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control engineering_vol_69_4_2022

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Salary survey, career update section | 14-33 Sustainability, resilience | 34-38 TSN, real-time Ethernet designs | 40-48 Sequential controls, PID advice video, after 50

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Vol. 69 • No 4 MAY 2022 14 COVER: Hands-on training will help you learn, understand, and apply the skills you've mastered to move your career forward. Courtesy: Siemens INSIGHTS ANSWERS p.34 9 | International: Demystify open automation 31 | Preparing for career changes as an An exclusive 13 | Market Update: 200mm semiconductor fab Interview with engineer Jason Anderson capacity expected to surge; Metal additive manufacturing is projected to rebound 32 | Workforce development offers p.37 NEWS opportunities for workers, companies p.41 14 | Hands-on, online learning bring growth 33 | What is just enough industrial Links opportunities for engineers; Integrator data analysis? ONLINE group provides support, free memberships to Ukrainian members; Combat labor short- 34 | Overcoming industrial automation Online highlights: pages 5, ages with automation; Online Headlines 7 and throughout this issue. implementation challenges 17 | Think Again: Fill the skills gap: and TechnologyTM 36 | Automating manual processes Automation, training, retention 37 | Industrial edge use, outlook for 2022 and ANSWERS beyond: Expert interview series 18 | Control Engineering Career and Salary 38 | Creating automation interoperability, Survey, 2022 sustainability at a resin plant, flour mill 22 | Career, salary survey 2022: Engineering 40 | TSN connects industries, advice, concerns technologies with IIoT, Industry 4.0 26 | How to hire engineers other companies don’t know about 44 | TSN for industrial applications 48 | Chip-based EtherCAT optimizes networks 30 | Three career tips for engineers INSIDE PROCESS P1 | How to write control sequences: 8 steps P3 | PID loop control tuning: Expert interview series CONTROL ENGINEERING (ISSN 0010-8049, Vol. 69, No. 4, GST #123397457) is published Monthly, except in January and November by CFE Media, LLC, 3010 Highland Parkway, Suite #310 Downers Grove, IL 60515. Periodicals postage paid at Downers Grove, IL 60515 and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CONTROL ENGINEERING, PO Box 348, Lincolnshire, IL 60069. Jim Langhenry, Group Publisher/Co-Founder; Steve Rourke CEO/COO/Co-Founder. CONTROL ENGINEERING copyright 2022 by CFE Media, LLC. All rights reserved. CONTROL ENGINEERING is a registered trademark of CFE Media, LLC used under license. Circulation records are maintained at 3010 Highland Parkway, Suite #310 Downers Grove, IL 60515. Telephone: 630/571-4070. E-mail: [email protected]. Publications Mail Agreement No. 40685520. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: PO Box 348, Lincolnshire, IL 60069. Email: [email protected]. Rates for nonqualified subscriptions, including all issues: USA, $165/yr; Canada/ Mexico, $200/yr (includes 7% GST, GST#123397457); International air delivery $350/yr. Except for special issues where price changes are indicated, single copies are available for $30 US and $35 foreign. Please address all subscription mail to CONTROL ENGI- NEERING, PO Box 348, Lincolnshire, IL 60069. Printed in the USA. CFE Media, LLC does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the material contained herein, regardless of whether such errors result from negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever. control engineering — |May 2022 3

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Vol. 69 • No 4 Contents MAY 2022 INNOVATIONS uAppliedAutomation eBook Summer Edition New Products for Engineers AppliedAutoma- tion is the pre- 54 | Inductor for industrial, rugged environments; IIoT platform; Control mier title serving manufacturing stations and tumbler switches; Electric cylinders; Metric screw gears; and utilities. Network mapping system; Nano safety controller; IoT infrared camera; This eBook Pressure gauge with reed switch; Advanced equipment analytics platform. demonstrates See more New Products for Engineers at how automation, instrumenta- tion and control Back to Basics techniques are applied to increase capacity, enhance design and production, improve effi- 56 | Improving sustainability with your communications network ciency, increase profitability and meet regulatory requirements. Featured articles include remote Selecting the right network technology is a key step in enhancing intelligence benefits, wireless instrumentation sustainability in manufacturing. and powering industrial data integration. NEWSLETTER: Process Instrumentation & Sensors Learn more at • Wireless instrumentation communication propels plant processes uGlobal System Integrator Report • Advancing flue-gas flow monitoring Supplement to December techniques Control Engineering and Plant Engineering. Advice from • Some straight talk on process safety automation and control sys- • Multi-functional magnetic nanoparticles sim- tem integrators with System Integrator of the Year for 2022, ulations help sensor technology System Integrator Giants • Digital field instruments accelerate petro- and more. chemical, process industries Keep up with emerging trends: subscribe. uControl Engineering digital edition The tablet and digital CFE Edu: Virtual Training Week On-Demand editions provide links to additional article images Did you miss the live and text online and links event? You can still to other related, useful resources. attend CFE Media and Technology’s Virtual Training Week on-de- magazine mand to receive training on a variety of the latest industry trends. Register and receive full access to exclusive content offered by industry experts with live Q&A sessions! Virtual Training Week topics, courses, instructors: cfe-media-technology-virtual-training-week control engineering — |May 2022 5

USP esVleeimvmapemenrutunsmisi! EASYFAST & Troubleshooting LEAN MANAGED SWITCHES Dashboard & Security Complete with dashboard for instant visualization of network health and topology maps for quick troubleshooting. These switches offer the tools of industrial networking such as firewalls & ring redundancy without all the office IT application overhead. Your advantages: • Economical variant of a managed switch • Easy troubleshooting in networks with little IT knowledge • Straight forward network security • Intuitive handling during configuration and life cycle input #5 at Online Highlights Six winners announced A SOLID FUEL ramjet combustor is among the many for annual robotics award multidisciplinary facets of propulsion innovation and research at Purdue’s Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories. uTHE ASSOCIATION FOR ADVANCING AUTOMATION (A3) announced six Courtesy: Carson Slabaugh, Purdue University winners of the 2022 Engelberger Robotics Awards. The Engelberger Robot- ics Award is named after the late Joseph F. Engelberger, the founding force Propulsion lab offers testing behind industrial robotics. Since its inception in 1977, the Engelberger Robotics conditions for hypersonics, Awards have been presented to 134 robotics leaders from 17 nations for excel- combustion lence in technology development, application, education and leadership. Win- ners receive a $5,000 honorarium and medallion. At a dinner at the Automate —Brian Huchel, Purdue University. 2022 Show and Conference in Detroit on June 8, Michael P. Jacobs of Applied Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) will be honored for leadership in automa- uPURDUE UNIVERSITY’S work in nation- tion while Oussama Khatib of Stanford University will be awarded for education al security took a leap forward with univer- and Marc Raibert of Boston Dynamics for technology. Three more winners will sity trustees’ approval of a state-of-the-art be celebrated at Automatica in Munich on June 20: Bertil Thorvaldsson of ABB high-speed propulsion laboratory, putting the for leadership, Bruno Siciliano of the University of Naples for education and university’s hypersonic testing capabilities on Melonee Wise of Zebra Technologies for technology. Jeff Burnstein, president scale with large industry partners. Hypersonic of A3 in a press release, said: “These six remarkable individuals have played defense abilities are considered “game-chang- prominent roles in shaping the robotics industry... [by] educating future robot- ing” technologies. With systems that can trav- icists to advancing the role of mobile, industrial and collaborative robotics in el at speeds of Mach 5 or faster and are highly manufacturing facilities and warehouses.” ce maneuverable, hypersonics are potentially very effective against heavily defended areas. - Edited from an A3 press release by CFE Media and Technology. A3 is a CFE Media and Technology content partner. The High-Speed Propulsion Laboratory will be located in the Discovery Park District at Pur- Automated manufacturing cybersecurity risks due. The new lab will provide testing capabili- ties at the extreme pressure and temperature —Rebecca Jess, ISA Global Security Alliance. conditions experienced in actual hypersonic flight, significantly enhancing Purdue’s research uAUTOMATION uses equipment to automate systems and produc- and development capabilities. The lab will tion processes to reduce work. While U.S. factory automation and robot- feature new testing capabilities for innovative ic innovations are thriving, automation used for manufacturing is behind. research in rocket combustion and gas turbine With the COVID-19 pandemic, cybersecurity in automated manufacturing engines, continuing Purdue’s history of research needs more attention. and development in those areas. 1. Cloud and edge computing are primarily used for data storage and Once the $73 million lab is complete, Purdue empower data computing, sales coordination, real-time project collabora- will be the only university in the nation with tion, and enterprise resource planning management. Many manufacturers such a high level of propulsion capabilities, pro- use outdated cloud systems beyond IT team's knowledge. viding the capacity to perform propulsion test- ing reaching a scale only found in government 2. Edge computing requires one to move data and processes to a repos- or large defense contractor facilities. ce itory that is physically located at the manufacturer’s site. While this gives more control to manufacturers, edge computing also creates a dangerous |May 2022 7 consolidation of information ripe for a potential enterprise-wide breach. 3. Integrated production lines use smart sensors and actuators to col- lect digital data to automate machine functionality, to integrate machine communications and allow a degree of secure remote access. Net- work-connected operations may be open to cyberattacks. Wirelessly connected input/output points controlled by apps with Wi-Fi for data flow risk entry. ce control engineering —

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INSIGHTS INTERNATIONAL Demystify the newly-released —Stone Shi, open automation platform Control Engineering China How open is your automation? Openness for industrial automation varies. Review history of open in automation and how IEC 61499 standard for distributed control system can help. As automation manufacturers take digital erate a human-machine interface (HMI), which can transformation and intelligent manufac- be deployed to an industrial computer or computer. turing as part of their strategic missions, Schneider Electric has put forward the It has a database, which can archive and store concept of fully open automation with the soft- events, records, trends and other data. There are ware-centric industrial automation system, Schnei- some library files, including industry libraries of der Electric EcoStruxure Automation Expert. various industries. Open automation has a long history. Degrees It has automation hardware, such as M580 control- of openness for industrial automation vary. They ler for large control systems, a M251 series program- include the opening of industrial communication mable logic controller (PLC) for machine automation, protocols, the opening of hardware (based on an and Altivar inverter supporting Ethernet, etc. industrial PC) and the opening of control software programming with PLCopen as the core. There is also a runtime environment, which is a soft programmable automation controller (PAC) Will Schneider Electric’s efforts advance industri- runtime that can be run in a PC. Together, these are al automation openness? Can fully open automation an automation development platform. be realized? What kind of platform is EcoStruxure Automation Expert from Schneider Electric? What Why is this platform an kind of open problems can be solved? What is the status and future of the platform? Wang Qiangjun, open automation platform? head of EcoStruxure Automation Expert in China, participates in platform development, and is mar- Open automation means the interconnection keting manager of industrial automation division of Schneider Electric (China) Co., Ltd. and interoperability of automation products, plug uOnline and play, reuse and portability of software code. What is an open automation platform? Such openness has been an automation-industry In automation, almost every large factory has its goal. When is an automation platform considered KEYWORDS: Open own platform. In addition, there are IIoT platforms, an open automation platform? automation, IEC 61499 cloud platforms, data acquisition platforms and other platforms. What does Schneider Electric's Qiangjun pointed out open automation is not LEARNING OBJECTIVES open automation platform do? Is it a platform? equivalent to opening source code. It refers to the Learn what an open convenient integration of an automation system automation platform is. Qiangjun said EcoStruxure Automation Expert with other systems and hardware from other manu- is more than software; it is a complete set of sys- facturers; this is called horizontal integration. Examine how IEC 61499 tems. It is an integrated development tool, an inte- makes programming grated development environment (IDE). It is a tool Some technologies, such as Big Data analy- independent of the underlying for industrial automation application development. sis, IoT and artificial intelligence, need to be easily system equipment. It can develop, configure, model and design automa- integrated into the industrial control system (ICS); tion projects and projects. It can automatically gen- Review the value can open automation platform bring to users. this is called vertical integration. CONSIDER THIS How would hardware and IEC 61131-3: not easily interoperable software interoperability help As early as 1993, the International Electrotech- your automation efforts? nical Commission (IEC) formed the International ONLINE Standard IEC 61131-3 for unifying PLC, distribut- Also read: Open automation with plug and play control engineering — |May 2022 9

