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August 2020 Agribusiness Magazine

Published by rawlingskofi, 2020-09-25 18:11:53

Description: August 2020 Agribusiness Magazine


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Butternut production guideCrops 13-15Estimating livEstock wEightLivestock28t hE usE of molEcular viral indExing tEchniquEs todEtEct plant virusEsResearch 24-26a guidE to starting a pigproduction businEssAgribusinessfarming is a

August 2020Agribusinessfarming is a this IssueAgribusiness Digital Magazine is published monthly by Agribusiness Media to promote the Busi-ness of Farming. Agribusiness Digital Magazine is FREE and supports farmers by providing essen-tial technical, business information and tools.Agribusiness Digital Magazine is available for FREE download: Join our mailing list: [email protected], +263774121076.Disclaimer: While Agribusiness Media has made every effort to ensure this material is accurate and up-to-date, you should exercise your own skill and judgment on application. Seek profes-sional advice. Agribusiness Media can not be held accountable for any losses resulting from us-ing this material. All rights reserved. Not for Sale. We do not own rights to some of the material and images used. To ADVERTISE contact us on Tel. 0242-790326, Cell. +263774 121 076, Email: [email protected] or [email protected] guidE to starting a pig production businEss4buttErnut production guidE13adopting thE pfumvudza concEpt on maizE and traditional grains15t hE usE of molEcular viral indExing tEchniquEs to dEtEct plant virusEs 24crop planting calEndar27Estimating livEstock wEight28broilErs first hour first day first wEEk: , , ! 29word sEarch30t op agribusinEss idEas33s pot thE diffErEncE37batanai coopErativE group39t hE agribusinEss ExpErt answErs40052433

Agribusinessfarming is a 2020Are you thinking of starting a pig pro-duction business but don’t know where to start from? Or maybe you have started but it seems the business is not do-ing well? The article will for the meat market. guide you in stating a sustainable pig produc-tion business. There are two main pig production business models; weaner fatten-ing and breeding. Weaner fattening involves purchasing weaners from other farmers for fattening. Breeding involves looking after sows and boars for selling breed-ing stock, weaners or fattening the off spring The content will help in both production mod-els. The following things should be considered when one is intending to start up a piggery project:Capital The amount of mon-ey required to set up the piggery project is dependent on the unit size one intends to operate. In pig produc-tion capital is needed to construct the sties and to buy equipment and breeding stock. Working capital is also needed to pay for feed, drugs and labour for the first year of opera-tion. For a breeding/feed-ing unit, cash outflow tends to increase to a maximum at the end of the first 11 months of operation while A guide to starting a pig production business....continued on page 6More

Ukulima YibhizimusiKurima Ibhizimusi

Agribusinessfarming is a 2020cash inflow starts only 11 months after commencement of the project. It is there-fore important for the farmer to have suffi-cient funds to sustain the operations of the piggery for a period of 11 months.KnowledgeKnowledge on how to successfully manage a pig production enter-prise is very important. In order for the farmer to avoid making costly mistakes in the running of the pig production enterprise he should be trained in pig hus-bandry.Breeding stockThe output of a unit can be limited by the quality of breeding stock. Inferior breed-ing stock results in an inefficient utilization of feed and space. Farm-ers must be prepared to pay high prices for quality stock. Poor quality breeding stock may be cheaper in the short term but in the long run they will be expensive.MarketFarmers have to identify the market for their pigs before they start producing them. Farmers should desist from the practice of hunting around for a market when their pigs are ready for sale. When the producer has identified a market he must ask himself whether the price being offered for his pigs will be enough to make the project viable. An important point to consider when one is choosing a market is the distance to the market. If the distance to the market is long the project will incur high transport costs and hence will be less viable.WaterWater should be of the right quantity and qual-ity. Inadequate water supply depresses the growth rate of the pigs. Lactating sow need a lot of water for milk production. The pigs’ water requirements will vary with the weather. On a very hot day the pig will use more water than during a cold day. As a general guide a farmer should budget about 150 litres of wa-ter per sow per day.HousingThe pigsties should be constructed in a way that will allow the stockman to carry out his daily duties with ease. The sties have to be designed in a man-ner that will help man-agement in monitoring the pig enterprise. Poor housing designs can lead to dispropor-tionate food sharing, inefficient utilization of space, feed wastage and poor performance of the pigs among oth-er things.Feed availabilityA guaranteed supply ....continued from page 4Pigs in a properly constructed housing

Agribusinessfarming is a 2020of feed is a prereq-uisite for the suc-cessful operation of a piggery project. Feed account for about 80% of the production costs on a pig production enterprise. Pig feeds are compounded using maize or other small grains and concentrates. The farmer should budget about 3.4 tonnes of maize per sow per year if he is to operate a breed-ing/feeding unit.SITING A PIGGERYThe pigsties should be sited in the direc-tion of the prevailing winds in relation to the homestead. The pens should not be built in swampy areas. Wherever possible take ad-vantage of the natural slope in sitting the piggery. It is also recommended to use land, which is not suitable for crop-ping as the location for the pigsties. The area where the sties are located should be easily accessible by trucks to allow for easy delivery of supplies and to facilitate the movement of the pigs to the market. Another thing to consider when sitting the pigsties is the source of water for the project. Stockper-sons should not travel long distances to fetch water for the pigs. While are located should be it is prudent to have the water source close to the piggery care should be taken on where the effluent from the pig-gery goes. If the effluent is dumped close to the water source there is danger of contamina-tion of the water. The effluent should not be channeled to a site that is close to the source of drinking water. When sitting the pigsties one should make consider-ations for future expan-sion of the project. The place where the pigsties spacious so that there is room for future ex-pansion of the project. The security of the pigs and property should also be considered when sitting the piggery. Isolated locations can result in theft problems.When constructing the sties they should not face east-west. The ....continued on page 9A sample budget for 50 weaners

