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Home Explore INARA: An A-B-C Book about Science, Technology and Society

INARA: An A-B-C Book about Science, Technology and Society

Published by rosales.zoee, 2020-12-11 08:31:16

Description: INARA is a book created by the students of Far Eastern University under the program BS Medical Technology. In this book, the readers shall navigate through the learnings of the students on Science, Technology and Society. Ranging from A to Z, these learnings are well-equipped with research, articles and images to guide the readers as they unravel the world of Science and Technology in the Philippine setting.

Keywords: Inara,Science and Technology,Philippine setting,STS


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Mod0ul1e Justice 10 Yuval Harari 25 Mod0ul2e Capital Goods 3 Kilogram 11 Globalization Industrialization 7 Manufacturing Plants 9 Tapang 13 Unemployment Rate 20 Zeal of Truth 21 26 Mod0ul3e Holistic Development 8 Letter of Intent 12 Xenophobia 24

Anthropogenic Influence 1 0Mo4dule Environmental Issues 5 Natural Hazards 14 Overpopulation 15 Quarrying 17 Risk Reduction 18 Sagad na ang Sagada 19 Branded Medicine 052 Module Drug Pricing Food Modification 4 Pharmacology 6 Value of Democracy 16 Women Empowerment 22 23

Kyrelle B. Lopez is currently a first year Medical Technology student in Far Eastern University-Manila. She was an academic scholar during her junior and senior year of high school in SGES and FEU SHS Manila. She was a student leader and the President of the Student Government S.Y 2017-2018 in her previous school. She is fond of reading any books related to Science and Medicine. Kyrelle Lopez Ma. Excella R. Tabije is an 18-year-old from Far Eastern University - Manila and currently taking up Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology. She graduated Junior High School in College of San Benildo - Rizal as With Honors and was awarded one of the “Most Outstanding Thesis Writers” of their Batch. She is also enthusiastic about leading and volunteering with different organizations and a fun fact about her is that she likes composing songs, poems, and playing guitar. Excella Tabije Charmaine T. Ramos is an 18-year-old and currently taking up first year of Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology at Far Easter University, Manila. She was an officer of a Sports Organization in St. Paul School and graduated as an overall Achiever in Junior High School. She was also a basketball player in the University of the East, Caloocan during Senior High School and won as third place. She is an ambitious person who has developed a mature and responsible approach at any task. Charmaine Ramos

Audrey Julienne Mendoza is an eighteen-year-old first year student at Far Eastern University-Manila, with a college course of Medical Technology. She studied at De La Salle Lipa during her elementary, junior high school and senior high school years. She graduated from De La Salle Lipa as With Honors. Other than this, her hobbies are playing piano, singing, baking and watching movies and series. Audrey Mendoza Zoephia Ann D. Rosales is an 18-year-old college freshman from the Far Eastern University undertaking the course of BS Medical Technology. She graduated at De La Salle Lipa during her Junior and Senior High School while obtaining an academic placement in the Top 10 of her batch. She was awarded With High Honors and Best in Bookkeeping for the A.Y. 2019-2020. Most of the time, she finds herself reading articles on trending issues in the country and speaking her thoughts on social media sites. She loves writing, reading, editing and arts. She is the editor and layout artist of this book. Zoephia Rosales

DECEMBER 2020 1 A Module 4: Biodiversity and Climate Change nthropogenic Influence Anthropogenic means relating to, or, resulting from the influence of human beings on nature (Merriam Webster Dictionary). According to Renato Constantino, climate change is caused by anthropogenic influence or the influence of humans. As we all know, climate change is the defining issue of our time and we are at a defining moment. From shifting weather patterns that threaten food production, to rising sea levels that increase catastrophic flooding, the impacts of climate change are global in scope and unprecedented in scale. Without our drastic action, adapting to such climate impacts in the future will be more difficult and costly. Climate Change (n.d.) Retrieved November 24, 2020, from change/#:~:text=Climate%20Change%20is%20the%20defining,scope%20and%20unprecedented%20in%20scale.

