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ENGLISH M2 ETEG 500 Theoretical Foundations of Instructional Design

Published by Recinto Online, 2020-05-15 09:40:29

Description: ENGLISH M2 ETEG 500 Theoretical Foundations of Instructional Design


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Theoretical Foundations of Instructional Design ETEG 500 Module 2

Main Theories of Instructional Design • Of the learning theories that influence practice and describe how students learn, three are the most used by eLearning professionals on a daily basis. • By understanding each theory, you can determine which one works best in a certain learning environment.

Main Theories of Instructional Design These theories can be combined based on: • The objective as an instructional designer. • The business objectives of the organization in which he or she works, or the client's organization. • The needs of the students. • The study content and goals.

Behaviorism • This theory focuses on the observable and measurable behaviors of an individual. Stimulus is repeated until the observable behavior becomes automatic. • It is also concerned with how an individual's external environment shapes their behavior. • Theoreticians are: Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, and Skinner.

Behaviorism and Instructional Design The use of behaviorism in instructional design is recommended if you intend to: • Create measurable and observable learning outcomes among students. • Utilize tangible rewards and informational feedback to improve student learning performance.

Cognitivism • Like behaviorism, cognitivism observes new patterns of behavior. However, cognitivism focuses on what behaviorism ignores: the thought process behind behavior. • After observing the changes in behavior, the adherents of this theory use the changes as an indicator of what is happening in the minds of individuals. • Forerunners of this theory: Jean Piaget, David P. Ausubel, Lev Vygotski, Immanuel Kant, among others.

Cognitivism and Instructional Design If you decide to take a cognitive approach to designing your material, be sure to: • Consider the characteristics of the student that can promote or interfere with the cognitive process of information. • Consider and analyze which tasks are appropriate for effective and efficient information processing. • Apply a variety of strategies that allow students to connect new information with prior knowledge.

Constructivism • As human beings, we perceive a different image of the world based on our individual experiences, mental structures and beliefs. • It places the student at the center of the learning environment. • The student actively participates in the construction of individual knowledge, because knowledge is not simply transmitted from one person to another. • This theory received contributions from: Jean Piaget, Vygotsky, Ausubel and Bruner.

Constructivism and Instructional Design • Constructivism promotes a more open learning experience, in which learning methods and results are not easy to measure and may not be the same for each student. • In constructivism, the instructional designer is challenged to generate, create challenging strategies and problems, create group learning activities, and guide the process of knowledge construction.

Learning Objectives and Instructional Design The objectives are determined for the teaching- learning activities because it is necessary to clearly and precisely delimit the educational intentions. Objectives determine: • What should be taught? • What results are expected to be obtained? • How will you know if it has been learned? • What materials and procedures will work best to teach what you want? • How to evaluate?

Objectives • The elaboration of the objectives poses a learning challenge where you have to respond to the problems posed, as well as the educational needs of the participants.

Instructional Objectives • By defining instructional objectives, we can understand a clear and precise description of educational intentions. It is a clear statement of the behavior that trainees are expected to acquire during the teaching-learning process (Arriola, et al. 2004).

Functions of Instructional Objectives • Be a solid base in the planning of any educational system. • Provide criteria on what to teach and how to do it. • Provide a common and solid nucleus for the activities that take place during teaching. • Evaluate and determine the success of teaching.

References • Mergel, B. (1998). Instructional design and learning theories. Saskatchewan University. • Instructional design. (2012). 14890549 • Báez, L. M. (2016). Que aportan las teorías de aprendizaje al diseño instruccional. teorias-del-aprendizaje-al-diseno-instruccional/

¡Felicitaciones ha revisado el resumen teórico del tema de esta semana! Recuerde que para construir exitosamente su aprendizaje es importante que: Repase cuantas veces requiera la información contenida en la carpeta de módulos (incluye esta presentación). Lea el material de referencia para aclarar dudas. Desarrolle todas las actividades según consta en las instrucciones. Envíe las tareas en la fecha indicada a través de la plataforma educativa. Participe activamente en las sesiones colaborativas.

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