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Sample Online Book by TechDost

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The LFood Guide SPyramid 30I M I T F % A L ORIE AT TO C OFUnited States Center for Home andDepartment of Nutrition Policy Garden BulletinAgriculture and Promotion Number 252

What’s in this booklet for me?T his booklet introduces you to The Food Guide Pyramid. The Pyramid illus- trates the research-based food guidance system developed by USDA and support-ed by the Department of Health and Human Services(HHS). It goes beyond the “basic four food groups”to help you put the Dietary Guidelines into action. The Pyramid is based on USDA’s research on whatfoods Americans eat, what nutrients are in these foods,and how to make the best food choices for you. The Pyramid and this booklet will help you choosewhat and how much to eat from each food group to getthe nutrients you need and not too many calories, or toomuch fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sugar, sodium, oralcohol. The Pyramid focuses on fat because most Americans’diets are too high in fat. Following the Pyramid will helpyou keep your intake of total fat and saturated fat low.A diet low in fat will reduce your chances of getting cer-tain diseases and help you maintain a healthy weight. This booklet will also help you learn how to spotand control the sugars and salt in your diet, and makelower sugar and salt choices.CONTENTS PageThe Food Guide Pyramid 2The Pyramid and You 8What is a Serving? 10Fats 6, 12Cholesterol 15Sugars 6, 16Salt and Sodium 17The Food Groups 19 What Counts as a Serving, Selection Tips 25The Pyramid Food Choices Chart 28How To Rate Your Diet

What’s the BestNutrition Advice? It’s following the and reduce your chancesDietary Guidelines for of getting certain diseases.Americans. These are sev- These Guidelines, devel-en guidelines for a health- oped jointly by USDAful diet – advice for healthy and HHS, are the best,Americans 2 years of age most up-to-date adviceor more. By following the from nutrition scientistsDietary Guidelines, you and are the basis ofcan enjoy better health Federal nutrition policy.THE DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR AMERICANSEat a variety of foods to get attack and certain types ofthe energy, protein, vitamins, cancer and to help you main-minerals, and fiber you need tain a healthy weight.for good health. Choose a diet moderate inBalance the food you eat sugars. A diet with lots ofwith physical activity — sugars has too many caloriesmaintain or improve your and too few nutrients forweight to reduce your most people and canchances of having high blood contribute to tooth decay.pressure, heart disease, astroke, certain cancers, and Choose a diet moderate inthe most common kind of salt and sodium to helpdiabetes. reduce your risk of high blood pressure.Choose a diet with plenty ofgrain products, vegetables, If you drink alcoholic bever-and fruits which provide ages, do so in moderation.needed vitamins, minerals, Alcoholic beverages supplyfiber, and complex carbohy- calories, but little or nodrates, and can help you nutrients. Drinking alcohollower your intake of fat. is also the cause of many health problems andChoose a diet low in fat, sat- accidents and can leadurated fat, and cholesterol to reduce your risk of heart 1

The Food GuidePyramidA Guide to Daily Food ChoicesFats, Oils, & Sweets wUSE SPARINGLY w wMilk, Yogurt, ww& Cheese wwGroup ww w2-3 SERVINGS w w wwVegetableGroup w3-5 SERVINGS w w w w w w wWhat is the Food guide that lets you chooseGuide Pyramid? a healthful diet that’s right for you. The Pyramid is anoutline of what to eat The Pyramid calls foreach day. It’s not a rigid eating a variety of foods toprescription, but a general get the nutrients you need2

KEY Fat (naturally occurring and added) w Sugars (added) These symbols show fat and added sugars in foods.w KEYww Fat (naturally occurring w Sugars w and added) (added)ww www These symbols show fat and added sugars in foods.ww ww ww w ww Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, & Nuts Group 2-3 SERVINGS ww Fruit w Group 2-4 SERVINGS w w w Bread, Cereal, w Rice, & Pasta w Group 6-11 SERVINGS w and at the same time the most American diets are right amount of calories to too high in fat, especially maintain or improve your saturated fat. weight. The Pyramid also focuses on fat because 3

Looking at the Piecesof the Pyramid The Food Guide Pyramid USE SPARINGLY wemphasizes foods from thefive major food groups shown win the three lower sections ofthe Pyramid. Each of these wfood groups provides some, wwbut not all, of the nutrients wwyou need. Foods in onegroup can’t replace those in ww wanother. No one food group wis more important thananother – for good health, w wwwyou need them all. 2-3 SERVINGS w w w w 3-5 SERVINGS 6-11 SE w w w w4

