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emci f1 cnc basic

Published by Zoran Peric, 2016-04-07 15:32:41

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EMCO F1-CNC BasicThe use of CNC-machines will still Prefaceincrease in the future.Not only in industrial production also in CNC basic knowledge is important forsmall workshops conventional machi- everyone of them. How spezialized thisnes will be replaced by CNC-machines. knowledge must be, will depend on theThe application of CNC-technics is not specific occupation.bound to the classic machine tools EMCO MAIER & CO. is also producersuch as lathes, milling machines or to of CNC production machines and sincethe metalworking area. One could say, a long time experienced and active innearly every day a new application of technical education worldwide.CNC technics is realized. Practically After producing the EMCO COMPACTall occupations such as technical de- 5 CNC which is used worldwide suc-signer, technical manager or sales- cessfully for years, the EMCO Fl-CNCman, skilled worker, methods engi- has been developed.neer, controller, etc. will be confron- As the method and the concept of theted with CNC-technology in many EMCO COMPACT 5 CNC has been veryways. successful, we designed the F1-CNC al- so that way: the student should work on the machine from the very first hour.

Marialin for Many contents which ale difficult to explain and often t ools net understood when taught theoretically, can only be explained by working on the CNC.machine. Chip guard Operating a CNC machine, milling with ditterenl cutSwitch tti change ete. can only be learned by practical working.axis systemh-OriioniTairvertical CNC milling machismo are built in different types: Horizontal-, vertical, portal milling machines, inachi lung centers, etc Therefore we designed the machine so that CNC. milling . covering all types can be pc( termed Consider machin• and teaching material as a The book BASIS is developed for the student. For the tea. cher an additional handbook and Overhead slides are available. Use this handbook in addition to the bock BASIS if you want to do it in a self teaching course. ChuCtl change MilitioHead IQ/ loonslem tye

•Ali rignts reserved especially those of diffusion and duplication through film, radio, television. photomechanicalreproduction. sound tracks of any and every kind, translation into foreign languages, reprints Of, extracts from the text.0': 1984 by EMCO MAIER & CO. Fabrik fUr Speziaimaschinen, FriedmanmMaier-Stralie 9, A-5400 HaHein, Austria.Printed in Austria,

1. General— Technological data— Finding the Chip Removal Values, Speeds— Mounting the Tools-- Chucking the Workpieces

Technological data1. Cutting speed (Vs) 3. Feed Rate and Depth of Cut Vs (m/min) d (mm) x lr x S ( rpm) F = Feed rate (mm/min) 1000 t = Depth of cut (mm)Vs = Cutting speedd = Diameter of workpiece Generally: feed rate and cutting speedS = Main spindle speed depend on- - workpiece materialThe maximum cutting speed depends on - performance of machine and - geometry of milling cutter.- Material of workpiece: Material of workpiece higher the resistance of the material,the lower the cutting speed. The higher the material resistance the larger the feed and the depth of cutThe charts contain the following data: (limitation by milling cutter geometry).V s = 44 m/min for aluminium (Torradur B) The charts contain orientation values for the F1-CNC.Vs = 35 m/min for soft steel soft plastics Connection F tVs = 25 m,/min for tool steel The larger \"t\" the smaller \"F\" and vice hard plastics versa.- Material of tool:Carbide tools allow higher cutting speedthan HSS tools. values given in the charts are forHSS tools.2. Spindle speed (S) tile speed of the millingspindle from cutting speed and diameterof milling cutter.S (rpm) = Vs (rnimin) x 1000 d (mm) x

Procedure The technological data are written into the tool specification sheet. Finding the feed rate and the depth of cut: Material: aln inium 71) Depth of cut i t\") Dia. of milling 1 cutter (d=10 mm) I (t = 10 mm) j L__FecA1 w, r\".'• . tx: Me. i •• IF = 60 mm/mil711 L___ You can also proceed in a different way: Feed rate F , 1 ,–H Dia, of milling 200 I cutter 10 mm) '14\"I 'Depth of cut 4,2 mmlLA( Finding the speed of rotations: Diameter of milling cutter vs Correct cutting speed for the specific material S Spindle speed The same procedure appiies for drilling. PS: Dcwncut milling -- Conventional Milling The specific knowledge is presupposed. however, with the Fl-CNC the differen- ces may be neglected.

Milling Depth of cut • Cutter diameter - Feed Drilling Diameter of drill bit • Feedmm 1 10 9 81,520 30 40 50 60 80 100 150 200 300 400 WO, mm/min

Speed (of rotation) — Cutting speed — Feed 25 00 2000 cE 150 0 0 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 Attention When plunging in with cutter, halve feed values of mill chart.

