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Home Explore YEAR 3 Ancient History Module Handbook 2018-19

YEAR 3 Ancient History Module Handbook 2018-19

Published by j.gammon, 2018-03-07 13:55:39

Description: YEAR 3 Ancient History Module Handbook 2018-19


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Encounter the Ancient World from Rome to Alexandria to JerusalemUniversity of Southampton Ancient History Year 3 Module Choices 2018-19

ContentsHow to Select Modules…………………………………………………………………………….……..3Staff Contact Details…………………….………………………………………………………………….6Semester One15 Credit ModulesARCH3028 – Living with the Romans……………………….………………………………..……7ARCH3039 – More than Pyramids and Pharaohs? Ancient Egypt in Context…...9ARCH3045 – The Archaeology and Anthropology of Adornment………………..….10FILM3018 – Framing the Past……………………………..…………………………………………1130 Credit ModulesHIST3170 – Rome and Jerusalem Special Subject Pt 1…………………………....….…12HIST3186 – Bible and History…………………………………………………………………………14HIST3199 – Being Roman: Society and the Individual Special Subject Pt 1……..16HIST3230 – Ethics of War…………………………………………………………………….………..18HIST3236 – Ethiopia Special Subject Pt 1 ……………..……………………………………….20Semester Two15 Credit ModulesARCH3043 – Later Anglo-Saxon England…………………………………..…………………..22PHIL3053 – Islamic Philosophy………………………..…………………………………………….2430 Credit Modules 1

HIST3167 – Rome and Jerusalem Special Subject Pt 2……….…………….……….……25HIST3200 - Being Roman Special Subject Pt 2…………………………..……………………27HIST3237 - Ethiopia Special Subject Pt 2……………………………………………………..…29HIST3210 - Ancient History Dissertation (comp for SH)…………….……………………31The information contained in this Module Choices Handbook is correct at the time it waspublished. Typically, around a quarter of optional modules do not run due to low interest orunanticipated changes in staff availability. If we do have insufficient numbers of students interestedin an optional module, this may not be offered. If an optional module will not be running, we willadvise you as soon as possible and help you choose an alternative module.” Please see the university’s official disclaimer: 2

IntroductionBe bold! Here at Southampton you are part of an incredibly dynamic community of scholars, whosebroad expertise and varied interests are reflected in the original and thought-provoking modules onoffer. Take the time to explore what is on offer by reading the overviews, considering the lists ofcontent and enjoying the sample sources and commentaries provided. Do not be put off by thingswhich you may not yet have heard of, or have not studied before. Getting the most out of your timeat university means seizing the opportunity to broaden your horizons and challenge yourselfintellectually, and that is exactly what this varied curriculum offers you. Just as the staff in Humanitiesare pushing the boundaries of historical knowledge and understanding, so should you be on both anacademic and a personal level. I wish you all the best for the upcoming year, and hope this booklethelps you make the most of the diverse options available to you. Professor Sarah Pearce Ancient History Programmes Coordinator How to Select Your ModulesIn order to qualify for your degree, you need to take 120 credits during the academic year, that is, 60credits in each semester. Other arrangements apply for part-time students, and sometimes forstudents whose studies have been affected by other circumstances in some way. The credits attachedto each module are stated in each description below.The final year is an opportunity to develop your specialism in ancient history, and most of the year’swork will be given over to modules that you have selected. The options on offer to you are explainedin the rest of the brochure, and come in two varieties: some are worth 15 credits and some are worth30 credits. In addition, some final year modules have ‘pre-requisites’ which means that you can onlytake ‘Part 2’ in semester 2 if you have taken the related ‘Part 1’ in the first semester. These modulesare known as History Special Subjects and allow you to spend a considerable amount of time focusingintensively on a historical topic.All the modules described in this brochure are relevant to ancient historians in terms of content andmethod. You will find that some of them have different codes (e.g. ARCH, HIST, HUMA) but this is notmeaningful; modules involve staff from more than one department, and so can be classified in slightlydifferent ways. Differences in module codes do not indicate anything important about the module inquestion; if the modules are in this brochure, they are relevant to you as ancient historians. Do notethat some modules in the final year focus on the reception of ancient ideas; whether on film, or textsand ethics or in the development of countries over time. We hope that you will find the opportunityto explore how ancient foundations have directly contributed to more recent times an exciting one.Also, bear in mind that the options listed here are not all of those available to you – the focus is onmodules that are most relevant to your degree programme. For example, all archaeology modules areopen to you should you wish to take them, and you may take up to 25% of your modules in any yearin another subject area or areas entirely. As the opportunity to choose modules outside of thishandbook won’t be open to you until Online Option Choice opens on 23rd April we would encourageyou at this stage to sign up for your full 120 credits from what is contained here and then we can easilymove you onto ‘free elective’ modules. 3

