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Home Explore February/March 2016 Ala Breve

February/March 2016 Ala Breve

Published by AMEA, 2019-10-02 07:19:21

Description: The official publication of the Alabama Music Educators Association

Keywords: alabama,music,educators,association,ala breve,AMEA


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February/March 2016 ala breve The Official Publication of the Alabama Music Educators Association

where the stars land in alabama Bachelor of Music The University of Alabama Performance Jazz Studies School of Music Composition Theory Music Therapy Bachelor of Science Music Education/Instrumental Music Education/Choral Bachelor of Arts General Music Music Administration Master of Music Performance Wind Conducting Choral Conducting Church Music Composition Theory Arranging Music History Master of Arts Music Education Doctor of Musical Arts Composition Performance Education Specialist PhD Music Education A world-renowned faculty, state of the art facility and a Performing name synonymous with champions. Become a star at the Ensembles University of Alabama School of Music. Huxford Symphony Orchestra Alabama Wind Ensemble For audition information Welcome to The University of Alabama Alabama Symphonic Band and our upcoming calendar School of Music. Scan here : Alabama Concert Band of events please visit our Alabama Jazz Ensemble website. Contemporary Ensemble University Singers University Chorus UA Opera Theatre The Million Dollar Band

ala breve the official publication of the Alabama Music Educators Association February/March 2016 Features... 8 AMEA Governing Board Directory 14 ABA All-State Clinicians 16 ABA All-State Schedule 18 Celebrating 70 Years 19 What People Are Saying 20 Campus Connections 21 AMEA Membership Honor Roll 22 Assistant Executive Director Job Description 24 AVA All-State Schedule 25 AVA All-State Clinicians 26 Choral Reviews by Diane Orlofsky 28 2016 AMEA Conference Photos 29 2016 AMEA Awards and Recognition 31 Noteworthy 32 AMEA Industry Members 33 Sousa March Interpretation by John Bourgeois 36 Meet the Candidates (AMEA 2016 Election) 38 Middle School Students’ Response to Live Brazilian Music by Elisa Macedo Dekaney 42 Healthy Singing and “Pop Music” by Kenneth H. Phillips 44 AMEA Schedule of Events 47 Which Version of Band Are You Teaching -1.0, 3.0 , 6.0? by Jill M. Sullivan 52 AMEA Meeting Minutes Departments... 6 ........................President Advertisers Index Smoky Mountain Music Festival..............36 10..............................HED American College of Musicians ...............37 UA Bands..................................................39 10 .....................Elem/Gen Arts Music Shop, Inc ..................back cover UA School of Music ...................................4 13 .................................AVA AU Bands ................................................27 UAB Music...............................................53 14 ..............................ABA AU Music Department ...............................2 UNA Department of Music ........................3 12 ..............................AOA AWB ...........................................................7 University of Georgia ...............................51 12..............Past Presidents Belmont University ..................................13 University of Montevallo .........................17 22 .......................Registrar FSU Summer Camps ................................40 University of South Alabama Bands ........30 Gadsden Music Company.........................46 University of South Alabama Music ........55 Huntingdon College Bands.......................23 Yamaha .....................................................11 John M. Long School of Music (Troy).....54 JSU Music ..................................................9 ala breve 5

Carl Hancock, AMEA President Celebrating 70 years of the James Zingara, Higher Education Division Alabama Music Educators President Association! Thad Walker, Collegiate President Ted Hoffman, Collegiate Advisor Happy Anniversary Friends! conference sessions, and performing groups. A huge thank you to the performers, Becky Lightfoot, Industry Membership This year marks the 70th anniversary of the clinicians, and many others who made this Representative Alabama Music Educators Association. conference the most successful on record for Seventy years is a long time. Indeed, the the AMEA. It would not have been possible Andy Meadows, ASDOE, Fine Arts AMEA is the same age as the United Nations without the hard work of the AMEA Specialist and the film, It’s a Wonderful Life. Considering Governing Board. It is been a true privilege the growth of our association over seven to work with the fine educators listed below, It has been said that the success of the decades, I would say the AMEA has had a and I am honored to know them. AMEA Conference lies in the hard work put wonderful ride, and is looking forward to a in by the members of the board and the wonderful future. Garry Taylor, Executive Director and Ala leaders of our various divisions. Once again, Breve Editor I have seen it first hand and I know it to be We have become the leading organization true. Thank you to these individuals for their promoting the advancement of music Susan Smith, President-elect tireless leadership. education in Alabama through our sponsorship of professional development, Sara Womack, Immediate Past President The Ala Breve or is it Ala. Breve or Ala. curricular support, and advocacy. Our breve? Regardless, its a great journal! organization comprises a rich history as Pat Stegall, Treasurer/Registrar shown in the contributions of members of As our conference has grown so too has our our Hall of Fame, progressive initiatives Carla Gallahan, Recording Secretary journal, the Ala Breve. In 1955, out forbearers shepherded by the 36 presidents of the took on the challenge of producing their very AMEA, and stories documented in 61 years Mike Holmes, Alabama Bandmasters own state journal. The cover of the first issue of the Ala Breve. The rich traditions of the Association President carried the charge, “Thy name shall be ‘Ala. AMEA that I want to reflect upon are our breve’, and thou art commanded to annual professional development conference Sarah Schrader, Alabama Orchestra henceforth and continuously serve well and and the Ala Breve. Association President faithfully the music educators and students of Alabama.” It was an immediate success Carl Davis, Alabama Vocal Association within and beyond Alabama. President Following this first issue, George Hicks, then Cliff Huckabee, Elementary/General President of Kentucky Music Educators Division President The 2016 Professional Development Conference. Minutes after the opening-night concert by Boston Brass, I found myself leading these incredible brass musicians off stage, into the foyer, and through a swarm of excited audience members eagerly awaiting a chance to get a photo with these incredible “rock stars.” As we made our way through the throng, tubist Sam Pilafian looked down at his dress shirt, studied it, raised his head, and with great enthusiasm said, “Carl, I popped a button off my shirt for you guys!” The concert was sensational and, in my mind, BOSTON BRASS Sam’s words captured the enthusiasm for this very special performance and our very special conference. We had historic attendance with 1,025 registrations and included musicians, scholars, and speakers from across the United States and Canada. This conference also hosted the largest number of vendors, 6 February/March 2016