Service and Maintenance of Machine Lubrication: Lubricate guideways of longitudinal, cross and vertical slide daily using oil gun (1 nipple on vertical slide, 2 nipples left side underneath longitudinal slide). Pressure resistant, corrosion-pro- tective oil with slip-stick reducing characteristics. 73 mm/sec (cSt) reference tempera- ture 40° C. E.g. CASTROL MAGNA BD 68 This corresponds to the CINCINNATI Specification P47.Spindle taper for tool mountingInterior taper of main spindle and tool taperhave to be free of grease and dust (forcelocking)1Safety measuresPay attention to the general and specificmilling safety rules. The knowledge aboutthem is pre-supposed.Raw materialIf you • use aluminium, take only machinable.aluminium.Advisable material:Torradur 3, Al, Cu, Mg, Pa F38, material no.3,1645,51 according to DIN 1725/1747 or simi-lar.ToolsUse high quality and well sharpened tools only.

Clamping of Tools Attention: Spindle taper and tool taper must be dirt- and dust-free. Clamping with collet chuck Tools with cylindrical shaft are clamped with the collet chuck. Note: Put collet into nut inclined so that Taking out the collet: the eccentric ring grips the groove of the collet. Screw nut with collet Unscrew nut. The eccentric ring in the onto collet chuck. nut presses the collet out when unscrew- Clamping of tools ing. Put tool into collet and tighten aut with cylindrical pin in clockwise di- Maintenance rection. For counter-holding of main spindle put cylindrical pin into col- Use oil and clean collet and collet let holder. chuck after use. Chips and dirt can da- mage the tapers and influence the pre- cision. Collets You find the clamping capacity in inch • and metric engraved on the collets. Dia- meters smaller or larger than indicated must not be clatped.1A

Clamping with shell end mill arbor Using the arbor you can clamp tools up to a bore of 16 mm. The 4 spacing col- lars serve for adjusting the different width of the milling cutters.02m:ffiti

Clamping Possibilities for Workpieces Clamping bars The clamping bars are mounted directly onto the slide depending on the rela- tive workpiece. Machine vice with stop Width of jaw: 60 mm Clamping capacity. 60 mm Stepped clamping shoe Height: 60 mm For clapping a workpiece need at least two clamping shoes.1.8

3-jaw chuck (2x 3 Jaws) 4jaw chuck (2 x 4 jaws) 4-jaw independed chuckFor holding of round, trian- For holding of round, For holding of workpiecesgular and hexagonal work- square and octogonal centrically and eccentri-pieces centrically. workpieces centrically. cally. Adaptor plate To mount 3-jaw, 4-jaw chuck and independent. The adaptor plate itself is mounted on to the milling table. Intermediate plate Ti mount 3-jaw, 4-jaw cnuck and independent. The 'inter- mediate plate itself is moun- ted on to the dividing atach- ment. The dividing attach- ment is clamped to the millinq table with two T-nut screws. Dividing attachment

The Dividing Attachment Operating tips TECHNICAL DATA Diameter of rotary table; 150 mm Worm reduction: 1:40 T-slots according to factory standard Number of holes in dividing plates: 27,33,34,36,38,39,40,42 OPERATING ELEMENTS Clamping levers for rotary table (1): Clamping levers are Loosened during the dividing operation itself, but must be clamped before every machining operation Indexing pin with handle (2): During direct dividing from 15° to 15°. the pin rests into the parameter notoiles of the rotary table. During indirect di- viding (worm dividing) or free dividing by means of the graduated scale, the In- dexing pin must be pulled out and swi- velled to the left. The graduated scale (3) is for controll- ing the divisions. Crank handle with index plunSer (4) 4 moves the worm which is engaged with2 the wormwheel of the rotary table du- ring indirect dividing. The shears serve to facilitate adding the number of holes when a fraction of a turn is to be added.T-slots of the dividing attachment Disengaging and engaging the worm: The alien head screw (5) is loosened. When the dividing plate is turned coun- terclockwise, the worm and wormwheel are disengaged. The rotary table can be turned by hand for direct indexing. Sy turning the dividing plate clockwise, worm and wormwheel are engaged. To faci- litate engagement of worm and wormwheel, the rotary table should be moved slight- ly by hand. The alien head screw (5) must again be retightened.

