behavior that is motivated by a desire to harm someone. •PROACTIVE AGGRESSION: “cold,” premeditated, calculated harmful behavior that is a means to some practical or material end. Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

THE AGGRESSION CYCLE 7 ØSensation : When an individual first encounters an aggression evoking stimulus. ØImpulse: It is the first and the immediate reaction given by the individual to the aggression evoking stimulus. ØInitiative: It is the process in which one takes a step to initiate the further reaction. ØAnnihilation: Annihilation is the alternative aggressive behavior we can show to act upon an aggressive impulse perceived. ØSatisfaction: Whether the individual is satisfied or dissatisfied with the reaction initiated. ØWithdrawal: The withdrawing of the reactions but if withdrawing Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

THEORIES OF AGRESSION 8 A. BIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF AGGRESSION: Psychodynamic theory • A general approach to human motivation in which the locus is unconscious. In the Freudian version, the underlying mental energy is instinctive and involves a dynamic interplay of the id, ego and superego. • Like the sexual urge, which stems from the life instinct, an aggressive urge from the death instinct builds up from bodily tensions, and needs to be expressed. This is essentially a one-factor theory: aggression builds up naturally and must be released. Evolutionary social psychology • An extension of evolutionary psychology that views complex social behaviour as adaptive, helping the individual, kin and the species as a whole to survive. • Specific behaviour has evolved because it promotes the survival of genes that allow the individual to live long enough to pass the same genes on to the next generation. Aggression is adaptive because it must be linked to living long enough to procreate. As such, it is helpful to the individual and to the species. Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

THEORIES OF AGRESSION 9 B. Socia I. FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS: • Aggression is a response to an antecedent condition of frustration. It derived from the work of a group of psychologists headed by John Dollard at Yale University in the 1930s. • The theory, also used as an explanation of prejudice proposed that aggression was always caused by some kind of frustrating event or situation; conversely, frustration invariably led to aggression. • Seeking our personal goals entail the arousal of psychic energy, and if we reach them our achievement is cathartic. However, if we are blocked we become frustrated; but psychic energy remains activated, and our psychological system is in a state of disequilibrium that can be corrected only by aggression. Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

THEORIES OF AGRESSION 10 In an attempt to rescue the frustration–aggression hypothesis, Berkowitz (1962) proposed three major changes: 1. The probability of frustration–induced aggression actually being vented is increased by the presence of situational cues to aggression, including past or present associations of a specific group (scapegoat) with conflict or dislike. 2. It is not objective frustration that instigates aggression but the subjective (cognitive) feeling of being frustrated. 3. Frustration is only one of a large number of aversive events (e.g. pain, extreme ) temperatures and other noxious stimuli) that can instigate aggression. EKyAq7GciFZKfjk86 Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

THEORIES OF AGRESSION 11 II. Arousal and aggression: ØA drive concept is Dolf Zillmann’s (1979) Excitation-transfer model, based on his research in both communication and psychology. ØAggression follows when the following elements are in place: • a learned aggressive behaviour; • arousal (excitation), which can be from any source; • the person’s interprets this arousal in a way that it seems appropriate to be aggressive. Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL


DETERMINANTS OF AGRESSION 13 INNER CAUSES OF AGGRESSION • The original frustration-aggression hypothesis states that the occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration and the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression. There can be aggression without frustration, and frustration without aggression, but aggression is increased by frustration. • Unpleasant moods increase aggression, but being in a bad mood is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for aggression. Anger does not directly or inevitably cause aggression, but the belief that aggression will help get rid of anger does increase aggression. • The hostile attribution bias is the tendency to perceive ambiguous actions by others as intentionally hostile. • The hostile perception bias is the tendency to perceive social interactions in general as being aggressive. • The hostile expectation bias is the tendency to expect others to react to potential conflicts with aggression. • About 25% of toddler interactions in day-care settings involve some kind of physical aggression. • In all known societies, young men just past the age of puberty commit most of the violent crimes and acts. Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

DETERMINANTS OF AGRESSION 14 INTERPERSONAL CAUSES OF AGGRESSION: • Domestic violence can occur between husband - wife , sibling etc . • The sibling relationship is the most violent relationship in the world. • Women attack their relationship partners slightly more often than men do, but women don’t cause as much harm. EXTERNAL CAUSES OF AGGRESSION • Presence of a weapon. • Exposure to violent media. • Hotter temperatures are associated with higher violence. • Unpleasant environmental events, such as noise, crowding, foul odors, air pollution, and secondhand smoke, can increase aggression. • Increases in testosterone, junk food, and alcohol lead to increased aggression. • Decreases in serotonin and increases in vitamins reduce aggression. Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 15 1. According to the text, aggression always (B) involves intent to harm someone (A) causes physical pain (C) involves emotional arousal (D) is committed by someone who has been deliberately provoked 2. The murders committed by mobster \"hit men\" provide an example of (A) emotional aggression (B) silent aggression (C) how catharsis can reduce aggression (D) instrumental aggression 3. In a revision of frustration-aggression theory, Berkowitz theorized that (A) frustration produces escape more often than aggression (B) aggression is learned through a modeling effect (C) aggressive cues can release bottled-up anger (D) frustration is instinctive 4. According to Bandura, a social learning theorist, (A) frustration plays no role in aggression (B) observing aggressive models promotes aggression (C)the hydraulic model offers the best explanation for aggression (D) hostile aggression is instinctive and instrumental aggression is learned Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

SUMMARY 16 • Aggression is the intention to inflict harm on any individual •There are two major classes of theory about the origins of aggression, one stressing biological origins and the other stressing social influences •Biological explanations, particularly those within ethology and evolutionary social psychology, emphasise genetically determined behaviour patterns that are shared by a species •Excitation-transfer model: The expression of aggression is a function of learned behaviour, some excitation from another source, and the person’s interpretation of the arousal state. •Social explanations usually stress the roles of learning processes and societal influences. Some theories incorporate some biology, such as the frustration– aggression hypothesis and excitation–transfer theory. • The determinants of the aggressive response are internal, interpersonal and external. Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 17 1. Explain in detail the cycle of aggression. Aggression goes through 6 stages that is sensation, impulse, initiative, annihilation, satisfaction and withdrawal. For further detail refer SLM 2. Write a detailed note on aggression and its types. Aggression is the intentional infliction of any type of harm on others. It is of 4 types which are Direct aggression, Indirect aggression, reactive aggression and proactive aggression. For further details refer to SLM 3. Discuss the theories of aggression. There are biological and sociological explanation for the aggressive behaviour. For further details refer SLM Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

REFERENCES 18 •Adams, J. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (ed), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267–299). New York: Academic Press. •Gilovich, T., Keltner, D.,Chen, S.& Nisbett, R.E. (2016) Social Psychology. 4th edition. New York: W.W. Norton& company. • Baumeister, R.F. & Bushman, B.J. (2011) Social Psychology and Human Nature. 2nd edition. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning. • Delamater, J.D. & Myers, D.J. (2011). Social Psychology. 7th edition. USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. • Hogg, M., & Vaughan, G. (2005). Social Psychology (4th edition). London: Prentice-Hall. •Homans, G. C. (1961). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World. Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

19 THANK YOU For queries Email: [email protected] Unit-5(MAP 603) All right are reserved with CU-IDOL

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