Association wrote, “May I offer a hearty by examining middle school students and their familiar scenes that we hope reminds you of congratulations to you, your staff, and the AMEA reactions to a live performance of Brazilian the progress we’ve made, the events that on the publication of Ala. breve. Your first issue has music. The article was written by Dr. Elisa shaped our organization, and the members proven to be interesting reading even for an out-of-state Dekaney from Syracuse University and who have given their time in service to our person like myself. I am sure teachers will find it includes an abstract that summarizes the profession. indispensable in their profession. Good luck to you and contents of the article. See page <insert page may Ala. breve live up to its commandment. The title number for article>. The second article was Conclusion and cover drawing represent two of the the cleverest written by noted choral pedagogue, Dr. Ken ideas I have seen in years.” Phillips from the University of Iowa, on the I want to wish everyone the best of luck as topic of inaccurate pitch singing among you prepare for upcoming concerts, Since the inception of the Ala Breve, our state vocalists and can be found on page <insert assessments, and all-state events. Let us journal has stood out as a carefully crafted page number for article>. The third article is continue the great work we are doing as an publication among our peers. The current by Dr. Jill Sullivan from Arizona State organization and as a profession. The privilege issue, under the editorship of Garry Taylor, University, and it challenges us to look at our of teaching kids the value and power of music continues this honored tradition. band programs from several alternative views. is one that we should always remember is See page <insert page number for article>. something most people do not get to do. I’ve always found the title of our journal to be And the fourth featured article is a reprint an interesting play on “alle breve” and while from a 1985 issue of the Ala Breve and was Thank you for a wonderful conference, your reading past issues I came across a brief article written by Colonel John R. Bourgeois when words of support, and for the great work all from 1956 explaining the name of our journal he was the 25th Director of “The President’s of you are doing every day. to readers. It is reprinted in this issue and can Own” United States Marine Band. His article be found on page <insert page number for examines the interpretation of Sousa marches All the best, article>. and can be found on page <insert page number for article>. Dr. Carl B. Hancock, President Besides the important information about all- Alabama Music Educators Association state and other events, this issue of the Ala Through the years, the covers of the Ala Breve Breve includes four articles that were especially have undergone several changes and are filled written for us. First is a research article with interesting trivia. The collage we created exploring multicultural music education issues on the cover of this issue includes many ala breve 7