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Agribusinessfarming is a 2020buildings should face north-south. This is done to prevent the pigs from having sunburn and heat stress.SPACE REQUIREMENTSIt is important to have the right number of pigs in a pigsty. Over-crowding can result in depressed growth in addition to easy trans-mission of diseases. Overcrowded pigs dung everywhere hence the environment will be con-ducive for the spread of diseases. (see table)PEN REQUIREMENTS WORKOUTS FOR A 100 SOW UNITAssumptionsFarrowing index 2 Weaning age 5 weeks18 pigs are sold per sow per year20 weaners are pro-duced per sow per yearSows enter farrowing house 1 week before farrowing and the pens are rested for a week after weaningWeaners occupy weaner pens for 3 weeks and the pens are rested for 5 days.Fatteners occupy the fattening pens for 105 days and the pens are rested for 3 days.Farrowing PlacesFarrowings per year 100*2.0 = 200 With a 7 week occupa-tion period the number of times the same farrowing place can be used = 52/7 = 7 approxNo of farrowing places required = 200/7 = 29 approxDry sow placesThe sow is weaned after 5 weeks.The sow enters the farrowing house a week before farrowing. At 2 litters per sow per year a period of (6*2) = 12 weeks is spend away from dry-sow housing.The period the sow is in the dry sow pens is 40 weeks.The number of dry sow places required is 40*100/52 = 77 If sows are housed 8 in a penNo of pens required = 77/8 = 10Weaner PensOutput of weaners per year = 100*2*10 = 2000 weanersWeaners stay in the weaner pens for 3 weeks with the pen be-ing rested for 5 days.Batches per year = 365/26 = 14 batchesNo of pigs/batch = 2000/14 = 143 pigsAt 12 weaners/pen the number of pens required = 143/12 = 12 pensFattening PensPigs occupy the fatten-ing pens after 8 weeks. Fatteners are marketed when they are about 51/2 months of age. ....continued from page 7Piggery space re-quirements....continued on page 11AreaIn pig sows Stalls2m long*0.64m wideCubiclesAs for stalls and similar dunging and exercise areaYards3-4m2 per sowFarrowingCrate2m long * 0.7m widePen, including crate6.2m2Solari follow on, including creep area10m2Multi suckling 7-8m2/sow and litterWeanersCages (per pig)0.2m2 lying area + 0.2m2 slatted areaYards/pig0.7-0.9m2Porkers (pen, including dunging area0.73m2/pigBaconers (pen including dunging area)0.93m2/pigTrough space (per pig)Light porkers0.2m2Heavy porkers0.25m2Baconers0.3m2Gilts/Sows0.35m2

Agribusinessfarming is a 11August 2020Allowing 3 days cleaning buildings. In the case between batches the number of batches that can use the same facil-ity per year is 365/109 = 3.3 Output per year is 100*18 = 1800For a 100 sow unit the number of pigs per batch is 100*18/3.3 = 545.545 fattening places are required per time.At 15 pigs/pen the num-ber of pens required is 530/15 = 34 pens.PIG HOUSINGOne of the aims of providing housing to pigs is for management to be able to exert their control on the pigs. Pig housing is intended to control the pig environ-ment and to protect the pigs from rain and sun’s water trough. If there rays. Housing should be used no need for a water to modify the environ-ment e.g. in the farrow-ing house there is need to provide two microen-vironments within the same pen. A warm en-vironment is needed for the piglets and a cool environment is needed for the lactating sow.The sties should be con-structed in a way that will help in the preven-tion of diseases. There should be adequate openings to allow for ventilation in all the pig of the farrowing house there should be provi-sion to close the open-ings when it is cold.Pig housing should help the stockperson to per-form his duties e.g. heat should allow easy drain-detection, weighing and moving pigs from one pen to the other or to the loading bay.Pigsties can be con-structed using a variety of materials but empha-sis should be placed on using durable material. Pigsties can be of brick under asbestos, iron sheets or thatch. Ideally thatch should not be used for the farrowing and weaner pens.Each pen should have a feeding trough and a is provision for nipple drinkers then there is trough. The feed trough should not be sited in the dunging area. The water trough should not be sited at the upper end of the slope oth-erwise spillages will render the pen wet all the time.The floors should ideally be of hard concrete to prevent the rooting behaviour of the pigs and to facilitate easy cleaning of the pens. The floors should nei-ther be too rough nor too smooth. Smooth floors can cause leg injuries while too rough floors cause damages to the teats and to the piglet legs during suck-ling. Too rough floors can also damage the clays of pigs. The floors age of water. This can only be achieved if the floors are sloping to the outside drainage chan-nel. The outside drain-age channel should be at least 30cm wide.The walls should be plastered and should be free of sharp objects.The roof should not be low. Low roofs interfere with the stockman when he is carrying out his duties.Contact the Pig Industry Board on +263 772234650 for all your training and breeding stock needs. from page 9