INSIGHTS INTERNATIONAL ed control system (DCS), IPC, computer numeri- 61499 operating environment can be programmed cal control (CNC) and supervisory control and data and configured with this platform. acquisition (SCADA) programming systems, which was the first step towards opening automation. At Open automation value? present, most automatic controllers support the pro- What value can an open automation platform gramming specification of IEC 61131-3. bring to users? Qiangjun said the core of EcoStrux- IEC 61131-3 is a programming standard for one ure Automation Expert is IEC 61499, which has device. The program devel- advantages. IEC 61499 realizes the decoupling of oped for a controller can software and hardware through function block pack- only be deployed to the aging. This creates eases interconnection, interopera- controller. The program bility, software portability and reuse among different is difficult to transfer to hardware and systems, which brings great flexibility. another vendor’s hardware. When the system needs to For example, the control of an industrial auto- be expanded and upgraded, mated guided vehicle or a manipulator can be it is necessary to repeated- encapsulated into a function block. Each time the ly program and define the automated guided vehicle (AGV) or manipulator is interface among systems. used, it is okay to use the function block from the software without programming. IEC 61499: IEC 61499 also adopts the object-oriented meth- Schneider Electric EcoStruxure Automation Expert Independent od to encapsulate the function block. Instead of the changes the game of industrial automation by cre- To meet the requirements program execution process based on time scanning ating a new category of software-centric industrial in the original IEC 61131-3 programming languages, automation system. It is the first universal automa- of complex industrial sys- it changes to the execution process based on event- tion offering and begins a new era of interoperabil- tems and the requirements driven function block, which is more in line with ity, where end users can select from best of breed of reusability, portability and modern software engineering. It can make it easier technologies to meet any demand, without regard operability, IEC began to for it engineers to understand operational technol- to vendor. Courtesy: Schneider Electric and CFE develop the IEC 61499 stan- ogy (OT) and reduce the application difficulty of Media’s New Products for Engineers Database dard for DCSs in 2000 and information technology (IT) in the field of automa- completed its release in 2005. tion. Moreover, this component-based object-orient- ed encapsulation mode is consistent with OPC UA IEC 61499 is a system information model, so IEC 61499 and OPC UA can be combined. level executable model- For example, after a pump is encapsulated into a ing language specification. It proposes an applica- function block, its various logic and parameters are in the function block, and can communicate externally, tion model independent of the underlying system no matter what SCADA system, manufacturing exe- cution system (MES) system or 3D simulation system equipment, encapsulates the component-oriented is used. If OPC UA is adopted, it can become OPC UA information model with a little work, which reduces control software into software components in the the difficulty of data integration or engineering inte- gration. In this way, IT engineers and OT engineers form of function blocks, and models the control only need to understand how to use the interface out- side the function block. There is no need to under- algorithm in the form of intuitive graphics by con- stand the algorithm inside the function block. ce necting the function blocks. Through the standard- Stone Shi is executive editor-in-chief, Control Engineering China. Edited by Mark T. Hoske, con- ized packaging of function blocks, the reusability tent manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media and Technology, [email protected]. of software is realized, so as to decouple software and hardware. Therefore, IEC 61499 is the top-level design of open automation. From the development concept to various func- tional blocks, the Schneider Electric EcoStruxure is in line with IEC 61499 standard, making it an open automation platform. In other words, as long as the software or function block and industry library developed according to IEC 61499 standard, it can be used in this platform. Hardware supporting IEC |10 May 2022 control engineering —

Calling all system integrators... Control Engineering and Plant Engineering’s annual System Integrator of the Year Awards Entries are due September 9, 2022 2021 System Integrator of the Year 11 | SI Giants 19 Who should enter? If you’re a system integrator with demonstrable industry success, Control Engineering and Plant Engineering urge you to enter the 2022 System Integrator of the Year competition. Past System Integrator of the Year winners—Class of 2022, Class of 2021, and Class of 2020—are not eligible to enter the 2022 System Integrator of the Year program. What’s in it for the winners? The chosen System Integrator of the Year winners will receive worldwide recognition from Control Engineering and Plant Engineering. The winners also will be featured as the cover story of the Global System Integrator Report, distributed in December 2022. How will the competition be judged? Control Engineering and Plant Engineering’s panel of judges will conscientiously evaluate all entries. Three general criteria will be considered for the selection of the System Integrator of the Year: • Business skills • Technical competence • Customer satisfaction A supplement to CONTROL ENGINEERING and 11/23/20 10:17 AM PLANT ENGINEERING magazines 2012_GSIR_COVER_V2msFINAL.indd 1 Questions? Contact Judy Pinsel, Marketing Consultant [email protected] | 847-624-8418 For more information on how to enter and proper criteria, visit:

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INSIGHTS MARKET UPDATE Metal additive manufacturing market projected 200mm to rebound after COVID-19, surge expected semiconductor uMany wondered how the metal additive needed to engage in metal 3D printing cre- fab capacity manufacturing (AM) industry would fare ates high barriers to entry for SMEs. To after COVID-19. The pandemic has sig- lower this barrier to adoption, several com- SEMICONDUCTOR manufactur- nificantly impacted aviation, which is a key panies have focused on making printers ers worldwide are on track to boost market for metal additive manufacturing. more affordable, less than $100K. 200mm fab capacity by 1.2 million Global supply chain disruptions have led wafers, or 21%, from the start of 2020 companies to re-evaluate operations. With- Expanding materials portfolio to the end of 2024 to hit a record high in this environment, how has metal additive One factor limiting metal AM's penetra- of 6.9 million wafers per month, SEMI manufacturing fared? announced in its 200mm Fab Out- tion is the limited size of available metals for look Report. After climbing to $5.3 bil- IDTechEx's report, \"Metal Additive Man- AM. Not only are relatively few high-per- lion last year, 200mm fab equipment ufacturing 2022-2032: Technology and Mar- formance metals available for demanding spending is expected to be $4.9 bil- ket Outlook,\" finds that after the short-term applications, but the cost of metal powders lion in 2022 as 200mm fab utilization loss caused by COVID-19, the metal addi- often exceeds hundreds per kilo. To address remains at high levels and the global semiconductor industry works to over- this, materials start-ups are come the chip shortage. exploring high-performance metals like aluminum and The SEMI 200mm Fab Outlook alternative feedstock forms Report, covering the 12 years from like pellets and slurries. 2013 to 2024, also reveals that found- ries will account for more than 50% of IDTECHEX’S report finds the metal Binder jetting entrants fab capacity worldwide this year, fol- additive manufacturing market will Two major players, ExOne lowed by analog at 19% and discrete/ recover from the short-term loss caused power at 12%. Regionally, China will by COVID-19 and reach $18.5 billion by and voxeljet, have dominated lead the world in 200mm capacity with 2032. Courtesy: IDTechEx the binder jetting space since 21% share in 2022, followed by Japan its commercialization. The with 16% and Taiwan and Europe/Mid- tive manufacturing market will recover and promise that metal binder jetting offers for east at 15% each. hit $18.5 billion by 2032. With a CAGR of high volume metal part production is lead- 18.8%, metal 3D printing is clearly a dynam- ing more companies to launch binder jetting “Wafer manufacturers will add 25 ic field. Finding the value-add use cases, printers. new 200mm lines over the five-year from reducing the inventory of replacement period to help meet growing demand parts to making complex production parts, Supply chain, local manufacturing for applications such as 5G, automo- is enabling wider adoption of metal AM Skyrocketing shipping costs and work- tive and Internet of Things (IoT) devic- across many key industries and several key es that rely on devices like analog, trends have been highlighted. er shortages have contributed to distur- power management and display driv- bances in the global supply chain. This er integrated circuits (ICs), MOSFETs, Lower-cost printers has renewed interest in localized manu- microcontroller units (MCUs) and sen- Printers for established technologies like facturing to mitigate risks when relying on sors,” said Ajit Manocha, SEMI presi- global manufacturing. Within this envi- dent and CEO. laser powder bed fusion or electron beam ronment, metal AM has received attention melting often cost $300K-$500K, with many for facilitating local manufacturing. Equipment investments are project- exceeding $1 million. The high investment ed to remain above $3 billion in 2023, This article online has more on printing with the foundry sector accounting for innovation and contact manufacturing. ce 54%, followed by discrete/power at 20% and analog at 19%. ce Sona Dadhania, technology analyst, IDTe- chEx. Edited by Chris Vavra, web content – Edited from a SEMI press release by manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media CFE Media and Technology. SEMI is and Technology, [email protected]. a CFE Media and Technology content partner. control engineering — |May 2022 13

INSIGHTS NEWS Hands-on, online learning bring growth opportunities for engineers uHANDS-ON and online learning bring \"We aim to enhance and expand the knowl- • Hands-on machining using industry growth opportunities. Programmers, edge and capacity of our students on Sinu- leading brands. operators and maintenance profession- merik controls. If you want to become a als can maximize results with a comput- power user, we have the courses for you. We In addition, service and maintenance er numerical control (CNC) to become also provide essential training to machine classes are available to teach personnel indispensable on the shopfloor and in tool builders, importers, and dealers.\" how to perform PLC and drive diagnos- their careers. Owners can maximize tics, check the topology of the system, return on investment (ROI) in all areas: Through a team of knowledgeable commission, and troubleshoot the system. machines, people, and operations. instructors, users can gain first-hand experi- ence working on the types of machines you Online learning available CNC professionals from around the will encounter in your own shop. A compre- Getting to a training center may not world are taking advantage of free training hensive schedule guides you on the journey paths: hands-on and online. Operators can from introductory classes through advanced always be possible for you. But you still gain the skills to maximize the output of the 5-axis programming. have plenty of options. Live, online cours- machine, increase their value to the business es are presented monthly, which include and further their careers. Owners can skill \"Every month we provide level one insightful question and answer sessions. up staff to generate more shopfloor revenue. courses on milling and turning,\" Pearson Courses are archived and available on-de- said. \"Level two courses explore advanced mand, so you can access them anywhere, Hands-on learning at technical G-code programming, while level three anytime. CNC online learning resourc- application center focuses on multi-axis programming.\" es are updated with new and fresh cours- Classes are taught by Siemens machin- es often. For larger groups, custom online \"At the Siemens Technical Application ing experts, with real-world experiences, training sessions are available. Center, our goal is the education of CNC using several different teaching methods: operators, programmers, and maintenance Chris Pollack, virtual technical appli- professionals,\" said Randy Pearson, techni- • PC-based classroom sessions cation center manager for Siemens, said, cal application center manager for Siemens. • Simulator-based classroom training \"All of the topics that are covered in our hands-on classroom courses — such as variable-based programming, logic-based programming, and multi-axis milling and turning — are covered online.\" \"We have a strategy for how we want people and manufacturing to excel,\" Pol- lack said. \"You may begin with a five-minute how-to video as an introduction. You will then be motivated to immerse yourself in a webinar or two and really start digging into a topic. You can follow that up by enroll- ing in a self-paced learning module or an instructor-led class to start engaging hands- on with the technology at a high level.\" FIGURE 1: Hands-on learning sessions at a Siemens training center — such as this one in Elk The progression of learning Grove Village, IL — provide instructor-led experience you can apply to power up your machine The curriculum not only provides users tool career. Images courtesy: Siemens, including cover photo (See COVER photo caption, p. 3) with hands-on experience using actual CNCs, but it focuses on many of the trends that are shaping today's machining industry. |14 May 2022 control engineering —

Ukraine Digital edition? Click on headlines for more details. See news daily at Integrator group provides support, complimentary memberships to Ukrainian members FIGURE 2: Online or in the classroom, ses- IN SOLIDARITY with Ukrainian industrial automation peers, the Control System sions using Sinutrain software provide the knowledge you need to propel your career Integrators Association (CSIA) Board of Directors unanimously voted to award com- forward and turn your shopfloor into a pow- plimentary memberships for the years 2022 and 2023 to members of the Association erhouse. of Industrial Automation of Ukraine. Courses are separated into four main “Our goal is to provide the space for Ukrainian members to network with other categories: Milling, turning, general oper- CSIA members and explore possible outsourcing opportunities,” said CSIA CEO Jose ations and maintenance/service. These Rivera in a press release. “The war in Ukraine has disrupted regular local peacetime categories provide everything program- work opportunities. This contrasts with the explosive business growth benefiting SIs mers, operators, and maintenance staff of many other geographies currently. Outsourcing can also help other SIs alleviate need to advance their careers, and every- the serious talent shortages they are experiencing.\" Beside outsourcing, CSIA and its thing a shop owner needs to turn their members hope that new relationships support Ukrainian SIs in their efforts to contrib- shop into a competitive powerhouse. ute to the rebuild of their manufacturing industries. Addressing CNC “It is worth mentioning that several Ukrainian SIs and engineering companies have technology trends experience working with Western companies and delivering projects beyond their borders,” Rivera said. “A few of them have offices in Germany, the United States and Machine shops are finding that today's United Arab Emirates. Language does not create a barrier.” digital-savvy workforce more readily interacts with controls that speak their Alexandre Yurchak, CEO of the Association of Industrial Automation of Ukraine, digital language. The CNC platform is has been leading the collaboration from the Ukrainian side as part of his efforts to based on a modern, app-like interface that help his members during a wartime economy. is easily engaged shop-wide, from 3-axis all the way to full 5-axis machining. “It is a big honor and a great opportunity for our community to have such a rela- tionship with CSIA,” Yurchak said. “Our best engineering companies and system inte- Machine shops are addressing fierce grators are ready to work with their counterparts around the world. And we really competitive time and cost pressures. Train- need this work as never before. What we appreciate even more, is the friendly and ing staff on mixed-technology machines fast response of CSIA to our situation. It shows a new kind professional solidarity that do the work of two or more machines that drives our community to be together and to hold the line on the economic front.” simplifies scheduling, reduces setups, and accelerates production. The CNC simplifies One hour for Ukraine the integration of automated processes, such as robotics, that allow operators to do more, CSIA is also encouraging its members to provide humanitarian support to Ukraine. in less time. ce One Hour for Ukraine (1H4U) is an original approach piloted by Autoware, a CSIA-certi- fied SI based in Italy. Autoware encourages its employees to engage by donating work - Edited from a Siemens press release by hours. Their contribution gets matched (2x) by Autoware, and the company periodical- Chris Vavra, web content manager, Con- ly donates to the bank account of the Association of Industrial Automation of Ukraine. trol Engineering, CFE Media and Technol- The intention is for other companies to replicate this model with the Ukrainian cause of ogy, [email protected]. its choice. “All of us were touched by what happened in Ukraine,” said Luigi De Bernardini, CEO of Autoware and past chair of the CSIA board of directors. “We Europeans probably were more sensitive, since it happened so close to us, and we were powerless. Every- one has their own reasons for actions in support of Ukrainian people. Where I believe we have a lot of room to improve is in leveraging the power of our professional asso- ciations and acting as professionals supporting colleagues. This is why we decided to donate time and effort and not just money,” he said. “If our colleagues in any part of the world are in trouble, we can help as professionals. This is something that I don’t see happening many times, and I thought this was a good opportunity to start. If we put our efforts together, we can do a lot.\" ce - Edited from a CSIA press release by CFE Media and Technology. CSIA is a CFE Media and Technology content partner. control engineering — |May 2022 15