The small tip of the Pyramid shows fats, oils, and sweets.w These are foods such as salad dressings and oils, cream, ww butter, margarine, sugars, soft drinks, candies, and sweet w www desserts. These foods provide calories and little elseww nutritionally. Most people should use them sparingly. ww ww ww 2-3 SERVINGS On this level of the Food Guide Pyramid are two groups of foods that come mostly from animals: milk, yogurt, and cheese; and meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts. These foods are important for protein, calcium, iron, and zinc. 2-4 SERVINGS This level includes foods that come ww from plants – vegetables and w fruits. Most people need to eat w more of these foods for the vitamins, minerals, and w fiber they supply.ERVINGS ww ww At the base of the Food Guide Pyramid are breads, cereals, rice, and pasta — all foods from grains. You need the most servings of these foods each day. 5

A Closer Look at Fatand Added Sugars Fats, Oils, and Sweets w w wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwMilk w MeatGroup Group wVegetable w FruitGroup Group w w Grain w w Group w w w w ww w w wwK E Y: Fat (naturally occurring and added) w Sugars (added) As you can see, fat and groups. That’s to remindadded sugars are concen- you that some food choic-trated in foods from the es in these food groupsPyramid tip—fats, oils, can also be high in fat orand sweets. These foods added sugars. Whensupply calories, but little choosing foods for aor no vitamins and miner- healthful diet, considerals. By using these foods the fat and added sugarssparingly, you can have a in your choices from thediet that supplies needed food groups, as well as thevitamins and minerals fats, oils, and sweets fromwithout excess calories. the Pyramid tip. Some fat or sugar sym- Fatbols are shown in the food In general, foods that come from animals (milk and meat groups) are nat- urally higher in fat than foods that come from plants. But there are many lowfat dairy and lean meat choices available,6

and these foods can be Added Sugarsprepared in ways that w These symbols repre-lower fat. sent sugars added to foods in processing or at the Fruits, vegetables, and table, not the sugars foundgrain products are natu- naturally in fruits and milk.rally low in fat. But many It’s the added sugars thatpopular items are pre- provide calories with fewpared with fat, like french- vitamins and minerals.fried potatoes or crois-sants, making them higher Most of the added sug-fat choices. ars in the typical Ameri- can diet come from foods For example: in the Pyramid tip—soft drinks, candy, jams, jel- ONE BAKED POTATO lies, syrups, and table sugar we add to foodsCalories: 120 like coffee or cereal.Fat: trace Added sugars in the food Or groups come from foods such as ice cream, sweet- 14 FRENCH FRIES ened yogurt, chocolate milk, canned or frozen fruit with heavy syrup, and sweet- ened bakery products like cakes and cookies. The chart on page 16 shows you the amounts of added sug- ars in some popular foods. You may be surprised!Calories: 225 Fat and Sugar Tips:Fat: 11 grams  Choose lower fat foods from the food groups most often.  Go easy on fats and sug- ars added to foods in cook- ing or at the table—butter, margarine, gravy, salad dressing, sugar, and jelly.  Choose fewer foods that are high in sugars— candy, sweet desserts, and soft drinks. 7

How To Make the PyramidWork for You Fats, Oils, and Sweets USE SPARINGLYMilk 2-3 2-3 MeatGroup Group SERVINGS SERVINGSVegetable FruitGroup 3-5 2-4 Group SERVINGS SERVINGS Grain Group 6-11 SERVINGSHow many servings For adults and teensare right for me? 1,600 calories is The Pyramid shows a about right for many sedentary womenrange of servings for each and some older adults.major food group. Thenumber of servings that 2,200 calories isare right for you depends about right foron how many calories you most children, teenageneed, which in turn girls, active women, anddepends on your age, sex, many sedentary men.size, and how active you Women who are pregnantare. Almost everyone or breastfeeding mayshould have at least the need somewhat more.lowest number of servingsin the ranges. 2,800 calories is about right The following calorie for teenage boys, manylevel suggestions are based active men, and some veryon recommendations of active women.the National Academy ofSciences and on calorieintakes reported by peoplein national food consump-tion surveys.8