By Wonder ChakanyukaBackgroundButternut belongs to the Cucurbit family of vege-table crops. It falls under the botanical group of Curcubita moschata. The crop is a very nutritious vegetable whose fruit can be used with rice dishes and for making starter dishes such as soups. Butternut is a potential cash crop as it has a long shelf life.SoilsButternut can be grown successfully on a wide range of soils. Fertile soils with adequate drainage are ideal as butternut is quite sensi-tive to oxygen deficiency in the soils. The ideal soils are sandy loams or silty loams which warm up rapidly.RainfallWater requirement is very high but high hu-midity encourages leaf disease and may affect flower production. The frequency of irrigation is largely dependent on soil type and weather conditions. Generally, for sandy soils in dry weath-er, the field should be irrigated at least every other day if not more often. The best test for the need of irrigation is to dig down and squeeze a handful of soil. If soil comes apart and does not stay in a ball upon the release of pressure it means that irrigation is needed.TemperatureButternut is more tol-erant to high tempera-tures, thereby making it adaptable to low lying areas. It, therefore, can be grown in areas which are hot enough such as places where water melons can grow well. The temperature ranges Butternut production guideMore 2020Agribusinessfarming is a 13

for optimum production are 18-21 oC at night and below 29 C during othe day. This restricts production to the sum-mer months with winter production possible in the low-veld areas or rather in the hot areas. The crop is very suscep-tible to frost.Fertiliser applicationIt is recommended that 10-15 ton/ha of compost or manure should be incorporated about a month before planting or alternatively 500 kg/ha of Windmill’s com-pound C (5:15:12) and 100kg /ha of Ammonium a size basis in the region Nitrate ( 34.5%N) top dressing should be ap-plied after the first fruits have formed.PlantingButternut can be plant-ed from March to August and late July to mid-November in higher altitudes. Winter pro-duction is possible in low lying areas and this can be during the period March to August. For early production in high altitudes, sowing should be done from early July to August. The seed required is 2.5 to 3.5 kg/ha. It can either be planted on hills, ridges or in furrows.Weed controlThis is done mechanical-ly using hoes.HarvestingFruits are harvested on of 15 cm length for the fresh market. The seeds should be soft. Fruits must not be allowed to ripen on the mother plants as this stops de-velopment of new fruits. Storage under shady conditions e.g. under a tree is ideal. This should be accompanied by good ventilation. Fruits showing signs of rotting should be removed.MarketingAfter harvesting, farmers should sort and grade their fruits according to size. Packaging varies according to size and market requirements. Farmers have the option to sell their butternuts at market places such as Mbare Musika, Chik-wanha Shopping centre, Bulawayo Central Mar-ket, retail and whole-sale outlets, colleges and boarding schools, or even to the export market.- WINDMILLPest and disease managementDiseaseSignsWindmill recommended control1. AnthracnoseBlack angular spots appear on leaves with black streaks on stems and leaf stalks. Sunken lesions on the fruit produce spore masses under moist conditions.Spray Mancozeb/Dithane, or Chlorothalonil/ Bravo.2. Powdery MildewWhite mealy blotches on leaf surfaces.Spray Wetable Sulphur Carbenndazim or Bonomyl 50 WP, Funginex or apply Pedza Nhamo Dust at weekly intervals during susceptible periods.3. Downey MildewCircular to rectangular small brown spots surrounded by yellow halo appear on the leaves. The spots are biscuit brown on the underside of the leaves or covered with a fungus and appear scattered. Under serious infection, the leaf dies from the edges inward resembling frost damage.Control weekly using Copper Oxychloride 85 WP, Mancozeb/Dithane, and Chlorothalonil. If done during the earliest stages of the disease they will provide adequate control. Ridomil Gold can be applied 10 day intervals up to a maximum of 3 sprays.4. Leaf MosaicLeaves show dark green to light green mosaic with a blistered surface. Under severe cases, the plants remain stunted and do not bear fruit, and leaves will be mal-formed and curled.Aphid control is of utmost importance in curbing disease spread. Infected plants should be removed and destroyed.Insect PestsDamage causedWindmill recommended method of control1. Pumpkin FlyDry indented patch on fruit and subsequent rottingChemical sprays at beginning of flowering e.g. use Malathion 25 WP, Lebaycid, and Dimethoate 40 EC.2. AphidsTransmit mosaic virus diseasesControl can be done using Dimethoate 40 EC, Diazinon, Metasystox, or Malathion 25 WP.August 2020Agribusinessfarming is a 14

Adopting the pfumvudza concept on maize and traditional grains.1ADOPTING THE PFUMVUDZA CONCEPT ON MAIZE AND TRADITIONAL GRAINS.for sustainable crop productionFarming