INSIGHTS NEWS Combat labor shortages with automated solutions AS LABOR MARKET woes continue, set pace along a path, and usually feature cobots is expected to grow by more than adopting some degree of an automated solution is no longer optional for compa- automatic obstacle detection bumpers. 50% in the next five years and ultimate- nies looking to remain agile and equipped to meet future consumer demands. AGVs offer multiple uses to save time ly represent nearly one-third of the entire Even industries that historically haven’t for human workers and improve the effi- industrial robot market. struggled with labor shortages are now finding it challenging to hire staff. With ciency of processing lines. For example, an a peak record of 11.3 million jobs open in January 2022 and not enough workers AGV can assist with transporting ingredi- Automated storage and available, more manufacturers are turning to robotics to fill the gaps. ents for certain recipes at strategic times. retrieval systems (AS/RS) In fact, U.S. factories ordered a record They can also help avoid delays in specifi- AS/RS are designed to store and 29,000 robots during the first nine months of 2021, a 37% increase from 2020, retrieve stored products, offering inven- according to data from the Association for Advancing Automation (A3). ‘Collaborative robotic tory on demand. AS/RS technology is systems are designed capable of achieving more than its name The good news? Automated systems suggests. These systems continue to grow are getting cheaper to implement and in sophistication, with abilities such as improving technology is making systems more reliable. At Stellar, we’re constantly for agility and flexibility, automatically balancing and distributing monitoring developments and best prac- the weight of pallets so they don’t collapse, tices for leveraging robotics in our clients’ facilities to help them improve efficiency allowing them to be easily which helps ensure the safety of sur- and productivity — not to mention com- bating that growing labor gap. moved to different spots rounding plant personnel. The technology is popular in ware- Consider these modern automation tools and the many ways robotics can be within the manufacturing houses, as AS/RS allows these storage implemented into the food manufactur- facilities to be built taller than traditional ing process. ’process. warehouses. Therefore, AS/RS structures AGV, cobot and AS/RS have a smaller footprint, and they offer technology increased flexibility with their modular While specific automation and robotics cally timed processes, such as when pro- designs. The need for a smaller footprint configurations will vary depending on the individual facility, product and process, ducing bread dough or other food items means more storage capacity using less there are a few broad categories that are seeing significant investment. Let’s exam- that require time to rise or rest. Used in real estate. ce ine a few of those solutions that are grow- ing in popularity: these ways, AGVs are useful in maintain- Automated guided ing efficient operations by improving a Rao Kolla is senior controls engineer at vehicles (AGVs) plant’s scheduling capabilities. Stellar, a CFE Media and Technology con- AGVs are computer-controlled and wheeled, meant to carry loads safely with- tent partner. This originally appeared on out a driver on board. These machines can be precisely controlled to move at a Collaborative robots (cobots) Stellar’s website. Collaborative robots, or cobots, are Onlinemeant to function alongside human work- u ers to help streamline processes, includ- ing tasks such as assembly, loading and Top 5 Control Engineering articles packaging. Cobots offer more human-like April 18-24, 2022 dexterity to handle smaller items beyond Featured articles included stories on induction pallets, helping minimize human interac- motors, wireless instrumentation, heat engines, PWM effects and more. tion. These systems are designed for agil- Registration of first process automation ity and flexibility, allowing them to be host system announced easily moved to different spots within the FieldComm Group announced the first FDI host manufacturing process as needed. system to earn the right to display the FDI regis- tration logo in product marketing materials. The market for cobots has boomed, How eye imaging technology could help thanks to their wide range of capabili- robots and cars see better ties. According to the U.S. Department of Researchers from Duke University are apply- Commerce’s National Institute of Stan- ing lessons learned from decades of perfecting dards and Technology (NIST), the use of eye-imaging technologies to tomorrow’s auton- omous systems sensor technologies. |16 May 2022 control engineering —

INSIGHTS THINK AGAIN ® Fill the skills gap: Automation, training, retention 3010 Highland Parkway, Suite 325, Downers Grove, IL 60515. 630-571-4070, Fax 630-214-4504 Automation, training, retention, benefits and amenities help fill the skills gap, says the Control Engineering Career and Salary Survey, Content Specialists/Editorial 2022, other research, articles and a May 25 webcast. Mark T. Hoske, Content Manager With big automation and control knowledge, taking advantage of employ- 630-571-4070, x2227, [email protected] challenges, answers are rarely sim- er sponsored education and mentoring. ple. Research suggests filling the Think again about engineering career advice Jack Smith, Content Manager 630-571-4070, x2230, [email protected] growing manufacturing skills gap with more including: Kevin Parker, Senior Contributing Editor, IIoT, OGE automation, training, retention, benefits and • Following six tips for effective mentorship 630-571-4070, x2228, [email protected] workforce amenities. These are among the sug- from Jon Breen of Breen Machine Automation Emily Guenther, Director of Interactive Media 630-571-4070, x2229, [email protected] gestions from the Control Engineering Career Services: Keep the mentee involved in the pro- Amanda Pelliccione, Director of Research and Salary Survey, 2022, other Control Engi- cess with goals, pacing and mentor selection. 978-302-3463, [email protected] neering research, related articles on the follow- • Learning from other companies’ controls Gary Cohen, Senior Editor [email protected] ing pages and news on the prior pages. Find engineers to strengthen skills, advised Michael Chris Vavra, Web Content Manager more advice in a May 25 webcast, “Automation Horth, a senior controls engineer for Applied [email protected] experts wanted: Hire, retain the best.” Manufacturing Technologies. Contributing Content Specialists Pay well in salary and benefits and pay • Accepting diverse projects, tasks, roles Suzanne Gill, Control Engineering Europe [email protected] attention to key motivating factors for those and responsibilities, including from other Agata Abramczyk, Control Engineering Poland you’re trying to hire and retain. Leading job departments, to expand knowledge past an [email protected] satisfaction factors in the Control Engineering engineering focus, suggested Sam Russem, Lukáš Smelík, Control Engineering Czech Republic [email protected] Career and Salary Survey, 2022 (next pages), senior director of smart manufacturing solu- Aileen Jin, Control Engineering China are technical challenge, feeling of accomplish- tions and Grantek Systems Integration. [email protected] ment, financial compensation, and flexible • Working with others to help low-skilled Editorial Advisory Board work hours, according to survey respondents. workers, build technical skills and facilitate Doug Bell, president, InterConnecting Automation, upward career mobility. Doing so helps opti- Automation, control investments mize the employers’ ability to develop and David Bishop, chairman and a founder Matrix Technologies, Automation and controls can help fill the retain qualified employees and increase their Daniel E. Capano, senior project manager, Gannett Fleming skills gap (p. 18). In separate, still unpublished competitiveness, according to Danielle Hoske, Engineers and Architects, Control Engineering research, “Buying Consid- director of development, data and communica- Frank Lamb, founder and owner Automation Consulting LLC, erations for Automation Systems and Control tions, Jane Addams Resource Center. ce Joe Martin, president and founder Systems,” survey respondents were given a list Martin Control Systems, of 15 product categories in automation process- Mark T. Hoske is content manager, Control Rick Pierro, president and co-founder Superior Controls, es; of those, respondents expected to increase Engineering, CFE Media and Technology at Mark Voigtmann, partner, automation practice lead in spending in 14 categories in the next 12 [email protected]. Faegre Baker Daniels, Onlinemonths. Among a list of 39 control system cat- CFE Media and Technology Contributor Guidelines Overview egories, respondents expect spending increases u Content For Engineers. That’s what CFE Media stands for, and what CFE Media is all about – engineers sharing for all 39 in the next 12 months. with their peers. We welcome content submissions for all interested parties in engineering. We will use those materials Education, hiring, retention CONSIDER THIS online, on In the Control Engineering Career and Sal- How are you filling your skills gap? our website, in print and in newsletters to keep engineers informed about the products, solutions ary Survey, respondents also offered advice, ONLINE and industry trends. including consistent updates to skills and explains how to submit press releases, products, images, feature articles, case workforce-development studies, white papers, and other media. * Content should focus on helping engineers solve problems. control engineering — |May 2022 17 Articles that are commercial or are critical of other products or organizations will be rejected. (Technology discussions and comparative tables may be accepted if non-promotional and if contributor corroborates information with sources cited.) * If the content meets criteria noted in guidelines, expect to see it first on our Websites. Content for our e-newsletters comes from content already available on our Websites. All content for print also will be online. All content that appears in our print magazines will appear as space permits, and we will indicate in print if more content from that article is available online. * Deadlines for feature articles for the print magazines are at least two months in advance of the publication date. It is best to discuss all feature articles with the appropriate content manager prior to submission. Learn more at: and TechnologyTM

CAREERUPDATE Control Engineering Career and Salary Survey Solve the workforce challenge: Automate, innovate, hire and retain great workers. Lack of skilled workers, lack of materials and the economy are big- gest threats to manufacturing. C ontinuing manufacturing work- more competition for their talents and cesses; of those, respondents expected to force shortages have increased upward pressure on wages and benefits. increase in spending in 14 categories in as the biggest threat to manu- Hours worked in a week in 2022: 11% 39 the next 12 months. Among a list of 39 facturing, jumping to 57% in hours or less (6% in 2021), 43% 40 to 44 control system categories, respondents 2022 as the severest threat, up from 37% hours (42% in 2021), 29% 45 to 49 hours expect increases all 39 options in the in 2021, which may be applying upward (33% in 2021), 9% 50 to 54 hours (12% next 12 months. We’ll have more on this pressure on wages and benefits. Reflect- in 2021), 3% 55 to 59 hours (1% in 2021), in a subsequent issue. ing supply chain challenges, “lack of nec- and 5% 60 hours or more (6% in 2021). essary materials” jumped to 42% from In the 2022 Control Engineering 27% in 2021. Energy costs leaped to 20% One continuing solution to work- Career and Salary Survey and Report, from 8% in 2021. More engineers expect force shortages is to automate and more most survey respondents feel secure in a to receive a salary increase, 67%, com- carefully control facility processes and manufacturing career (81%), up slightly pared to 62% in 2021; 26% expect an factory automation, as Control Engi- from 2021 (78%). Two-thirds (67%) love increase in benefits, compared to 23% in neering subscribers know. Automation or like their current jobs, with 38% lov- 2021. There were among the findings in is helping fill the skills gap. In sepa- ing their current jobs; 26% like what they the 2022 Control Engineering Career and rate, still-unpublished Control Engineer- do, but they would consider switching Salary Survey and Report. ing research, “Buying Considerations for companies for the right opportunity. Automation Systems and Control Sys- Many respondents work in indus- tems,” respondents were given a list of 15 Compensation tries deemed essential, which can create product categories in automation pro- summary 2022 SALARY Expected change to 2022 Expected change to 2022 Average $104,071 base annual salary non-salary compensation Minimum $20,000 Maximum $266,700 Decrease 1% Increase 1% to 3% Increase Decrease Stay the same 1% to 3% Increase 4% NON-SALARY COMPENSATION to 6% 12% 12% Average $13,563 6% Percentage receiving bonus 71% 32% 45% 8% Average receiving bonus 10% 12% Minimum $19,162 62% Maximum $200 $158,000 Increase more Increase 4% to 6% Stay the same Increase more FIGURE 3: In 2022, the average salary than 6% than 6% of respondents is $104,071, down from $108,096 in 2021. In 2022, average FIGURE 1: Two-thirds of respondents expect FIGURE 2: 26% of respondents expect an non-salary compensation is $13,563, up a salary increase in 2022. increase in 2022 non-salary compensation. from $12,838 in 2021. |18 May 2022 control engineering —