For young children are an active woman It is hard to know how who needs about 2,200 calories a day, 9 servingsmuch food children need of breads, cereals, rice, orto grow normally. If pasta would be right foryou’re unsure, check with you.You’d also want toyour doctor. Preschool eat about 6 ounces ofchildren need the same meat or alternates pervariety of foods as older day. Keep total fat (fat infamily members do, but the foods you choose asmay need less than 1,600 well as fat used in cookingcalories. For fewer calo- or added at the table) tories they can eat smaller about 73 grams per day.servings. However, it isimportant that they have If you are betweenthe equivalent of 2 cups of calorie categories, esti-milk a day. mate servings. For example, some less activeFor you women may need only Now, take a look at the 2,000 calories to maintain a healthy weight. At thattable below. It tells you calorie level, 8 servingshow many servings you of breads would beneed for your calorie lev- about right.el. For example, if youSAMPLE DIETS FOR A DAY AT 3 CALORIE LEVELS Lower Moderate Higher about about about 1,600 2,200 2,800Grain Group Servings 6 9 11Vegetable Group Servings 3 4 5Fruit Group Servings 234Milk Group Servings 2-31 2-31 2-31Meat Group2 (ounces) 5 6 7Total Fat3 (grams) 53 73 93Total Added Sugars4 (teaspoons) 6 12 181Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, teenagers, and young adultsto age 24 need 3 servings.2Meat group amounts are in total ounces. (See pages 22 and 23 fordetails on how to count amounts of meat and other foods in this group.)3See the Pyramid Food Choices Chart for details on how to count total fat(pages 25 to 27).4See chart on page 16 for details on how to count teaspoons ofadded sugars. 9

What is a Bread GroupServing? The amount of food Do I need tothat counts as a serving is measure servings?listed on the next page. Ifyou eat a larger portion, No. Use servings only ascount it as more than one a general guide. For mixedserving. For example, 1/2 foods, do the best you cancup of cooked pasta to estimate the food groupcounts as one serving in servings of the main ingre-the bread, cereal, rice, and dients. For example, apasta group. If you eat 1 generous serving of pizzacup of pasta, that would be would count in the graintwo servings. If you eat a group (crust), the milksmaller portion, count it as group (cheese), and thepart of a serving. vegetable group (tomato); a helping of beef stewIsn’t 6 to 11 would count in the meatservings of breads group and the vegetableand cereals a lot? group. Both have some fat — fat in the cheese on the It may sound like a lot, pizza and in the gravy frombut it’s really not. For the stew, if it’s made fromexample, a slice of bread is meat serving, so a sandwichfor lunch would equal two What if I wantservings. A small bowl of to lose or gaincereal and one slice of weight?toast for breakfast are twomore servings. And, if you The best and simplesthave a cup of rice or pasta way to lose weight is toat dinner, that’s two more increase your physicalservings. A snack of 3 or 4 activity and reduce the fatsmall plain crackers adds and sugars in your diet.yet another serving. Sonow you’ve had 7 servings.It adds up quicker thanyou think!10

Vegetable Group Milk Group ings from the five major food groups in the FoodBut be sure to eat at least Guide Pyramid. Youthe lowest number of serv- need them for the vita- mins, minerals, carbohy- drates, and protein they provide. Just try to pick the lowest fat choices from the food groups. To gain weight, increase the amounts of foods you eat from all of the food groups. If you have lost weight unexpectedly, see your doctor.WHAT COUNTS AS A SERVING?Food Groups Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta1 slice of bread 1 ounce of ready- 1/2 cup of cooked to-eat cereal cereal, rice, or pastaVegetable 1/2 cup of other 3/4 cup of vegetables, cooked vegetable juice1 cup of raw leafy vegetables or chopped rawFruit 1/2 cup of 3/4 cup of chopped, cooked, fruit juice1 medium apple, banana, orange or canned fruitMilk, Yogurt, and Cheese1 cup of milk or 1-1/2 ounces of 2 ounces of yogurt natural cheese process cheeseMeat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts 2-3 ounces of 1/2 cup of cooked dry beans or 1 eggcooked lean meat, counts as 1 ounce of lean meat. poultry, or fish 2 tablespoons of peanut butter or 1/3 cup of nuts count as 1 ounce of meat. 11

Fats fat—such as whole milk instead of skim milk. OrHow much fat you may want to use it incan I have? cooking or at the table in the form of spreads, dress- It depends on your calo- ings, or toppings.rie needs. The DietaryGuidelines recommend How to check yourthat Americans limit fat in diet for fattheir diets to 30 percent ofcalories. This amounts to If you want to be sure53 grams of fat in a 1,600- you have a lowfat diet,calorie diet, 73 grams of you can count the gramsfat in a 2,200-calorie diet, of fat in your day’s foodand 93 grams of fat in a choices using the Pyramid2,800- calorie diet. Food Choices Chart on pages 25 to 27, and com- You will get up to half pare them to the numberthis fat even if you pick of grams of fat suggestedthe lowest fat choices from for your calorie level.each food group and addno fat to your foods in You don’t need to countpreparation or at the table. fat grams every day, but doing a fat checkup once You decide how to use in awhile will help keepthe additional fat in your you on the right track. Ifdaily diet. You may want you find you are eatingto have foods from the too much fat, choose low-five major food groups er fat foods more often.that are higher inYou can figure the IT FATnumber of grams of fatthat provide 30% of 30%calories in your dailydiet as follows: F TOA. Multiply your total Oday’s calories by 0.30 to LIMget your calories from fat per R IESday. Example: 2,200 calories x 0.30 CA LO= 660 calories from fat.B. Divide calories from fat per day by 9 (each gramof fat has 9 calories) to get grams of fat per day.Example: 660 calories from fat ÷ 9 = 73 grams of fat12