DECEMBER 2020 2 Module 5: Influence of Science and Technology on Social, Political and Economic BIssues randed Medicine A branded medicine is the original product that has been developed by a pharmaceutical company (Health Engine, 2009). From what we have tackled on module 5, branded medicine companies develop new medicine where their product must undergo and pass rigorous tests and evaluations to ensure that it is both effective in curing the condition it claims to treat and safe for human use. For this reason, branded medicines are the most well known and most trusted type of medicine. However, there are other drug companies which contain the same active ingredient but use different names and may contain different inactive ingredients (ingredients that give the product its taste, shape texture, smell, et cetera, but which do not affect the body to relieve health conditions) compared with their branded counterparts. However, we should not substitute the brand of medication we are taking especially when it is prescribed by a doctor. Pharmaceutical Guide to Drugs Courier Service, 2020. Retrieved from drugs-courier-services/

DECEMBER 2020 3 C Module 2: apital Goods Science and Technology in Nation Building According to Investopedia, capital goods are physical assets that a company uses in the production process to manufacture products and services that consumers will later use. Capital goods include buildings, machinery, equipment, vehicles, and tools. Dr. Giovanni Tapang states that under development means that we can do a lot with what we have and by improving what we have but the problem is we are very far from that position. One reason the Philippines has a backward, preindustrial, agrarian economy is the absence of its own basic industries. Our country will be able to wisely use its natural resources to provide basic needs and sufficient services to its people only when genuine and sustained economic growth and independence become feasible. Inquirer.Net (2016). Industrialization a Must in Achieving Economic Growth and Independence. Retrieved November 24, 2020, from ttps:// economic-growth-independence

DECEMBER 2020 D4 rug Pricing Module 5: Influence of Science and Technology on Social, Political and Economic Issues There are essentially no regulations governing how drugs are priced. Instead, pharmaceutical companies select a price based on a drug’s estimated value, which typically translates into what they “believe the market will bear,” said Dr. Aaron Kesselheim, an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. Like what we have tackled on module 5, drug companies are thwarting competition through a number of tactics which results in higher prices. Eliminating these tactics will not be easy. In the Philippine setting, various legislations have been forwarded to make drug prices more affordable to the public through the Universal Health Care Law. Indeed, it is valuable to prioritize the welfare of our fellowmen by ensuring that their needs are met primarily on health and wellness. Entis (2019).Why Does Medicine Cost So Much? Here's How Drug Prices Are Set. Retrieved November 24, 2020, from medicine/#:~:text=There%20are%20essentially%20no%20regulations,medicine%20at%20Harvard%20Medical%20School.

DECEMBER 2020 5 Environmental Issues Module 4: Biodiversity and Climate Change Environmental issues are the harmful effects of human activities on the environment. These include pollution, over-population, waste disposal, climate change, global warming, greenhouse effect, and more (Byjus, n.d.). Our environment must be relatively easy for one to comprehend its importance in the famed cycle of life. From what Renato Constantino had discussed on module 4, our environment is constantly changing, and as our environment changes so does the need to become increasingly aware of the environmental issues that are causing these changes. With a massive increase in natural disasters, warming and cooling periods, and different types of weather patterns, we need to be a lot more cautious with the way they lead our lives in conjunction with the types of environmental issues our planet is facing. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, fom

DECEMBER 2020 6 Module 5: Influence of Science and Technology on F Social, Political and Economic Issues ood Modification According to Plumer (2015), food modification is food produced from plants or animals whose DNA has been altered through genetic engineering. These are often called genetic modified food or GM food for short. It is stated in module 5 that genetic modified food are aimed at the short-and long-lasting health problems that may result from the advanced biotechnology. The process to create GM food is different from natural food, opponents argue that genetically modified crops can lead to things like the increased use of chemical herbicides or cite problems with the fact that GMOs are owned and patented by large companies. The immediate advantages are too tangible to ignore, we should not set aside our fear on the unintended and unknown disadvantages. Dangers of Genetically Modified Food, 2018. Retrieved from modified-foods-gmo-foods/

G DECEMBER 2020 lobalization 7 Module 2: Science and Technology in Nation Building Globalization encapsulates the linkages between the international community in hopes of bringing a developed world together. In this sense, Science and Technology plays a crucial role in driving globalization because advancements in the field of industries allow nations to pursue more economic opportunities, mutual agreements and communication technologies; hence alleviating the barriers to nation building. With this, the Philippines, as a nation, can be a part of the global domain that is able to specialize and develop in a wide-array of fields and sectors. This further proves the relevance of technological assets as integral components of innovation that are able to solve societal issues in the aspect of agriculture, health and environment. As what Dr. Tapang had mentioned, applying science in human living conditions will advance research and development in the country that is globally competitive and relevant in the 21st century. Peterson Institute for International Economics. (2018, October 29). What is Globalization?. Retrieved from