Types of DividingIndirect dividing: Direct dividing:Indirect dividing offers many more di- Worm and wormwheel are disengaged.viding possibilities and is more accu-rate because of the worm reduction of Possibility 1:1:40. Dividing by means of the indexing pin.Indirect dividing method: Dividing possibility from 15° to 15° (i.e., maximum of 24 divisions withinIf the crank handle is turned 40 times, 360°).the rotary table makes 1 revolution(360°). With help of the dividing Possibility 2:plates, exact fractions of turns can beexecuted. The dividing can be done freely with the aid of the graduated scale on the rotary table.NoteWith indirect dividing the indexing pin isalways disengaged. For manufacturing aworkpiece the rotary table has to be fixed.The indexing chart:1st column: indicates number of divisions per 36002nd column: shows the corresponding angle of the division3rd column: shows the number of 360 0 crank handle revolutions which are necessary4th column: shows the number of holes to be added for each index plate

Example of an indirect dividing operation: 4. Execution of the dividing operation: 3 full turns plus the fractional turn Desired division: 13 divisions in 360° of the 3 added holes are made; that means that the plunger is placed in From the indexing table it can be seen the black hole. One dividing opera- that at the desired division 13, 3 full tion is completed. crank turns must be made plus a frac- tion. turn of 3 additions) holes on the 5. Next dividing operation: indexing plate 39. The shears are turned until the left Practical execution: arm touches the pin again; the next dividing operation follows as des- 1. The indexing plate with 39 holes is cribed in 4. above. mounted. 2, in the indexing table one sees that at the division 13, 3 full turns plus 3 holes on the 39 plate have to be added.. Therefore, the shears are fixed so that they include 4 holes. NOTE: The shears may not be moved during the dividing operation, otherwise they do not serve their purpose as an orien- tation aid.3. The indexing plunger is placed in a NOTE: If a larger number or holes has to hole of the 39 plate (marked black on be reached than the maximum opening of the drawing) and the left shear arm the shears allow, you have to set the moved until it touches the pin of the difference of boles between the shears. plunger. Example 21 divisions per 360 0 have to be carried through. From the chart one can see that one full turn p lus the fractional turn, of 38 holes on the disc 42 have to be carried through. 38 holes cannot he set. Thus: 42-38=4 holes. When dividing you make one additional turn (2 turn ailto- gether) and turn back the difference of 4 holes (the shears comprise 5 holes).4 4 el

Formula for the Calculation of the Hole Numbers Required INDEX TABLE z No. of divisions required for one revolution of the workpiece. for K No. of revolutions of handle for a complete revolution MAXIMAT of the workpiece. n No. of revolutions of handle for one dividing move: n = Worm reduction of dividing head 1:40; i. e. K = ■ , !Iw7. I; o\",Qz',, )11114,i4°ce,4.:4o6.--\"1-..1 Amount of notes to be added •0Zaoc7rs11 1:. , [ ..... Amount of holes to be added=1 for each index plate '1 o8, 11 '2.-–cr for each index platet0h' :• , , i1 ,3 0c --. 1 2.`?:. 27 33 34 36 38 39 40 , 42 /, •2'6: 27! 33 34i 36 38 39 40 42 -a7-' 1 E 42 h 18022001 ! 1 32 1 11 71 9 10 : 175 1 . 191 121 ; 1' 1 ! LjI1 116700'°71.,1178! 1.2214.-,:-. 1'4.; i -[L-- 33 i 34 1 1 35J 1 1, 6 .. 36 ; 100/. 1 1 -4 150-1 16 18 3398 :' ! 1 4 113400'.\":-':r-11--54:!I 15 . --1I:-- i 2 ' 12 i 11 1 125'' 13 1 24 ! 40: 9`-' . 110111111111.1111134--I. 111200°--.'11r-32-\" -6-9-1-. 11; ---1, 12 13 14 42 ' III 40 100°! 11 44 i III 30 35 3 [[ r, 24 324._-.44': -- 90'' 1[ 10-ir ! t 45 i: 8 c: 30 30 80 ! 11 48 _f' ___. -88-. 24 '1 -1--- 50: 32 9' 76'r : L12 ' 13 14 7'• ,' 21 28 30 • .5 ' 72'7811I--I- 70\"' 7 ' 21 . i 1 52 i 54 i 1... 20d 665055°Q–7'- 1566:1ti'3186:'111 -1---.! , i, 24 26 28 551 H.. 21 . 30 ,7 22, ---- 56 ' 11' 60 6° 18 64 ' , 258 1i:-5-- 405'-' 5 1, 5 :i4:•11. .- 4I.:11-- t}.I : 6656'.'. 1I 24 • 40', 51 12 16 :--- f 20 20 414 I10 • 36 ,': 4 :1 !• 68 ._t7_---- 24 70 •11 3 :f 21 ' '1 72 ; 5° 15 • 20 30': 3, 9 1 11 ' 12 ; 13! 14 76: ! f:31 1: 1 20is—1511231:, 1 ,4:1-- 3' 19-T4 1,- I 2 r• 1[ 1. .,,• I 36 781 --i-- 17 i• • 25-' 1';■-• 22!-i218 i H- • 18 20 24'1 .1 80 i; :. 22 : ' ' 16 4- 15 ! 4t24 ,-r- 8484 26 1i!—20 28 .----Idt t 2 IT17 ; 18 ' 19 21 8517 —•[I 20'-' 4[.' 2r •; : 12 1 :18 21 .• 88 90 4\" :1 12 119 ;2 6 t!' I-. 8 -1!-- 95 -1r-- 41 _ 16 =111 • 1 41 96 4!.20 ' 1-EV.• ' 2 - •- ' '.t 100 I 15 11. MOEN21—1:'_16 !• 11.1I-14-.•I•- 21811T.t::,-4-22- 27:i.1[i!_ I:!. , f,-- • 11280023r j41 - 9 11 122--, 16'-_' +' +: L+'.' 200 6 12 13 MIMI24 ' .38 240 ! 8 Mil 1 24 i 26 1 28 : -!-•k•- 825Hr 11e-f-4.{[i,'--13-4i.':• _-_-i_L_.. 1,i - -it-1. l--2--4 32760.01°1-1i: '.1 34 !•26 F1 —,-+1i '! -;--t: - i 21 i 40'• • • 4-- 2 6 Ell -1I-- .322087 ' i L' I1 . ' 12 4' -- 11'- 1331 18 30 , MEIN 1-2-7- 1 9 11 14 20' ' ! 2 WIMINININ1 10111111111.11