WHERE’S THE FAT?bologna = 16 gramscheese = 12 gramsmayonnaise = 8 grams 36 grams or 9 teaspoons of fatThe fat in some foods adds up quickly. A bologna-and-cheesesandwich made with 2 slices (2 oz.) of bologna, 2 slices (1-1/2 oz.)of cheese, and 2 teaspoons of mayonnaise counts up to about 36grams of fat, about 9 teaspoons. However, a similar sandwichmade with lean beef, lettuce, tomato, and lowfat mayonnaise, andserved with a cup of nonfat milk instead of the cheese, has onlyabout 6 grams of fat. Note: 4 grams of fat = 1 teaspoonAre some types of fat tures of three types of fatty acids— saturated,worse than others? monounsaturated, and Yes. Eating too much polyunsaturated.saturated fat raises blood Saturated fats are foundcholesterol levels in many in largest amounts in fatspeople, increasing their from meat and dairy prod-risk for heart disease. The ucts and in some vegetableDietary Guidelines recom- fats such as coconut, palm,mend limiting saturated and palm kernel oils.fat to less than 10 percentof calories, or about one- Monounsaturated fatsthird of total fat intake. are found mainly in olive, peanut, and canola oils. All fats in foods are mix- 13

Polyunsaturated fats are your total fat within rec-found mainly in safflower, ommended levels. (Seesunflower, corn, soybean, the table on page 9 forand cottonseed oils and the number of grams sug-some fish. gested at various calorie levels.) Choose fat from aHow do I avoid variety of food sources,too much but mostly from thosesaturated fat? foods that are higher in polyunsaturated or Follow the Food monounsaturated fat.Guide Pyramid, keepingHere are some  Read nutrition andselection tips: ingredient labels on food packages to check the Use lean meats and kinds and amounts of fat they contain.skim or lowfat dairyproducts. SMKILIMK FAT...4 grams Use unsaturated veg- etable oils and margarines Limit use of prod-that list a liquid vegetable ucts that contain aoil as first ingredient on large amount of satu- rated fats. Examples are the label. nondairy creamers and rich baked products such as pie crusts and other pas- tries, cakes, and cookies. MARGARINE OIL14

Cholesterol blood cholesterol levels in many people, increasingWhat about their risk for heart disease.cholesterol? Some health authorities recommend that dietary Cholesterol and fat are cholesterol be limited tonot the same thing. an average of 300 mg orCholesterol is a fat-like less per day. To keepsubstance present in all dietary cholesterol to thisanimal foods—meat, level, follow the Foodpoultry, fish, milk and Guide Pyramid, keepingmilk products, and egg your total fat to theyolks. Both the lean and amount that’s right forfat of meat and the meat you. (See table on pageand skin of poultry con- 9.) It’s not necessary totain cholesterol. In milk eliminate all foods thatproducts, cholesterol is are high in cholesterol.mostly in the fat, so lower You can have three tofat products contain less four egg yolks a week,cholesterol. Egg yolks and counting those used asorgan meats, like liver, are ingredients in custards andhigh in cholesterol. Plant baked products. Use lowerfoods do not contain fat dairy products oftencholesterol. and occasionally include dry beans and peas in Dietary cholesterol, as place of meat.well as saturated fat, raisesWHERE’S THE CHOLESTEROL?Beef Liver 76mg cholesterol3 ounces, cooked 33mg 331mg 4mgEgg 213mg1 yolk 15Beef or Chicken3 ounces, cookedWhole Milk1 cupSkim Milk1 cup