DECEMBER 2020 Module 3: 8 The relevance of Science and Technology to Society Holistic Development A holistic community is one that can educate its citizens, particularly the youth towards disaster-risk reduction and management, considering the vulnerability of the Philippine archipelago to natural calamities. With the technical knowledge on disaster preparedness such as first aids response, early warning system plans, and contingency maps, safer communities are created for the children and citizens (World Vision, 2020). Through the solidarity of the community stakeholders from the DRRM to the citizens, the emphasis on holistic development is strengthened and achieved. In this setting, science and technology has been essential in building partnerships and initiatives to a disaster-ready community. These vision are transformed into action as several forecasting and surveillance systems for calamities have been modernized in pursuit of reducing disaster risks amid stronger typhoons. Indeed, integrating technology in disaster readiness will protect the welfare of the citizens and maximize the value of its resources. World Vision. (2020). Child-focused disaster risk reduction. Retrieved from

I DECEMBER 2020 ndustrialization 9 Module 2: Science and Technology in Nation Building Aside from strengthening industries in a national level, industrialization also encompasses pursuing relevant legislations for its development. In this sense, authorities must support its cause through proper allocation of funds partnered with policies that will force the country’s self-sufficiency in building capital goods. An example of which is through value-adding of goods manufactured in the Philippines. Knowing that Philippines has a steady source of steel, value-adding to these products equates to producing new processes to make steel in the country and generate greater profits as they are exported. This shall only be plausible when there are sufficient resources to transform such raw materials into higher value-added products. Redazione. (2014). Philippine steel industry keeps on goind. Retrieved from

DECEMBER 2020 Module 1: 10 Scientific Revolutions that defined Society J ustice The rise of the scientific revolution centuries ago had brought the concept of justice into existence. Justice, by definition, promotes a just society by challenging injustices and valuing diversity (Hageyt, 2016). As humans gained an unprecedented power through science and technology, a question unfolds on whether the usage of such power is justifiable to our society. An example of which is the invention of nuclear weapons that threatened the survival of mankind. If harm is to be inflicted in any way possible, then the concept of justice and human rights are violated. Hence, there must be a synergy between the application of science and the continuity of justice in the society. In the absence of the other, peace, development and sustainability of the world would not be possible. Ulmi, N. (2017). How justice and science are looking for the truth. Retrieved from https://www.horizons-

Module 2: DECEMBER 2020 Science and Technology in 11 Nation Building K ilogram Based on the documentary entitled Cocolungkot: Apat na Dekadang Walang Bunga, a coconut farmer earns an average of Php 3.00 per coconut, or approximately Php 27.00 per kilogram. Annually, a coconut farmer earns only Php 20,000, apart from their ideal earnings of 80,000 pesos. These precarious working conditions prove the lack of priority given to coconut farmers to advance their livelihood and the insufficient funds allocated to support them. What’s ironic is that, although the farmers provide the raw materials for production, they receive the least compensation from it. Because of this, the agriculture sector is unable to mobilize and flourish with the farmers bearing the costs of corrupted policies and funds. Indeed, we must heed the call of the farmers in bringing justice to their livelihood and sustaining their capacity to innovate. Only until state policies are effectively implemented will the farmers finally access a fair and equitable society that ensures their security, growth and development. Tan, C. (2015). Cracking the coconut: 4 ways to improve financial security for smallholder farmers. Retrieved from smallholder-farmers-86320

DECEMBER 2020 12 Module 3: The relevance of Science and Technology Lto Society etter of Intent A letter of intent (LOI) is a document declaring the preliminary commitment of one party to do business with another (Bloomenthal, 2020). Just like what we did in module 3, Letter of Intent is very vital especially for students like us. By this simple yet formal letter, students can share and express their thoughts through this. By simply writing a letter, we can send our insights for the betterment of our country. Through this, we can make a change not just for ourselves but to the whole nation. Stidham, T. (2018, March 07). What is a Letter of Intent and Why Do You Need One? Retrieved November 24, 2020, from -intent-and-why-do-you-need-one

