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Connecting Global and Local

Published by jaruwan_abac, 2017-12-06 22:24:34

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1 Connecting Global and Local People and places have always been linked, but today, global and local connections are sotightly bound that trends and events resonate in surprising ways. Global trends rapidly spread andpermeate urban areas and, increasingly, rural ones too. News of local events and phenomena areno longer isolated and are immediately disseminated, spurring reactions in places nearby and far-flung. Throughout history, the movements of people in the ASEAN region have facilitated theexchange and adaptation of ideologies, technologies, information, practices, and aesthetics to theirown local or regional situations. Today these same processes are faster and even virtual. Peoplesand nations in the ASEAN region have been connected to each other and to the larger world inmany ways throughout history. This has created a basis for shared traditions as well as commonaspirations of peoples and nations both locally and globally. In term of history and society, people migrate for many reasons. The practice of movingaway from home in search of a better place is becoming common. The ease of global mobilityallows people to migrate distant places around the world. The rate of human migration hasincreased due to many factors. There are pull and push factors that encompasses in each causeswhich are social, political and economic aspects. 1. Human migration Human migration is due to social factors such as, racism, sexism and religion. The pushingfactor from the social perspective is that people are being discriminated in their homeland. Theyare treated unfairly because of their difference and that they are small in numbers. Religious issuesthat can stir up controversies will lead people that want to avoid getting involved in religiousconflicts to migrate to a safer place. Many of them seek freedom in the social aspects of life. Peopleoften seek refuge in countries that are more open minded and accepts them for who they aredisregarding of race or religion. Furthermore, people migrate from their homeland when politicalissues arise. People are migrating around the world due to pulling factors such as higher standard ofliving and better income while poverty and unemployment contribute to the pushing factors.People from the third world countries would choose to migrate out of their homeland as there isno opportunity to grasp. These people would choose to take the risk and go forth to embrace thedreams and hopes in finding the opportunities and fortune that they seek in life. Some people arealso underused as their country is not able to utilize a certain profession or talent that would bemore appreciated in some other places. Human migration affects the host country. The host country can benefit from theimmigrants as most immigrants are willing to be paid a lower price for labor. This creates job lossfor the natives and will cause issues between the native people and immigrants. The host countrycan also benefit from the immigrants because if they are highly educated, they can educate younger

2generation of the host country. The impacts of migration on many aspects of human life becamediverse due to many socio-economic, political, cultural changes that occurred day by day. Virtuallyall countries in the world need to deal with the steady flow of people crossing international bordersthat have made societies in our globalized world more and more diverse. Despite its contestednature as a normative model for organizing diversity in receiving societies, multiculturalism hasbecome an inescapable reality to which countries need to adapt. Immigration in the Southeast Asian region took place many decades ago when no officialboundaries existed and cross-border migration was not a known issue. Chinese labourers were sentinto Malaysia and Thailand to work as waged workers in the mining industry and on theconstruction of water and land transportation routes in 19th Century. Indonesian workers were alsoemployed in the rubber plantation in Malaysia. At the end of the 20th Century, new waves of immigrant workers from Myanmar,Cambodia and Laos came to be labourers in Thailand. Countries like the Philippines, Malaysia,Vietnam and Thailand also sent their nationals to work overseas, making Southeast Asia one ofthe highest human mobility hubs in the world. Immigration regimes in the region have emergedwithin such context. The region has experienced dynamic socio-economic developments that bring significantchanges to the living conditions and labor productivity. The developments, however, have alsocreated economic and other gaps or imbalances that induce people to move among locations. Thisposes a formidable challenge for policy makers in the region, especially on the governance ofmigrations within and across countries in the region, as well as from the region to the rest of theworld. For internal migration or urbanization, rapid urban development across countries in linewith the rapid development transformation in manufacturing and service sectors, combined withthe limited progress in agriculture sector and rural areas, has caused millions people to move fromrural to urban areas. Cities have become the centers of growth and economic activity, attractingboth internal and international migrants. Urbanization in Southeast Asia has developed very fast,second only to the “tiger” economies of East Asia and P.R. China. The region has also become animportant player in the international migration market. In the postwar era, the region has been anet exporter of labor to the rest of the world. At the same time, international migration within theregion has become significant. This is expected to increase further in importance as the regionmoves toward realization of an economic union by 2020 through the ASEAN economiccommunity (AEC) from 2015. Among other features, the AEC is intended to facilitate freermobility of workers across countries. There are also links between internal and international migration. First, urbanization canbe a stepping stone for international migration, particularly since in most countries thedocumentation and recruitment processes for international migration are conducted in the capitalcity. Second, internal migration in its turn has stimulated a certain amount of international