NB You may not take a module that you have taken before. You are allowed to ‘backtrack’ a maximumof 30 credits per year to modules from the previous year of study if you wish but this will be dependentupon space (year 2 students will have priority for year 2 modules). You will not be able to sign up forany year 2 modules until the Ancient History Choices process is complete so we would encourage youto choose your full credits in final year modules at this stage.If you require further information on any module you can email the module convenor directly orcontact Dr Fraser Sturt as Director of Programmes in Archaeology ([email protected]), Dr JulieGammon as Director of Programmes in History ([email protected]), or Professor Sarah Pearceas the Ancient History Programmes Coordinator ([email protected]). For Single-Honours Ancient History StudentsYou need to take 60 credits in each semester. You can choose 2 x 30 credit modules in or 1 x 30 creditand 2 x 15 credit modules in semester 1. You can only take 1 Special Subject module during the year(HIST3170/HIST3199/HIST3236). In semester 2 you can choose to take the part 2 of the Special Subjectthat you signed up for part 1 for in semester 1, or you can take 2 x 15 credit modules.In semester 2, the Ancient History Dissertation (HIST3210) (see p.31) is compulsory for all single-honours ancient history students. The dissertation is worth 30 credits, and so makes up half thecredits for semester 2.You therefore need to take 60 credits of options in semester 1 and 30 credits in semester 2. For Joint-Honours StudentsYour degree is designed so that half should be in ancient history and half should be in your othersubject. You have to write a dissertation but can choose whether to write one in Ancient History oryour other discipline. This decision will impact upon which other options you can take.If you choose to do your dissertation in Ancient History (HIST3210) this will take up 30 credits insemester 2. Therefore in semester one you need to choose 30 credits from the list of modules, thiscan be either 1 x 30 credit module or 2 x 15 credit modules in Ancient History. You can take Part 1 ofone of the History special subjects without taking Part 2.If you choose to do your dissertation in your other discipline then you will need to select 30 creditsof Ancient History in each of semester 1 and semester 2. You need to select either one 30-credit optionor two 15-credit options in ancient history in each semester. If you want to take part 2 of a HistorySpecial Subject (HIST3170/67; HIST3199/3200; HIST3236/37) in semester 2 you must have taken thePart 1 of the same subject in semester 1 as this is a pre-requisite. Please see the Choices meetingpowerpoint slides for grids outlining the different combined honours degrees and their requirements. ChoicesThe Humanities Student Office will be emailing you a form that you need to complete to indicate yourpreferences for Ancient History modules. You will be asked to identify a range of your preferredmodules for each semester (you should pick 3 x the number of credits that you will be studying in thatsemester) and to rank them in order of preference. Your modules will be allocated at the same timeas other History students and we will endeavour to provide the best fit for all students. In making your 4

selections, we encourage you to think broadly across the range of modules offered and how whatinterests you have developed in your previous years may be found in a range of different types ofmodules. If you express a preference to take both parts of a special subject we will ensure that youare able to be allocated to them both.You should send your completed Choices form to the Humanities Student Office([email protected]) by 12.00 on Monday 19th March. The allocation will not take place until thistime so there is no advantage in returning the form quickly, we encourage to read through the materialthoroughly and think carefully about your decisions. If we do not receive your completed form youwill be allocated to modules where spaces remain. 5

Staff Contact DetailsLecturer Modules Office EmailDr Annelies Cazemier 2047 [email protected] Julie Gammon 2069 [email protected] [email protected] Alison Gascoigne 65a/3029Prof David Hinton [email protected] Dan Levene ARCH3043 1001 [email protected] HIST3236/37 1049 [email protected] Sarah Pearce 65a/3027 [email protected] Louise Revell HIST3170/67 2051 [email protected] HIST3199/200 [email protected] Alan Ross [email protected] Joanna Sofaer 65a/2231 [email protected] Helen Spurling [email protected] Andrew Stephenson 2047Dr Lena Wahlgren-SmithDr Michael Williams PHIL3053 1043 1057 FILM3018 1075 6

Year 3 Semester 1 (15 credits) ARCH3028 – Living with the Romans: Urbanism in the Roman Empire (tbc) Model of the City of Rome (courtesy of the Museo della Civiltà Romana)Module Overview“The ancient world was a world of cities” – while not unproblematic, this phrase, famously coinedby Sir Moses Finley (1977), reflects fascination of modern scholarship with the classical urbanboom. Such fascination is easy to understand: Roman cities were more numerous, populous andbigger than any of their predecessors and will remain unrivalled for centuries to come. In the 1stcentury AD Italy had around 500 cities, Rome’s estimated population reached 1 million (to beachieved again only 18 centuries later by London), and the surface area of two public buildings ina modestly-sized city of Pompeii equalled that of the walled area of smaller medieval towns.This module introduces you to towns from across Roman world between the 3rd century BC andthe 6th century AD. Although many may seem and feel like modern towns, they actually workedin quite different ways, a reflection of the fact that ancient Roman society was distinct to our own.You will learn of the very different ways in which the Romans thought about towns and how theywere organized. In particular, you will be introduced to the vibrant political and commercial lifeof towns in the Roman towns and province, and venture out into the countryside surrounding thetowns, and learn something of their links to villages, farms and villas, as well to Rome itself. Youwill also discover why there were very marked differences between towns in different parts ofthe Mediterranean, north-western Europe, north Africa and the Middle East. Furthermore, thiscourse will introduce you to some breath-taking archaeological sites and provide you with afascinating glimpse into a key part of our European cultural heritage.Indicative Lecture list  Urbanism before Rome  The City of Rome  Towns in Italy/ Africa and Iberia/ the East/ NW Provinces  Roman Architecture  Urban Art and Inscriptions  Public Space in Roman Towns  Domestic Space in Roman Towns  Towns in Late AntiquityAssessment 7

Assessment Method % Contribution to Final MarkIndividual presentations write-up 1000 words (summative)Group project presentations 30 mins (summative) 301 x exam (105 mins) 20 50Sample SourcesThis module is specifically interdisciplinary, so students will encounter diverse sources such asthe following:Historical: ‘The harbors had communication with each other, and a common entrance from thesea seventy feet wide, which could be closed with iron chains. The first port was for merchantvessels, and here were collected all kinds of ships' tackle. Within the second port was an islandwhich, together with the port itself, was enclosed by high embankments. These embankmentswere full of shipyards which had capacity for 220 vessels. Above them were magazines for theirtackle and furniture. Two Ionic columns stood in front of each dock, giving the appearance of acontinuous portico to both the harbor and the island. On the island was built the admiral's house,from which the trumpeter gave signals, the herald delivered orders, and the admiral himselfoverlooked everything. The island lay near the entrance to the harbor and rose to a considerableheight, so that the admiral could observe what was going on at sea, while those who wereapproaching by water could not get any clear view of what took place within. Not even theincoming merchants could see the docks, for a double wall enclosed them, and there were gatesby which merchant ships could pass from the first port to the city without traversing thedockyards. Such was the appearance of Carthage at that time..’ Appian’s description of the harbour of Carthage (Punic Wars, 14. 96).Iconographic: Relief fragment of Ara Pietatis (altar), showing the frontage of the temple of the Mars Ultor; the relief provides only surviving evidence of the pediment sculpture groupArchaeological: Excavated remains of the Roman colony of Timgad, Algeria. 8