DECEMBER 2020 13 Manufacturing Plants Module 2: Science and Technology in Nation Building A manufacturing plant consists of one or more buildings with facilities for manufacturing or a factory where manufactured parts are assembled into a finished product (, n.d.). As for Dr. Tapang’s discussion, the Philippines is lacking its own manufacturing plants. What we do here in our country is we just assemble the imported parts and just finish the work as a whole. Filipinos are overly dependent and just tend to import products from other countries instead of building our own plants. Because of this reason, the professionals here in our country tend to go overseas since there are no/limited job opportunities for them and by this, the Philippines is experiencing brain drain. The Entire Manufacturing Process Explained. (n.d.). How are Smartphones Made? Retrieved November 24, 2020, from

DECEMBER 2020 14 Natural Hazards Module 4: Biodiversity and Climate Change Natural hazards are naturally occurring physical phenomena caused either by rapid or slow onset events which can be geophysical (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis and volcanic activity), hydrological (avalanches and floods), climatological (extreme temperatures, drought and wildfires), meteorological (cyclones and storms/wave surges) or biological (disease epidemics and insect/animal plagues) (, 2019). Since we are living in a tropical country, we are exposed to many natural phenomena just like what is mentioned above. These said natural phenomena often lead to natural hazards and disasters. Since natural hazards are and Filipinos are known by our resiliency, we can handle any natural phenomena that connects to natural hazards. Natural disasters (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from hazard

O DECEMBER 2020 15 Module 4: Biodiversity and Climate Change verpopulation Overpopulation means the condition of being populated with an excessively large number (Oxford Dictionary, n.d.). As we have tackled in module 4, overpopulation causes a lot of unfortunate events or happenings. One example is the loss of biodiversity and environmental pollution. Overpopulation also means a lot of pollutants that lead to a lot of garbage that is unhealthy for the environment and biodiversity protection. Because of this, every life in this world is affected, and we are also putting ourselves at risk. The Cost of Overpopulation Around the World. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from overpopulation-around-world-090000594.html?guccounter=1

DECEMBER 2020 16 P harmacology Module 5: Influence of Science and Technology on Social, Political and Economic Issues According to Merriam Webster’s Dictionary, pharmacology is the science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use, and toxicology and the properties and reactions of drugs especially with relation to their therapeutic value. It was discussed in module 5 that there are 2 types of medicine sold around the world, which is branded and generic. Branded medicine tends to be a lot expensive compared to generic ones. But come to think of it, what is the difference between these two? Does the quality change as the prices increase? In reality, most of us do not know that we are just being deceived by these labels. In real life, they just contain the same components, and the effect is just the same. Queens University. (n.d.). Introductory Pharmacology. Retrieved from

Q DECEMBER 2020 17 uarrying Module 4: Biodiversity and Climate Change Quarrying is the process of removing rock, sand, gravel or other minerals from the ground. The substances extracted from this activity are used to produce construction materials utilized widely in the building and manufacturing industry. On the other hand, activities like these can greatly affect our environment. This can leave pits and heaps of waste material and can also contaminate air and water with sulfur dioxide. In short, this puts the wildlife and local populations at high risk. From this condition, we should be aware that mineral resources are finite and need to be conserved to prevent depletion. This is essentially relevant to the Philippine setting as there is a need to protect our ecological resources from total destruction. Cunningham, W.P., & Cunningham, A. (n.d.). Environmental Science: A Global Concern. New York: McGraw-Hill International Edition. Retrieved from magazines/mining-and-quarrying-impacts

DECEMBER 2020 18 Module 4: Biodiversity and Climate RChange isk Reduction Risk Reduction is a response strategy for reducing the impact of risks or the chances of it occurring. As what we have learned in Dr. Lagmay’s lecture on Risk Reduction, in order for our country to establish a stabilized economy and gain sustainable development, we should address disaster risk reduction and combat climate change. By means of this, science and technology plays a big role because it will supplement elements that will help in order to reduce risks from natural hazards. It intends to prepare us for what is coming or possible hazards in the future. Moreover, in reducing risk reduction, the state and citizens should help one another by having proper communication. Williams. C. (2018). Risk Reduction – A Response Strategy for Decreasing the Impact of Potential Risk Events. Retrieved November 24, 2020 from

