BODY SYSTEMS Monishalakshmi Gopalakrishnan Mrs.Gibson 2A
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 4 5 6 Integumentary System 7 9 Musculoskeletal 10 11 Nervous System 11 Special Senses Cardiovascular Digestive System Urinary System Reproductive System WORKS CITED
Integumentary System The integumentary system protects the body against infection and extreme temperatures, maintains the body’s balance of fluids, and synthesizes Vitamin D for the body. Terminology: derm/o, dermat/o - skin xer/o - dry onych/o - nail myc/o - fungus kerat/0 - horny; hard pil/o - hair r hytid/o - wrinkle a lbin/o - white xanth/o - yellow l ip/o - fat erythr/o - red pedicu/o - lice Vocabulary: Melanin - Yellow, brown or black pigment found in skin and hair. Sweat Glands - Gland that produces a watery liquid and is responsible for heat regulation. Epidermis - It forms the outermost layer of the skin and lines internal organs and cavities. Dermis - Middle layer of skin; contains glands, nerve endings and blood vessels. Keratin - Tough, colorless protein found in skin, hair and nails. Sebaceous Glands - Glands in the skin that produce an oily secretion. Hair - Modified skin cells responsible for protection and insulation. Nails - Modified skin cells responsible for prying, scraping and picking up things. Collagen - a fibrous protein that gives skin its shape, strength ,and elasticity. Arrector Pili Muscle - Bundles Of very small muscle fibers attached to the hair follicles. They contract when a person is cold or frightened leading to the formation of goosebumps. Diseases/Abnormal Conditions: Acne - It is caused when blocked skin follicles from a plug, caused by oil from glands, clump together and swell. Vitiligo - A disorder that causes patches of skin to become white due to the cells becoming destroyed. Ichthyosis - A disorder that causes dry, thickened skin (looks like fish scales). Dermatitis - Inflammation of skin or a rash when in contact with an allergen. Health Careers: Dermatologists - T hey are physicians who have acquired a Dermatology degree and specialize in the diagnosis and cure of skin diseases. They study the functions of the skin and disorders of other organs in the body. The median wage for a dermatologist in the U.S is about $300,297 annually. Cosmetologists - T hey work in the health and beauty field, taking care of client’s skin, hair and nails. The median wage is about $22,500, in order to become a cosmetologist, one must be a state-licensed barber or in school and be at least 16 years old.
M usculoskeletal The body system that provides support, stability, shape, protection and movement to the body. The muscular system specifically helps holding body parts in position, producing heat that keeps the body warm, moving food through the digestive system and aiding blood flow through the veins. The skeletal system specifically helps in the storage of minerals like calcium and phosphorus, and the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Terminology: crani/o - skull -plegia - paralysis -pexy - surgical fixation kinesi/o - m ovement my/o - muscle myel/o - b one marrow chondr/o - cartilage oste/o - b one arthr/o - joint cost/o - rib Vocabulary: Voluntary muscle - Muscle that can be consciously controlled. Involuntary muscle - M uscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system (not consciously controlled). Skeletal Muscle - This muscle is a voluntary muscle that is attached to bone and can be contracted or relaxed through conscious control. Smooth Muscle - This muscle surrounds internal organs and is found throughout our respiratory tract, stomach, intestines, and urinary tract. Smooth muscle contracts and relaxes to movecontent through body system passageways. Tendon - T his is a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone. Cartilage - S oft connective tissue found between joints. Sesamoid bones - They facilitate joint movement and are found in patella(kneecap)and the hands, wrists, and feet. Ligaments - C onnective tissue that attaches bone to bone at a joint. Flat bones -These bones protect vital organs and provide a broad surface area of muscle attachment. An example Of Flat Bone is The Cranium. Hematopoiesis - This is the process of producing platelets, red and white blood cells in the bone marrow. Diseases/Abnormal Conditions: Arthritis - It is the inflammation of joints; usually accompanied by pain and, frequently, structural changes bone and cartilage. Spina Bifida - Split spine; congenital defect in which part of the membrane covering the spinal cord protrudes through a gap in the spine. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy(DMD) - P rogressive disease that weakens the muscles of the shoulder and pelvic girdle. Myasthenia gravis - C hronic autoimmune disease characterized by voluntary muscle weakness that worsens with activity and improves with rest. Health Careers: Orthopedic Surgeon - This is a branch of medicine focused on treating or correcting musculoskeletal conditions, including spine and joint injuries or deformities. Orthopedic surgeons are physicians who specialize in diagnosis and treatment of spinal disorders, sports injuries, arthritis, and fractures. Orthopedic surgeons must hold a Medical Doctor(MD) or a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine(DO) degree. Sports Medicine Physician - A sports medicine physician treats and prevents sports-related injuries of the bones, joints, and muscles. These health care professionals are qualified to diagnose and treat patients, prescribe medication and therapy, and perform surgery. They attend an accredited medical school to obtain a Medical Doctor(MD)degree or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine(DO)degree.