AMEA Governing Board 2015-2016 PCUrBaTen(roscu2liixhvs0dHace58enaar)n7slncoi03tocto34yocs68kcoa6-k@f, GSPraearyasstWtPoonrmeesaidckent PSSr6uMea0sssisa1niomnd0tneJiStVtngahmamot@-umiEetghsselhterjSnywcc,tRehAbooL.aoodl3rg6116 a(mC21G5ue6EE6ala0dl)@rxm0ir6etyaMboc3neTur6a,,lat-lnAAi2syvoo7lLleorau5rtDD34Bh5ri.r.r0neeN5evct5eEtor s(aB23rE0ai0r5tl0mwe)mVio4nmei3gln9lhaat-caag3kmre2y@0,SS0AtgcrmLeheoa5toi2ll.4c2om PTarteSatseugraellr/Registrar RC2eTa1Tc(rr2cr3oologa3rySyad4Gm,lU)[email protected] SMMcPhoriouceohnsleitdaaielnnHBto,rAlomoBekAsJunior High PSPrFa.(eOrbo3saul3i.hedr4BykeS),oancA7rxtht2,L_r28Aas2-3adO226re8a15Ar5h35@6 t(hB22e0it0ru55mb) aOi8nm7vg1aehn-ra3b@m5ro1,co6AhkaLxrR8t3e5dr52..2n51et3 pMsPAtOueMgscBaElloelA@xSR3hm3oes8agcl5isss.,tkrA1at2Li.oa3nl5.u6s61 j(wU2TaP0nhl5rkiave)edser6ir1Wd3s46ieat@n-yl0ktfo7,eofA5rr6MuMmoE.nmAteovCnatolellvoleagllioa.teedu PCDra1e(Derc0s2claie15adDrc16tleauba)nPtrveu5trtiHr,o5hs,[email protected] e(hM2DoS0UofaTt5fAanvne)mttiiMdi6esvoav6HenMnEa5s@ol6iA-ultf66oymsf6C7,imco6oA0oaf8nBlLnMtluee3vgiol5aidna1litlt1neoe5gv.eaA3dll0udo8visor PJraemseidseZnitn,gHarigaher Education c3lMi31fL45TfoCoh-5Phn4wul0erti6cgfeePfM2kosre-aHimS3dorbru7ceneeychr9nteygko0@Ht,oa,oAimbEgllleLmCleeReraa3myomi6laA/.1pGdc0cuoe6asmndemy IBnA3edMr03cubt33ksose04yntMcr/tkEL2gyuy7aioslgR1sm@ihtc-e2teBpafS7rorlryh8tvoes,o7dtsmApe. U2BA3(j2i1zBr0imHn5gi)una9lgrs3ahe4@ya-m7Cu3,aeA7bn6.tLeedr3u5294 Garry Taylor, Editor & Advertising Manager ADVERTISING & COPY DEADLINES 1600 Manor Dr. NE Fall - August/September (Back to School) issue: July 15 Cullman, AL 35055 Winter - October/November (Conference) issue: September 15 (256) 636-2754 Spring - February/March (All-State) issue: January 15 [email protected] Summer - May/June (Digital Only) issue: April 15 Unless otherwise indicated, permission is granted to NAfME members to reprint articles for educational purposes. Opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of AMEA or the Editor. All announcements & submissions are subject to editorial judgement/revision.The Alabama Music Educators Association is a state unit of NAfME: The National Association for Music Education, a voluntary, nonprofit organization representing all phases of music education in schools, colleges, universities, and teacher-education institutions. Active NAfME/AMEA membership is open to all persons engaged in music teaching or other music education work. Ala Breve is published four times a year (August, October, February & May) by the Alabama Music Educators Association and printed by Hardwick and Son Printing in Dothan, Alabama. Subscription for members is $4.00 per year as part of annual NAfME/AMEA dues. Subscriptions for non-members is $15.00 per year. Bulk rate postage paid at Dothan, Alabama. 8 February/March 2016

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James Zingara - President, Higher Education Division Dear HED Colleagues, Discussion: The Breakdown between the Higher 8 universities met to vote on the offices of Education Classroom and First Year Teacher President-Elect and Secretary-Treasurer of I greatly enjoyed seeing Experiences. I believe that our HED panelists the Division. It is my pleasure to announce you at the recent Brian Kittredge (UAB), Becky Halliday that the new President-Elect is Mildred Lanier AMEA Conference. I (University of Montevallo), and Anne Witt of Jefferson State Community College, and believe that this year’s (University of Alabama) framed relevant the new Secretary-Treasurer is Dr. Katrina Higher Education questions and provided common sense Phillips of Alabama State University. Both will Division offerings were solutions to many of the presented issues. take office this coming June; I would like to a great success due in Our first and second year teacher panelists give both of them my heartfelt large part to the increased participation from Courtney Cooper, Sarah Commer, Russell congratulations on their new leadership role the membership. Our sessions included an Greene, and Cara Thomas were outstanding in HED. Also assuming a new role is Dr. eclectic mix across the music education examples of young music educators and Becky Halliday (University of Montevallo), spectrum including technology, teacher voiced their opinions and concerns in a who is the current President-Elect and will education, applied music, music business, and relevant and well-articulated manner. become President this summer. HED is in special education. Our presenters (Ellary very good hands, and I will look forward to Draper, Jane Kuehne, Denise Gainey, and Ted The HED Student Recital featured seven much progress in the future. Hoffman) represented five institutions of outstanding chamber groups from five higher education in the State of Alabama schools from across the state. I would like to Please check this column in upcoming including Alabama, Auburn, Montevallo and thank Lori Ardovino, Kip Franklin, Brenda editions and our webpage for announcements UAB. I am especially thrilled to say that our Luchsinger, Adam Murphy, Michael concerning the 2017 Conference. The Higher colleague Mildred Lanier of Jefferson State Pendowski, and Katrina Phillips for Education Division is growing and your Community College presented the first showcasing their student ensembles at this contributions will be most welcome in the session representing our community college recital. coming year. In the meantime, I would like to HED members. wish you a very successful and productive The HED Luncheon was again a great Spring semester. I was also pleased with the second HED Panel success, and 24 HED colleagues representing Cliff Huckabee - President, Elementary/General Division Greetings from the Second, we had two great performances - integration on Saturday morning and had Elementary Division Boaz Intermediate under the direction of sessions from Quaver Music and of the Alabama Music Miriam Richey and The Kitty Stone Singers ChordBuddy. Educators Association! under the direction of Lisa Gillespie and We are a few weeks Cheryl Wight. Both groups performed Overall, our 2016 In-service was one of our past our very successful fabulously and showed what quality best ever! We look forward to one more year 2016 Annual In-service instruction from a skilled elementary music in Montgomery in 2017 and then we will Conference and saw educator can produce. I loved seeing the move to Birmingham for the 2018 In-service. some great things from our Elementary excitement and enjoyment from all the kids Division. as they performed. It is an experience that the There are several events coming up in the students will never forget. spring and summer that we would love to First, two of our very own were inducted into keep you informed about. We maintain an the Hall of Fame – Vicki Portis and Teresa Third, we had some wonderful clinicians and email list of our elementary music teachers McKibben. Both are very well deserving and sessions. It was my honor to welcome our and would love to have you on this list. If you represent the very best of elementary music two featured clinicians, Denise Gagne and have not received emails from us before, education and the impact it can have on our Roger Sams. Both of them thoroughly pleasesendanemailto:[email protected] youngest students. They have inspired so enjoyed being in Alabama and both want to many students and teachers with their skillful come back to future AMEA conferences. We will gladly add you to our email list for instruction and quality lessons. They also Both had booths in the exhibit hall providing future notifications. Our elementary board is supported our elementary division with their valuable resources for our elementary music here to serve you and your needs. Please do leadership on our elementary board and teachers. We hope to have Roger’s company not hesitate to contact us with any need you through their support of our Elementary back next year in our exhibit hall. It was also may have. I wish you all the very best as you Music Festival. But most of all, they are both great to have several of our own elementary finish out the 2015-2016 school year. loving and compassionate people that are a division teachers presenting sessions – Tiffani joy to be around and inspire the very best Stricklin, Kelly Hollingsworth, & Jeanette Respectfully Submitted, from everyone they meet. I wish them both Shorey provided valuable sessions on topics the very best as they enjoy their retirement that are affecting elementary music teachers Cliff Huckabee and this great honor bestowed upon them. here in Alabama. We also had Gail Kopetz from Mississippi present a session on Orff 10 February/March 2016