Chapter 2: Handoperation— Operating element (survey) 2.2— Positioning of milling cutter 2.4— Traverse indication 2.7— Input of X, Y, Z values 2.8S\"Cwuitrcvheinntglesfese\"d motors 2.11

Traverse — Hand Operation Display MonitorAfter switching on the machine, the fi- The screen snows zero for X,Y,Z whengure 0 appears. Lamps X,Y or Z are on. you switch it cn. N G XYZ F D,‘.1 K © MIf you traverse in tX, the lamp X lights With the exception of rapid traverseup. When you take your finger from the the indication is shown continuouslykey, the traverse distance is shown in in steps of 0,5 mm.1/100 mm on the VDU. With a distance of2,45 the display indicates 245. XY -30 -340 250gN gGcoXoY.9Z)F00D,J IC M 245If you press the Z--key, the light jumpsto the Z-lamp. After you lift your fin-ger from the key , the traverse distanceappears (with 6,28 mm 628 will appear) g0N G XYZ F 0 © (o o 6) Doi K 628Minus sign on display N G XYZ F (000) © 0 D,J K LT M 628

Input of X, Y, Z Zero-Values from any chosen Milling Position The display shou.,,d indicate zero, in case the milling cutter stands at a given point (X=0, Y=0, Z=0). You can program the X,X,Z displays tc indicate zero. The milling cutter is at a distance of 22,1.5 mm to the workpiece edge in X. The display indicates whatever value. In case the milling cutter traverses in +X direction by 22,15 mm, then the display should indicate the value X=0. N G XYZ F Procedure: © (ID),J 0K 0) ©T 0 1. The lamp X on the display lights up INP 2215 2. Press INP - the lamp X flashes EEN23. Put in the value INP (no plus/2R minus sign, because the milling cut-. ter should. indicate with plus \"tra- verse direction 0\"). 4. Press key INP. The flashing of toe X--lamp stops. You can enter the Y,Z values in the . same way. When programming minus-values first put in the figures, then press key minus,

Application of Path Programmingin Hand Operation ModeZero point for the dimensionirg is the workpiece edge. The milling cutter shall move to this point. The displays shall be set zero,Procedure: 1. Scratch surface, set Z-display zero,2. Scratch surface in X-direction. Put in value of milling cutter radius r.3, Scratch surface in Y-direction. Put in value of milling cutter radius r.Note:You can traverse after scratching as youiike. If you program the zero-point, youhave to add to the X,X displa y the ra-dius value and put it in..Exercise:i. Program the display X,Y,Z=0 if the milling cutter is positioned onto the edge, Move the milling cutter to the indi- cated. position.