Year 3 Semester 1 (15 credits)ARCH3039 – More than Pyramids and Pharaohs? Ancient Egypt (Dr Sonia Zakrzewski)Module OverviewThe module provides an introduction to the history and archaeology of ancient Egypt. The moduleprovides a broad sweep of Egyptian history from the Predynastic through to later periods. It introducesaspects of death, burial and commemoration, compares and contrasts these topics through thedifferent Egyptian time periods, and places them into broader social view. Specific focus is placedupon Abydos and Amarna and their relative importance in the history of Egypt. Comparisons are alsomade between the Egyptological records developed from historical texts and papyri with those derivedfrom other branches of archaeology. In addition, the module locates ancient Egypt within the widerworld – both in terms of the present day and the past, but also in relation to neighbouring geographicareas. The impact and representation of ancient Egypt on the modern world is also considered interms of Egyptianising of architecture, Egyptomania and museum development.Indicative Seminar topics  Egyptian history  Abydos and the earliest Pharaohs  Power and the person  Amarna and the New Kingdom.  Building the city.  Art & Imagery  Funerary space & funerary landscapes  Living with the Dead.  Medicine and Health.  The Egyptian life course, identity and ethnicity.  Egypt & the wider world  Representing Egypt AssessmentAssessment Method Contribution to overall grade 40%2 page handout 60%Educational Resource (Groupwork 50%)and accompanying documentation(Individual 50%) 9

Year 3 Semester 1 (15 credits)ARCH3045 – The Archaeology and Anthropology of Adornment (Dr Jo Sofaer)Module OverviewThe impulse to adorn the body is as old as human history. This module explores theextraordinary variety of ways in which people have adorned their bodies in a range ofarchaeological and anthropological contexts, from body painting and tattooing, to the elaborateYemenite costume and silver jewellery of the Arabian Peninsula. Teaching and learning willdraw on a series of case studies from across the globe in order to explore key themes in thearchaeology and anthropology of adornment including the role of the body in display, the socialrole of ornamentation and dress, and technologies and materials of transformation andadornment. In addition, students will participate in a museum field trip and practical sessionsduring which they will plan and design an object to ornament a body. These activities willfacilitate students’ theoretical and practical understandings of the relationship between thebody and the material culture of adornment.Indicative Seminar Topics- A range of social theory approaches used to understand the archaeology and anthropology ofthe body- The role of the body as a surface for display and ways in which the relationship between thebody and material culture may be played out- The social role of adornment, particularly in relation to the construction and communication ofsocial categories, including age (life-stage), gender, ethnicity, and status- Technologies and equipment associated with bodily transformation and adornment- The range of materials, techniques, and forms of material culture used to adorn the body indifferent cultural contextsAssessmentAssessment Method Contribution to overall gradeOrnament Design (2000 words) 50%Case study Essay (2000 words) 50% 10

Year 3, Semester 1 (15 credits)FILM 3018 – Framing the Past: Stardom, History and Heritage in the Cinema (Dr Michael Williams)This module explores cinema’s relationship to the past, whether distant, as in that of ancient Greece,Rome or Egypt, or from a more recent history. Its primary focus is on the use of stars in film’snegotiation of past and present, and how these idols of twentieth century modernity drew onconstructions of fame, celebrity and cultural and political authority that go back at least to the ruleof Alexander the Great. In exploring these issues through case studies selected from the silent era,classical Hollywood, European cinema and from contemporary cinema, film and its stars are placedwithin the wider cultural and artistic context to examine how and why a particular engagement withthe past was undertaken at a particular historical moment. Issues of nostalgia – a sometimes painfullonging for, as well as idealisation of, the past – and memory will be key throughout, and how shiftsin technology, from the influence of photography and sculpture on films of the 1920s, to the digitalrealms of CGI and 3D that develop new ways of bringing the past, and its ideals, to ‘life’ in themanner of the Greek myth of Pygmalion.We will draw from writing by critics including Leo Braudy and Richard Dyer on the history of fameand stardom, as well as work by film scholars and historians such as Maria Wyke, Marcia Landy, PamCook and David Lowenthal on the use and representation of the past in cinema and other media.Films screened may include The Lodger (Alfred Hitchcock, 1926), Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (FredNiblo, 1925), One Touch of Venus (William A. Seiter, 1948), Journey to Italy (Roberto Rossellini,1954), Cleopatra (Joseph L. Mankiewicz, 1963), Maurice (James Ivory, 1987), Titanic (JamesCameron, 1997), Elizabeth (Shekhar Kapur, 1998), Gladiator (Ridley Scott, 2000), Alexander (OliverStone, 2004), 300 (Zack Snyder, 2007) and Hugo (Martin Scorsese, 2011). You will produce your ownreadings of a wide range of films and genres, and develop your understanding of how the filmsengage their audiences in a fascinating relationship to the past and a long history of culturalrepresentation.AssessmentAssessment Type % Contribution of overall gradeBlog posts (2000 words) 50%Essay (2500 words) 50% 11