DECEMBER 2020 19 S agad na ang Sagada Module 4: Biodiversity and Climate Change Sagad na ang Sagadada is a documentary video made by the students of St. Scholastica’s College of Manila. It addressed the different problems of Sagada due to the sudden influx of tourists. Locals who are residing are concerned about how the treasured culture and traditions of the place are slowly changing due to mass tourism. Despite the growing number of tourists that could help their economy, there are still negative effects that may actually harm not just the community, but also the environment. The video aims to spread awareness on the protection and preservation of Sagada’s nature and culture and promotes responsible tourism. Wordpress (2018). Save Sagada Now . Retrieved from

DECEMBER 2020 T20 apang Module 2: Science and Technology in Nation Building Dr. Giovanni Tapang is a professor of Physics at the National Institute of Physics and chairperson of the people’s organization AGHAM – Advocates of Science and Technology for the People. In one of the public intellectual lecture series, Dr. Tapang discussed in the video that the Philippines has no genuine development in terms of the Science and Technology sector. He mentioned that our country is just importing and assembling products from other countries which makes us too dependent on their economy. He also addressed that electronics is the biggest export of our country. But unfortunately, the Philippines has still no program for rural industrialization and agricultural modernization despite being an agricultural country and large quantity of natural resources. In relation to this, our country is currently experiencing lack of professionals or known as brain drain. FEU Academics (Sept 2020). FEU Public Intellectual Lecture Series. Retrieved from

DECEMBER 2020 21 Unemployment Rate Module 2: Science and Technology in Nation Building Unemployment rate is the percentage of unemployed workers. It is usually expected to rise when the economy of one’s country is in poor shape and jobs are scarce. Today, as we are in the middle of a pandemic, the unemployment rate in the Philippines is continuing to grow. It has been mentioned by Dr. Tapang that one of the factors why developed countries continue to monopolize developing countries, such as the Philippines, is because of unemployment. Since many of the Filipinos are desperately looking for jobs, they will get the job offered by these foreign countries, who are on the other hand, are also taking advantage of the opportunity to exploit us for cheap labor. Aside from it, the concept of contractualization also brought out the large number of unemployed people in the country. iMoney (2019) Employment Rate Up, Unemployment Rate Steady. Retrieved from

DECEMBER 2020 Module 5: 22 Influence of Science and Technology on Social, Political and Economic Issues V alue of Democracy The value of democracy in a democratic country is relevant in maintaining the jurisdiction of the government as well as its people. According to the Government (n.d.), “the government seeks to act in the best interests of its citizens through this system of check and balance. In the Republic of the Philippines, the government must serve the people and is defined according to “of the people, for the people.” The value of democracy is always the objective in attaining justice. Democracy consists of the government listening to people’s needs and wants in order to attain and provide betterment in life. Without valuing democracy, an unstoppable number of rising instances of injustices will continually arise in different forms; hence, devaluing the lives of the people. Benign0. (2015, June 19). #Democracy in the #Philippines is more about big names and less about big IDEAS Retrieved from

DECEMBER 2020 23 Module 5: Influence of Science and Technology on WSocial, Political and Economic Issues omen Empowerment Women empowerment is strengthening women’s rights and ending the injustices experienced by women. In attaining equality for all, women empowerment is significant to equalize with men’s power while ending gender roles. “The majority of women still work in informal jobs, under poor working conditions and without earning a living wage” (Hivos, n.d.). In module 5, Science and Technology has relevance in addressing the social issue of stigma among women. Many Filipino women are still deprived of their rights for the reason of being a woman. This is why through science and technology advocacy movements for women such as feminism movement are significantly rising for women abuse, sexual harassment, rape, and such cases are still profound in today’s time in the Philippines and throughout the world. Prabhu, U.K. (2020, January 4). Mindset Needs to Change for Women’s Empowerment. Retrieved from

DECEMBER 2020 Module 3: 24 The relevance of Science and Technology to Society X enophobia According to Merriam-Webster (n.d.), xenophobia is a “fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is strange or foreign.” In today’s time, the pandemic circulates around the globe leading to an increase of CoVid-19 cases. Because of CoVid-19, there are people resorting to xenophobia, which neglects the value of humanity. Xenophobia is a term that supports the term ‘prejudice.’ For instance, the survivors of CoVid-19 are being hated due to their health history. This, in turn, counters the relevance of unity; thus, dissociating people in having a collaborative milieu. Moreover, science and technology provides opportunities to equalize the vision of society for other people such as the requirement of swab testing for those CoVid-suspected people. Witchtropolis. (n.d.). COVID-19: your voices against stigma and discrimination. Retrieved from