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Sarah Schrader - President, Alabama Orchestra Association WOW! The AMEA conference this year was colleagues present this year. Thank you Dr. and must be postmarked by March 4th to not AMAZING! Thank you to everyone who Anne Witt, Dr. Daniel Stevens, David Pryor, incur late fees. We are so excited to be made this conference possible. Thank you and Caroline Nordlund for your wonderful offering this! Thank you to our OMPA AOA members for attending this year’s sessions. We also enjoyed a spectacular committee Dr. Guy Harrison, Dr. Anne Witt, conference, it was especially great to see new performance by the Shoals Symphony from Dr. Dan Hornstein, Dr. Katherine King, and faces! Our presenters this year were Florence. They then stayed to provide the Steven Findley for getting everything spectacular! Some of the conference wide instrumentation for our JW Pepper organized. Your planning efforts have made highlights included the Boston Brass and Dr. sponsored reading session that was this event a possibility! Tim Lautzenheiser. We were especially conducted by Soon Hee Newbold. Those in blessed to have stellar string presentations attendance were thrilled to get to perform I would also like to thank the AOA Executive this year. Our headline presenter was some great music under Soon Hee’s Board and district chairs, Sam Nordlund, nationally renowned composer Soon Hee direction. If you missed it this year, I hope Felicia Sarubin, Jacob Frank, Lisa Caravan, Newbold. Her sessions and personality were you will make time in your busy schedules to Julie Hornstein, Matthew Grant, Julianne delightful and helped to make the conference attend next year’s conference in January. Odahowski Steele, Eugene Conner, Chin- exhilarating. Our string sessions this year Mei Li, and Roland Lister for your help this included; selecting the perfect piece, Our next AOA event, The All State year with all events. These events would not improving ensemble skills, group class Orchestra Festival will be underway or be possible without all your hard work. teaching techniques, score preparation, the completed when this issue is published. Thank you for all you do! publishing process, classroom management, Thank you to all the conductors, judges, incorporating strings into your band sectional coaches, and teachers for taking the In closing, I pray that you can continue to program, and injury prevention for time to work with Alabama’s talented young keep your enthusiasm high throughout the musicians. musicians. This weekend is an amazing end of the school year. Set your goals for experience for all who attend. I appreciate your students and stick to them. I look We were lucky to have some of our own state you sharing your time and talents with the forward to hearing your success stories from students to make this weekend amazing. this year! Thank you to the University of Alabama for hosting us again this year. It is a blessing to Dates: have this venue to hold the festival. Orchestra Music Performance Assessment AOA will be hosting our first ever Orchestra Registration deadline- March 4, 2016 Music Performance Assessment (OMPA) at Auburn University, April 22nd and 23rd. The Orchestra Music Performance Assessment- registration form is now up on our website April 22 and 23, 2016 AMEA Presidents - Past to Present 1946 Yale H. Ellis 1970 Jerry Bobo 1992 Dianne Johnson 1948 Walter A. Mason 1950 Vernon Skoog 1972 Frances P. Moss 1994 James K. Simpson 1952 John J. Hoover 1954 Lamar Triplett 1974 George Hammett 1996 Johnnie Vinson 1956 Carleton K. Butler 1958 Mort Glosser 1975 Frances P. Moss 1998 Michael Meeks 1960 Wilbur Hinton 1962 Lacey Powell, Jr. 1976 S. J. Allen 2000 John McAphee, Jr. 1964 G. Truman Welch 1966 Jerry Countryman 1978 W. Frank McArthur, Jr. 2002 Tony Pike 1968 Floyd C. McClure 1980 Paul Hall 2004 Becky Rodgers 1982 Lacey Powell, Jr. 2006 John Baker 1984 Johnny Jacobs 2008 Pat Stegall 1986 Merilyn Jones 2010 Steve McLendon 1988 Ronald D. Hooten 2012 Sara Womack 1990 Ken Williams 2014 Carl Hancock 12 February/March 2016