Year 3 Semester 1, Special Subject (30 credits) HIST 3170 Rome and Jerusalem (Part 1): from Pompey to Nero (Professor Sarah Pearce)Module OverviewThe spread of Roman power in the Middle East, Rome’s civil wars and the fall of the RomanRepublic, Roman conquests of Syria and Egypt, and the foundation of the Roman Empire: theseare the contexts for some of the fundamental developments of the first centuries BC/AD, includingevents that profoundly shaped the future of east and west. This course examines Roman policyand action towards Judea and the Palestinian region, from the conquest of Jerusalem underPompey the Great (63 BC), to Rome’s creation of a client kingdom under Herod the Great -- oneof the best attested of all Romans -- , to the imposition of direct Roman rule in Judea under Romanprefects and procurators, culminating in the outbreak of the First Judean/Jewish War againstRome in 66 AD. Why Judea? In Judea, we have the rare opportunity to explore part of the Romanworld from the perspective of its subjects, thanks to the survival of a remarkably rich andabundant body of contemporary evidence from and about Judea. Most remarkable of all ourwitnesses is Flavius Josephus, historian of the times, Judean patriot, rebel commander of Judeanrevolt against Rome (66-67 AD), prisoner of Rome (67-69 AD), and, finally, advocate forsubmission to Roman rule. Writing under the patronage of Flavian emperors who built theirauthority for seizing command of the Roman Empire on the basis of their extinction of Judeanrevolt (66-74 AD), Josephus’s histories represent the viewpoint of the conquered, with a fierceappetite for survival: his own and that of his people. His history of Judea and its path to revolt ‘isthe kind of text that ancient historians...would die for’ (Mary Beard 2002).Indicative list of seminar topics  Rome in the Holy of Holies: Pompey’s conquest of Jerusalem.  Syria between Parthia and Rome.  A king made in Rome: the rule of Herod the Great.  Religion and politics in Judaea (Essenes, Pharisees, priests, Dead Sea Scrolls, messianic movements).  ‘Under Tiberius all was quiet’ (Tacitus, Histories 5.9): Judaea under Pontius Pilate.  On the verge of a nation’s breakdown: Caligula’s war on the Jerusalem Temple.  Agrippa I: last king of Judaea.  Enemies of Rome and Nero’s procurators: the path to revolt in Judaea. 12

Assessment Method % contribution to Final Mark 1 x essay (4000 words) 50 1 x gobbet exercise 50Sample SourceA ‘Judea Capta’ coin of the Emperor Vespasian (69-79 AD): bronze sestertius of 71 ADThe minting of ‘Judea Capta’ coins (71-79 AD) marked the first phase of the new emperorVespasian’s propaganda campaign, celebrating the ‘capture’ of Judea from Judean rebels. In 66,the emperor Nero appointed Vespasian commander of the forces to suppress revolt in Judea; by68, Nero was dead, and in 69 Vespasian was declared emperor. Of equestrian family, Vespasian(Titus Flavius Vespasianus) was an unlikely candidate for emperor. The victory in Judea servedto emphasise his role as defender of the Roman Empire and why he and his sons (Titus andDomitian) should lead it. On its obverse, the coin shows a life-like Vespasian, marked by theeffects of age (62 in 71 AD when, as the coin states, he was consul for the third time); his Latintitles declare his status as ‘Emperor’ (‘Imperator’) and ‘Father of the Nation’ (‘Pater Patriae’); hissupreme power, as emperor, is symbolised by the laurel wreath. On the reverse, the Latin slogan‘Judea Capta’ (‘Judea is captured’) accompanies images of a date-palm, symbol of Judea and itsrich resources, flanked by a male prisoner (?), hands bound, together with an image of Judea inmourning, pictured as a woman; shields, helmet and spears lie on the ground. The message isclear: rebellion is over; the rebels are vanquished and humiliated. In the first decade followingthe fall of Jerusalem, ‘Judea Capta’ coins were issued in Rome and throughout the Roman Empire.This bronze sestertius was issued for Rome, where Josephus was writing his seven-volumehistory of the Judean War under Vespasian’s patronage. The year of issue, 71 AD, a year after thefall of Jerusalem, saw the celebration of Vespasian’s victory with a massive triumph in Rome(described in unparalleled detail by Josephus), and the building of more permanent monumentsto his family’s victory over the Judean enemy (the Temple of Peace and the FlavianAmphitheatre/Colosseum); but, as Josephus’s history insists in its final stages, the rebels whoheld the Dead Sea fortress of Masada would hold out for several more years. Judea was notcompletely ‘captured’. 13

Year 3 Semester 1 (30 credits) HIST3187 – The Bible and HistoryModule OverviewWhat is the Bible and how important has it been throughout history? ‘The Bible and History'explores the role, significance and impact of the Bible in different historical contexts over time.This module begins by introducing you to the Bible itself and then explores how it has beenunderstood and used to support different arguments or positions at key, often controversial,moments in history. We examine a selection of case studies from the ancient, medieval, earlymodern and modern world from the ‘clash’ between cultures in the Roman world to slavery andemancipation in nineteenth century America. The module introduces you to the use andreception of the Bible in different historical contexts, and invites you to assess and debate therelevance of the Bible throughout history and for today's society.Indicative List of Seminar TopicsThe module begins with introductory sessions on concepts and approaches, followed by specificcase studies (which may vary from year to year). Typical examples include: Sovereignty and imperialism Kingship Marriage and adultery Civil War 14