PAGE-TOP IMAGE: Upgrading control platforms Criteria for non-salary compensation can protect against obsolescence, increase system flexibility, enhance technology or meet Company profitability budgetary or cost-of-ownership requirements. Personal performance Courtesy: Beckhoff Automation Product profitability Subsequent articles in this section pro- New business, sales increase, commission vide advice on engineering employee hir- ing and retention. Articles in every issue Plant or line productivity of Control Engineering discuss how auto- Quality metrics mation, controls and instrumentation Safety metrics bring greater efficiencies to manufactur- ing, often in the face of manufacturing Reducing plant costs workforce shortages. Uptime/downtime Survey methods Company stock performance Research for the 2022 Control Engi- Customer feedback Energy efficiencies neering Career and Salary Report result- Other ed from an emailed survey to subscribers, producing 244 qualified responses from Not applicable (no bonus received) April 1 to April 16, 2022, for a margin of error of +/-6.3% at a 95% confidence 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% level. Survey respondents were invited to anonymously provide their annual com- FIGURE 4: In 2022, company profits jumped ahead of personal performance as the leading pensation information and opinions on criteria for non-salary compensation, after being tied in 2021. the current state of their facilities and industries. Job satisfaction factors Engineering salary increases Technical challenge 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% During challenging times, financial Feeling of accomplishment compensation can become more important Financial compensation among factors impacting job satisfaction. Flexible work hours In 2022, technical challenge (31%), feel- ing of accomplishment (28%) and financial Ability to work from home compensation (27%) finished in a statisti- Relationship with boss cal dead heat, within the margin of error. Relationship with colleagues Supply chain shortages that fuel infla- Job security tion in turn create upward salary pres- Benefits sures on salary and benefits, coupled with demographic pressures of an aging Company's financial health workforce and too few going into sci- Location ence, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)-related professions. Feeling of recognition Workload As Figure 1 shows, 45% expect a sal- ary increase of up to 3% in 2022 (51% in Advancement opportunities Leading a team All graphics courtesy: Control Engineering Company size research, CFE Media and CFE Technology Relationship with subordinates Managing people Physical or ergonomic environment Other Travel 0% FIGURE 5: Top factors for job satisfaction are technical challenge, feeling of accomplishment and financial compensation. control engineering — |May 2022 19

CAREERUPDATE ‘Companies seeking to ary decrease (3% in 2021; 1% in 2020 and Engineering bonus criteria attract and retain engineer- 2019; 2% in 2018). Two leading criteria for non-salary ing talent should be aware Engineering salary, bonus details compensation were company profitability For base salary compensation, the min- at 54% and personal performance at 49% of leading factors that (Figure 4). Much farther down the scale imum was $20,000 ($28,000 in 2021), and were product profits at 18%, new busi- influence job satisfaction the maximum was $266,700, ($250,000 in ness/sales 17%, plant or line productivity 2021), for 244 survey respondents provid- 16%, quality metrics 16%, safety met- ’for engineers. ing this information in 2022. rics 13%, reducing plant costs 10% and uptime/downtime at 9%. 2021; 52% in 2020; 63% in 2019; 56% in For non-salary compensation (Figure 2018); 12% expect an increase of 4% or 2), 26% expect an increase (23% in 2021); Engineering job satisfaction, more (14% in 2021; 18% in 2020; 11% 14% expect an increase of 4% or more skills needed in 2019; 19% in 2018); 32% expect the (12% in 2021); 62% expect about the same same (32% in 2021; 30% in 2020; 25% in (same in 2021); and 12% expect less (15% Companies seeking to attract and 2019; 23% in 2018); and 1% expect a sal- in 2021). retain engineering talent should be aware of leading factors that influence job satis- For non-salary compensation (Figure faction for engineers. As mentioned, the 3), the 2022 average received was $13,563 leading job satisfaction factors in 2022 compared to $12,838 in 2021 and $11,937 (Figure 5) are technical challenge, feeling in 2020. Just averaging those who received of accomplishment and financial com- a bonus, the amount was $19,162. pensation in a statistical tie. (Respon- dents were asked to rank the top three.) Threats to manufacturing Respondents in 2022 have different Lack of available skilled workers 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% preferences. Going down the list in rank Lack of necessary materials order (2022, 2021 ranking in parenthe- Economy ses), other attributes included flexible Energy costs work hours (4, 5), ability to work from Inadequate management home (5, 7), relationship with boss (6, 8), Competition relationship with colleagues (7, 10), job security (8, 4), benefits (9, 6), company Government/political interference financial health (10, 18), location (11, Regulations, codes, standards, etc. 12), feeling of recognition (12, 9), and workload (13, 13). Figure 5 shows eight Taxes, tariffs on products more factors for job satisfaction. Outsourcing, offshoring For skills needed to get ahead, respon- Lack of investments for equipment dents were asked to check as many as software upgrade/replacement apply. Engineering skills jumped to a solid lead at 77%, followed by project Lack of investments for workflow, management skills (63%) and commu- manufacturing design upgrades nications/presentation skills (60%) and computer skills (58%) all virtually tied Downsizing for second. In 2021, engineering skills, Union pressures, restrictions project management skills and commu- nication/presentation skills were in a Other virtual tie for first among respondents. None In the 2022 results, team building skills Don't know was next at 44%. Considerably lower were language skills (21%), marketing/ 0% FIGURE 6: Lack of available skilled workers, lack of necessary materials, and economy are leading perceived threats to manufacturing. See more details about concerns on page 24. |20 May 2022 control engineering —

COVID-19 didn’t hurt most salaries, benefits uOnline Increased Unknown No effect 7% For more information, see this article online 15% and download the Control Engineering 2022 Career and Salary Report. 60% 18% CONSIDER THIS On the next pages, see related articles Decreased offering advices on: Advancement skills and threats FIGURE 7: 15% think the pandemic increased their salary and benefits, up from 7% in 2021. How to get ahead in engineering Most (60%) didn’t think there was an effect. How to hire and retain engineers Job training for success in manufacturing sales skills (16%), finance/accounting results from subscribers taking the sur- skills (14%) and recruitment skills (10%). vey relate to the reader. Online tables pro- KEYWORDS: 2022 salary survey, career See this graphic is in the next article, vide extra context. Industries reliant on advice highlighting career advice from survey automation, controls and instrumentation respondents. will need to make things easier to learn, LEARNING OBJECTIVES implement, us, and optimize for young- Learn about key threats to manufacturing As mentioned, top three perceived er workers as older and more experienced from the 2022 Control Engineering Career threats to manufacturing are lack of workers retire. and Salary Survey. available skills, lack of necessary materi- Examine skills needed to advance in als and economy and energy cost (Fig- Among those taking the survey, 42% engineering. ure 6). These are followed by inadequate were 60 and older, 33% 50 to 59 years of Compare and benchmark your career management, competition, government/ age, 16% 40 to 49 years of age, 7% 30 to 39 progress with peers. political interference, regulation codes years of age, 1% under 30 years of age and standards and taxes and tariffs. 1% would prefer not to say. ONLINE Benchmarking and link to the 2022 Control Next article in this section also offers Years working for current employer, Engineering Career and Salary Survey and more about threats to manufacturing. 43% 9 years or less, 26% 10 to 19 years, Report: If reading from the digital edition, 18% 20 to 29 years and 13% were 30 or click on the headline for benchmarking tables, While COVID-19 has impacted supply more years. looking at salary by age, education, years with chain economics, 60% of survey respon- current employer, years in current industry, dents didn’t perceive change to salary Highest level of education completed: engineering discipline, hours worked, facility and benefits as a result; 18% thought the 2% high school diploma, 6% trade/techni- size, employees managed and primary job pandemic decreased salary and benefits; cal school diploma, 8% associate’s degree, function. 15% thought they saw an increase; 7% 9% college attendance, 48% had a bache- didn’t know. lor’s degree, 23% master’s degree, 2% dual bachelor’s degrees, and 2% doctoral degree. Age, years at work, education 2021 Control Engineering Career and Salary Survey Demographics help put statistics in Years in current industry: 9% 9 or 2020 Control Engineering Career and Salary Survey fewer years, 12% 10 to 19 years, 21% 20 to context. It’s good to know how these 29 years, and half 30 years or more. ce and TechnologyTM The Control Engineering 2022 Career and Salary Report is sponsored by CFE Media and Technology. Mark T. Hoske is content manager, Con- trol Engineering, CFE Media and Tech- nology, [email protected]. Amanda Pelliccione, director of research and awards programs for CFE Media and Tech- nology, conducted the research and assem- bled the related report. control engineering — |May 2022 21

CAREERUPDATE Control Engineering Engineering advice, concerns Education and attitude were leading advice categories from respondents to the 2022 Control Engineering Career and Salary Survey research. Leading concerns were workforce and supply chain shortages. See more online. Leading career advice topics were on • The rate of change of procedures: Although I could design circles around education and attitude among six Not having in place ways of doing the job some of the “degree” folks, I couldn’t move categories from respondents to the prior to retiring ways that work. up any further in rank because the business 2022 Control Engineering Career and wanted a degree hanging on the wall. Salary Survey research. Leading write-in • My company cut too deep and is now concerns were workforce and supply chain/ paying the price with the inability to get Always keep learning. material shortages (p. 24). See more online. equivalent skills in hiring. Associates, trade school College is great foundation, but relevant Key advice includes: Education hands-on experience is almost more so. • Always upgrade skills and knowledge. Don't just go to college; get co-op/ • Take advantage of employer-spon- A college engineering degree is an intern experience. amazing thing. Get as much as you can and cross fields sored education programs early in your if possible. career as much as possible. A good mentor is better than college. Get professional engineering license A.S. or BS in Engineering and MBA. • Research emerging technologies and Add sales /marketing background. Have your company pay for advanced process capabilities. Advanced degree degrees. Artificial intelligence, machine Systems engineering. • Engineering is an exact science to be learning applied properly and ethically. Attitude Table 1: Engineering • Think, do, learn, repeat. career advice topics Allow your emotions to show at work; • Try to learn from the best and seek a however, don't go overboard. mentor who is an expert in their field. NUMBER OF CATEGORY • Prepare career plan and learn from RESPONSES Always be positive, encouraging. others. Always try your best no matter your • Show compassion to colleagues, learn 110 Education position. about them as individuals and the work- 90 Attitude Anything can be done, but not every- place environment will be much more 83 Engineering tips thing deserves to be done. enjoyable with less stress. 83 Communication Appreciate what you have. 82 Workplace strategies Attitude is the #1 requirement - other Major concerns: 76 Project management things can be taught and learned. • Lack of skilled workers in engineer- 30 Other Be humble. Don't be afraid to call out reality; say- ing. We have multiple job openings that TABLE 1: Formal, trade, hands-on, advanced ing everything is fine when it's not is are going unfilled because of a lack of and continuing education advice topped six destructive to business. engineers. We often extend offers to pro- topics, followed by all kinds of engineering Keep it simple. spective employees 1,000 miles or more attitude tips. All graphics courtesy: Control Think before speaking. away from their “home” office. Engineering Career and Salary Survey, 2022 Thoroughly study and then proceed. • Availability of parts: long lead time is going to have major impact on all projects. |22 May 2022 control engineering —

Engineering tips Skills needed to advance Be open to help other areas. Be thorough. Look from all sides Engineering 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Cause-effect analysis Project management Certification courses and exams Communication/presentation Check it more than once; design it based Computer on someone with no knowledge of what you Team-building are doing is going to build or run it. Language Code programing Marketing/sales Develop a reference library. Finance/accounting Don't overdesign. Don't reinvent; improve on something. Recruitment For newer hires, reach out to those Other around you on what they are doing to keep their skill sets up. More vintage per- Don't know sons, don't hesitate to use the new hires to help with tools. They are very savvy on 0% ways to do things faster, or know of tools to help. FIGURE: Top skills to get ahead are engineering skills, project management skills and com- munication/presentation skills and computer skills. Communication: A must Avoid local jargon, in a global work- Always listen to those affected by your Empower others. work; Be flexible; Be kind. Fix all problems, not only your own. space; this reduces misunderstandings Focus on time-cost relationship. Be direct and transparent. Be open to others’ ideas. Good PM is the success of companies. Be flexible and communicate in the Learn from those who have been there Keep records of everything and try to the longest before offering advice on find a system that works best for you. method that works for your management. something. Quality/cost/time: Only can have two Be smart, genuine, honest, and trans- Remember that everyone has some- of these at once. thing to contribute. Don’t look down on Run it like you own it. parent to those who are smart and mature. others, learn from them. For all others, just put your kid gloves on Understand the culture of your uOnline and get through it. organization. Clearly communicate; get to the point. Project management (PM) Don't fall into the habit of swearing; it Achieve targets. KEYWORDS: Engineering career advice, concerns looks uneducated and undisciplined. Acquire the technical skills that will LEARNING OBJECTIVES Effectively, clearly communicate so lis- Identify engineering advice related to education, teners can understand. enable good project management with attitude and tips. Face-to-face is better successful outcomes. Review workplace strategies and project If nobody knows what you've accom- management advice. plished, it didn't happen. Always follow up Understand concerns including workforce, Improve written and verbal communi- Ask plenty of questions; turn over all materials shortages. cations skills. the stones up front. CONSIDER THIS IT communication skills. Be a great team player. What advice or concerns about automation and Keep it concise; more words do not Document and follow up to ensure proj- controls would you like to share with peers in an always mean more information. ect steps are completed in target times. article? Leave emotion out of engineering. Draw and update a “priority vs. urgen- ONLINE cy” graph. Workplace strategies Accept challenges. Be your own best advocate. control engineering — |May 2022 23