Switching Feed Motors \"Currentless\" When switching on the machine the feed motors are currentless. If you.have - in hand- or CNC-operation mode - moved the slides the feed motors stay under power. ON 0G CXUYZD F0 0 Switching currentless - with no program being stored K LT M 1.0.0 1. Switch to CNC-operation mode: Press50 r r /(1,C 641 0 H /C I key. . The light jumps to G. 300 INP H/C DEL M AOC REV tip FWD START 2. Press key inE3. Key . The rownher appears on the VDU. 4. Press keyilNPI. Now the feed motors are switched currentless. Switching currentless - with a program being stored ON 0G X0YZ F0 G64 is a pure switching function. It is D.J K LT M 64 not stored. 0 1, Press key so that G light gets on. H/C 2. When a number appears on the VDU, press DEL ti4 START EE3. Key in 4. Press keyra?. Now the feed motors are switched currentless.

Operating Elements Control Elements Hand Operation NUMERICALLY\" CONTROLLED-:.- 1. Main switch 3. Emergency stop button Turn key to the right. Machine and con- Control unit, feed motors and main mo- trol part are under power (except emer- tor are cut off from power by press- gency stop button is pressed). ing emergency stop button: turn button to the left - it will jump back to 2. Control lamp main switch orginal position. Main switch has to be switched on again. When main switch is on, lamp is on.'11

4. Switch for main .spindle 12. Control lamp for hand operation Turn switch to the right. 13.JH /CLswitch key: hand operation/CNC operation 5. Turning knob for speed control of main spindle If you press the(H/Clkey the light of the control lam p hand operation will 6. Ammeter jump to CNC operation (operation mode: CNC). Bypressing the key once again Shows power consumption of main spindle the . light will jump back (operation motor. In order to protect motor mode: nand operation). against overload, the power consumption should not surpass 2 A with 220-240 V 14. DEL key or 4 A with 100-110 V. The X,Y,Z values are set to zero. 7. Feed keys for longitudinal, cross and vertical slide 15. Thel-4. key 8. Rapid traverse key With thei lkey ycu can switch from X to Y to Z without movement of slides. If keys for feed and rapid traverse are pressed together, then the relative 16. The INP key slide will move with rapid traverse. speed. With the INPI key you enter the values for slide movements. 9. Turning knob for setting the feed rate 17. M-key10. Inch/metric switch and switch for Activates switching exits. changing the axis system11. Digital read-out for slide movement i X, t Y, ± Z are shown in 1/100 mm or 1/1000 inch. Plus movement without sign Minus movement by a light beam 125X -1,25 mm or -0.125 inch

• Hand Operation F1-CNC Positioning of the Milling Cutter 1. Scratching front sides and top side With milling most measuremen-zs refer :)uter edges. In order to use the measure- ments of the technical drawing you have tc, \"zero-set\" the display and use as re- ference/starting point the outer edges. Example Milling cutter with dia. to mm. Move milling cutter in Z-direction until you scratch surface slightly. Set. Z-display to zero (press key DEL), Scratch front side in X-direction.. - Set X-display to zero (press key DEL) XY 0 - Scratch. front side in Y-direction. Set Y-display to zero (press key DEL)

X=0/ Y=0 Zerasetting of Display to Zero Point of Dimensioning (Example: Milling) Example: Milling of groove - The groove is milled using a 3 mm cutter. - Zero point for the dimensioning is the workpiece edge and surface. - The. measures refer to the center of the milling cutter. Consequence Move axis of milling cutter to edge of workpiece. a) Scratching of all 3 surfaces and ze- ro-setting of X,Y,Z.N G XYZ F b) Move by value of milling cutter©CD(530)(DO radius into X-direction. Set X to \"zero\". D,J K T M 4001 DEL• G XYZ F CD D,J K T(DMO 0

c) Move mill, cutting by value of mill- ing cutter radius into Y-direction. Set display to \"zero\", N G XYZ F ©(p01;) © D,J K40T0M • DEL NO XYZ F D K TM Exercise Move milling cutter such that all dls- play values are at \"zero\". Exercise Mill a recess as in drawing. Enter the following values: Spindle sped 1 S (rpm) Feed mm/min Infeed in X (mm) Infeed. in Z (mm) ! Pay attention to set correct feed.A

Chapter 3 3,2 - 3.3CNC-Operation Survey 3.4 - 3.5 3.6— Operating and control elements 3.7— Preparatory functions, 3.9 miscellaneous-/Switching functions Artarm signs— Possible inputs— Operation CNC Operation magnetic tape 0 ra

uNu-uperauon tQurvey) Operating Elements Control Elements CNC-Operation1. Main switch with removable 'Key, Memo- 4. Optional switch .for axis system and ry is being cleared when switching for metric or inch mode of operation. off,2. Control lamp shows the power supply • of machine and control unit. Emergency stop button with interlock. Unlocking of button: turn button to the left. To switch on machine, turn main switch to zero and. to 1 again. When switching off also memory will be cleared.