Nervous System The Nervous System Has Three Main Functions, which include the sensory input, integration, and motor output. Terminology: n eur/o - n erve e ncephal/o - b rain myel/o - b one marrow -esthesia - feeling; sensation concuss/o - shaken together ambul/o - w alking mening/o - meninges psych/o - m ind Vocabulary: Neurons - Also called nerve cells, they are the fundamental cells of the nervous system. They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses throughout the body. Neuroglial Cells - c ommonly called glial cells, are specialized cells that support the vital functions of the nervous system. Neuroglial cells provide protective insulation for the neurons. Gray matter - This is an unmyelinated nerve tissue that is composed mostly of nerve cell bodies and dendrites. White matter - contains myelin sheaths,which shroud axons and made by neuroglial cells. Brain - It is the center of mental functions such as thinking, reasoning, remembering, planning, and expressing emotion. The brain controls voluntary muscular movement and regulates involuntary, life-sustaining processes. Brain stem - located beneath the diencephalon, connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. It helps regulate the central nervous system by serving as a conduit for sensory information carried between the cerebrum or the cerebellum and the rest of the body. Effectors - The CNS transmits messages to the effectors, these are muscles or glands in the body that generate a response in the form of motor output. Electrochemical Signaling - This is the process of impulse transmission via the neurons, whi8ch is used to transmit electrical impulses from the brain and spinal cord and help to communicate to other parts of the body. Central Nervous System(CNS) - It comprises of the brain and the spinal cord. The CNS receives, processes, and responds to impulses from all over the body. It constantly monitors internal and external environmental stimuli. Peripheral Nervous System(PNS) - It is made up of nerves that reach into and extends from the brain and the spinal cord. The PNS functions as the liaison between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. Diseases/Abnormal Conditions: Alzheimer’s disease(AD) - A Form Of Dementia resulting from atrophy of the frontal and occipital lobes of the brain. Cerebrovascular accident(CVA) - Death of brain tissue that occurs when an arterial blockage or arterial rupture prevents blood flow to the brain; commonly called stroke. Dementia - A condition of progressive mental deterioration caused by organic brain disease. Characterized by memory loss, difficulties with language expression, etc. Myasthenia Gravis (MG) - A disease of the skeletal muscles caused by disruption in neural communication between the muscles and the nerves; marked by severe weakness and fatigue. Health Careers: Neurologist - A neurologist is a medical specialist that focuses on the functions and disorders of the nerves and brain, collectively known as the nervous system. Specifically, neurologists are tasked with researching illnesses and disorders, helping patients find solutions to neurological impairment, and exploring treatment and prevention strategies. Neuroscience Nurse - This person is a nursing professional that helps patients suffering from neurological problems. This can include injuries, such as head and spinal trauma from accidents, or illnesses, such as Parkinson's disease, meningitis, encephalitis, epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis.