CAREERUPDATE Biggest automation, controls job concerns in next 12 months TO SUPPLEMENT the multiple-choice If shipping delays continue, projects Lack of new capital for investment in question about perceived threats to man- could delay, which can cause gaps in bill- new business opportunities ufacturing (See page 20, Figure 6), a able work. write-in question asked, “Looking forward Lack of technical or process knowledge to the next 12 months, what is your big- Economy by immediate management gest job-related concern?” Responses were grouped into 10 topical categories: Business and the economy get better Politics/government “Workforce and workflow” and Materi- Currently, the economic and war impacts als and supply chain” were clear leaders on deployment of 5G and streaming along Company survivability. The global econo- among 130 replies, with 32 (25%) and 28 with next generation of products. my is a major concern, as is China's growth. (22%) responses, respectively (See table Economic downturn negatively affecting America is being decimated by abject greed 2). Many responses listed more than one the industry I'm in; Economy, innovation and Washington D.C. stupidity. topic. Highlights are follow, lightly edited Economic crisis -> job security for length and style. See more online. Unpredictable global economy, COVID- Federal government interference, supply 19 pandemic and Russia-Ukraine War. chain interruption, getting on-time products. Workforce, workflow Company management Inflation is eating me alive; salary frozen. Employee retention Inflation, loss of the dollar as the reserve Filling engineering department openings An upcoming merger; Company direc- currency, energy costs, absurd regulations. Finding enough skilled workers to meet tion, economy, part shortages demand. Work-life balance, health Finding people who can pass the securi- Cybersecurity ty screening; Integrating automation Improved company leadership and Body holding up; Health Keeping up with technology strategy. The amount of stress is a concern. Keeping up with the demand post-COVID Too much work; not enough resources. Need to double staff to handle work load Table 2: Biggest job-related I do not want 2022 to be like 2021 when I Not enough time to get required tasks concern (write in) had to put in 60 hours or more each week. completed; training new personnel. Too much after-hours work NO. RESPONSES TOPIC Career development Materials, supply chain 32 Workforce, workflow Finding, developing my next opportunity Forced to add responsibilities beyond Ability to obtain raw materials at reason- 28 Materials, supply chain skills able cost. No concerns. Plan to retire in July. 13 Economy Availability of parts: long lead time is Sustainability going to have major impact on all projects. 13 Company management Growth of the GREEN products and its Better supply chain management 12 Politics/government acceptance. COVID impact on supply chain, staffing Getting sufficient materials, replacement 11 Work-life balance, health Rising energy costs and how to mitigate parts, integrated circuits to meet schedules Shift in energy focus, country politics ce Getting the raw materials. Structural 10 Career development steel is becoming a huge issue for us. Mark T. Hoske is content manager, Con- Headcount reduction if we can't 5 Competition trol Engineering, CFE Media and Technol- maintain production due to limited raw ogy, [email protected]. Amanda materials. 3 Communications/ Pelliccione, director of research and awards presentation skills programs for CFE Media and Technology, conducted the research and assembled the 3 Sustainability related report. 130 TOTAL TABLE 2: Workforce and workflow was the leading write-in concern followed by materials and supply chain issues. |24 May 2022 control engineering —

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CAREERUPDATE WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT How to hire engineers other companies don’t know about Finding the right engineers for a company starts with a focus on leadership, training and a focus on the future. Learn about automated training. See six tips for effective mentorship. Anyone running an engineering One answer to all these questions is the How engineers learn business in 2022 is probably same: Leadership, training and a focus on Engineering school has only ever been having trouble finding great the future. Rising to meet these needs can people. Unfortunately, this help solve the hiring problem. intended as a foundation. It doesn’t teach isn’t new in industrial controls. There’s students how to do a job; it teaches them been a shortage of qualified workers for Seeing both sides of the employee/ how to solve generic problems under ideal decades, and it’s getting worse. employer relationship is helpful, especially conditions. Real jobs have always been having worked in a lot of businesses as a learned on the job with the most effec- Companies looking to improve their consultant and contracted engineer. These tive examples involving mentorship. With situations need to take a step back from engineering workforce observations and each new project, a young engineer is immediate needs and ask, “What does the recommendation may help to hire good coached by an experienced engineer to industry need, and what do employees people when nobody else can. see what’s important in a given task, work need? Where do controls engineers come efficiently and avoid pitfalls. This is pow- from? How can we find/make more? How Where do controls erful, but also limited. can we keep them?” engineers come from? The benefit of this approach is that new uOnline New controls engineers are often hired engineers get access to the expertise they with some sort of engineering back- need on demand. Each new skill and task ground, electrical engineering probably can be learned in the context of that task. KEYWORDS: workforce development, worker being most common. Historically, con- This is ultimately how engineers think training, worker retention trols engineers and technicians have bub- and work-specific rules and processes for bled up out of maintenance positions. specific tasks so the training is a direct LEARNING OBJECTIVES Someone had the knack and started pro- model of how to do the job. Engineers are about more than being able to gramming a PLC, and now they’re a con- fix and repair things: They can offer many skills trols engineer. The challenges of this approach mostly beyond that. revolve around time. Experienced engi- There are challenges in both paths. Hir- neers’ time is very valuable, so that’s an Look beyond their years of experience and find ing an electrical engineer assures you have expensive investment to bring new engi- engineers who are eager to learn and are flexible someone with foundational knowledge for neers up to speed. It also can take a long and positive in their approach to work and life. the position, but little to no background time for enough variety of projects to in industrial automation. Hiring a mainte- come around before a new engineer gets Automating the training process as much as nance technician with “the knack” means all the relevant experience they need to possible, and giving the engineer a strong mentor, getting someone who knows industrial graduate from the mentorship approach. will also help them grow in their profession and life. automation, but they might have some big holes in foundational knowledge. In practice, new engineers often get ONLINE intermittent mentorship from many peo- See additional workforce development stories at workforce-development/ CONSIDER THIS What are the most important traits when hiring an engineer, and what are your results? Let us know! |26 May 2022 control engineering —

ple. Nobody’s keeping track of what the TO FIND THE BEST engineering candidate for a company, they should look beyond years of new engineer has learned or still needs experience or qualifications and instead look for engineers who are eager and willing to learn to learn, each mentor presents different and expand their knowledge base. Courtesy: Breen Machine Automation Services LLC methods, and the learner must figure out how to stitch all the different methods Hiring an experienced controls engi- neers are more interchangeable and avoids into their own style and system. This can neer can sometimes come with unexpect- the effort of unteaching bad habits. be a very slow process. ed challenges. A person with experience is a person with a preferred way of doing Focus on an engineer’s The solution to controls things, but that doesn’t always fit with attitude and aptitude staff shortages their new employer’s needs. A lot of turn- over in controls engineering results from OK, we’re ready to try hiring and train- At the most basic level, the industry different expectations in programming ing less experienced controls staff, but needs more controls engineers and tech- style and other job activities rather than how do we select the right candidates if nicians. We can make more by improving any work quality deficiency. they don’t have 5 years of experience to training throughout the industry – more, review? Focus on the things you need that better and more accessible. Universi- A company that can train their own can’t be taught: Attitude and aptitude. ties don’t target such specific job roles, engineers can engrain whatever work style This is an idea I borrowed from Murray so it’s our responsibility as the employers makes sense. This helps engineers work Carter, and it’s worked very well. of controls personnel to do this training. together more efficiently, makes manage- It won’t be easy, but it’s the only way to ment and scheduling easier because engi- I can teach a person to draw schemat- climb out of this hole, and it brings with it ics, but I can’t teach them to have the numerous benefits. Widening the engineering talent pool Controls engineers are known for being crotchety and unusual. We may laugh about that and even might mini- mize interactions with customers, but that can be a downside of hiring from within the current controls engineers talent pool. A company that can quickly train new engineers can hire from a larger talent pool. Hiring people with computer science backgrounds provides a much larger field than controls engineering, allowing a wider look at other needed trait among job candidates. They also tend to have a very strong programming background, which is what computer science is, after all, so they pick up programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and other types of industrial programming. This also gives companies the capability to program any- thing PC- or server-related, which is a growing part of industrial automation most controls engineers have no experi- ence with. control engineering — |May 2022 27

CAREERUPDATE same values as the team. I have a list of Instead, let’s look at this like engineers. a very streamlined system for drawing personality traits I review before every Engineers are efficient and effective by schematics. We know exactly what goes interview, and we ask questions intended following a set process repeatedly. This into the process such as a bill of mate- to tease these out. process can be codified and learned. rials (BOM), design notes document, etc., we’ve built templates to simplify and For example, we aim to be trusted and First, look at the job description and speed up the process, we’ve built a library valued advisors to our customers. That break things into logical chunks. This will of reusable blocks to drop into those tem- requires people who are genuine, respect- vary by position, but let’s use a controls plates, and we’ve written a style guide to ful, truth-oriented and creative problem engineer position as an example. For cus- keep a consistent feel. This is a system that solvers. We ask values-related questions tom and challenging automation projects, can be taught, and by putting in the effort in a pre-interview questionnaire to allow people need a broad background. up front, we’ve made it easy to teach and efficient for all our engineers to use. Now ‘You don't need years of experience. Engineers that we have an efficient system, what’s are efficient and effective. By following a set the next step? Automate the system. process repeatedly, a process can be codified Automating the training process Engineering time is expensive, so teach ’and learned. • Electrical design • Programming this system once, do it well and record prospective employees to really think • Panel building it for future employee training, which is about these things, then we ask follow-up • Field wiring better and more efficient than Microsoft questions and run through scenarios in • Troubleshooting. PowerPoint. Recording the process has the interview. This is the “attitude” por- many other benefits such as: tion of the process. Break it down further. For example, “electrical design” is very broad, and too • Trainer’s time spent only once When it comes to aptitude, we’re look- vague to help train anyone. What does a • Videos can be organized and have the ing for “the knack” – a person who can person need to do when it comes to elec- quickly learn new things and apply them trical design? fluff edited out for faster training in creative ways. This has very little to do • Videos can be rewatched as needed with experience. A person who’s never pro- • Power distribution and load sizing • Training is very accessible anytime grammed a PLC before may still be a great • Schematics candidate if they’re able to quickly learn • Panel layout. and at whatever pace makes sense for and do similar things. To this end, we have the trainee many little aptitude-related pieces of our Each of these tasks is trainable. It’s pos- • Mentor’s time is less interrupted with interviews, ranging from Sudokus to sev- sible to sit a new employee down and questions. eral programming languages, and targeted show them how to do it. But don’t give at understanding how a person learns and this bullet list to a seasoned employee, sit Six tips for effective mentorship thinks rather than what they know. them down with the new person, and say, No matter how much formal train- “Train this person.\" A bullet list is a great Don’t buy into automation myths start, but it’s not a system. It’s not repeat- ing you create, mentorship will always OK, so we know we want to train, and able or efficient, and it won’t consistently play an important role. Companies can’t produce sought-after employees. just assign a mentor to a new employee we know how to find candidates. How and expect a consistent, good outcome. do we turn them into seasoned engi- Each bullet point must have a consis- Mentorship needs to be intentional and neers/technicians? This is where the rub- tent process. For example, we’ve made aligned towards real goals. Those goals ber meets the road. Dispel with years need to benefit the company and employ- of myths that custom automation is too ee and are the responsibility of both to custom to be taught. “You need years of achieve. This topic deserves a book of its experience.” own, but here’s a quick breakdown on crit- ical points. 1. Start by listing the skills you’d like a “full-fledged” engineer/technician to have. This is the guide for the rest of the pro- |28 May 2022 control engineering —