 Darwinism % Contribution to Final Slavery Mark Women’s rights 50Assessment 50 Assessment Method 1 x essay (4,000 words) 1 x 2-hour examSample source‘The first appearance of slavery in the Bible is the wonderful prediction of the patriarch Noah:“Cursed be Canaan, a servant of servants shall he be to his brethren. Blessed be the Lord God ofShem, and Canaan shall be his servant. God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tentsof Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant.” (Gen. 9:25) […] The Almighty, foreseeing this totaldegradation of the race, ordained them to servitude or slavery under the descendants of Shemand Japheth, doubtless because he judged it to be their fittest condition. And all history proveshow accurately the prediction has been accomplished even to the present day.’ John Henry Hopkins, Scriptural, Ecclesiastical and Historical View of Slavery (1864), 7The Bible has been used throughout history to support different perspectives and claims. JohnHenry Hopkins was the bishop of Vermont in nineteenth century America, and he wrote thispamphlet during the course of the American Civil War to support the continuation of slavery.Hopkins did not always agree that the actions of slave owners were appropriate, but he wouldnot argue against the validity of the institution of slavery as it was endorsed by divinely inspiredScripture. This source highlights the importance of the Bible in debates about slavery in thenineteenth century, and the divisive nature of opposing interpretations of the Bible forAmerican society. 15

Year 3 Semester 1, Special Subject (30 credits) HIST3199 – Being Roman: Society and the Individual in Rome and Italy, Part 1 (Dr Louise Revell)Module OverviewWhat was it to be a Roman, and how did the individual fit into the various social groups withinRome and Italy? Questions of identity and identity formation have formed a key part of Romanstudies within the last three decades, whether answered from textual sources, iconography ormaterial evidence. In particular, nineteenth and early twentieth century assumptions (andprejudices) about the normative experience of the elite male have been questioned, and the ideaof the woman, the poor and the child all been found wanting. In this module you will have theopportunity to look at the evidence with a new perspective, and engage with debates whichquestion whether the Romans really were just like us.Part one of the module will focus on the social history of Rome and Roman Italy betweenc.200BC and AD250. Through the detailed examination of a variety of primary sources,including historical narratives, legal codes, love poetry, iconography and houses, we willinvestigate the ways in which identities were constructed and maintained. We will focus onboth everyday activities, but also the ideals and discourses involved. We will begin byconsidering the definition of identity, and the question of whether it differed in the past, beforemoving on to consider three key aspects of personal identity: status/rank, gender and age. 16

Through a series of specific case-studies, we will consider a variety of factors, ranging fromsocial regulations through laws to family attitudes from epitaphs.Indicative List of Seminar Topics  Political activity: the magistrate and the citizen  Working identities in Rome and Pompeii  Slaves and freedmen  Houses and households  Gender ideals: the law of the family  Gender and the body  Gender and the other in art and literature  Infants and children  Adults and the elderlyAssessment % Contribution to Final Mark Assessment Method 40 40 1 x essay (3,000-words) 20 1 x essay (3,000-words) 1 x gobbets exerciseSample Source‘Here is buried Amymone, [wife] of Marcus, best and most beautiful, a worker-in-wool, devoted,modest, frugal, chaste, a stay-at-home.’ CIL 6.11602, RomeThis is an epitaph set up to a deceased woman, Amymone, by her husband, Marcus. It is typicalof the epitaphs of the non-elite both in Rome and in Italy, both in terms of its brevity and itscontent. It ties into the wider tradition of celebrating the moral worth of an individual in death.These values varied according to the gender and age of the deceased, and here we see thosetypically ascribed to a married woman (a matrona). She is described as devoted, presumably toher husband and any family, and she as a chaste woman, that she was not sexually promiscuous.We also see her praised for her ability in keeping a house, through her frugality, and her textilework. This last skill ties into a frequent theme in the iconography of women, when they aredepicted with a wool-working basket. More unusual is the praise for her appearance (mostbeautiful), which was not included within the praiseworthy attributes of a Roman woman. 17

Year 3 Semester 1 (30 credits) HIST3230 – The Ethics of WarModule overviewWars have been fought throughout the history of humanity. Ethical concerns that they raised, or,in other words, the rights and wrongs of waging war, have been discussed from time immemorial.War has often been seen as an evil, a necessary evil, to be avoided when possible. On the otherhand, there have always been circumstances in which the resort to war and violence was acceptedor justified, and even, in particular instances, praised or celebrated. The ‘if’ and ‘why’ a war canbe fought are at the heart of the ethics of war and the so-called ‘just war theory’. However, thelegitimacy of a war is not the only concern according to modern International Humanitarian Laws(IHL), according to which a just war has to be fought in a just way. The IHL rules over the conductof war, defining the rights and status of both combatants and non-combatants alike.Historians often see a fundamental rupture between pre- and post- Geneva Conventions,rebuffing the legacy of the past. Yet the past may help to understand why the Conventions are notalways successfully upheld in the modern world. This module will take a wide historicalperspective on the ethics of war, looking at ancient, medieval and modern interpretations of whyand how wars should be fought. By no means, however, will our reflection remain purelytheoretical. In order to understand the context and evolution of the establishment of the normsor rules of war (and the societies that make them), it is fundamentally necessary to observe theirhistorical applications: why and how wars were fought is at least as important as why and howwars should be fought.Indicative List of Seminar Topics 18