3movement, as agricultural jobs left behind by locals in countries such as Thailand and Malaysiaare filled by workers from poorer neighboring countries. Urbanization is driven by industrialization and the associated growth of service sectorssuch as construction, local trade and transportation, and finance. Urbanization accounts for themajority of internal migration in Southeast Asia. Except in areas of rapid plantation growth, therehas been limited expansion of employment in agriculture or in the rural economy. International migration within and beyond the region is increasing for a variety of reasons.The main causes are as follows: (i) Global economic and demographic imbalances across countries and regions in theworld. Some countries and regions have become centers of economic growth, and in so doingattract migrant workers from other countries. This is further strengthened by ageing populationsin many parts of the world (i.e. the more developed countries), which stimulates demand forforeign workers to replace the ageing work force and/or to take care of the aged. (ii) Increasing globalization and global production networks bring along migrant workersfrom different parts of the world as part of the production process. Foreign trade liberalization andinvestment facilitation (also as part of FDI) frequently involves allowances for foreign workers towork in the destination country. (iii) Adverse effects of climate changes that have forced some people to move acrosscountries and regions. Climate change is responsible for increasing sea levels, more frequent andgreater flooding, and other natural disasters such as tropical storms, giving rise to a newphenomenon, climate induced migration.8 Migrants moving away from weather-affected regionscan sometimes be classed as be refugees, but many have also become economic migrants. (iv) ‘Labor exporting’ policies of developing countries to reduce domestic unemploymentand increase productivity of labor in the short term. International migration has now become anintegral part of development strategy in many countries, including some in Southeast Asia, toovercome excess supply and low labor productivity. International migration brings benefits tosending countries by generating remittances that support consumption expenditures of migrants’families, the country’s balance of payments position, and financial sector development. Inaddition, migration can also generate social and other gains in the form of knowledge and skillsacquired abroad that could be useful if and when applied in the home country. However, international migration also brings economic and social costs to the household,community and country. In general, international migration is relatively more difficult and costlythan internal movement. This is why internal migration is usually much more significant thaninternational migration in terms of the number of migrants involved and the total amounts ofremittances generated. Moreover, given the proximity and lower cultural barriers, internalmigration directly involves many more poor people from poorer regions than does internationalmigration, which is widely found to be positively selected on skills and abilities.

4 Urbanization is commonly defined as a process of increasing number and share of urbanpopulation in the total population. This is as a result of a combination between natural growth ofpopulation in urban areas, and movement of people from rural to urban areas. The former alsoincludes those resulting from reclassification of rural areas as urban. Statistically speaking, moreand more rural areas have become urban due to increasing population density, higher shares ofworkers with non-agriculture as the main income source, and greater access to or availability of‘urban facilities’ like schools, hospitals, and markets. Accordingly, in an extreme case,urbanization can still increase despite there is no natural population growth in urban and no actualmovement of people from rural to urban. In this case the urbanization is purely because of ruraldevelopment into urban. This point is very important in understanding urbanization rates and/ortrends as their number can be much higher than the growth of urban population There are positive and negative impacts of urbanization. On the positive side, the massiveurbanization has accompanied the rise of middle class and the decline of poverty. Cities havebecome the centers of growth, and their rise has also in general improved delivery of services suchas education, health and sanitation. However, urbanization also brings serious challenges ofresource allocation and environmental degradation. Urban growth has outstripped urbandevelopment, placing stress on resources such as water supply and waste disposal as well asprovision of urban services such as schools and policing. 2. Globalization One of the major causes of change in the nations and borders of Southeast Asia (SEA)would be the impact of globalization. Globalization promotes increasing contact with other nation-states be it through social media, economic exchange, politics and many other areas. Already, wesee results in the form of increasing cooperation through international relations system likeASEAN. However, globalization can change the borders of the region not only through increasedcooperation but also through increased competition. In exploring how globalization change nationsand borders in Southeast Asia, In the area of international relations, we see globalization changing nations and borders ofSoutheast Asia through increased regional cooperation in the formation of the Association ofSoutheast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The establishment of ASEAN on August 8, 1967 in Bangkokduring the middle of the Vietnam War was an attempt by SEA states to prevent intraregionalconflict, and to create \"a voice for themselves in the broader Cold War arena.\" It also representedan attempt at redefining the individual nation-states as being a part of a regional entity.Globalization of the Cold War had created a need for neighbouring nation-states to become moreinter-dependent on one another for the sake of national and regional security and in doing so,brought about increased regional cooperation and the formalization of it through the establishmentof ASEAN. One important thing to note here is that countries in SEA adjusted and adapted toglobalization in different ways and this has resulted in each countries being currently situated atdifferent stages of development. There was tension due to water supply issues between Singapore