cess, and an easy way to keep everyone on 4. Let the mentor and mentee know pens when we don’t have enough people the same page. mistakes are expected as part of the learn- to build those things? We need to build ing process and aren’t a sign of failure. those, too. There are very capable people 2. Plan for the official mentorship to The mentee will learn and perform bet- out there looking for a company able and end. The skills list will help a lot here. ter if they’re not afraid for the job, and the willing to invest in them. Companies need Make sure people know when the “new mentor will be less likely to distance from to stop thinking “5 years of experience” guy” isn’t the “new guy” anymore. This the mentee if mistakes are made. and start thinking “How productive can could be as simple as an announcement at we help these people be?” a company meeting, a change in title, or 5. Check in monthly with the mentor any other public gesture that fits in your and mentee, separately, to see how things By offering quality training to compe- company culture. If the company culture is are going. You’ll learn a lot about the tent people, we’re better able to serve our focused around utilitarian discussions (as mentorship program, how well it’s work- customers, grow our businesses, and keep engineers do), that’s also fine. Part of our ing, and what these specific individuals doing the things we do best. We also get rite of passage is the announcement “X” need to succeed. to tailor employees’ work habits to best fit person is now ready to take on emergen- our business needs. ce cy work for customers, which often doesn’t 6. Keep the mentee involved in the pro- allow room for a mentor to participate. cess. Let them have a say in their own Jon Breen is owner of Breen Machine training goals, pacing and mentor selec- Automation Services, LLC, a CFE Media 3. If the mentor attends training for any tion as much as reasonable. and Technology content partner. Edited by reason, send the mentee with. It’s good to Chris Vavra, web content manager, Con- have employees eventually support each Make smarter engineering trol Engineering, CFE Media and Technol- other as equals, rather than mentor-men- hiring, retention happen ogy, [email protected]. tee forever. Training together gives them a chance to develop this dynamic. We’re all in the business of building the things that build things, but what hap- Manufacturers remain confident despite challenges More than two-thirds of manufacturers remain optimistic about their business prospects despite supply chain and talent challenges, according to a survey by Sikich. Manufacturers have remained opti- And in the face of global supply chain consider adopting advanced technolo- mistic about their business pros- upheaval, manufacturers have been gy that improves supply chain visibility pects over the past six months, forced to revisit their supply chain strat- and responsiveness. And work to improve according to a report from Sikich. In the egies. One-third of survey respondents recruitment and retention by focusing on Sikich Industry Pulse: Manufacturing and are sourcing alternative supplies and one- creating a superior employee experience.” Distribution, nearly 70% of manufactur- fifth are sourcing alternative products to ers rated their optimism of business pros- address supply chain challenges. Cybersecurity challenges persist pects over the next six months at a seven or More than half of respondents expe- higher on a scale of one to 10. This marks “I’m pleased to see manufacturers’ opti- only a slight decrease from the previous mism remain strong, even amid the pleth- rienced an information security event in Industry Pulse survey from September ora of challenges they are facing,” said Jerry the past year, and 36% experienced two 2021. In that survey, 71% of manufacturers Murphy, partner-in-charge of manufac- or more different kinds of security events. rated their optimism at a seven or higher. turing and distribution services at Sikich Nearly three quarters of manufacturers in a press release. “With the pandemic, reported catching email phishing scams. At the same time, manufacturers must supply chain disruptions and geopoliti- The report found nearly 34% of companies overcome supply chain and talent chal- cal turmoil continuing to cast a shadow experienced unemployment fraud in the lenges. Only 10% of manufacturers are over the industry, manufacturers should past 12 months, and 8% experienced a ran- “very” confident in their ability to obtain focus on strengthening key parts of their somware incident. ce the talent required to support their busi- operations to reduce their vulnerability ness strategies over the next 12 months. to these external challenges. For example, – Edited from a Sikich LLP press release by CFE Media and Technology. control engineering — |May 2022 29

CAREERUPDATE 3Career tips for engineers Engineering Leaders Under 40 winner Michael Horth offers advice for young engineers on how to succeed and thrive in the workforce. Engineers often need advice on tion and began the company’s eral years, I was frequently the journey through engineering career planning. Heed the three training program to become a on the road working at cus- tips below from an engineer early in an automation and controls system controls engineer. tomer sites,” Horth said. “I integration career. “I just fell in love with pro- used this as an opportunity 1. Be open to new opportunities gramming robots,” said Horth. to meet controls engineers Being open to new opportunities when starting a career (not just engineer- “I didn’t plan on this career, from other companies and ing) can lead to many possibilities. After studying mechanical engineering in col- but you have to be open to the learn their tips and tricks lege, Horth became a controls engineer after learning about AMT, which was opportunities you are present- to strengthen my skills. My recruiting at his college’s career fair and made the company and engineering pro- ed with, and it has worked out MICHAEL HORTH advice is to not get set in fession seem interesting. really well for me. I’m a tinkerer is a senior controls your ways; be open to other After an interview, during the hiring process, Horth met a representative from by nature and my hobbies also engineer for Applied methods of doing things.” each department. During this process, Horth became intrigued by the idea of involve programming so this job Manufacturing Tech- Being open-minded is programming robots. Although without direct experience, he was offered the posi- is a really good fit.” nologies. Courtesy: also critical in another way. Applied Manufactur- “One pitfall to avoid is about uOnline 2. Know thyself constructive criticism and ing Technologies Engineers need to know communication,” Horth said. KEYWORDS: career advice, Engineering Leaders Under 40 themselves and understand what job situ- “If you are offered some feedback, take it LEARNING OBJECTIVES ations will work for them and what would well and use it to improve.” Being open to new opportunities is a great way for engineers to get their foot in the door. be a deal breaker. While there is no job Communication also should go both Engineers should know their strengths and that engineers will like 100% of the time, ways. “If you have a concern about a pro- weaknesses and find what works best for their career. it’s important to enjoy the core task. cess or a task, don’t bottle up your con- Open communication and honesty can help “You need to take the time to figure cerns, let your manager hear you,” Horth engineers avoid potential pitfalls. out what will work best for you,” Horth said. “You might not get the result you ONLINE See additional workforce development stories at said. “Do you prefer a large or small team? want, but if you don’t communicate, you workforce-development/ Will you travel? If so, how much trav- have no chance of things changing.” el? How much creative freedom do you Following these basic tenets has helped prefer versus having a highly structured Horth carve a path of success and start a environment? Do you like overtime or career he enjoys and provide an example a predictable 40-hour week? You should for younger engineers to follow. ce have an idea of where you want to be in five years. Will you keep doing engineer- Michael Horth is a senior controls engineer ing, or do you want to move to the man- for Applied Manufacturing Technologies, a agement side of the business?” CFE Media and Technology content part- 3. Keep communication ner. Horth was among 2021 recipients of the Engineering Leaders Under 40 award. open and avoid pitfalls Edited by Chris Vavra, web content manag- Staying open-minded to new ideas er, Control Engineering, CFE Media and and possibilities is also crucial. “For sev- Technology, [email protected]. |30 May 2022 control engineering —

CAREERUPDATE WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT Preparing for career changes as an engineer Manufacturing operations are constantly changing, and engineers can stay ahead of the curve by volunteering and learning as much as possible. Manufacturing operations are you will get a chance to experience the and clients because I can reflect on ear- constantly changing. The challenges they face through the lens of lier work outside of engineering. These uncertainty around COVID- something you are more comfortable with. experiences give me a better appreciation 19, supply chain issues and of the needs and wants of clients, and the corporate restructuring and consolida- In my career, I leveraged technical various stakeholders employed by cli- tion in the industry has exasperated that experience implementing cutting-edge ents, not only those working on the plant change. When it comes to career growth, floor. ce embracing and preparing for change can ‘Taking diverse projects be a key driver in career advancement. Sam Russem is senior director of smart man- allows you to become more ufacturing solutions at Grantek Systems Inte- Diversify projects, tasks, roles gration. Edited by Chris Vavra, web content Prepare for change by challeng- versatile, while sharpening manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media and Technology, [email protected]. ing yourself to take on many projects, a core skillset as you develop tasks, roles and responsibilities. Doing this allows you to become a more versa- an appreciation for other uOnline tile professional, while also sharpening a core skillset as you develop an apprecia- tion for other aspects of operations within ’aspects of operations. KEYWORDS: system integration, workforce theorganization. development Transitioning from a small to mid-sized LEARNING OBJECTIVES system integration and manufacturing con- sulting company, Grantek needed to build data collection and reporting systems to Manufacturing is constantly changing due to leadership around strategic areas of focus to unite sales, marketing, engineering, help the marketing department with webi- technology and cultural changes. delivery, and other company areas around nar content, to support sales as a system industry solutions. With experience sup- architect and proposal generator, and sup- Engineers can stay ahead of the curve by being porting each of those departments, I was in versatile. a strong position to thrive during a reorga- nization of operations. Volunteer for new roles and challenges as much Help when other departments ask port the consulting team with writing as possible. I recommend raising your hand when technical requirements. Early on, it was ONLINE other departments ask for help. This way, uncomfortable to engage in roles outside See additional workforce development stories at of my engineering focus (classic impos- tor syndrome), but by raising my hand workforce-development/ Learn more about Grantek in the CFE Media and and taking risks on new opportunities Technology Global System Integrators Database. provides experiences for future career opportunities. integratorProfile/5399d0eae4b025bf87df4529 In my current position, I find myself CONSIDER THIS in a better position to serve the company What is the best engineering career advice you have received? control engineering — |May 2022 31

CAREERUPDATE SYSTEM INTEGRATION, EDUCATION Workforce development offers opportunities for workers, companies Jane Addams Resource Corp. (JARC) specializes in workforce development and supports healthy communities and economies by teaching low-income adults and workers the skills they need to earn a living wage. An aging workforce, emerging (JARC) is a 501c3 organization specializ- job seekers for careers in the metalworking new technologies and continu- ing in workforce development, including and advanced manufacturing industries. ing decline of trades in high workplace safety, metrology, statistical schools and community col- process control, G-code programming Training CNC operators, leges will result in an estimated 2 million and welding processes. They support welders; financial coaching unfilled manufacturing jobs in the U.S. healthy communities and economies by over the next 10 years. This is a trage- teaching low-income adults and workers JARC has a dual-strategy approach to dy when so many people struggle to pay the skills they need to earn a living wage. poverty alleviation. The Sector strategy bills, find a job with a livable wage and JARC goes beyond basic skills training prepares low-income jobseekers for mid- support their families in cities like Chica- and connects job seekers with good jobs dle-skill positions employers need to fill go, which have a high cost of living. in the manufacturing sector. By provid- today such as computer numerical con- ing integrated services, JARC trainees can trol (CNC) operator and welder. The Cen- Jane Addams Resource Corporation ter for Working Families strategy helps develop life skills that can help cre- families move past financial distress to ate a pathway out of poverty. financial stability through comprehensive support services like financial coaching JARC has sites and offers pro- and public benefits screening. grams in the cities of Chicago and Baltimore and is currently scaling up It is the long-term focus and inter- to offer services in Rhode Island and section of these two strategies that leads Indiana within the next 5 years. The to the strongest outcomes for disadvan- goal of JARC's Careers in Manufac- taged jobseekers and their families. The turing Programs (CMP) is preparing combination has proven to be effective in propelling low-income individuals to JANE ADDAMS Resource Corporation middle-class status. (JARC) customizes training curricula for each incumbent worker training Incumbent worker training class to address a company’s needs advances skills, job retention and training gaps. Courtesy: JARC In addition to providing alterna- tive pathways to careers and mobilizing |32 May 2022 control engineering —

low-income adults, JARC’s Business and competencies, and relevant industry cre- Vavra, web content manager, Control Workforce Services (BWS) provides cus- dentials. JARC works with its employer Engineering, CFE Media and Technology, tomized incumbent worker training for partners to understand their manufac- [email protected]. manufacturing employer partners. The turing processes, technologies and cul- goal of the BWS training is to elevate the tures. JARC then develops high-quality uOnline incumbent workers’ skill levels to ensure workforce training to align with employ- job retention and future wage increases. er partner business goals. JARC devel- ops customized training curricula for The classes help low-skilled work- each incumbent worker training class to KEYWORDS: workforce development, skills gap ers build technical skills and facilitate address that company’s needs and train- upward career mobility. These also opti- ing gaps. High-demand incumbent work- LEARNING OBJECTIVES mize the employers’ ability to devel- er classes include workplace safety, print Jane Addams Resource Corporation (JARC) op and retain qualified employees and reading, metrology, statistical process specializes in workforce development. increase their competitiveness. control, geometric dimensioning and tol- They help low-skilled workers build technical erances, G-code programming and weld- skills and facilitate upward mobility in their Develop a training plan ing processes. ce careers. with employer partners Developing their skills improves manufacturers’ Danielle Hoske, director of development, ability to retain qualified employees. Over the last 25 years, JARC has devel- data and communications, Jane Addams oped a model of customized, employ- Resource Center (JARC). Edited by Chris ONLINE er-driven programs that weave together See more workforce development stories at coursework, demonstration of hands-on workforce-development/ CONSIDER THIS What workforce development initiatives are in your community and what do they specialize in? ANSWERS VIRTUALIZATION, CLOUD, ANALYTICS What is just enough industrial data analysis? What if your just-in-time (JIT) director of business development, E Tech WHAT IS “Just enough industrial data supply chain strategy lim- Group, and Matt Ruth, president, Avanceon: analysis?” Laurie Cavanaugh, director of its were exposed in a glob- business development, E Tech Group, and al pandemic. Is just-enough industrial • Determine if just-enough data Matt Ruth, president, Avanceon, share data analysis working for operations? Is analytics provides enough benefits to some advice here and more in an April 21 the right data getting to the right people operations. webcast, archived for a year afterward. to optimize operations in time? Where Courtesy: Control Engineering, CFE Media are the bottlenecks and how are they • Identify if enough data intelligence and Technology being addressed? Where’s data going to (results of analytics) is getting to people become information and who’s seeing it? who matter. cles to more effective application and use In the cloud or on premise or both? Are of data analytics. your knowledge brokers seeing the right • Examine bottlenecks in data analysis information quickly enough to make the and how to address them. Webcast is moderated by Mark right decisions, or are your analytics too T. Hoske, content manager, Control much, too late to be effective? • Review tools and architectures for Engineering. eliminating bottlenecks. In an RCEP webcast, “Just enough indus- trial data analysis?” live on April 21 and • See lessons learned in applying data archived for a year, Laurie Cavanaugh, analytics (too little too late or just enough in time). Poll questions during the webcast benchmark participants industrial data analytics maturity level and look at obsta- control engineering — |May 2022 33