2BACKGROUNDPfumvudza is an approach from Foundations for Farming that is based on key principles of conservation agriculture. To achieve high yields all operations must be done to a high standard, without wastage (precision farming). Using the Pfumvudza input pack; it is possible to feed a family for a year from a minimum investment. The concept is a sustainable way of crop production intensification, whereby farmers concentrate resources on a smaller piece of land, resulting in higher productivity from lower investment, hence higher profit margin.BENEFITS OF PFUMVUDZA• Allows concentration of resources on small land units thereby optimizing resources (inputs, resources)• Facilitates high levels of management.• Can facilitate water-planting or sup.PFUMVUDZA -WHAT IS ITA small food security plot for the household • 1/16 ha (39m*16m)• 1456 holes per plot• 52 rows with 28 holes per row.• Each planting station/hole will have 2 plants• Spacing 60cm*75cm. GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF PFUMVUDZA• Timeliness- for all operation (planting, weeding, fertilizer application…)• High standards- equal fertilizer mounts for all plants, correct spacing, optimum plant population.• Without wastage and precision –Nutrient amendments placed close to the roots- used efficiently, and benefits from residual fertility. Increased satisfaction, Joy and confidence levels for farmers.

3PLOT SIZEThe demonstrated plot size should be 16m x 39m (624m2 which is approximately 0.06ha) Inter-row spacing of 75cm In-row spacing of 60cm Row length of 16m Hole dimensions should be 15cm by 15cm by 15cm.Hence digging 28 holes per row, with two maize plants per each plating hole, making a total of 56 plants per row.Therefore 1456 planting holes with a total of 2912 plants.A total of 52 rows, with each row producing a 20L tin of maize grain(one 20L per week for 52 weeks =1 year),with the assumption that each plant produces one cob.The plot should give approximately 1 tonne translating to a yield of 15t/ha.PLANTING MAIZE UNDER PFUMVUDZAPRECISION AND TIMINGThe precision and attention to detail results in an optimum plant population. The removal of weeds at short intervals when they are still small, greatly reduces weed pressure. Placing three seeds in each planting hole, and later thinning to two, ensures the plants has the required two plants per planting hole. The small land size ensures that the farmer is able to provide supplementary irrigation (water by hand) where water is available during dry spells, thus enhancing the resilience of the production.INPUT PACK2kg seed, 12kg lime, 16kg basal fertilizer, 16kg top dressing, insecticide for fall armyworm.Mulching is key

4SORGHUM PRODUCTION GUIDELINES UNDER PFUMVUDZA• Sorghum is a drought tolerant crop.• Sorghum adapts well under low rainfall areas normally associated with high temperatures.• Thedroughttolerance,shortseasoncharacteristics and adaptability to various soils are its main advantages.Key Principles• Minimum soil disturbance: digging planting stations or making rip lines instead of ploughing.• Mulching: covering the soil with crop residues (‘stover’) or other dry organic material, and controlling grazing.• Use of crop rotation and mixing: varying the crops that are planted each year on the same piece of land.Timely Implementation Of All Operations:• Carrying out all operations at the best time of the year (preparation, planting, manuring and fertilisation, controlling weeds and pests)PLANTINGSORGHUMPrecise Operations:• Paying attention to detail and doing all tasks carefully and completely.Efficient Use Of Inputs:• Not wasting any resources including labour, time, seeds, stover, manure.Input Package• 2 kg seed• 12kg lime• 16 kg Compound D fertilizer• 16 kg Ammonium Nitrate• Insecticide for stalk borer and FAWKey StepsStep1: In high potential areas, prepare basins 75cm x 30cm. Plant 5 seeds per station. Thin after 3 weeks of establishment, leaving 3 plants per station (making in-row spacing 10cm).Expected plant population is 75cm x 10cm (133 333 plants/ha)In low potential areas, prepare basins 75cm x 45cm. Plant 5 seeds per station …thin to leave 3 plants/station. Expected plant population is 75cm x 15cm (88 888plants/ha)Step2: Apply 5grams lime or cup no.5 per planting station. Use coke bottle-top. Step3: Basal Fertiliser: apply 8 grams (cup no 8). Compound D/ or use a level pet bottle cap (Cup 8) per station.Apply 350 grams manure or compost.Step 4: Top dressing use 5grams first application at 3-4 weeks and second top dressing at 8.

5Soyabean production guidelines under Pfumvudza‘PFUMVUDZA’ is a Conservation agriculture way of farming that conserves natural resources such as soil and water, resulting in improved and sustainable production.Key principles• Minimum soil disturbance: digging planting stations or making rip lines instead of ploughing.• Mulching: covering the soil with crop residues (‘stover’) or other dry organic material, and controlling grazing.• Use of crop rotation and mixing: vary - Use of high management techniques:Timely implementation of all operations:• Carrying out all operations at the best time of the year(land preparation, planting, manuring and fertilisation, controlling weeds and pests).Precise operations:• Paying attention to detail and doing all tasks carefully and completely.Efficient use of inputs:• Not wasting any resources.Input package• 5kg Seed• 16kg Compound D fertilizer• 16kg Ammonium NitratePLANTING SOYABEANSPlanting Soyabeans under PfumvudzaStep 1: Mark the field at the standard 39m by 16m and prepare planting furrows spaced at 0.75m x 0.6m.Step 2: Leave the furrows open until you receive the first effective rains.Compound D: use a level bottle cap (Cup 8) per 60cm furrow row length and spread it uniformly.Step 3: Plant immediately after receiving a good planting rain that fills the furrow.Apply rhizobium to seed soon before planting.Plant soyabeans in the furrows at a spacing of 3cm between seeds.Apply ammonium nitrate at 7 weeks using CUP 8 along the 60cm furrow length.Keep plots weed free, at least 2 hand weeding at 2 and 6 weeks suffice.