SCHOOL of MUSIC 2016InSUthMe MHeEaRrt MofUNSaIsChvCilAleMPS BELMONT UNIVERSITY’S SCHOOL OF MUSIC SUMMER CAMPS FOR WINDS, PERCUSSION, STRINGS, PIANO AND VOCALISTS. STRING CROSSINGS CAMP BELMONT PIANO CAMP June 12–17 for Grades 9–12 June 19–24 for Grades 9–12 • For Violin, Viola, Cello and Double Bass • Study Classical or Jazz Piano • Study Multiple Styles including Classical, • Classes in Music Theory, Sight-Reading, Swing, Celtic, Rock, Jazz and Bluegrass Technique and Improvisation • String Orchestra and Small Group SUMMER VOCAL ARTS INTENSIVE Opportunities Available June 26–July 2 for Grades 9–12 SUMMER WINDS BAND CAMP • Solo, Ensemble and Choral Singing Experiences June 19–25 for Grades 9–12 • Masterclasses in Classical, Jazz, • For Woodwinds, Brass and Percussion Musical Theater and Contemporary Styles • Study Classical and Jazz Styles • Elective Classes in Conducting, Music Technology, Audition Tips, • Ensemble Opportunities include Wind Ensemble, Jazz Ensemble and Scat Singing and more Chamber Music ala breve 13

Micheal Holmes - President, Alabama Bandmasters Association The Process: 2016 Alabama We’re Not Done Yet All State Band Conductors Ray E. Cramer was a member of the Indiana University School of Assessment is quickly approaching. Take a Music faculty from fall deep breath. This is an important event for our association. Your ABA Board members have 1969 through May 2005. taken great care to secure adjudicators that are AMEA Conference 2016 was a huge success. to provide you and your students with a In 1982, Cramer was President Carl Hancock and the AMEA constructive, positive, and honest assessment Governing Board earned “STRAIGHT of your band’s performance at MPA. Accept appointed director of ONES”! The Boston Brass proved themselves the outcome with an open mind. There will be to be worth the effort it took to get them to the information there that can help your band bands, and under his conference. They are both world-class make improvements and achieve musical musicians and world-class human beings. growth. Then Sight-Reading. Take another leadership the Indiana When the weather began to affect planned deep breath. This is no big deal. Many of you performances, the Boston Brass stepped in sight-read every day in band rehearsal. Every University Wind Ray E. Cramer with an encore performance that was just what time you play a new line out of your Method Red Band Clinician we needed to cheer us up a bit after we received book, Chorale book, or Rhythms studies book, Ensemble earned an the sad news that the Oak Mountain bands had your students are Sight-Reading. Don’t to turn the buses around and go back home. abandon daily fundamentals to work on the international reputation We can certainly understand the “contest” music. Those fundamentals are what disappointment that was felt by the students, it takes to get your band to where you want it to for outstanding musical performances, parents, and conductors of this fine band be. Once many years past, Phi Beta Mu Hall of program. Our hope is that they will be in a Fame member Larry Deagan told me including the 1982 ABA Convention, position to perform for us in 2017. Dr. Ken “Concerts and contests are a necessity, but they Ozello, Professor Randall Coleman, and sure do interfere with teaching”. So, keep Indianapolis; the 1984 joint American composer Tyler Grant also stepped up to the teaching. podium when Brian Balmages was thwarted by Bandmasters Association/Japan Bandmasters Mother Nature and could not make it to Still not done yet. All-State Band district level Alabama. These musicians presented a great auditions have been completed. I am looking Association Convention, Tokyo; the 1988 Reading Band session on his behalf. Thanks! forward to being in Mobile once again. It is a And through the magic of technology, Brian, beautiful area for our All-State Festival. I am MENC National Convention, Indianapolis; the at least a digital version of Brian, was with us as certainly excited to witness the performances well. of our state’s fine soloists as they perform on 1991 National CBDNA Convention in Kansas the campus of the University of South ABA was well represented at the conference Alabama in the All-State Solo Festival Finals City, the 1994 National MENC Convention in through concerts and clinic sessions. The Concert on Wednesday, April 13, 2016. This Randolph School Middle School Percussion event never disappoints. So don’t miss it. We Cincinnati, the 1995 ABA Convention in Ensemble and the University of North have contracted four of the finest conductors Alabama Percussion Group entertained with in our profession to work with the best band Lawrence, Kansas, the 1997 National CBDNA quality literature and execution. Grissom High students in the country, our students, and this is School Symphonic Band II (Theo Vernon going to be an awesome All-State Band Festival. Convention in Athens, Georgia, the 2003 conductor), James Clemens High School You don’t want to miss it. Symphonic Band (Keith Anderson conductor), CBDNA National Convention in Minneapolis, and The University of Alabama Wind I don’t think we will ever be done. Still to go: Ensemble (Dr. Kenneth Ozello conductor), honor bands, scholarship auditions, recruiting, MN, a 2000 spring tour to Japan performing in presented performances that will be spring concerts, trip performances, drill writing, remembered for many years to come. We music arranging, drum major tryouts, visual six cities and the All Japan Band Clinic, and a definitely have quality band programs in our ensemble auditions, new uniforms to order, state. Will your band be the next to perform at fundraisers, faculty meetings (my personal 2003 performance at the Midwest Clinic. the AMEA Conference? The due date to apply favorite), ABA Summer Conference, marching will be here soon. We need more applicants. band camp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND DON’T In addition to his administrative responsibilities We want you to make our job of choosing FORGET THE SUNSCREEN!! as the department chairman, Cramer taught performing ensembles and clinics even more graduate courses in wind conducting, history, difficult than it was this year. So start making and literature. He also conducted the University plans to apply. Orchestra for seven years during the fall semester. He is a past national president of the Nope, not done yet. Music Performance College Band Directors National Association and the American Bandmasters Association and has served as president of the Indiana Bandmasters Association, the North Central Division of CBDNA, and the Big Ten Band Directors Association. He is the current president of the Midwest Clinic, an international band and orchestra convention held in Chicago each December. David Willson is a “band director’s band director.” His teaching at all levels has been the catalyst for his mission to serve others through directing bands and bettering his profession. He is in his twenty David Willson second year as Director Whtie Band Clinician of Bands at The University of 14 February/March 2016