DECEMBER 2020 25 Y Module 1: uval Harari Scientific Revolutions that defined Society Yuval Noah Harari played a significant role in the provision of knowledge through a book called A Brief History of Humankind Sapiens. The book magnified the course of scientific revolutions that until now identifies the society. Within the pages of the book, it can be derived that people continually discover different things and potential discoveries that are not yet discovered by any mind of the people. Through the creativity of people in history, developments have been relevant in helping in creating and improving the things that can be helpful for the collective and overall development of Science and Technology. Also, Harari strengthened the causes and effects of history that will continually define the past, present and future generations. Harari, Y.N. A Brief History of Humankind Sapiens. Retrieved from

DECEMBER 2020 Module 2: 26 Science and Technology in Nation Building Z eal for Truth Filipino citizens, due to injustices they experience, protest for their objective of perceiving the truth. Different kinds of movement such as the movement for Filipino farmers, are deprived of justice that articulates the truth. With the goal of truth, having the zeal for truth drives people to fight for what they are due. In which, this is the way they collect for prime transparency. More often than not, the Philippine government officials abuse their own power for themselves for reasons such as obtaining a luxurious life. This abuse of power undermines the value of “of the people, for the people,” which neglects the need for the people to be heard; thus, the abused citizens collect through intensifying the zeal for truth. Damani, A. (2019, January 30). When can Something be Called the Truth?. Retrieved from

Science and Technology encapsulates the core essence of our everyday life. Aside from providing futuristic vision to our thoughts and actions, it contributes to promoting every facet of our lives. Science and Technology revolutionized not only the way we think but also remodeled our lives. Its intention is to lead us to a comfortable life, compelling us to walk on the path of progress, which is not possible without the help of science and technology. In addition, Science and Technology play a pivotal role in progress and development since its mobility is dependent upon the people who shall move it forward. As a university student, learning Science and Technology is indeed beneficial in many ways, not just for ourselves but for each and everyone of us, generally. One example is that we are having access to awareness of what is really happening in our country in terms of advancement and development of Science and Technology in the Philippines. In line with this, we, as university students, have the power to share our knowledge to everyone and we can also make a change even though we are just a student. We can use our voices to enlighten everyone and help us make the aspect of Science and Technology grow as well. Also, it is profoundly important to focus on what a university student needs in contributing to the growth of oneself and others; thus, focusing on giving solutions to one’s needs will provide significance in propagating developments. Through these learnings, we have uncovered the interaction of science and technology with society. With the scientific tools present, we are now prepared to face phenomenal difficulties and challenges of the present time. Nowadays, it is important for us to invigorate smart actions not just for social and environmental awareness but also for responsible public behavior.

Barnier, B. (2020). Unemployment Rate. Retrieved from Bartolone, 2016. California Drug Price Measure Piercely Opposed by Pharmaceutical Industry. Retrieved from opposed-by- pharmaceutical-industry/amp/ Bloomenthal, A. (2020, August 28). All About Letters of Intent (LOIs). Retrieved December 07, 2020, from Climate Change (n.d.) Retrieved November 24, 2020, from depth/climatechange/#:~:text=Climate%20Change%20is%20the%20defining,scope%20and%20un precedented%20in%20scale. Government. (n.d.). The Philippine Government. Retrieved from government Health Engine (2009). Generic Medicines and Branded Medicines. Retrieved November 24, 2020, from medicines#:~:text=A%20branded%20medicine%20is%20the,and%20safe%20for%20human%20use. Hageyt. (2016). Science and Social Justice. Retrieved from https://www3.beacon- Hivos. (n.d.). Women Unlimited. Retrieved from Investopedia. (n.d.). Capital goods, Retrieved from Manufacturing plant - definition of manufacturing plant by ... (n.d.). Retrieved December 7, 2020, from Merriam Webster (n.d.). Anthropogenic. Retrieved November 24,2020, https://www.merriam- Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Xenophobia vs. Racism. Retrieved from https://www.merriam- Overpopulation. (n.d.). Retrieved December 07, 2020, from Pharmacology. (n.d.). Retrieved December 07, 2020, from https://www.merriam- Plumer (2015). What is Genetically Modified Food?. Retrieved November 24, 2020, from Sacay, M. C. (2018). The STS Mindset. Retrieved from Types of disasters: Definition of hazard. (n.d.). Retrieved December 07, 2020, from do/disaster-management/about-disasters/definition-of-hazard/

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