S pecial Senses These senses monitor stimuli, or changes in the external or internal environment. When neural receptors are activated in the special sense organs, a neural impulse is transmitted to the brain. ot/o - ear Terminology: t ympan/o - eardrum (tympanic membrane) ophthalm/o - eye irid/o - iris -cusis - hearing -opia - v ision condition -metry - process of measuring Vocabulary: Sclera - Commonly known as the “white of the eye,” it is the fibrous outer layer of the eye that maintains the eye’s shape and protects the delicate inner layer of tissue. Aqueous humor - a clear, watery fluid called aqueous humor, which gives the eyeball its shape. The aqueous humor cleanses the eye and provides nutrients to both the cornea and lens, which lack their own nutritive blood supply. Auditory Canal - also called the external acoustic meatus. The auditory canal is a short, narrow chamber that leads to the tympanic membrane; it is about one inch long and one-quarter inch wide. Cochlea - a snail-like structure of the inner ear, contains special fluids called perilymph and endolymph, through which sound vibrations travel. The cochlea is also the site of the highly sensitive organ of Corti, which is integral to sound-wave conversion. Olfactory Hairs - Also called cilia; The ciliary apparatus is connected to cell cycle progression and proliferation, and cilia play a vital part in human development. Olfactory Bulb - the structure in the brain where olfactory nerves originate and where information about odors is processed. Taste Buds - They are tiny, sensitive, bulb-like structures that allow you to distinguish different tastes and textures as food moves across your tongue. The oral cavity is filled with thousands of taste buds, and most of these are on your tongue. Gustatory Sense - Commonly known as the sense of taste, encompasses five basic taste sensations: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami. Specialized Nerve fibers - located in the dermis of the skin act as sensory receptors for pain, temperature, pressure, and touch. Epidermis - This forms the outermost layer of the skin. The epidermis is divided into layers of epithelial tissue, and nerve endings. Diseases/Abnormal Conditions: Vertigo - S ensation of irregular or whirling motion, of body or external objects, due to severe disturbance of equilibrium organs in the labyrinth. Hemianopia - Loss of one half of the visual field (the space of vision of eye). Dysgeusia - Condition in which the gustatory sense is impaired, resulting in one of two responses: an unpleasant taste sensation where previously the taste sensation was pleasant. Hyposmia - An Abnormally Weakened Sense Of Smell. Health Careers: Ophthalmologist - These professionals perform eye exams and diagnose various eye diseases and impairments. Ophthalmologists also prescribe glasses, contact lenses, or medication to treat eye conditions. Ophthalmologists have the additional responsibility of performing surgeries to correct eye conditions. Audiologist - This is a specialist who works with hearing, balance, and related disorders. Audiologists test patients for hearing loss. They determine whether someone can hear with in the normal range, and if not, which portions of hearing are affected and to what degree.
C ardiovascular The circulatory system carries oxygen throughout the body ,defends against infection, and clots to protect the body during injury. Terminology: h em/o, hemat/o - blood t achy - fast a rteri/o - artery b rady - slow t hromb/o - clot leuk/o - white e rythr/o - red cardi/o - heart angi/o - vessel (blood) -emia - blood condition Vocabulary: Aorta - The largest artery in the body and the main vessel to supply blood from the heart. Blood pressure - The force or pressure exerted by the heart in pumping blood; the pressure of blood in the arteries. Capillaries - Microscopically small blood vessels between arteries and veins that distribute oxygen-rich blood to the body’s tissues. Inferior vena cava - The large vein returning blood from the legs and abdomen to the heart. Mitral valve - The structure that controls blood flow between the heart’s left atrium (upper chamber) and left ventricle (lower chamber). Myocardium - The muscular wall of the heart. It contracts to pump blood out of the heart and then relaxes as the heart refills with returning blood. Pulmonary vein - The blood vessel that carries newly oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart. Septum - The muscular wall dividing a chamber on the left side of the heart from the chamber on the right. Vein - Any one of a series of blood vessels of the vascular system that carries blood from various parts of the body back to the heart, returning oxygen-poor blood to the heart. Arterioles - Small, muscular branches of arteries. When they contract, they raise resistance to blood flow, and blood pressure in the arteries increases. Diseases/Abnormal Conditions: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) - A stroke-like event that lasts only for a short time and is caused by a temporarily blocked blood vessel. Tamponade - Also called cardiac tamponade. A condition in which the heart is compressed or constricted because of a large amount of fluid or blood in the space between the heart muscle and the sac that surrounds the heart (the pericardium). Stokes-Adams disease - Also called third-degree heart block; a condition that happens when the impulses that pace your heartbeat do not reach the lower chambers of your heart (the ventricles). Pericarditis - Inflammation of the outer membrane surrounding the heart. When pericarditis occurs, the amount of fluid between the two layers of the pericardium increases. This increased fluid presses on the heart and restricts its pumping action. Health Careers: Cardiologist - A physician that diagnoses and treats ailments of the cardiovascular system is called a cardiologist. Cardiologists may use catheterizations to view plugged arteries or help patients through the rehabilitation process, following a heart surgery. After assessing a patient, it is common for a cardiologist to refer patients to a cardiovascular surgeon, when surgery is needed. Following medical school, a two to three year residency in cardiology is required to become a cardiologist. In 2016, $208,000 was the median salary reported for all physicians and surgeons. Cardiovascular Surgeon - A cardiovascular surgeon performs life-saving operations on patients experiencing issues with their heart. After a patient has been assessed by a cardiologist, patients needing heart surgery are referred to a cardiovascular surgeon. Common surgical interventions include heart defect repair, aneurysm repair, heart valve replacement, heart transplantation and coronary artery bypass surgery. Extensive education and experience is required for this profession. After graduating from high school, 15 years of schooling and experience is necessary to be ready for this career. In 2016, it was reported that surgeons’ average annual salary was $208,000.