CNC-Operation (Survey)5. Switch for main spindle 11. Keys for program input, correction, storing of program on tape, V24 operation etc. (see detailed expla- nations) Position 1 (main spindle ON, with- 11.1. Number keys 0 -1791 out M03) Position CNC: main spindle is I1.2..7-7 The minus sign key switched on by programming M03 and To enter minus values the minus switched off by M05, M06 (with F*0) sign E] has to be pressed after and M30. input of numbers. 6. Ammeter 11.3. INP1 key (INPUT = storing) Storing key 7. Magnetic tape 11.4.1DEL1 key (DELETE = erase) switch key Erasing key Manual/CNC operation 11.5.1FWD1 key (FORWARD) 9. Control lamp CNC operation Program jumps forward block by block10.1-HAW-IT-key The program is being worked off12. VDU (display)7 Indicates values for address letters and modes of operation13. Control lamp address letters14. Control of milling spindle speed 11 .6 . key (REVERSE) Program jumps backwards block by block 11.7. H.] Arrow•key Display jumps word by word 11.8, ld key: key for entering of mis- cellaneous functions.

CNC-Operation (Survey) Survey Preparatory Functions, G-CodesG 00 Rapid traverse 047 Add tool radius twice V: N3/G00/X±5/Y±4/Z±5 10/G47 H: N3/G00/X14P1±5/Zi5. Subtract tool radius twiceG 01 G48 Linear interpolation V N3/COI/X±5/Y-174/Z±5/F3 N3/G4S H: W3/G0i/X-1-4/Y:S/Zi-5/F3G 02 Circular interpolation clockwise G64 Feed motors without current.GO-3 (switching function) Circular interpolation counterclockwise Quadrants: Y: m.3iG02/ X--',/Y-14/Z±5iF3 GO.' G65 Magnetic tape operation (switching function) N3/M)9/J2/K2 (Partial circles) 1■13/G65004 Dwell 0 66 Activating RS 232 Interface N3/G04 1\15/G6;::G21 Empty block. N3/G21 •072 Pocket milling cycle•025 ' Sub-routine program call V: N3/GT2/Xf5/Y14/Z:F3 143/G25/1_,;17 ) 3 H: N3/G72/X1t41YI5G27 Jump instruction 74 Thread-cutting cycle 143/G27/L (F) (left-hand) N3/G74/10/Z/F3(;414) Tool radius compensation cancelled N3/G40 081 Fixed boring cycleG45 Add tool radius N3/G61/Z15/F3 NJ/G45. 082 Fixed boring c y cle with dwell N3/G82/Z-3/F3G46 Subtract tool radius G83 Fixed boring cycle with chip NJ/G46 removal N3/G83/2/F3

G 84 Thread-cutting cycle CNC-Operation (Survey)G85 N3/064/1(3/7,-5/F3 Ggm Incremental value programming N3/091 Fixed reaming cycle N3/G85/Z-S/F3 92 Offset of reference V: N3/G92/X5/Y24/Zf5G89 Fixed reaming cycle with dwell H: N3/092/X14/Y1-5/Z-5 N3/G89/Z15/F3 V = Vertical.G90 Absolute value programming H = Horizontal N3/090 Miscellaneous or Switching Functions MOO - Dwell N3/M00 M03 - Milling spindle ON, clockwise N3/M03 M05 - Milling spindle OFF N3/M05 M06 - Tool offset, milling cutter radius input N3/M06/D5/S4/Z± 5/T3 M17 - Return to main program N3/M17 M08 M09 M20 Switching exits M21 N3/M2 M22 M23 M26 - Switching exit - impulse N3/M26/H3 M.30 - Program end N3/M30 M99 - Parameters circular interpolation (in connection with G02/03) N3/M99/J3/K3

Alarm Signs A00: Wrong G/M code A1: Wrong radius / M99 A2: Wrong Z-value A3: Wrong F-value A4: Wrong Z-value A5: M30 code missing A6: M03 code missing A7: No significance A8: Tape end with cassette operation SAVE A9: Program not found A101 Writing protection All: Loading mistake Al2: Checking mistake A13: Inch/ run switching with full pro- gram memory A14: Wrong mill head position/path in• crement with LOAD /M or---H/M A15: Wrong Y-value A16: Value of milling cutter radius missing A17: Wrong sub-routine A18: Path milling cutter compensation smaller zero3.6