 What are the ethics of war? The concept of just war in the Roman world The concept of just war in the Hundred Years War The status of men-at-arms and prisoners of war in the Hundred Years War America’s War on Terror as a just war The status of violent, non-state actors in America’s War on TerrorAssessment Assessment Method % Contribution to Final Mark1 x essay (4,000 words) 501 x 2-hour exam 50Sample source‘Then, too, in the case of a state in its external relations, the rights of war must be strictly observed.For since there are two ways of settling a dispute: first by discussion; second, by physical force;and since the former is characteristic of man, the latter of the brute, we must resort to force onlyin case we may not avail ourselves of discussion. The only excuse, therefore, for going to war isthat we may live in peace unharmed; and when the victory is won, we should spare those whohave not been blood-thirsty and barbarous in their warfare.’ Cicero, De Officiis, Book I.11Questions of ethics in warfare are ancient and have endured until today’s world. Cicero was aRoman philosopher who wrote a number of treatises and speeches in the first century BCE duringthe civil wars that would eventually mark the end of the Roman Republic. Cicero was concernedwith moral behaviour and famously wrote about conduct in warfare. In this extract, we can seethe beginning of a discussion about when it is appropriate to go to war, a question which hascontinued to be of fundamental importance to humanity. Cicero argues that war is onlyappropriate when discussion has failed or is not possible, and that the purpose of war should beto ensure peace. This source highlights the importance of the ethics of war even within the ancientworld, and it is significant for thinking about the development and legacy of concepts of just warthroughout history. 19

Year 3 Semester 1 Special Subject (30 credits) HIST3236– Ethiopia: The East African Empire up to the 18th century, Part 1 (Professor Dan Levene) Amda Seyon I, 1314-1344. Church of Debra Berhan Selassie, Gondar, Ethiopia.Never colonised, Ethiopia stands alone in the African continent as a world player. From its risein the 1st century as the Kingdom of Axum, and its adoption of Christianity as a state religion inthe 4th, it emerged as an independent empire that held its own in regard to the Roman andPersian Empires in Late Antiquity, resisted Islam as its neighbours succumbed one by one in theMedieval period, and kept Western imperial designs at bay. It developed a unique culture thatwas informed by its ethnic and religious diversity, its impenetrable mountainous terrain and itsstrategic setting - between Africa and Asia and a buffer between the north-eastern and south-eastern parts of Africa.In this module we will consider a wide chronological scope through the prism of a number ofthemes, including its unique forms of Christianity, Islam, Judaism and other indigenous faiths,international relations, and internal dynamics. These will be assessed in regards to botharchaeological remains and written sources. The ancient stone monoliths of Axum, the medievalrock-hewn churches of Lallibela, and the palaces of the early-modern Gondarine kings will serveas illustrations of times of grandeur. The literary history, the roots of which can be traced to theemergence of the Ethiopic script in the 4th century CE, will provide the chronicles of kings, livesof saints, foundational origin myths and more. External materials such as the Futah Al-Habasha 20

will tell of the overrunning of Ethiopia by the Muslim Ahmad Grañ in the first half of the 16thcentury, whereas the writings of travellers like the 18th century James Bruce will offer westernperspectives.Indicative List of Seminar Topics Origins – The Early state and the arrival of Christianity in the first century. The Empire of Axum – The spread of Christianity, and an Empire amongst Empires. Medieval Ethiopia – The flourishing of a dynasty and an indigenous culture. Muslim Ethiopia. Ethiopia and the West – A tale of diplomacy, mission and segregation.Assessment Assessment Method % Contribution to Final Mark1 x essay (4,000 words) 501 x gobbet exercise 50Sample Source‘The king of Ethiopia, Amda Tseyon, learnt that the prince of the unbelievers had revoltedagainst him and treated him with contempt. Like the devil who formerly wished to competewith his Creator and make himself the equal of the Almighty the prince of the unbelievers, whowas called Sabr ad-Din, held up his head with pride and defied his lord Amda Tseyon. He said: ‘Iwish to be the king of all Ethiopia; I will rule the Christians, according to my law and I willdestroy their churches”. [Pankhurst, R., The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles, 1967, pp. 13-15]This extract is from the Chronicle of Amda Tseyon (1314-1344). One of the first kings of therenewed Solomonic dynasty, his military success was such that he expanded the territory underhis rule to dominate the horn of Africa. This extract offers some account of the threats theEthiopian Orthodox Christian regime faced from the Muslim countries that came to completelydominate the region. While Amda Tseyon was successful in pushing the Muslim forces from thecoastal regions the threat continued to loom large. Indeed, in the 16th century, between 1529-1543, Muslim forces rose again to dominate the country. Ethiopia is home to a multi-religiouspopulation which is an aspect of its history that has informed its identity at every stage of itsexistence. 21

Year 3 Semester 2 (15 credits)ARCH3043 – Later Anglo-Saxon England (Prof David Hinton) The Alfred Jewel: Ashmolean Museum, OxfordModule overviewBetween c.800 and c. 1100, England developed from a proliferation of small kingdoms into a singlenation-state. The ninth century was dominated by viking raids and settlements (note the lower case‘v’–there was never a single region or tribal group involved), and the defence of Wessex by KingAlfred. His successors pushed north in the tenth century, creating a kingdom that stretched in effectfrom Hadrian’s Wall to Cornwall. Renewed Viking raids destabilized this, but control was establishedby Cnut, eventually to be won by William the Conqueror. Consequently this three hundred years sawchanges perhaps more extreme than any since the withdrawal of the Roman legions in the fifthcentury, or any that were to come afterwards up to the present day.Indicative list of seminar topicsthe documents known as the ‘Burghal Hidage’ and the forts listedthe ‘Battle of Maldon’ poemArchaeological objects: from gold to clayDomesday Bookreligion: Christianity, churches and patronageAssessmentAssessment method %contribution to final mark 22

Two 800 word source commentaries 25% eachOne 1500 word essay 50%Sample sourcesThe module is interdisciplinary, using both archaeological and historical sources. The former includessuch physical evidence as defences, houses, rings and pots, the latter the ‘Life’ of King Alfred theGreat, poetry, the Anglo Saxon Chronicles, charters and Domesday Book.Together, the sources combine in the study of economics, trade, political development, settlementsand agriculture. The period saw the development of a network and hierarchy of towns and coin-producing mints, a renaissance in culture and a change to a land-holding, ‘feudal’ society. Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire, the early eleventh-century chapel, drawn by Graham Excell. Probably built to house the relics of King Edward the Martyr soon after A.D. 1000, it exemplifies howdocumentary evidence, in this case primarily a charter written for Shaftesbury Abbey, combines with The physical evidence of the surviving structure to show the wealth of England, the importance of religion, and the threat presented by the viking wars. 23