WHERE ARE THE ADDED SUGARS?Food Groups Added Sugars (teaspoons)Bread, Cereal, Rice, and PastaBread, 1 slice q0Muffin, 1 medium I1Cookies, 2 medium I1Danish pastry, 1 medium I1Doughnut, 1 medium I I2Ready-to-eat cereal, sweetened, 1 oz. q q*Pound cake, no-fat, 1 oz. I I2Angelfood cake, 1/12 tube cake I I I I I5Cake, frosted, 1/16 average I I I I I I6Pie, fruit, 2 crust, 1/6 8” pie I I I I I I6Fruit q0Fruit, canned in juice, 1/2 cupFruit, canned in light syrup, 1/2 cup I I2Fruit, canned in heavy syrup, 1/2 cup I I I I4Milk, Yogurt, and CheeseMilk, plain, 1 cup q0Chocolate milk, 2 percent, 1 cup I I I3Lowfat yogurt, plain, 8 oz. q0Lowfat yogurt, flavored, 8 oz. I I I I I5Lowfat yogurt, fruit, 8 oz. I I I I I I I7Ice cream, ice milk, or frozen yogurt, 1/2 cup I I I3Chocolate shake, 10 fl. oz. I I I I I I I I I9OtherSugar, jam, or jelly, 1 tsp. I1Syrup or honey, 1 tbsp. I I I3Chocolate bar, 1 oz. I I I3Fruit sorbet, 1/2 cup I I I3Gelatin dessert, 1/2 cup I I I I4Sherbet, 1/2 cup I I I I I5Cola, 12 fl.oz. I I I I I I I I I9Fruit drink, ade, 12 fl.oz. I I I I I I I I I I I I12*Check product label. I = 1 teaspoon sugarNote: 4 grams of sugar = 1 teaspoon16

Sugars Salt andWhat about sugars? Sodium Choosing a diet low in Do I have tofat is a concern for every- give up salt?one; choosing one low insugars is also important No. But most peoplefor people who have low eat more than they need.calorie needs. Sugars Some health authoritiesinclude white sugar, say that sodium intakebrown sugar, raw sugar, should not be more thancorn syrup, honey, and 2,400 mg. Nutrition labelsmolasses; these supply also list a Daily Valuecalories and little else (upper limit) of 2,400 mgnutritionally. per day for sodium. Much of the sodium in people’s To avoid getting too diets comes from salt theymany calories from sug- add while cooking and atars, try to limit your added the table. (One teaspoonsugars to 6 teaspoons a of salt provides aboutday if you eat about 1,600 2,000 mg of sodium.)calories, 12 teaspoons at2,200 calories, or 18 tea- Go easy on salt andspoons at 2,800 calories. foods that are high in sodi-These amounts are um, including cured meats,intended to be averages luncheon meats, and manyover time. The patterns cheeses, most cannedare illustrations of health- soups and vegetables, andful proportions in the soy sauce. Look for lowerdiet, not rigid prescrip- salt and no-salt-added ver-tions. sions of these products at your supermarket. Added sugars are infoods like candy and soft The table on page 18drinks, as well as jams, will give you an idea of thejellies, and sugars you amount of sodium in dif-add at the table. Some ferent types of foods.added sugars are also in Information on food labelsfoods from the food can also help you makegroups, such as fruit food choices to keep sodi-canned in heavy syrup um moderate.and chocolate milk. Thechart on page 16 showsthe approximate amountof sugars in some popularfoods. 17

WHERE’S THE SALT? Sodium, mgFood Groups Trace Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta 100-360 Cooked cereal, rice, pasta, unsalted, 1/2cup 110-175 Ready-to-eat cereal, 1 oz. 100-420 Bread, 1 slice 130-880 Popcorn, salted, 1 oz. Pretzels, salted, 1 oz.Vegetable Less than 70Vegetables, fresh or frozen, 140-460 660 cooked without salt, 1/2 cup 820Vegetables, canned or frozen with sauce, 1/2 cupTomato juice, canned, 3/4 cupVegetable soup, canned, 1 cupFruit TraceFruit, fresh, frozen, canned, 1/2 cupMilk, Yogurt, and Cheese 120Milk, 1 cup 160Yogurt, 8 oz. 110-450Natural cheeses, 1-1/2 oz. 800Process cheeses, 2 oz.Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Less than 90Fresh meat, poultry, fish, 3 oz. 300Tuna, canned, water pack, 3 oz. 580Bologna, 2 oz.Ham, lean, roasted, 3 oz. 1,020Peanuts, roasted in oil, salted, 1 oz. 120Other 75-220Salad dressing, 1 tbsp. 130-230Ketchup, mustard, steak sauce, 1 tbsp.Soy sauce, 1 tbsp. 1,030Salt, 1 tsp. 2,325Dill pickle, 1 medium 93018