CNC-Operation (Survey) Possible inputs (Otherwise alarm signs) Metric Unit (mm) Inch Unit (inch) Values Values 1/100 mmXv 0-19999 1/100 mm 0-7999 1/1000\" 0-9999 1/100 mm 0-3999 . 1/1000\"XR 0-9999 1/100 mm 0-3999 0-19999 1/100 mm 0-7999 1/1000\"YV 0-19999 1/100 mm 0-7999 1/1000\"YR 0-9999 0-3999 1/1000\" 1/100 mm 1/1000'ZVH 0-9999 mm/min 0-3999 2-499 2-199 1/1000\"Radii 1 1/10\"/min 0-499D(X) milling cutter 0-221 0-199 1radius with MO6 0-999 0-90FT(F) tool addressM06L(F) jump instruc-tionsH(F) exit signs M26J/K circular para-meter Adresses N, G, X, Y, Z, F, D, J, K, L, M, T, S, H

CNC-Operation (Survey) Operation CNCLINPI Storing of word contents[DEL Deleting of word contentsFWD.] Forward in program block by blockGREVI Backward in program block by blockHI1, 1 Forward in block word by wordlM Input of M-functions Program hold: Operation — Magnetic tape1INP FWD] Program interruption Storing of program on tapeLINP RE vj Delete program G65 Fiicril -- FWD Put in programLDELi+ INP ] number — I INPj First DEL; then INPirL-D-7ELIremains pressed. Transmit program from tape to memory Delete alarm G65INP Select program INP1 REV! number --b. iINP1 Insert block Delete tape contents ry fi IINP G65 Delete block 1+ +DEId Single block modeT 3 etc. +1STARTI Testrun: 1M

Chapter 4CNC-BasicsCNC-lathe - The control 4.1CNC-machine - Main elements 4.2 - 4.3What happens in CNC-manufacture 4.4 - 4.7Differences in manufacture using a 4.8 - 4.9handoperated or a CNC-machineThis you are going to learn 4.11What is programming 4.13 - 4.15The coding standards 4.17 - 4.19Program structure 4.21 - 4.23GOO/G01 4.25Description of path lengths for slide movements 4.27The CNC-program (structure) 4.29The address words of the program 4.31 - 4.33sheet F1-CNCStandardization of axis systems 4.35 - 4.41for CNC-machinesConcept of programming - 4.43Methods of programmingDimensions of drawings 4.45The modes of programming 4.47G90/G91 4.49 4.51

Determining the coordinates for 4.53 - 4.55dprogramming in absolute modeinformation to the control concerning 4.57the workpiece zero-pointFixing the origin of the coordinates on the 4.59F1-CNC (workpiece zero-point)Fixing the zero-point of coordinates withG92 - Programmed offset ofreference point 4.61 - 4.69Various workpiece zero-points 4.71 - 4.73in one programMixed programming 4.75 - 4.77Connection: G92 - Zero-point offset/ 4.79M06 - Tool lengths compensationSome tips for procedure 4.81 - 4.83The M-functions 4.85 4.87Description of block formats 4.89Types of controls of CNC machine tools 4.91 - 4.97Programming - Geometry 4,99 - 4.143

CNC-LatheThe Control What ist a CNC-lathe? - A machine which we feed with figures and letters = DATA INPUT - A. machine which \"understands\" the data which processes it and calculates. = DATA PROCESSING - A machine which passes on this calcu- lated data in form of instructions, = EXECUTION - A machine which follows the instruc- tionMeanings in daily useTne meanings change quite often in Today NC-machines comprise all typestheir daily use. NC-machines were origi- CNC, ANC or AC types.nally machines with numerical control,but no microprocessor. Today such ma-chines are obsolete. The program wasread in directly from the perforatedtape.

CNC-machine — Main elementsData Input CNC-Machine — Main Elements Digital read-out Central processing unit = Microprocessor (Director) Output e ement (press speaker)Operating program =EPROMS (Specialists) Output element Amplifier (foreman) Interface (Chief operator)

What happens in CNC-Manufacture ,Data input 3. specialist ---4■Director: \"Yes, o.k.\" IData processing / Data storing] 4. Director ----opMempry: Data outputj \"Please give me the data!\" In the computer nothing happens without 5. Memory –lb-Director: the director. There is a strict X,Y slides have to be moved in ratio hierarchy. 1 : 4. What happens if you press the key START? 6. Director calculates and gives data to chief operator. With the aid of 1. Secretary 1.Director: the watch he also determines the ope- rating speed (when threading he \"They pressed START!\" waits for the main spindle position). Director asks memory: 7. Chief op erator ----III-Foreman: Move X slide with feed size F1 and \"Did they put in program end M30?\" Y slide with feed size F2. If yes, the program can start. 8. Director ----Ili-Press speaker: \"The block is finished. We work on the 2. Director ----ipSpecialists: next. Let them know!\" We want to machine a groove in a certain angle.4.4