Respiratory System The respiratory system functions to inhale (breathing in) fresh air; exchanging harmful carbon dioxide for life-sustaining oxygen between and exhaling (breathing out) old, stale air. Terminology: - oxia - referring to oxygen t rache/o - trachea; windpipe oxy - oxygen pleur/o - pleura; serous bronch/o - bronchus; bronchial tube p neum/o - lung: air membrane that enfolds the lung c yan/o - blue thorac/o - chets laryng/o - larynx; voicebox pulmon/o - lung Vocabulary: Visceral Pleura - It is a serous(watery)membrane that encases and protects the lungs. Larynx - Also known as the voicebox, is located in the neck. The larynx is composed of semirigid, fibrous plates made up of cartilage and connected by muscles and ligaments. This cartilaginous composition enables the vocal cords. Epiglottis - It is the leaf-like structure of fibro-cartilage located above the glottis. It closes the opening to the larynx when you swallow food and liquid, and the epiglottis opens up to allow air into the larynx when you breathe. Lungs - They are the major organs of the respiratory system. They envelop the bronchi and the minute bronchioles. Respiratory Rate - It is the number of breaths that a person takes in a minute. Respiratory rate is a type of vital sign used to measure the function of the respiratory system. Bronchi - They are the major air passages that branch off from the trachea into the five lobes of the lungs. Air flows from the bronchi into very tiny airway branches. Alveoli - This is a site of gas exchange and is encased by a network of capillaries. Oropharynx - It is the second section of the pharynx, and is located behind the oral cavity. Air, food, and liquids pass through this cavity. Paranasal Sinuses - The paranasal sinuses play a part in moisturizing the nose and in protecting the nose and respiratory tract from potentially harmful microorganisms. Internal Respiration - It involves gas exchange at the cellular and tissue levels. Oxygen is delivered to the cells and tissues of the body via the bloodstream, where gas exchange occurs in the capillaries. Diseases/Abnormal Conditions: Asthma - It is a chronic inflammation of the lung airways that causes coughing, wheezing, chest tightness or shortness of breath. It occurs when a person is exposed to their triggers, which can include air pollution, tobacco smoke, factory fumes, cleaning solvents, infections, pollens, foods, cold air, exercise, chemicals and medications. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - It is sometimes called chronic bronchitis or emphysema, is a chronic and progressive disease where the air flow in and out of the lungs decreases, making it harder to breathe. Over time, the airways in the lungs become inflamed and thicken, making it harder to get rid of waste carbon dioxide. Rhonchi - A coarse rattling or high-pitched snoring sound heard during auscultation of the lungs; usually indicates narrowing of the air passages, such as during asthma or a respiratory infection. Strep Throat - Infection of the throat caused by the Streptococcus bacterium; characterized by a red, painful, and purulent throat. Health Careers: Pulmonologist - is a medical doctor(MD) who diagnoses and treats conditions and diseases of the lungs and of the cardiopulmonary system, which comprises the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. Typically, pulmonologists have training in critical care. They generally work as part of a group medical practice. Perfusionist - This person is a vital part of the surgical team during open-heart surgeries. Perfusionists work in hospitals and in surgery centers that perform cardiovascular procedures. A perfusionist manages the heart-lung machine during operations when a patient’s heart must be stopped. During the surgery, the perfusionist can administer blood products and medications and control the patient’s body temperature.
D igestive System
U rinary System
Reproductive System WORKS CITED
https://www.g-wonlinetextbooks.com/~userInfo https://theintegumentarysystematitsfines.weebly.com/medical-professions.html https://www.quia.com/jg/2724789list.html https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/skin-diseases https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-school-biology/hs-human-body-systems/hs-the-muscul oskeletal-system/a/hs-the-musculoskeletal-system-review https://careersinpsychology.org/neurology-careers/ http://aann.org/about/about-american-association-neuroscience-nurses https://www.ciliopathyalliance.org/cilia https://www.dummies.com/careers/medical-careers/medical-terminology/medical-terminology-for- sensory-conditions-diseases-and-pathology/ https://www.texasheart.org/heart-health/heart-information-center/topics/a-z/ https://work.chron.com/list-jobs-careers-involving-cardiovascular-system-16564.html#:~:text=Oppor tunities%20to%20work%20as%20a,perfusionist%2C%20and%20a%20cardiovascular%20technician. https://www.livescience.com/22616-respiratory-system.html#:~:text=Respiratory%20system%20dise ases,obstructive%20pulmonary%20disease%20(COPD).
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BODY SYSTEMS Monishalakshmi Gopalakrishnan Mrs.Gibson 2A