6Sunflower production under Pfumvudza.• Sunflower is a crop which performs well under drought conditions.• The drought tolerance, adaptability to various soils and low input cost of the crop are its major advantages.• The short growth season of the crop, renders it extremely suitable for producers who make use of adaptable crop rotation and/or fallow systems.Input Package• 2kg Seed• 16 kg Compound D• 16kg Ammonium NitratePLANTINGSUNFLOWERPlanting of SunflowerStep 1:• Prepare planting basins spaced at 0.75m x 0.60m.• Apply 5g or a bottle cap of lime and mix well with soil.Step 2:• Apply basal fertilizer (Compound D) at land preparation-either manure or compound fertilizer.• Leave the basins open until you receive the first effective rains.• Manure: Apply a handful of manure per planting basin. Cover the manure with a thin layer of soil.• Compound D: The fertiliser should be scattered in the bottom of the hole. One No.8 cup should be adequate.Step 3:• Plant immediately after receiving a good planting rain that fills the basin.• Sow 2 to 3 seeds of sunflower at each end of the basin.• Sunflower seeds should not be planted deeper than 2cms. Sunflowers will not emerge if planted too deep.Step 4:• Thin plants 14-21 days after emergence down to an average of two plants per basin.Step 5:• Apply 5g (cup 5) of ammonium nitrate which is equivalent to a level bottle cap per planting basin.

7Important Points To Consider In Site Selection:1. Reliable water source :• Farmers are encouraged to plant in first week of November before the rains and put 2 litres or more of water in the basin.• In the event of mid-season dry spells, farmers will need to supplement water.2. Near homesteads for easy management.3. Best arable land that are inherently fertilized inorder to improve yields.4. Fenced enclosure(live fencing preferably) that offer security (destruction from animals)5. Mulch must be well protected from veld fires . Ensure fire guards.Timelines and steps1. Creating baseline marking out the plot – 31 July.2. Diggingplantingholes-dimensionsandorientation-31 July.3.Liming-31 JulyRemember these important points1. Orientation for the rows and correct mulch placement.2. When holing out it is important to ensure the soil from the planting hole is heaped down slope to facilitate water capture.

8AcknowledgmentAgritex acknowledges the support given by the following farming partners to print this information pumphlet for farmers across Zimbabwe.Head office: No 1 Borrowdale Road, Ngungunyana Building, Harare, ZimbabweTel: +263 47 91355where farmingmeets the farmerADOPTING THE PFUMVUDZA CONCEPT ON MAIZE ANDTRADITIONAL GRAINS

August 2020Agribusinessfarming is a

Agribusinessfarming is a and Innovation 24August 2020PLANT VIRAL INDEXINGis the process of deter-mining the presence or absence of viruses in plants using mor-phological (Fig. 1) and molecular biology-based techniques, among oth-ers. It is done to control plant viruses and also assists in the formula-tion of suitable disease management strategies. Some viral diseases have typical and clear-cut symptoms which can be reliably used for morphological diagno-sis, while others share similar symptoms, hence posing significant diffi-culties in their diagnosis using the naked eye.Although the use of conventional methods i.e. physiological meth-ods plays a critical role in to the unreliability of viral identification, they can be prone to wrong diagnostics, false posi-tives and false negatives through misinterpreta-tion of symptoms. In ad-dition, physiological and morphological methods cannot be used reliably throughout the plant’s life cycle as some viruses ible, easy to perform and lay latent for some period only to show symptoms when the plant is at a later stage of development. Further-more, the conventional methods are not exclu-sive since a single plant may be co-infected by more than one patho-gen, leading to difficul-ties in identifying the involved pathogens. Due the conventional meth-ods, the use of molec-ular biology-based viral diagnostic techniques is extremely convenient for confirmatory diagnosis of viral pathogens. Molecular biology viral diagnostic techniques are accurate, reproduc-can detect viruses at all stages in the plant`s life The use of molecular viral indexing techniques to detect plant viruses More 1 : The collage shows various dis-eased crops ....continued on page 26Authors: M. Ganda, G. Zvobgo, T. Mushapaidze and M. Chamunorwa, Kutsaga Research Station, Molecular Biology Services Division

Kutsaga Research– Maximizing Economic ValueFor further information contact Kutsaga: Mobile: 0712 881 814, 0712 886 946, Tel: 086 8800 2604or visit us at Kutsaga Research Station, Airport Ring Road, Harare. Whatsapp 0714 980 980, email: [email protected] SERVICESPREMIUM QUALITY PRODUCTS AND SERVICESDisease DiagnosticsVariety InformationAgrochemical Evaluation ServicesSeed Pelleting and FilmingWater; Microbial; Pesticide Residue and Formulation and Soil TestingGmo Testing; Dna Fingerprinting; Viral Indexing; Bacterial Wilt TestingBarn Recommendation for Growers