What happens in CNC-manufacture?Data Input What happens in CNC-Manufacture? Digital read-out VI El a fll MI Central processing unit = Microprocessor (Director)Interface element Output element(secretary) (press speaker) 1r1n11e.: ria 46.4r4k. er (r)Operating program = -1;;;:0V0..\"00EPROMS (Specialists) Memory = RAMCNC-Machine utput element

What happens in CNC-ManufactureWhat happens in CNC-ManufactureWhat knowledge is necessary in order to manu-facture, using a hand operated or a CNC lathe?Hand operated machine NC-machine

CNC machine - handoperated machine Differences in Manufacture using a hand operated or a CN(SCu-rMvaecyh) ine Hand operated machine Necessary information Technical. drawing Necessary means Lathe Chucking devices V Tools Necessary knowledge/Capabilities (to execute operation; Reading 3f technical drawings Knowledge tocl. geometry

CNC machine - handoperated machineDifferences in manufacture, using a hand operatedor a CNC-machine - continuedand operated machine NC-machine Technological information + Cutting speed depending on - material of workpiece - tool (HSS, carbide tipped) type of operation + Feed rate + Cutting depth * Performance and. dimensions of machine ExecutionOperator must know how Writing the NC-programto control the machine • a . -. • i •! • .: J. . 4... Remarks ,1-_-- 1. J.2: j -1-- + _,__ F.---1.- — — -•- •• ____A I- - --,-• I !1 --J. . • -. iE-...---ri - -• ±- • - ,.i___ ! 1.1 1 .., .._ -It- -I■--.- + Input of NC-program + Preparing the machine + Execution

This you are going to learn A rough surveySet up a CNC-program Enter all informations into program sheet.Rules how to write these datd haveto be learned.Put in programYou have to put in the informationinto the control. The control storesthe information. You have to followcertain rules. VGive instruction to manufactureThe control works with the informa-tion entered - it calculates andgives instructions to the machinetool. Check result Correct program Improve (optimize) program. 411

Programming What is Programming?Prog ramming means to feed the computerwith such data which it understands.In other words, we have to \"spoon-feed'the computer, List the data in orderlysequence and in a Language which is fa-mi;_iar to the computer, which it under-stands, so that it can process the in-formation.The operator does not understand the The CNC-machine does not understand theChinese commands, because he does not human language.speak this language.We have to feed the CNC-machine withdata in a language it will understand.This language is \"encoded\".

Do you already know programming? It you have operated a machine tool you automatically carried out the right movements. Your brain gave instruction to your hands to operate the switches and :,e- vers in the correct sequence. This lob was automized to a large ex- tent. When programming you have to wrice down all instructions.The instructions and informationsmust be- in a systematic sequence- complete- and accurate.They are given to the CNC-machine ina coded form. 4.15

CodingThe Coding StandardsThe program structure for numericallycontrolled machine tools:The program structure for numerically con-trolled machine tools:How to code informations and instructionsis defined by standards. The standards are: - Program structure for numerically con- trolled machine tools. - According to DIN 66o25 (German Indus- trial Standards) - According to'ISO 1056 (International Standard), new edition ISO 6983.HOVE LONGITUDINAL SLIDE 410mIn TO THE LEFT 200nint/min 111111111111•0 F2011 411111111.1116N.— /601 /x+40The coding rules must be learned by youso that you can write the program forthe manufacture.

CodingThe Coding of informations and Instructions (Criteria) One cculd build a computer . which coder- stands instructlons Ln normal. language. This would bring about qu to some dis- advantaces:Language information :Criteria • Demands for -todingMove the longitudinal slide 1 It would be necessary to - Language neutral- main spindle being switched build -a computer foron - with a civen feed a each language (or evendistance of 25 mm at an angle for each sLang) The long instructions Simple coding are complicated and Clear expression vague. :3 The language is practice - Practice-oriented oriented. This should also be true for CNC-in- structions. 4 The code should be ap- - Universally applicable plicable to many diffe- rent machine types. When setting up standards for the program structure of CNC-machines the aim of the many experts was to create codes for in- struction which should be - as short as possible - simple - language neutral - practice-oriented - applicable to all machines.

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