Mississippi where he was named Teacher of the Alabama A&M Payton. They have three wonderful children: Year in 2007 and awarded the First Award “for Walter Payton, Carmen, and Jaylen; and a very his service to students” in 2005. In 2010, Willson University in 1986. He loyal dog, Sno. was honored by Phi Beta Mu International Bandmasters Fraternity with the Outstanding was awarded the Master Contribution to Bands Award. Under his direction the University Wind Ensemble has of Arts Degree in Music performed at Mississippi Band Masters and CBDNA Southern Convention, live for Education from Deborah Confredo Mississippi Public Radio, featured on national public radio, received the NBA Citation of Hampton University (formerly Sheldon) is Excellence multiple times, and has toured throughout extensively throughout the mid- (Virginia) in 1993. In Professor of Music south. The Pride of South Marching Band, while under his direction, has more than doubled in 1984 Wright received a Education and Director size, performed in nine bowl games, and made the “Grove Routine” part of the Ole Miss Carleton Wright commission of 2nd of Graduate Programs Tradition. Prior to coming to Ole Miss Willson Blue Band Clinician Lieutenant in the United served sixteen years as a public school band for Music Education at director in Mississippi. His bands were award winning in every category consistently in local Stated Army Reserve. the Boyer College of and national competitions, including receiving the prestigious Sudler Award in 1990. He placed The former Captain Wright proudly served in Music and Dance. many students in the Mississippi All-State Band and served as conductor/director five times various positions until his honorable discharge. Confredo’s specialties including trips to Brisbane, Australia and the world championship trip to Seoul, Korea. Mr. Wright’s previous teaching assignments include instrumental Willson received the ASBDA-Stanbury young band director of the year in 1985 and was named include, Minor High School, George Washington Deborah Confredo rehearsal techniques and Mississippi’s Outstanding Band Master in 1989. In 1982 NIFMA honored him with the Carver High School-Montgomery, and Fairfield MS Band Clinician teaching methods, Southeastern Music Educator of the Year award. Willson is past president of Phi Beta Mu High School. Throughout his career, Mr. assessment, research, International, the Mississippi Band Masters Association and the Delta Chapter of Phi Beta Wright’s bands have consistently earned superior music psychology, cognitive-behavioral Mu, state chairman for CBDNA, NBA, and served for four years on the National Federation ratings at district, state, regional, and national techniques, conducting, wind band literature, of Music committee. He is active in many professional organizations. Publications by band festivals in the concert, jazz, and marching and systematic observation. Confredo has taught Willson include Starting Beginner Band Students, Band Calisthenics and Mr. Willson’s Warm Up, band genres. In 2013, Wright was named elementary and secondary instrumental music in which are used extensively throughout the midsouth. His articles have frequently appeared Director of Bands at his undergraduate Alma Pennsylvania and New York. Her numerous in The Instrumentalist, BandWorld, Phi Beta Mu Journal, and most recently in the August 2011 Mater, Alabama A&M University in Huntsville. articles in music education, pedagogy, and issue of SBO Magazine. He is active as a clinician and speaker throughout the United States. research are published in journals such as the Professor Willson has always put a strong emphasis on training students fundamentally and His teaching philosophies are partially Journal for Research in Music Education, Bulletin of has been equally concerned in developing influenced by his friends and mentors such as; students as well-rounded citizens through his Mr. Curtis Hollinger, Mr. Barrett Alexander, Mr. the Council for Research in Music Education (CRME), philosophy of being all superior “Every Day in Arthur B. Wesley, Dr. Sue Samuels, Mr. Arthur Every Way”. He is most proud of his former Means, Mrs. Dianne Johnson, Dr. Jon Remley, Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, students that are successful band directors. Mr. William T. Robinson, III, and the late Mr. Barney E Smart, Sr. Journal for Music Teacher Education, Journal of Music A native of Montgomery, Alabama, Carlton J. Wright attended school in the Montgomery Therapy, Music Educators Journal, Journal of Band County School System and graduated from G.W. Carver High School. He earned the Bachelor of Research, The Instrumentalist, and Contributions to Science Degree in Music Education from Music Education, as well as in several state music education journals. A past editor of the Bulletin Mr. Wright is an active trumpeter, clinician, of the Council for Research in Music Education, arranger, and adjudicator for various band related activities. Some of his past invitations Confredo has also served multiple terms as an include the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Samford University; Alabama State editorial board member for that journal as well University; Miles College; Stillman College; Hampton University; Mississippi State as the Journal of Research in Music Education, as is University; Montgomery, Alabama County Schools; Houston County, Alabama Schools; currently an editorial board member for Calhoun County, Alabama Schools, and DeKalb County, Georgia Public Schools. Education. Wright attends the Sixteenth Street Baptist She has co-authored the texts The Complete Church in Birmingham, where he is serves as a Woodwind Instructor: A Guidebook for the Music trumpeter and Assistant Orchestra Director. Mr. Educator and Lessons in Performance (FJH), and is Wright holds membership in the following editor of Superior Bands in Sixteen Weeks, and organizations: National Education Association Chorales and Rhythmic Etudes for Superior Bands. She (NEA), Alabama Education Association is an instrumental editor, arranger, author, and (AEA), National Association for Music consultant for the FJH Music Company and lead Educators (NAfME), Alabama Music author for the FJH publication Measures of Educators Association (AMEA), Alabama Success, a band method for beginning and Bandmasters Association (ABA), Kappa Kappa intermediate instrumentalists. She is founder of Psi Band Fraternity, Phi Beta Mu Band the Temple Night Owls Campus/Community Fraternity, Tau Beta Sigma Band Sorority, and Band. Confredo is in demand as clinician, the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity. adjudicator, guest conductor, and lecturer. Tau Beta Sigma and the Illinois Music Educators His parents are the late James and Adeline Association have honored her for her Wright. He is married to the former Jocelyn distinguished service to music and music education. Mansfield University has recognized her as a distinguished alumnus. At home in the Philadelphia/South Jersey area, Confredo plays saxophones and keyboards in the four-member jazz fusion band, West River Drive. ala breve 15