THE FOOD GROUPSBreads, Cereals,Rice, and PastaWhy are breads, Here are somecereals, rice, andpasta important? selection tips: These foods provide  To get the fiber youcomplex carbohydrates(starches), which are an need, choose several serv-important source of energy, ings a day of foods madeespecially in lowfat diets. from whole grains, such asThey also provide vitamins, whole-wheat bread andminerals, and fiber. The whole-grain cereals.Food Guide Pyramid sug-gests 6 to 11 servings of  Choose most oftenthese foods a day. foods that are made withWhat counts as little fat or sugars. Thesea serving? include bread, english muffins, rice, and pasta.q 1 slice of bread (See the Pyramid Food Choices Chart on page 25q 1 ounce of ready-to-eat for others.) cereal  Baked goods madeq 1/2 cup of cooked cereal, rice, or pasta from flour, such as cakes, cookies, croissants, andAren’t starchy pastries, count as part offoods fattening? this food group, but they are high in fat and sugars. No. It’s what you add tothese foods or cook with  Go easy on the fat andthem that adds most of thecalories. For example: sugars you add as spreads,margarine or butter on seasonings, or toppings.bread, cream or cheesesauces on pasta, and the  When preparing pasta,sugar and fat used with theflour in making cookies. stuffing, and sauce from packaged mixes, use only half the butter or mar- garine suggested; if milk or cream is called for, use lowfat milk. 19

THE FOOD GROUPSVegetablesWhy are vegetables j starchy vegetablesimportant? (potatoes, corn, peas); j legumes (navy, pinto, Vegetables provide vita- and kidney beans,mins, such as vitamins A chickpeas);and C, and folate, and j other vegetablesminerals, such as iron and (lettuce, tomatoes, onions,magnesium. They are nat- green beans).urally low in fat and alsoprovide fiber. The Food  Include dark-greenGuide Pyramid suggests3 to 5 servings of these leafy vegetables andfoods a day. legumes several times a week—they are especiallyWhat counts as good sources of vitaminsa serving? and minerals. Legumes also provide protein andq 1 cup of raw leafy can be used in place of vegetables meat. (See the Pyramid Food Choices Chart onq 1/2 cup of other vegetables, page 27.) cooked or chopped raw  Go easy on the fat youq 3/4 cup of vegetable juice add to vegetables at theHere are some table or during cooking.selection tips: Added spreads or toppings, such as butter, mayonnaise, Different types of veg- and salad dressing, count as fat. (See the Pyramid Foodetables provide different Choices Chart on pages 25nutrients. For variety eat: to 28 for more informationj dark-green leafy veg- on how to count fat.)etables (spinach, romainelettuce, broccoli);  Use lowfat saladj deep-yellow vegetables(carrots, sweet potatoes); dressing.20

THE FOOD GROUPSFruitsWhy are fruits Here are someimportant? selection tips: Fruits and fruit juicesprovide important  Choose fresh fruits,amounts of vitamins A andC and potassium. They fruit juices, and frozen,are low in fat and sodium. canned, or dried fruit.The Food Guide Pyramid Pass up fruit canned orsuggests 2 to 4 servings of frozen in heavy syrupsfruits a day. and sweetened fruit juices unless you have caloriesWhat counts as to spare.a serving?  Eat whole fruitsq a medium apple, banana, or orange often—they are higher in fiber than fruit juices.q 1/2 cup of chopped, cooked, or canned fruit  Have citrus fruits,q 3/4 cup of fruit juice melons, and berries regularly. They are rich in vitamin C.  Count only 100 per- cent fruit juice as fruit. Punches, ades, and most fruit “drinks” contain only a little juice and lots of added sugars. Grape and orange sodas don’t count as fruit juice. (See the Pyramid Food Choices Chart on page 26.) 21

THE FOOD GROUPSMeat,Poultry,Fish, DryBeans, Eggs,and NutsWhy are meat, poul- What counts as a serving?try, fish, and other q Count 2-3 ounces offoods in this group cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish as a serving.important? A 3-ounce piece of meat Meat, poultry, and fish is about the size of an average hamburger, orsupply protein, B vitamins, the amount of meat oniron, and zinc. The other a medium chickenfoods in this group — dry breast half.beans, eggs, and nuts —are similar to meats in pro- q For other foods in thisviding protein and most group, count 1/2 cup ofvitamins and minerals. cooked dry beans or 1 eggThe Food Guide Pyramid as 1 ounce of lean meat. 2suggests 2 to 3 servings tablespoons of peanuteach day of foods from butter or 1/3 cup of nutsthis group. The total count as 1 ounce of meatamount of these servings (about 1/3 serving).should be the equivalentof 5 to 7 ounces of cooked Counting to see if youlean meat, poultry, or fish have an equivalent of 5-7per day. ounces of cooked lean meat a day is tricky. Por- tion sizes vary with the type of food and meal. For example, 6 ounces might come from: —1 egg (count as 1 oz. of lean meat) for breakfast; —2 oz. of sliced turkey in a sandwich at lunch; and —a 3 oz. cooked lean hamburger for dinner.22