ANSWERS AUTOMATION: SUSTAINABILITY, RESILIENCE Arkadiusz Grzegorek, TME Overcoming industrial automation implementation challenges Industry 4.0, elevated levels of efficiency Industry 4.0 advantages, will lead to better use of assets and increased cost implications output, but upfront financial costs can be difficult for some manufacturers. Through widespread implementation of Indus- try 4.0, elevated levels of efficiency will lead to FIGURE 1: Industry 4.0 adoption makes it possible to trans- better use of assets and increased output. This form the way in which factory production lines, means orders can be fulfilled quicker to keep pace processing plants and warehouse operations with customers’ demands. It’s also possible to function daily. In many cases, the financial out- improve product quality and reduce waste. lay involved may be a problem. Companies look- ing to employ such technologies will need to do so Another pivotal aspect of Industry 4.0 is the while keeping related expenditures to a minimum. ability to continuously monitor the key param- Market trends suggest a need to examine how this eters of different items of machinery. This allows goal can be achieved. any issues affecting overall performance to be According to analyst consultancy Statista, investigated and addressed. It also can support the worldwide industrial automation market is predictive maintenance activities, which means going to experience substantial growth. Having component parts that need replacement can be already generated more than $175 billion in rev- identified before causing downtime in production enue during 2020, it is expected to hit the $265 workflows. billion mark by 2025 - which equates to a 9% com- pound annual growth rate (CAGR), according Industrial equipment remains in service for to a March 9 Statista study, “Market size of protracted periods of time. Large-scale invest- industrial automation globally 2020-2025.” ments already made mean such equipment cannot A Fortune Business Insights be replaced within a short timeframe. The ques- March study, “Industri- tion is getting the most out of Industry 4.0 while al Automation Market keeping associated costs down. Size, Share and COVID- 19 Impact Analysis...” pre- Before embarking on migration to a smart fac- dicts this 9% CAGR will tory arrangement, the cost implications need to be remain beyond that time- fully understood. In situations where there is only frame, resulting in a total limited available budget to fund this work, compa- annual worth surpassing $355 nies will need an alternative to wholesale replace- billion by 2028. ment of existing machinery by look for ways to upgrade what they have. Modernizing connectivity infrastructure Effective connectivity must be at the founda- tion of any industrial automation system. It is through this that all data will be captured for con- stituent machinery and processes to be monitored, |34 May 2022 control engineering —

Products used for modernizing connectivity infrastructure FIGURE 2: ENABLING CONVENIENT COMMUNICATION among equipment support- ing different serial interface standards, the Advantech ADAM-4520-F is an analysis undertaken and improvements proposed. RS-232 to RS-422/RS-485 converter module capable of delivering 115.2kbps This connectivity will be used to execute neces- data rates. By attaching one of these units to equipment that was original- sary actions, should a rapid response be needed ly fitted with RS-232 interfacing, it is possible to convert the RS-232 signals to a particular scenario. If it is to work optimal- into isolated RS-422 or RS485 signals. Through its use, communication dis- ly, then one platform, where everything is using tances of up to 1200m can be supported and as many as 32 nodes connect- the same communication protocol, would be ed. There is no need to change software, thereby facilitating the upgrade desirable. process. As well as having 3kV galvanic isolation, this module has a built- in surge protection mechanism. An operational temperature range of -10 to Communication can be vertical or horizon- 70°C is covered. Supplied in a compact ABS enclosure (with 70mm x 122mm tal. Vertical communication relies on two-way x 30mm dimensions) it can be DIN-rail or panel mounted. (duplex) data transmissions between pieces of equipment and the company’s operation manage- Supporting the Modbus TCP protocol, the Brainboxes ED-588 Ethernet ment system. Horizontal communication gener- gateway allows existing industrial equipment to interact with the enterprise ally means that acquired data will be uploaded to infrastructure further upstream. It offers a robust and intelligent “control the cloud, enabling authorized personnel to access side” device that provide the interface to systems on the factory floor envi- it remotely. The data can be used to study trends ronment, commonly referred to as “process side.” It has 8 non-isolated digital or search for any anomalies that might have a input and 8 non-isolated digital output channels. The Ethernet port enables lasting detrimental effect on the industrial site’s data to be transferred at 100Mbps rates. This DIN rail-mounted unit is sup- operations. plied in a compact form factor (with dimensions of 101mm x 128mm x 22.6mm), minimizing cabinet space. These units can be attached to a 24V Items of equipment that have been in opera- supply, and are housed in insulated polyamide casings which are IP20 rated. tion for a long while often will depend on the use It may be used to control fans, solenoid valves, reed switches, lamps, or of various fieldbus protocols, many established motors. In addition, the gateway can deal with data coming from many sen- decades ago. This presents challenges when they sors. No software is needed, as the unit can be accessed from a web brows- need to interface with back-office enterprise or er. Since it is installed as a COM port on a Microsoft Windows PC, it has full cloud infrastructure more recently deployed. If backward compatibility with older equipment models. Short circuit and ESD such legacy machinery is to be made compatible protection features are incorporated, as well as over-temperature shutdown. with modern industrial automation requirements, it will call for a retrofitting connectivity project. Narrowing the industrial uOnline automation connectivity gap Connectivity solutions and the attributes needed For many industrial operations, there is still a major disconnect between what happens on the KEYWORDS: automation, Hardware intended to bring next-generation factory floor and higher levels. Realizing greater industrial automation, connectivity to legacy industrial equipment or automation advantages requires change. Through Industrial Internet of Things instrumentation must be straightforward to install. retrofit options like the ones described here, the Space constraints also may need to be considered. route towards Industry 4.0 does not need to be LEARNING OBJECTIVES complicated or expensive. Using industrial con- Industry 4.0 adoption It also is important this hardware is robust verter modules and smart sensor plug-ins, it improves production; to meet the industrial application environment. is possible to renovate longstanding industrial network upgrade costs are Extreme temperatures, shocks and vibrations as operations and start bringing them into the next an obstacle. well as the threat of electro-static discharge (ESD) industrial era. ce and potential liquid ingress must all be considered Companies not wanting for reliability. Arkadiusz Grzegorek, head of automation-main- to replace large-scale tenance division at TME, part of Advantech. Edit- industrial equipment should ed by Chris Vavra, web content manager, Control find ways to upgrade Engineering, CFE Media and Technology, industrial networks. [email protected]. ONLINE More IIoT, Industry 4.0 at https://www.controleng. com/iiot-industrie-4-0/ CONSIDER THIS How is connectivity improving at your plant? control engineering — |May 2022 35

ANSWERS SUSTAINABILITY, RESILIENCE Randy Otto, ECS Solutions Automating manual processes Streamlining the most basic of operations on the factory floor is often overlooked, but it can have very positive impacts for operations and the workforce. uOnline Imagine a situation where your plant floor ment is as automated as it can get. Are either of employees require less training to become fully those situations true? World-class companies find functional for operations. Also imagine a situ- ways to get more from their vintage equipment, and KEYWORDS: Automation, ation where employees can be interchanged on they tie additional, ancillary steps into their newer system integration different equipment and operations instead of rel- automation investments. The bonus can be that this egated to one machine, cell or role. Now imagine can empower employees, as well. LEARNING OBJECTIVES this is done in a way that employees feel engaged and are achieving results accurately. Sound impos- There are huge opportunities in this regard for Automating manual sible? It’s not. most manufacturers. When people hear the word processes can make Every sector of employment has been hit by the “automation,” they think of automated physical workers' jobs easier and employee shortage of the last few years. COVID- operations that occur repetitively and at a speed more fulfilling. 19 has exacerbated this situation, and all types of and accuracy that human operators could not employers have felt it, from the most unskilled mimic. That is correct in many cases, but it’s only Examine how the company labor positions through the highest level of profes- after the proper materials have been sourced and executes manual tasks and sional employees. Manufacturing has been hit from readied for production. find ways to improve it with all sides, and many companies struggle to fill tech- automation. nical and non-technical plant floor, logistics and It is also true after the equipment or devices other areas. ancillary to an automated cell have been placed into A paperless plant floor can the proper position or mode for operation. These streamline operations and Switching to more-automated processes types of functions and operations could yield high simplify tasks. Employee shortages are forcing many manufac- returns if companies thought to incorporate them into their machinery, processes and records. ONLINE turers to take a hard look at their operations and See more on workforce streamline however they can. Some outsource man- Operator terminal: benefits development at ufacturing and professional functions, and some of a paperless plant floor https://www.controleng. embrace technology with software for automated com/system-integration/ human resources (HR), accounting, payroll, logis- It’s also worth launching a paperless plant floor, workforce-development/ tics, and enterprise resource planning (ERP) inter- which has accurate instructions and permanent and in the Career Update faces. Streamlining the most basic of operations on records without having to transfer paperwork or section in this issue. the factory floor is often overlooked. manually collect (and quantify and store) informa- tion upon the completion of an operation. Oper- CONSIDER THIS This is often the result of mindsets that accept ators can arrive at a given work area and receive What are you doing to older equipment and processes as “they are what simple, step-by-step instructions from one elec- reduce manual processes? they are” or that newer, highly automated equip- tronic terminal that walks them through every facet of manual setup and verification before and during |36 May 2022 control engineering —

INSIGHTS VIRTUALIZATION, CLOUD, ANALYTICS Industrial edge use, outlook Mark T. Hoske, Control Engineering editor for 2022 and beyond: Expert interview / content manager since 1994, asked Jason series, Jason Andersen Andersen, vice president strategy and business lines, at Stratus Technologies, for We’re approaching at inflection done outside data center or cloud. We focus advice about applying industrial edge tech- point for increased industrial on industrial edge for manufacturing, ener- nologies. edge use in process control and gy such as oil and gas and renewables, trans- factory automation applications, explained portation including rail and airports. Some are farther ahead than others, often Jason Andersen, Stratus vice president strat- because of prior software choices. egy and business lines. In the computer How does the industrial industry for 30 years, Andersen spent a lot edge differ from automation? It’s helpful to consider an application of time working to understand customer maturity model for industrial edge applica- needs. Andersen applied those perspectives Right now, we’re approaching an inflec- tions, starting from isolated (what DCS was) to edge computing trends in a video dis- tion point. Distributed control system (DCS) through to the most-advanced stage, invis- cussion with Mark T. Hoske, Control Engi- suppliers are making more agile systems ible, where the system takes care of itself, is neering editor/content manager since 1994. with more general-purpose equipment that’s adaptable with artificial intelligence (AI), Summary advice follows. See more online. more expandable and flexible and less pro- and requires little or no human intervention. prietary. Supervisory control and data acqui- Demographics are changing. There are fewer What is the industrial edge? sition (SCADA) applications have been on workers, especially in operational technol- Many types of edge technologies are out this path for a long time. Discrete manu- ogy (OT) areas. Tighter controls save money facturing is warming up to less proprietary and improve quality and throughput. ce there, and they vary by market. Industrial applications, as are renewable energy appli- edge is where general-purpose computing is cations, and most other vertical areas also. a production run. Everything an operator needs to Streamline operator experiences 3Fast Facts be told can be added to an interface screen and, in All of this is a means to add simple steps to many cases, can be added to the physical machine Operator terminals can interface terminals that already exist on the floor. make all manual tasks easier by making them more alleviate the need for specifically directed and repeatable without hav- intricate knowledge of This might include electronic verification of ing to engage in an extensive amount of training post-production manual traveler paperwork, raw materials preparation, to achieve the desired results. If existing physi- paperwork processes. setup standard operating procedures (SOPs) with cal terminals can be updated, then this becomes a e-checklists, diagrams, embedded .PDF documen- relatively low investment compared to large-scale uOperators observe the tation and in other ways. Many operator termi- physical automation projects. All of this results in a automated process nals can present information in multiple languages more streamlined experience for operators. simultaneously. uOperators input Now is as good a time as any to perform this information when Not only does this powerful use of technology review. Examine how the company executes man- prompted provide the means to instruct any user through how ual tasks. Talk to operators about any piece of their to set up manual items, but it also provides a seam- overall work function that is manual. Then learn uSystem adds the less way to record responses before and during regu- how those functions can be creatively rolled into information to other lar operation. This could include simple verification living pages on automation terminals. The more collected information. of instructions check off and include timing of oper- companies can roll into these types of operations, ator input to prompts. All of this can be integrated the easier it will be to apply effective human capital into permanent records in a way that doesn’t require to execute the repetitive tasks. ce intricate knowledge of post-production manual paperwork processes. Operators simply observe the Randy Otto is CEO of ECS Solutions. Edited by automated process, input information when prompt- Chris Vavra, web content manager, Control Engi- ed clearly, and the system adds that information to neering, CFE Media and Technology, other collected information. [email protected]. control engineering — |May 2022 37