ALABAMA BANDMASTERS ASSOCIATION ALL-STATE BAND FESTIVAL MOBILE ALABAMA CONVENTION CENTER/RENAISSANCE HOTEL APRIL 13-16, 2016 Wednesday All-State Solo Festival-University of South Alabama 10:00 A. M. Registration and check-in 11:00 A. M-6:00 P. M. Preliminary Competition 7:30 P. M. State Solo Festival Finals Concert – Recital Hall Thursday Auditions-Meetings-Rehearsals-Convention Center/Hotel 12:00-7:00 P. M. Exhibits Open 12:00 P. M. Directors Meeting 1:00 P. M. Auditions begin 5:30 P. M. Audition results posted at each rehearsal location 6:30-9:30 P. M. All-State Band rehearsals Red Band-Dr. Ray Cramer- Conductor 7:00-9:00 P. M. White Band-Mr. David Willson-Conductor 11:00 P. M. Blue Band-Mr. Carlton Wright-Conductor Middle School Band-Dr. Deborah Confredo-Conductor Alabama Bandmasters Association Executive Board Meeting Curfew for all participants Friday Meetings-Rehearsals-Convention Center/Hotel 8:30-11:30 A. M. Exhibits Open (Exhibits will close for lunch from 11:30-12:00) 8:30-9:30 Exclusive time for directors to visit exhibits 8:30 A. M. -5:30 P. M. Rehearsals 10:00-11:30 AM ABA General Business Meeting-Hotel 12:00-1:30 PM Lunch Break for all All-State Band participants 12:00-1:15 PM Phi Beta Mu Luncheon 12:00- 5:00 PM Exhibits Open 2:00-4:00 P. M. Possible Committee meeting/training session TBA 8:00 P. M. University of South Alabama Concert-Saenger Theatre 11:30 P.M Curfew for all participants. Saturday Rehearsals-Meetings-Concert-Civic Center/Hotel 8:00-8:45 A. M. Middle School Band Rehearsal 8:45-9:30 A. M. Blue Band Rehearsal 9:00-9:30 A. M. ABA Board Meeting-Hotel 9:30-10:15 A. M. White Band Rehearsal 9:45-10:45 A. M. ABA General Business Meeting-Hotel 10:15-11:00 A. M. Red Band Rehearsal 1:00 PM All-State Band Concert-Civic Center Hotel - Renaissance Riverview Plaza Hotel, Mobile Thursday & Friday rehearsals – Mobile Convention Center Saturday morning rehearsals – Mobile Civic Center Saturday afternoon concert – Mobile Civic Center 16 February/March 2016