Year 3 Semester 2 (15 credits) PHIL3053 Islamic Philosophy (Andrew Stephenson)Module OverviewThere is a rich and often overlooked tradition of Islamic philosophy, or 'falsafa'. This module focuseson the classical period of the Islamic Golden Age, from Al-Kindi, via Ibn Sina (also known asAvicenna), to Ibn Rushd (also known as Averroes). The classical Islamic tradition played a central rolein transmitting and transforming philosophical thought from the Ancient Greeks to the EarlyModerns. Many distinctions familiar from the Early Modern tradition and not clearly present inAncient Greek philosophy first started to take shape during this period, and Islamic philosophersmade important contributions to topics such as the relation between the mind and the body, thedistinction between essence and existence, arguments for the existence of God and concerningGod’s nature, the metaphysical modalities of possibility, contingency, and necessity, and the natureof logic, science, religion, ethics, and philosophy itself.The aim of this module is to introduce some of the central views and arguments of classical Islamicphilosophy and to explore and critically assess them in light of recent philosophical commentary.Indicative List of Seminar Topics- Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Al-Gazali, Ibn Rushd (Averroes)- essence and existence- possibility and necessity- arguments for the existence of God and the divine attributes- the nature of philosophyAssessment Assessment Method % Contribution to Final Mark 50Essay (1500 words) 50Exam (1.5 hours) 24

Year 3 Semester 2, Special Subject (30 credits)HIST 3167 Rome and Jerusalem (Part 2): from Nero to Hadrian (Professor Sarah Pearce)Module overviewBuilding on Part 1, this module focuses on the period of Judean revolts against the RomanEmpire: from the outbreak of war against Rome (66 AD) to the fall of the rebel-held fortress ofMasada (73/74 AD); revolts under Trajan (115-117 AD); the Bar Kokhba Revolt (132-135 AD)and its devastating aftermath and legacy. In addition to the histories of Josephus, which take usto the year 75 AD, contemporary documents and coins from Judea bear witness to the actionsand aspirations of those who resisted Roman rule in Judea under the emperors Nero andVespasian (as well as a very brief period of three successive emperors between them), and,under Hadrian, in the Bar Kokhba Revolt.Some areas for study can be negotiated with the students of the seminar, responding to theirparticular interests.Indicative list of seminar topics  The ‘luckiest traitor ever’? Flavius Josephus as rebel, patriot, friend of emperors, and historian of revolt.  Judean revolt against Rome under Nero and Vespasian (66-73/4 AD).  Destruction of Jerusalem (70 AD).  Revolts under Trajan (Egypt, Cyrene, Mesopotamia, Judea).  Emperor Hadrian in Judea.  Aelia Capitolina: a Roman colony on the ruins of Jerusalem.  The Bar Kokhba Revolt (132-135 AD).  The extinction of Judea and the creation of ‘Syria Palestine’.  Roman antisemitism.  Reconstruction, survival, legacy. 25

Assessment Method % contribution to Final Mark 1 x 4,000 word essay 50 1 x 3 hour exam 50Sample source‘Very few of them in fact survived. Fifty of their most important outposts and nine hundred andeighty-five of their most famous villages were razed to the ground. Five hundred and eightythousand men were slain in the various raids and battles, and the number of those that perishedby famine, disease and fire was past finding out…Many Romans, moreover, perished in this war.Therefore Hadrian in writing to the senate did not employ the opening phrase commonlyaffected by the emperors, “If you and your children are in health, it is well; I and the legions arein health”’. (Cassius Dio, Roman History 69.14.1-3).The Roman History of Cassius Dio (c. 164-after 229 AD), preserved in the later epitome of themonk Xiphilinus, provides the main ancient account of the Bar Kokhba revolt under Hadrian(132-134 AD). In his conclusion, Dio emphasises the exceptional loss of life suffered by bothsides, testimony to the fierce determination of both rebels and Emperor. Massive Roman forcewas brought to bear in this uprising, with devastating consequences. Why did Hadrian invest soheavily in the suppression of revolt in a relatively small part of the edge of empire? Why inJudea did such a busy emperor pursue the total annihilation of the enemy and its people?Excavations of Judean villages suggest that not one survived the total destruction of the period.So great was the number of the Jews of Judea who were sold as slaves that the famous slavemarket at Hebron could not sell Jewish slaves for more than the price of a horse or could notfind local buyers at all, many Jewish prisoners of war dying en route to slave markets abroad. 26

Year 3 Semester 2, Special Subject (30 credits) HIST3200 – Being Roman: Ethnicity, Culture and Empire, Part 2 (Dr Louise Revell)Module OverviewWas there such a thing as Roman ethnicity, and if so, what form did it take? Ethnic identity hasproved one of the most controversial subjects of the last century, and this is also true for ancientethnicity: how do we define it, and how do we investigate it in past societies. In this module, youwill debate the validity and definition of the idea of a Roman ethnic identity, and through closeengagement with a range of primary material and secondary texts, assess the evidence. In theancient world, Rome was unique in the extension of Roman citizenship to its conqueredsubjects, and a second question we will address is the impact of this on subject ethnicities, andwhether Roman imperialism saw the spread of Roman ethnicity.You will explore ideas of ethnicity in the secondary literature relating to both modern ethnicityand to ancient ethnicity. We will then apply a range of these ideas to the Roman world andRoman ethnicity for the late Republican period through to the third century AD. We willevaluate a range of textual sources to consider ideas of shared customs and a shared past as partof the ways in which an ethnic identity is formulated. We will also consider the spread of Romanethnicity and the retention of local ethnicities in both Italy and the wider empire under theumbrella term of Romanization.. 27