ANSWERS SUSTAINABILITY, RESILIENCE John Lee, Matrix Technologies Inc. Creating automation interoperability, sustainability at a resin plant, flour mill Understand business goals and requirements and have ways to test requirements and measure automation project success. Industrial controls advances are contributing to The project was part of a larger manufacturing sustainability and resilience. With COVID-19, execution system (MES) but this had unique goals the supply chain lost many just-in-time (JIT) to monitor the time and temperature of the resin connections and industrial controls and auto- mix inside and outside of the warming ovens. It mation technologies promoting resiliency become was also time sensitive to be delivered to the down- more important. As more companies measure stream processing area for extrusion. A system was energy savings and carbon footprint, industrial needed that could monitor these metrics and pro- controls are helping. vide wide visibility, and exception and out-of-speci- Control Engineering asked Matrix Technologies fication notifications. about these topics. Responses cover two projects; an adhesive film resin plant and at a flour mill. Q: What automation was involved? The movement of materials was tracked with a uOnline Adhesive film manufacturer system integration project warehouse management system and the data was provided to a Microsoft structured query language KEYWORDS: System Q: Describe the resin project and how interopera- (SQL) Server. The system allowed the information integration projects, bility helped supply chain resiliency? to be viewed in human-machine interface (HMI) manufacturing resiliency screens and SQL Server Reporting Services reports. An adhesive film manufacturer needed to Temperature probes were used in each warming LEARNING OBJECTIVES enhance its internal supply chain from different oven to provide the control system with tempera- Understand control system areas of the facility. The mixing area produces a ture information, and time was measured whenever integration scope and resin which needed to be temperature controlled. It the resin totes were moved in or out of the ovens. objectives. was kept in ovens until the coating process area was ready. This meant the resins had to be monitored Q: What were some project challenges? Look at challenges and for temperature and time inside and outside of the The resin needed time and temperature controls resolutions for automation warming ovens, and the schedule needed to ensure system integration. the resin raw material was delivered to the down- and to be processed within a certain number of hours stream processing area in a timely manner. Provid- from the original mix time, or it would not extrude Learn benefits of the ing a connected internal supply chain would allow properly. It also had to be maintained at appropri- project implementations. the different areas to monitor the timing and activ- ate temperatures. The challenge was monitoring and ities for each other, ensuring there would be no ensuring delivery to the downstream process in a CONSIDER THIS waste of product from sitting too long or being out timely fashion. Adhering to the schedule was critical How is automation help of specification. for both areas. Having the interoperability and visibili- your operations become Q: What was the project scope? ty into both was key in ensuring no material would go more resilient? out of specification and become waste. ONLINE Benefits of agile documentation for projects https://www.controleng. com/articles/benefits-of- agile-documentation-for- projects/ |38 May 2022 control engineering —

Q: How were project issues resolved? ‘Exception-based reporting highlighted Lee: The system provided exception-based when the resin was close to being out reporting to highlight when the resin was close of specification. Alerts helped with to being out of specification. Alerts were provid- ed on the HMI screen in both areas when the time remediation planning and getting the reached critical points so the separate processing areas could be engaged in remediation planning ’schedule back on track. and getting the schedule back on track. Q: What automation was involved? Q: What were some metrics from the project? The project was to create a web-based appli- No material has been lost in the first year of the cation with security and logins for the vendors project delivery, which was a major success. involved. The data was to be stored in a Microsoft SQL Server database available for internally view- Q: What were the resulting lessons learned or ing at various locations including the unloading advice you’d like to share? area HMIs, the guard shack for check-ins and to the plant offices for schedule managements. With any project, it is crucial to understand busi- ness goals and requirements up front and to have ways Q: What were some project challenges? to test requirements and measure project success. Challenges included a weekly managed sched- Flour mill system integration project ule instead of a more real-time daily schedule, with Describe the flour mill project and how interop- limited means to react to changes, or proactive- ly manage the schedule to keep deliveries running erability helped supply chain resiliency? smoothly. Also, having limited internal access to the Lee: A flour mill operation experienced unique schedule meant it was difficult to keep up to date and lacked opportunities for vendors to play a role in challenges with truck unloading and scheduling. managing the schedule and filling gaps which previ- Having external supply chain issues created chal- ously took a lot of coordination and effort. lenges every day, but this one was causing more issues than normal. The truck unloading area was Q: How were project issues resolved? 3Fast Facts small and lacked a large staging area. It was pref- Allowing vendors to have a login to view the erable to manage the backlog of trucks arriving at uAwarehouse the facility, as well as ensuring arrival and unload- schedule and to submit changes meant the schedule management system ing times were maintained. Previously, the trucks was updated closer to real time. The application pro- tracked material and brokerages would have to call to indicate any vided internal notifications on schedule changes so movement and data fed changes on the weekly schedule, and sometimes staff would know and be able to respond as needed. an SQL database. the calls did not happen or were not communicat- ed properly. This led to inefficiencies in the supply Q: What were the resulting lessons learned or uInformation displays chain for incoming products to be milled. advice you’d like to share? on human-machine interface screens and in Q: What was the project scope? In this project, reduction of delays and backlogs database reports. The scope was to provide a more real-time view at the site could easily be measured over time and prove the solution was a success. ce uOven temperatures of the truck unloading schedule and engage the and time were key suppliers with interoperability where they could John Lee, is strategic manager of manufacturing measurements. submit changes to the schedule directly through a intelligence, Matrix Technologies Inc., a CSIA mem- web-based application. This would allow the trucks ber. Matrix Technologies and CSIA are CFE Media to assist in maintaining the schedule with arrivals and Technology content partners. Edited by Mark T. and delays and get the information to the right peo- Hoske, content manager, Control Engineering, CFE ple at the facility in a timely manner. It also allowed Media and Technology, [email protected]. gaps to be filled where severe delays or cancella- tions might occur by allowing other suppliers to fill those gaps. Thus, the goal was to provide a con- nected supply chain with the external vendors. control engineering — |May 2022 39

ANSWERS ETHERNET, TSN Thomas Burke and John Browett, CC-Link Partner Association (CLPA) Creating connected industries, technologies with IIoT, Industry 4.0 Seven steps to a smarter factory: Automation vendors want to gain a competitive advantage with the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industry 4.0. Ethernet with time-sensitive networking (TSN) helps. Manufacturers are looking to automa- To achieve a global Smart Factory, the seven key tion vendors to deliver systems and areas to consider are: technologies that will help them create connected industries, smart factories 1. Ensure consistent quality and performance and integration with Industry 4.0 and the Industri- across global operations al Internet of Things (IIoT). Automation vendors are looking for the latest technology that will give 2. Balance manufacturing with demand to them a competitive advantage, such as improved optimize material usage and asset utilization scalability, performance, reliability, ease of use and increased cost effectiveness. One technology help- 3. Improve and meet regulatory compliance ing create improvements across the board is Ether- net with time-sensitive networking (TSN). FIGURE 1: One tech- nology helping create improvements across the board is Ethernet with time-sensitive networking (TSN). Graphic, image cour- tesy: CC-Link Partner Association (CLPA) |40 May 2022 control engineering —

4. Implement more flexible and agile manufac- turing operations to respond to changing mar- ket conditions 5. Meet demanding requirements and metrics for on-time delivery through reduced mean time to repair (MTTR) and increased overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) 6. Reduce the cost of design, deployment and The importance of TSN technology is reflected FIGURE 2: Standardized support of manufacturing and information technology (IT) systems at global manufac- by the way many standards bodies and industrial protocols are improving turing plants Ethernet organizations have worked to incorporate the movement of data 7. Improve response to events that occur on the plant floor regardless of their location. it into their portfolios. Their work provides a solid around information Combating ‘islands’ of automation foundation for data and information integration technology (IT) and oper- A major obstacle was existing industrial network among all the complex, disparate devices and appli- ational technology (OT) systems’ inability to share information between differ- ent technologies. This led to data “islands,” which pre- cations that have previously been disconnected. networks. vented information from being shared. Manufacturers of industrial automation control systems (IACSs) and Connecting disparate technologies and making their customers understand the value of the data pro- duced in their factories and require seamless access to things work from a seamless interoperable stand- the data to make smarter decisions to run the factory in the IIoT and Industry 4.0 era. point is required to successfully build complete auto- Hence the kind of transparency required by mation systems. Standardization allows design and Industry 4.0 applications is becoming the pre- ferred approach. Taking terabytes of data from the Onlinedeployment of complete systems using products shop floor to make useful information is part of the from many vendors. TSN also can provide many u strategy. Data intelligence also can solve customers’ problems with a complete solution-based architec- ture focused on IT/OT convergence. opportunities for convergence and interoperability. KEYWORDS: TSN, IT/OT network compatibility TSN can enable devices and applications, previously Industrial Internet of Things Standardized protocols are improving the move- isolated to separate communications, to become part LEARNING OBJECTIVES ment of data around IT and operational technol- of a cohesive system. Different industrial Ethernet ogy (OT) networks. However, there is a class of Ethernet with time- communications that have forced islands of data, as required for deterministic performance. To solve protocols can co-exist on the same network. sensitive networking (TSN) this problem, protocols need to be compatible with is a way manufacturers TSN to deliver the benefits of converged networks while offering support for prioritized traffic. Networking standards in automation are improving facilities Companies implementing factory automation and making them more projects should look for open network technologies that will address current needs, such as responding Various open industrial Ethernet associations, connected. to the demands of Industry 4.0 with gigabit band- width, while providing TSN compatibility. and the OPC Foundation, have been working on The technology landscape adding TSN compatibility. The IEEE 802.1 group surrounding TSN is continuing to evolve as the includes more than 30 standards, some of which Industrial Internet of Things may not apply to industrial use cases. Some agree- (IIoT) and Industry 4.0 take ment is required regarding which ones should hold. CC-Link IE TSN can help be used for automation. To address this, the IEC manufacturers achieve a (International Electrotechnical Commission) and better Smart Factory with IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engi- improved performance, intelligence and neers) are working together to define a standard connectivity. set of profiles for TSN in automation, based on an ONLINE extensive set of use cases. This is known generical- See more on Ethernet ly as IEC/IEEE 60802. However, many automation at https://www. use cases are covered by the core IEEE 802.1AS and Qbv standards, which address time synchronization networking-and-security/ and prioritization, as we have already seen. ethernet/ Vendors have introduced products that incorporate CONSIDER THIS What benefits can TSN provide for your facility? control engineering — |May 2022 41

ANSWERS ETHERNET, TSN these standards. Moreover, the IEC and IEEE have a nology into their own standards and portfolios. track record of backwards compatibility. Future stan- End users want choice and expect that networks dards will likely “grandfather” in any previous stan- dards. The IEC/IEEE 60802 project is planning to and devices should coexist and work together to address the issue of TSN conformance testing. At least add business value. This allows data from previous- one open network organization is offering this, and it ly disconnected devices to be converted into useful is likely these activities will be combined with future, information to provide a complete cohesive imple- wider-reaching programs with other organizations. mentation for industrial automation for today and tomorrow by leveraging TSN. The risk is not in ‘Standards organizations and vendors are adopting TSN now, but rather waiting several more adopting and pushing the TSN technology into years to implement and falling behind. ’their standards and portfolios. TSN offers several opportunities for manufac- TSN benefits, interoperability turers, such as determinism, and complete industri- So, what does a company convinced of TSN bene- al and commercial network convergence. Network fits and wanting to adopt it do? The answer is to look convergence is a key component addressing the for a technology that supports TSN while provid- challenge of greater transparency identified by ing necessary application functionality, such as safe- Industry 4.0, allowing processes and manufacturing ty and motion control. It’s been almost three years to be highly efficient, streamlined operations. since CLPA introduced CC-Link IE TSN, which involved using the established open industrial Ether- The evolution to TSN-enabled systems net CC-Link IE and adding TSN compatibility. The For current industrial automation projects, organi- result was the world’s first open industrial Ether- net technology to combine gigabit bandwidth with zations need to investigate which networking technol- TSN. End users, machine builders and vendors ogies will help improve operations. Gigabit Ethernet can adopt a proven technology in products and will help with this. Networks should also be open. projects. Keeping an eye on future needs means identifying For device vendors, developing CC-Link IE TSN current technologies that will support TSN and pro- compatible products help deliver the promise of vide an upgrade path to future TSN-enabled systems. Industry 4.0 in three ways: • Performance: The only open industrial Eth- The technology landscape surrounding TSN is ernet currently available to combine gigabit band- continuing to evolve, with the activities from the width with TSN to provide the highest productivity IEEE and IEC resulting in new advances. It’s a good via maximum bandwidth availability. bet TSN-enabled devices and networks installed now • Connectivity: Being an open technology max- will work with the systems of tomorrow. Ethernet imizes the freedom of choice for end users and has been around for about 40 years and has evolved machine builders, while providing implementation over that time, which is why it’s still in use today. flexibility for vendors. TSN offers the ability to com- bine CC-Link IE TSN traffic with other protocols. Technologies such as TSN will keep evolving to • Intelligence: Reduce engineering time and help companies meet current needs and help shape maximize uptime with a range of features intended the next industrial revolution. to simplify system design and maintenance. What does this all mean to the end user, Machine builders and end users depend on machine builder, or vendor who is still wondering TSN technology to connect legacy systems with what to do with TSN? Vendors and standards orga- the systems of today and, at the same time, address nizations are adopting and pushing the TSN tech- the complex needs of tomorrow. TSN can benefit development roadmaps, simplify machine designs and improve manufacturing operations. ce Thomas Burke, global strategic advisor, CC-Link Partner Organization (CLPA), North America; John Browett, General Manager, CC-Link Partner Asso- ciation (CLPA) Europe. Edited by Chris Vavra, web content manager, Control Engineering, CFE Media and Technology, [email protected]. |42 May 2022 control engineering —

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