Agribusinessfarming is a and Innovation 26August 2020cycle. Two major molec-ular biology diagnostic techniques are imple-mented in viral indexing. The first being serologi-cal which depend entire-ly on antibodies against specific viruses while the other is DNA-based. The latter includes DNA probe hybridization, virus specific Polymerase When performing Chain Reaction (PCR) and biochips (DNA micro-arrays). Molecu-lar biology techniques evidently have great ap-plication in sustainable crop productivity. Most plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors during feeding either on the plant sap or tissue. Virus machin-ery enables transport of the virus to the vascular bundle of the plant and facilitates entry into the cell. The virus then utilizes the genes in their sample is positive when genome to orchestrate the plant`s machinery while evading the plant`s the positive control and defense system. The viral RNA is replicated and exported into the cytoplasm resulting in toxicity. Thus, when performing molecular biology diagnostics for viral indexing, the viral RNA is targeted for virus specific PCR in order to characterize the nature of the virus. virus-specific PCR, total RNA is extracted and converted to comple-mentary DNA (cDNA), the cDNA is used as a template in a PCR reac-tion using virus-specific primers. The resulting amplicon is passed through a 2% w/v agarose gel in a process called gel electropho-resis against known positive and negative controls which act as benchmarks to the sam-ple being analyzed. The the band produced co-incides with the band in the reverse is true for a negative sample.The Molecular Biology Service (MBS) Division of the Tobacco Research Board is a centre of excellence for molecular biology and utilises Poly-merase Chain Reaction (PCR)- based techniques for viral indexing across different sample ma-trices and viruses. The viral indexing service is free of charge for regis-tered tobacco farmers in the country and is also available for non-tobac-co crops like tomato, potato and sweet potato for a prescribed fee. For more information, contact Kutsaga Re-search Station’s Molec-ular Biology Services Division on telephone # (0242) 575289-94 or toll free, 0800 4511 or VOIP, 086 8800 2604, Email: [email protected] or visit Kutsaga Re-search Station, Airport Ring Road, Harare.Fig 1.2 a. PVY infect-ed tobacco crop (necrotic spots) b. Gel electrophoresis image showing a positively PVY infect-ed tobacco sample (lanes 1-2 tobacco test sample, lane 3 - positive PVY control, lane 4 - negative control, lane 5 - 100 bp size marker). ....continued from page 24

Crop planting calendarAugust 2020Agribusinessfarming is a 27

Agribusinessfarming is a 28August 2020Estimating your animal’s weight is important not only for monitoring growth but also in determining dosages of certain medicines. To estimate live weight you will need Measure the heart girth a tape measure and a weight chart.Large ruminantsLive weight of large ruminants can be estimated by measur-ing the chest girth with a tape measure or a calibrated string Ap-proximate weight can be calculated using the table 1.1. Small ruminantsof small ruminants (goats or sheep) using a tape measure or string. Pull the tape tight Use the table below to esti-mate the weight table 1.2. Estimating livestock weightGirthWeight(cm)(kg)653570407545805085599069957910089105103110118115134120150125170130190135210140230145252150272155295160325165360170392175477180467155508190552195598200648205698210748215798220850225905230969GirthWeight(cm)(kg)27.32.328.62.529.92.731.1332. 1.1table 1.2table 1.2 ctd

Agribusinessfarming is a 29August 2020Broilers: First hour, first day, first week!FIRST HOUR, FIRST DAY, FIRST WEEK!A week before arrival:------------------------------• The brooder and all equipment must have been cleaned, disinfect-ed and rested for 10 days prior to prepara-tion.• There must not be any residual matter from previous flocks.• Prepare adequate heaters, drinkers, feed-ers, thermometers and lighting with intensity of 20 lux.• Put up the side curtains at minimum ventilation (double curtains in winter) and false ceiling.• Put litter/bedding evenly to a depth of 10cm and remove for-eign objects e.g. wires, papers.• Apply disinfect on the litter.A day before chick arrival:------------------------------------• Partition the brooder to place at an initial stocking density of 33 chicks per square

Agribusinessfarming is a 30August 2020word searchmetre.• Preheat brooding area to 33 degrees Celsius for at least 24 hours.• Feed and water (with stresspac) to be placed at least 6 hours before placement.During the first 7-days:--------------------------------• On day 3, drop side curtains by 10cm from the top to create air vents.• Maintain a tempera-ture of 32-33 degrees Celsius during the day and during the night.• Mortality to be below 1%.• Target an average weight of 177g on day 7.• Encourage the chicks to move around and must be evenly spread out.#irvinespoultry #irvine-schickens #poultrycare