5and Malaysia. Malaysia claimed that the water supply that was supplied to Singapore wasunderpaid and that Kuala Lumpur wanted a reasonable price. Singapore rejected the allegationsfrom Malaysia. If this issue is not properly solved military conflict could ignite which hurts bothnations. Singapore, which lacks natural resources, obtains half of its daily water from Malaysia tomaintain its growing population. This is one of the frequent issues that has created friction between the states sinceSingapore became independent from the Malaysian Federation in 1965. In this way, globalizationhas changed the ways in which nation-states in SEA conduct international relations. That havingsaid, a straining of relationships between countries at different stages of economic development isnot the only way in which globalization has affected Southeast Asian economies. On the flip side,globalization has also brought about increased economic integration. For example, the Bruneidollar is \"pegged to the Singapore dollar at a 1:1 ratio\". This is beneficial for both countries sincethey are major trading partners. This shows that a common currency, much like the Euro whichwas adopted by countries in the European Union, is not mere fantasy but a possible direction forthe future of SEA states. Similarly, regional cooperation through economic aid was provided through ASEANsystem. The 1997 financial crisis provoked ASEAN to aid it's nations by facilitating accelerateslocal financial cooperation. \"The ASEAN Vision 2020 which they launched that year, leadersresolved to preserve macroeconomic stability, to carry on liberalization of financial service sectorsand to carefully cooperate in money, tax and custom matters.\"(ASEAN) This shows thatglobalization has also resulted in increased economic integration as countries in the region becomeincreasingly aware of a shared fate especially in terms of economic growth through the AsianFinancial Crisis for one. Globalization has increased interactions between people and their ideas in many ways.People are travelling more frequently and more widely. In recent decades, migration has becomeeasier due to reduced importance of geographic distance in determining boundaries of labormarkets. This is the result of improved transport, and rapid movement of communicationtechnologies that it's possible. Migration is necessary for countries to secure the advantages ofglobal flows of trade and gain a comparative advantage over other nations. When a nation lacks aspecific ability, the easiest way fix it is to import it. The knowledge of a nation's workforce is apriority because it becomes a commodity. A more positive outlook for the future would be increased economic integration for theregion. Malaysia and Brunei have agreed to a bilateral cooperation in the oil and natural gasdivision. The Malaysian state-owned oil and gas company, and Brunei National PetroleumCompany signed the Memorandum of Understanding. The MoU, confirmed the commitment totake bilateral relations to a \"new stage of enhanced partnership and expressed their mutual desirefor the continuous and expeditious implementation\". This is a progressive action taken by thesetwo countries in the South China Sea to explore oil resources. Both leaders emphasized that theirhopes was to express the \"increasing level of trade and investment between the two countrieswould continue to accelerate\". What we can safely conclude at this point is that the degree of

6economic cooperation that will develop in the future depends on how closely related nationalinterest is to regional interest in the view of the SEA governments. The more closely relatednational interest is to regional interest, the better opportunities for regional cooperation asevidenced in the formation of ASEAN where regional security was judged to be crucial to nationalsecurity. Indeed, with already established frameworks like ASEAN, increased economiccooperation does not seem like impossible at all. In the future as a result of globalization, Southeast Asian nations have a probable chanceat integration and unity through economic means. This can be achieved through existingframeworks of regional cooperation such as ASEAN which function as peacekeeping system butalso emphasizes economic collaboration with other countries.References:Essays, UK. (November 2013). Globalization And Economic Integration In Southeast AsiaPolitics Essay. Retrieved from

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