Indicative List of Seminar Topics  Ideas of ethnicity past and present  A shared past: the origins of Rome  Shared customs: urban living  Shared customs: religion  Shared customs: daily living  Romans and the other: Greeks and the Barbarians  Spread of Roman ethnicity: the Italian allies  Spread of Roman ethnicity: the Western provinces  Spread of Roman ethnicity: the Eastern provinces Assessment Method % Contribution to Final Mark1 x essay (4,000 words) 501 x 3-hour exam 50Sample Source‘For there was a time when men wandered at large in the fields like animals and lived in wildfare; they did nothing by the guidance of reason, but relied chiefly on physical strength; therewas as yet no ordered system of religious worship nor of social duties; no one had seenlegitimate marriage nor had anyone looked upon children whom he knew to be his own; norhad they learned the advantages of an equitable code of law.’ Cicero de Inventione 1.2This is part of a handbook on oratory, composed by one of the leading politicians of the lateRepublic. In this part, Cicero is recounting the role of oratory in his narrative of social evolution.He is describing a time when the Romans did not live in towns, which in the ancient world wasseen as the ideal form of settlement. This passage provides an insight into the Roman ideologyof urbanism: that it was more than a physical environment, but encompassed wider aspectsthought of as civilized by the Romans. The ideal form of social grouping shared an organisedlegal system and a shared set of religious rituals. As well as these aspects of public life, the idealsettlement had a system of private law, with formal marriages and inheritance. For the Romans,this urban living was part of their self-identification as a civilized people, and it formed the basisof how they judged other people in their ethnographic writing. Those without urbansettlements, such as the tribes of north-west Europe, were also described as lacking the furtherelements of organised living. 28

Year 3 Semester 2, Special Subject (30 credits) HIST3237– Ethiopia: From the Empire to Socialist to the Federal Democratic Republic. Ethiopia 1755-1987, Part 2 (Professor Dan Levene) The Battle of Adwa, 1896. The Italians suffer a crushing defeat.Module OverviewEthiopia’s long imperial history and its impenetrable terrain contributed to its isolation and theformation of a rich indigenous culture. Yet, it was this seclusion that left the great technologicaldevelopments that started with the enlightenment and peaked in the 19th and 20th centuriesbeyond its borders.A slow history of contact through travellers and mission did not prepare Ethiopia for what wasto come. The British Magdala campaign in 1868 easily toppled Tewodros II, who is stillconsidered the great unifier of the modern Ethiopian Empire. In 1895 when the Italians invadedthe Ethiopians were better prepared. The battle of Adwa saw the Italians defeated. Theyreturned in 1935 to occupy Ethiopia for a long cruel year. They too were eventually rebuffed,but a heavy price was paid. What emerged was the nation of Ethiopia that was ruled by theEmperor Haile Selassie. Its history of being un-colonised made it the ideal home for the AfricanNations. Starting as a moderniser the emperor eventually lost his control and ceded his throneto a military socialist revolutionary regime.In this module we will follow the momentous changes that Ethiopia experienced in between itsre-emergence in the 18th century as an imperial entity until its demise as a 20th centurycommunist one. We will consider its passage into the 20th century as it moved forward as anation state, retaining its indigenous culture and identity; its living traditions side by side theemergence of global structures of statecraft and technological advancement. 29

Indicative List of Seminar Topics The end of an era or the start of a new one? The British and the Ethiopians. Disaster and development – The Italians and the Ethiopians. Never Colonised – the reign of Haile Selassie. The Derg – From Empire to Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia.Assessment Assessment Method % Contribution to Final Mark1 x essay (4,000 words) 501 x 3-hour exam 50Sample Source‘In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, One God, King of Kings Tewodros. May itreach the servant of the Queen of England, the head of the appointees Käbilafer. How are you? I,thanks to God, am well. I have received the letter you sent me for our friendship. I am happy, bythe Power of God, to have found your friendship. Previously I befriended Ato Buladin [MrPlowden] and others, in wanting your friendship. Now, by the Power of God, we are friends. Andnow, by the Power of God, you will be’.[Pankhurst, R., “Tewodros Bomba: Discovery of an Unpublished Letter from Ase Tewodros to “Etege” Yatamannu”, Aethiopica 13(2010). 193-200]This letter was written about a week before Napier and his troops arrived at the plateau fortressof Magdala. The overwhelmingly superior artillery of the British determined this to be a swiftand decisive victory. Having been so dramatically vanquished Tewodros shot himself in thehead. This letter shows the Ethiopian king’s misguided confidence right to the very last. 30

Year 3, Semester 2 (30 credits) HIST3210 Ancient History DissertationCOMPULSORY FOR SINGLE HONOURS STUDENTSMODULE OVERVIEWA dissertation is a piece of original, independent research written on a topic of your choice and usingprimary source materials, whether printed or in an archive and an extended engagement withexisting historiography. Topics might relate to a specific collection of sources or a local archive. Youmight choose to research an area that interests you but is not represented in our final-year modulesor you might decide to follow up on an aspect of your second year options or the group project. Adissertation is the length of an average academic article and will have, like an article, a clear researchquestion and central argument. You will be allocated a supervisor, based on your choice of researchquestion, who will give you advice on specialist content and will read and comment on one samplechapter.The dissertation is a key component of your degree; in it you have a chance to show the skills ofanalysis and research you have learned during the three years of your programme.ASSESSMENT 100% 8000-10000 word dissertation 31

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