Lean Here are someChoices selection tips: BEEF Roasts/Steaks:  Choose lean meat, Round poultry without skin, fish, Loin and dry beans and peas Sirloin often. They are the choic- Chuck Arm es lowest in fat. PORK  Prepare meats in Roasts/Chops: lowfat ways: Tenderloin —Trim away all the fat Center Loin you can see. —Broil, roast, or boil Ham these foods, instead of frying them. VEAL All cuts  Go easy on egg yolks; except ground they are high in choles- terol. Use only one yolk LAMB per person in egg dishes. Roasts/Chops: Make larger portions by adding extra egg whites. Leg Loin  Nuts and seeds are Fore Shanks high in fat, so eat them in CHICKEN moderation. (See the& TURKEY Pyramid Food ChoicesLight & dark meat, Chart on page 27.) without the skin FISH & SHELLFISHMost are low in fat; those marinated or canned in oil are higher 23

THE FOOD GROUPSMilk, Yogurt,and CheeseWhy are milk Here are someproducts important? selection tips: Milk products provideprotein, vitamins, and min-  Choose skim milk anderals. Milk, yogurt, andcheese are the best source nonfat yogurt often. Theyof calcium. The Food are lowest in fat.Guide Pyramid suggests2 to 3 servings of milk,  1-1/2 to 2 ounces ofyogurt, and cheese aday—2 for most people, cheese and 8 ounces ofand 3 for women who are yogurt count as a servingpregnant or breastfeeding, from this group becauseteenagers, and young they supply the sameadults to age 24. amount of calcium as 1 cup of milk.What countsas a serving?  Cottage cheese is low-q 1 cup of milk or yogurt er in calcium than most cheeses. One cup of cot-q 1-1/2 ounces of natural tage cheese counts as only cheese 1/2 serving of milk.q 2 ounces of process  Go easy on high fat cheese cheese and ice cream. They can add a lot of fat (especially saturated fat) to your diet.  Choose “part skim” or lowfat cheeses when available and lower fat milk desserts, like ice milk or frozen yogurt.24

The Pyramid FoodChoices Chart The following chart lists that food group.commonly used foods in You can use the foodeach food group and theamount of fat in each. label to count fat in specif-Only a few of the thou- ic foods. Many labels onsands of foods we eat are foods list the grams of fatlisted. However, they will in a serving.give you an idea of foodsfrom each food group that How much is aare higher and lower in fat. gram of fat? The Food Guide Pyra- To help you visualizemid symbol (v) next to the how much fat is in thesefood item means that food foods, keep in mind that 1is one of the lowest fat teaspoon (1 pat) of but-choices you can make in ter or margarine has 4 grams of fat.For this amount of food... count this many...Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta GroupEat 6 to 11 servings daily Servings Grams of Fatv Bread, 1 slice 11v Hamburger roll, bagel, english muffin, 1 2 2Tortilla, 1 13v Rice, pasta, cooked, 1/2 cup 1 TracePlain crackers, small, 3-4 13Breakfast cereal, 1 oz. 1*Pancakes, 4” diameter, 2 23Croissant, 1 large (2 oz.) 2 12Doughnut, 1 medium (2 oz.) 2 11Danish, 1 medium (2 oz.) 2 13Cake, frosted, 1/16 average 1 13Cookies, 2 medium 14Pie, fruit, 2-crust, 1/6 8\" pie 2 19*Check product label (continued...) 25

For this amount of food... count this many...Vegetable GroupEat 3 to 5 servings daily Servings Grams of Fatv Vegetables, cooked, 1/2 cup 1 Tracev Vegetables, leafy, raw, 1 cup 1 Tracev Vegetables, nonleafy, raw, chopped, 1/2 cup 1 TracePotatoes, scalloped, 1/2 cup 14Potato salad, 1/2 cup 18French fries, 10 18 Fruit Group 1 Trace 1 Trace Eat 2 to 4 servings daily 1 Tracev Whole fruit: medium apple, orange, banana 1v Fruit, raw or canned, 1/2 cup 9v Fruit juice, unsweetened, 3/4 cup Avocado, 1/4 whole Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group 1 Trace Eat 2 to 3 servings daily 1 Tracev Skim milk, 1 cup 1v Nonfat yogurt, plain, 8 oz. 1 5 Lowfat milk, 2 percent, 1 cup 1 8 Whole milk, 1 cup 1 5 Chocolate milk, 2 percent,1 cup 1 4 Lowfat yogurt, plain, 8 oz. 1 3 Lowfat yogurt, fruit, 8 oz. 1 14 Natural cheddar cheese, 1-1/2 oz. 1 18 Process cheese, 2 oz. 1 7 Mozzarella, part skim, 1-1/2 oz. 1/4 10 Ricotta, part skim, 1/2 cup 1/3 5 Cottage cheese, 4 percent fat, 1/2 cup 1/3 7 Ice cream, 1/2 cup 1/2 3 Ice milk, 1/2 cup 2 Frozen yogurt, 1/2 cup26