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Agribusinessfarming is a Information and Tools 33August 2020Making money from an agricultural business requires some experience in developing a business. Be-fore you decide on an idea, create a business plan that includes research on market demand for the products you grow and how to get them to the market. You’ll also need a proper financing plan, as most agricultural businesses require access to large area of land and farm equipment to get started.Below compiled are the most profitable agriculture business ideas which can help those entrepreneurs in deciding their preferred business to start with and make money from within a very short period.Flour millingYou can start your own flour milling business and start converting grains like wheat, corns, millet and cassava into flour. Wheat flour is a product that is in high demand in the baking industry. Flour milling is something you can do from the convenience of your home if you have a small space that you can mark out for it. If you do not have space within your home, you can rent a small space and start from there and as your business expands, you can opt for a larger space. You can easily get wheat, corns, millet or cassava from local farmers, and then learn how to process it and make it into flour. Some of the procedures include cleaning, grading and separation, tempering and then grinding the wheat.Fruit Juice or Jam ProductionAs a young entrepreneur, you can start making your own fruit juice or jam and supply them to supermar-kets and food stores around you. There is huge demand for natural fruit juice now as more people are now learning how to eat healthy and avoid artificial and overly preserved foods and drinks. You can buy fruits in large quantity from local farmers and make your own natural healthy fruit juice at home.Groundnut ProcessingGroundnut is a popular snack that is loved by very many people. Take a trip to a nearby supermarket and you will see bottled groundnuts branded and packaged in a fanciful way. Very little effort goes into frying and packag-ing those groundnuts for sale and distribution. With as little as $200, you can start your own groundnut processing Top Agribusiness Ideas More

Agribusinessfarming is a Information and Tools 34August 2020and packaging business. And of course, you can do it from the comfort of your home. If you can start your own groundnut farm, you will get access to groundnuts cheaply but if you don’t have a space for groundnut farm-ing, you can still get cheap raw groundnuts from farm markets.Livestock Feed ProductionA lot of people are going into livestock farming like fish farming, pig farming, poultry farming and a whole lot of others. As a smart investor, you can start producing feed for people to feed their animals. However, you must ensure that you carry out a lot of research and come up with a product that is rich in nutrients and would promote quick growth and good health of the animals. To start a live-stock feed production busi-ness, you will need a grinding machine, mixing machine, weighing machine, custom-ized packing bags and raw materials for production.Mushroom Farming If you have a clean space in your home, you can start your own mushroom farming business today and start selling mushrooms to hotels, exporters and pharmaceuti-cal companies in the next 21 days.Soya Beans processingSoya milk, soya flour, soya sauce, soya bean oil. Soya bean milk is a healthy and nutritious drink that is in high demand by health conscious people. You can start a soya bean milk processing busi-ness for a little capital.Agricultural Equipment leasingWith the increase in people going into the agricultural business, you can make money from hiring out equip-ment like tractors, ploughs, sprayers, harvesters and irrigation machines to farmer.Spice ProductionSpices used to make food like curry, thyme, cayenne pepper to mention a few are usually in high demand at food stores and supermar-kets. Take advantage of that by processing and packaging your own spices. .Poultry and meat production and packaging.There is the general belief that manually packaged meat or poultry are not too hygienic because of the way they might have been handled. A lot of people are now making good money from machine processed and packaged meat.Medicinal and Herbal plant cultivationMedicinal plants and herbs are in great demand both locally and for export. Grow-ing medicinal herbs com-mercially is one of profitable agriculture business ideas. Having sufficient land and knowledge about the herbs marketing, an entrepreneur can initiate medicinal herbs farming with moderate capi-tal investmentVegetable FarmingVegetables are one of the highly consumed food items in the world. Starting a vege-table farm is one of the sim-plest and easiest businesses in the world with a high profit margin of up to 500%.Aquaculture farmingCatfish farming, Tilapia farming and crayfish farming are very good businesses for young people who are inter-ested in agriculture.Agricultural Brokerage and consultingYou can start a business in agricultural brokerage by linking sellers of agricultural produce with buyers and get commission for it. You can also become a consultant and offer expert advice or or-ganize training and seminars.HatcheryAnother very good business for young entrepreneurs is starting a hatchery for eggs and selling day-old chicks to poultry farmers.FloristFresh flowers are generally used for home decorations or event decorations and you can make money from growing flowers for sale. An entrepreneur also can generate a substantial online sale by offering customers door-step delivery.Facilitative services (credit, insurance, marketing, storage, processing, transportation, packing,distribution.).

Agribusinessfarming is a Information and Tools 35August 2020Fertilizer Distribution BusinessFertilizer distribution busi-ness in Nigeria is highly con-trolled by Government regula-tion. It is one of the profitable agriculture business ideas one can start with moderate capital investmentPoultry FarmingPoultry farming in Africa has transformed into a techno-commercial industry from the status of backyard farming. Poultry farming is the fastest growing sector in agriculture and farming business.Bee KeepingBeekeeping business opportunity demands day-to-day monitoring with close supervision to the bees. With the increasing awareness about the health, demand for honey is growing globally. Beekeeping for selling honey and other products like wax is a profitable venture to start with less startup investmentExport businessAn entrepreneur can start export business of farm pro-duce by collecting them from local farmers. One can start this business from home location only having phone and computer with Internet connectionMicro nutrient Manufacturing Micro nutrient has an immense potential in agri-culture business. Having a strong distribution strategy, one can start this manufac-turing business with substan-tial capital investment. Botanical pesticideThis is one of the most prof-itable agriculture business ideas. It is an essential and mandatory product for organic farming. The demand for this product is increasing highly.Basket and broom productionAre very common products in rural agriculture scenario. An entrepreneur can start this business by sourcing these products from rural makers and after giving a ornamen-tation, it can be sold as utility or decor item through retail and online both. To start prof-itable basket-weaving busi-ness one requires thoughtful planning and a high level of creative mind having flair for design. Using a wide range of raw material an entrepreneur can initiate customized bas-ket-weaving business from home location with moderate capital investmentFish hatcheryThis is a place for artificial breeding, hatching and rearing through the early life stage of fish and shellfish in particular. Hatcheries pro-duce larva and juvenile fish primarily to support the aqua-culture industry where they are transferred to on-growing systems.PiggeryHaving a sufficient landhold-ing an entrepreneur can start piggery business. Among the various livestock species, pig-gery is most potential source for meat production and pigs are more efficient feed converters after the broiler. Pig farming requires small investment on buildings and equipment.Tea growing businessTea business has huge potential and demand for the product is increasing globally. Tea plants typically fare best in acidic soil and regions with heavy rainfall (around 40 inches per year), although they can be grown anywhere from sea level to altitudes as high as 1.3 miles above sea level.Grocery E-shopping portalThis is the most trending business in recent phenome-na. This tech-based business opportunity demand proper planning and strong online marketing strategy to start.Landscape expertThis is a personnel who have enough knowledge in the field of landscape architec-ture. The practice of land-scape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, storm water management, sustainable design, and construction specification and ensuring that all plans meet the cur-rent building codes and local and federal ordinances.Dairy FarmingYou can start making your own dairy products like milk, yogurt, cheese and butter for sale Commercial dairy farming is one of the most profitable agriculture business ideas. Apart from milk it produced a quantity of manure. There is a tremen-dous scope/potential for increasing the milk produc-tion through profitable dairy farming.Goats FarmingGoat farming are among the