For this amount of food... count this many...Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts GroupEat 5 to 7 oz. daily Servings Grams of Fatv Lean meat, poultry, fish, cooked 3 oz* 6Ground beef, lean, cooked 3 oz* 16Chicken, with skin, fried 3 oz* 13Bologna, 2 slices 1 oz* 16Egg, 1 1 oz* 5v Dry beans and peas,cooked, 1/2 cup 1 oz* TracePeanut butter, 2 tbsp. 1 oz* 16Nuts, 1/3 cup 1 oz* 22* Ounces of meat these items count asSee page 22 for how to count servings.Fats, Oils, and Sweets - 4Use sparingly - 11Butter, margarine, 1 tsp. - 7Mayonnaise, 1 tbsp. - *Salad dressing, 1 tbsp. - 6Reduced calorie salad dressing, 1 tbsp. - 10Sour cream, 2 tbsp. - 0Cream cheese, 1 oz. - 0Sugar, jam, jelly, 1 tsp. - 0Cola, 12 fl. oz. - 9Fruit drink, ade, 12 fl. oz. - 2Chocolate bar, 1 oz. - 0Sherbet, 1/2 cup - 0Fruit sorbet, 1/2 cupGelatin dessert, 1/2 cup* Check product labelWhat about alcoholic beverages?If adults choose to drink, they should have no morethan 1 to 2 drinks a day. Alcoholic beverages providecalories, but little or no nutrients. These standard-sizedrinks each provide about the same amount of alcohol.Alcoholic Beverages CaloriesBeer, 12 fl. oz. (1 regular can) 150Wine, dry, 5 fl. oz. 100Liquor, 1-1/2 oz.* 100*A mixer such as a soft drink will add more calories. 27

How To Rate Your DietYou may want to rate your diet for a few days.Follow these four steps.1.StepJot down everything you ate yesterdayfor meals and snacks. Grams of Fat______________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ______ Total2.StepWrite down the number of grams of fat in each foodyou list. Use the Pyramid Food Choices Chart to get an idea ofthe number of grams of fat to count for the foods you ate. Use nutrition labels on packaged foods you ate tofind out the grams of fat they contained.28

3.StepAnswer these questions: Did you have the number of servings from the fivemajor food groups that are right for you? (See page 9 todetermine the number of servings that are right for you.) Circle the Servings Servings You Right for You HadGrain Group Servings 6 7 8 9 10 11Vegetable Group Servings 345Fruit Group Servings 234Milk Group Servings 23Meat Group (ounces) 567How did you do? Not enough? About right? Add up your grams of fat listed in Step 2. Did youhave more fat than the amount right for you?(See table on page 9.) Grams Grams Right for You You HadFat 53 73 93How did you do? Too much? About right? Do you need to watch the amount of added sugarsyou eat? See the chart on page 16 to estimate the num-ber of teaspoons of added sugars in your food choices. Teaspoons Teaspoons Right for You You HadSugars 6 12 18How did you do? Too much? About right?4.StepDecide what changes you can make for a healthier diet.Start by making small changes, like switching to lowfatsalad dressings or adding an extra serving of vegetables.Make additional changes gradually until healthy eatingbecomes a habit. 29

For More Information Contact USDA’s Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Theaddress is: U.S. Department of Agriculture Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion 1120 20th St., NW Suite 200, North Lobby Washington, DC 20036-3475 For additional advice on maintaining a healthy diet, you may con-tact your county extension home economist (Cooperative ExtensionSystem); or a nutrition professional in your local public health depart-ment, hospital, Amercian Red Cross, dietetic association, or privatepractice. Availability of Nutrition Information – Many USDA nutritionpublications may be purchased in single copies and bulk quantitiesfrom the Consumer Information Center and the Government PrintingOffice. For a list of available publications and ordering instructions,contact the address above. Some nutrition materials, including this publication, the FoodGuide Pyramid graphic, and the Dietary Guidelines for Amercians(HG-232), may be accessed through the CNPP Home Page (WorldWide Web) at: The United States Department of Agriculture(USDA) prohibits discrimination in its programs on thebasis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, dis-ability, political beliefs, and marital and family status.(Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Personswith disabilities who require alternative means for com-munication of program information (Braille, large print,audiotape, etc.) should contact the USDA Office ofCommunications at 202 720 2791. To file a complaint, write the Secretary of Agricul-ture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC20250, or call 202 720 7327 (voice) or 202 720 1127(TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity employer. Supersedes HG-249 August 1992 Slightly Revised October 1966

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