Agribusinessfarming is a Information and Tools 36August 2020main meat-producing ani-mals. This meat is one of the choicest meats and has huge domestic demand. Due to its good economic prospects, goat rearing under intensive and semi-intensive system for commercial production has been gaining momentum for the past couple of years.Maize FarmingMaize is one of the most versatile emerging crops having wider adaptability under varied agro-climatic conditions. Globally, maize is known as queen of cereals because it has the highest genetic yield potential among the cereals. Commercial corn farming by using modern technology with quality seed is one of the most profitable agriculture business ideas..Potato Chips ProductionCommercial small potato chips production line can pro-cess both potato chips and french fries. As it is a FMCG product demand is increas-ing globally.Fodder Farming for Goats and CowsFodder is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as chickens, horses, pigs, cattle and goats. The term refers to food given to animals, rather than the food they forage for themselves. Types of plants typically grown for fodder include alfalfa, barley, oats, clover, grass and wheat.Agriculture ConsultingAs with other consulting ser-vices, agriculture consulting requirement is surely expect-ed to grow with coming days. People with experience and knowledge on a specified field of farming activity can consider offering consulting services to organizations and

Agribusinessfarming is a and Games 37August 2020spot the differenceThere are five differences between these pictures. Can you spot them?See answers on Agribusiness Talk social media handlesSource: Kuchengetana Trust

Agribusinessfarming is a 38August 2020ProductBuyer (s)ContactMaizeGMB0242-701885-99SugarbeansGMB0242-701885-99Taflo0775386077RapokoGMB0242-704538MilletGMB0242-701885-99Staywell0772235558Taflo0775386077PHI0773381825Hyperfeeds0778 828 849SorghumDelta0712614158GMB0242-701885-99WheatGMB0242-701885-99Ground nutsGMB(Unshelled)0242-701885-99Taflo(shelled) 0775386077Tabacha(Unshelled) 0777439874Market Contacts

Agribusinessfarming is a in Agriculture 39August 2020BATANAI COOPER- projects like keep-ATIVE GROUPNyarumwe, Hurun- ADVICE TO WOM-gwe, Mash West29 women farmers Let us work hard to working together support our fami-for 6 yearsPROJECTS:Horti-cultureLAND: CommunalWHY FARMING: For ourconsumptionand selling to get incomeSUCCESS:Man-aged to get vege-tables for our fami-lies and get a little cashCHALLENGES: Our boreholesome-times breaks downAMBITION: To save money and ven-ture into bigger ing goats or cattleEN: lies and the com-munities in which we liveFEMALE FORCE OF FARMINGBATANAI COOPERATIVE GROUP

August 2020Agribusinessfarming is a Agribusiness Expert Answers? The Agribusiness Expert AnswersMost of the money in farming is made after farmers sell their product. Entrepreneurial farmers actively look for ways to capture the added value within the value chain. This increases profits.Agripreneurs realise that capturing value re-quires producing for buyers and final consum-ers. But just producing and selling is insuffi-cient. This requires greater understanding and knowledge of value chains and their different elements. It requires a plan for participating further down the value chain.Add value to your farm produce. QHow do I capture value within the value chain?A

Kutsaga Research– Maximizing Economic ValueFor further information contact Kutsaga: Mobile: 0712 881 814, 0712 886 946, Tel: 086 8800 2604or visit us at Kutsaga Research Station, Airport Ring Road, Harare. Whatsapp 0714 980 980, email: [email protected] SERVICESPREMIUM QUALITY PRODUCTS AND SERVICESDisease DiagnosticsVariety InformationAgrochemical Evaluation ServicesSeed Pelleting and FilmingWater; Microbial; Pesticide Residue and Formulation and Soil TestingGmo Testing; Dna Fingerprinting; Viral Indexing; Bacterial Wilt TestingBarn Recommendation for Growers

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