COLLEGE of FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT of MUSIC COLLEGE of FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT of MUSIC AUDITION DATES: NOV. 14, 2015 JAN. 30, 2016 MARCH 12, 2016 For more information, visit AUDITION DATES: NOV. 14, 2015 JAN. 30, 2016 MARCH 12, 2016 For more information, visit ala breve 17

1st Ala Breve November 1955 1st AMEA Conference January 1974 1955-1965 From 1966-1969 April 1956 1st AMEA Logo 1970-1984 Ala Breve mastheads through the years 1985-1990 2001-Present 1999-2000 1990-1992 1992-1999 18 February/March 2016

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Campus Connections... News and Happenings from Alabama’s Colleges and Universities Colleges and universities are encouraged to submit newsworthy material and announcements for publication in Ala Breve Samford University ANIMATE at Samford: composer selected for the middle-school I June 20 – June 24, 2016 groups is Robert Sheldon and conductors Samford University is busy serving II June 27-July 1, 2016 are Matt Koperniak, Donald Dowdy, and students and musicians from all around Animate is an interdenominational, Gwendolyn Rakoff. the region! intergenerational academy in worship, January 7-9 theology, and the arts for high school Students from across the Southeast and Alabama Honor Band Festival students and their adult mentors. Students the nation have been selected to can attend as an individual or with a participate in the festivals based on February 5-6, 13, 26-27 friend. Adult leaders can bring an submitted applications and director Audition and Interview Days intergenerational team from your recommendations. Each participant will congregation or school. At Animate, be placed in an ensemble after an on-site March 4-5 students hone leadership skills, adults audition. During the course of the Alabama All-State Choral Festival sharpen their mentoring tools, and festival, students will participate in master everybody works together to practice and classes with Auburn University faculty, We are currently making plans for some reflect on the intersection between hear performances by the AU Symphonic exciting summer events as well that worship, theology, and the arts. Fees are Winds, Concert Band, and Jazz Band, and include opportunities for pre-college $249/per person for each session prior to work with renowned conductors and pianists, elementary music teachers, and May 1. For more information contact Eric composers. The festivals will culminate worship leaders of all ages. Mathis: (205) 726-2323, or with student bands performing their [email protected] finale concerts on Feb. 6 and Feb. 13. We PACMI at Samford: June 5 – 11, 2016 hope you and your students will join us Samford’s Piano and Chamber Music Auburn University for one of these festivals. Institute is a one-week program affording interested pre-college students an Auburn University Department is pleased Last fall the Auburn University Chamber opportunity to further their performance to announce the 25th Annual Auburn Choir joined Columbus State and abilities and enjoy classes in music history, University Symphonic Honor Band LaGrange College choirs in a thrilling theory and ear training. Students Festival and the 7th Annual Auburn performance of Ninth Symphony by encounter daily lessons with a private University Middle School Honor Band Ludwig van Beethoven in concert with teacher and have the opportunity to be Festival which will be held on campus the Columbus Symphony Orchestra. involved in various kinds of chamber during the first two weekends in February. Experiences like these abound for music. Registration deadline is May 15, students majoring in music or performing 2016. For more information go to The Auburn University Symphonic in the many varied ensembles at Auburn! or contact Ron Honor Band Festival will celebrate its We are proud to offer an intimate and Shinn: (205) 601-3694, or [email protected] 25th anniversary during this year’s event on nurturing atmosphere that provides February 11-13, 2016. Guest composers opportunities for individual attention and ORFF at Samford: June 20–July 1, 2016 who have been engaged to write a new regular performance for students. We are The music education department at piece for the senior high ensembles are fortunate to be able to bring in frequent Samford is hosting Orff Certification Julie Giroux, and Randall Standridge. Our guest artists for concerts and master Levels courses again this summer. We are ensemble conductors will be Thomas classes. I invite you to read about our delighted to have highly qualified Leslie, Kenneth Beard, David Raney, and distinguished faculty, major performing clinicians in Brent Holl (Level II), Ellen Tracy Leslie. Every participant will have ensembles, programs of study, and Koziel (Level I), and Jennifer Donovan the opportunity to play under the baton available scholarships, and assistantships (Movement and Recorder). The Level I of one of these outstanding conductors. on our website at: fee is $675.00 and the cost for Level II is music. Contact the Department of $750.00. Spaces are limited. Register by The Middle-School Honor Band Music at 334-844-4165 if you have May 9, 2016. For more information Festival will be held on February 4-6, questions about our degree programs or contact Susanne Burgess: (205) 726-2651, 2016 on the Auburn campus. The offerings. or [email protected] War Eagle! 20 February/March 2016

AMEA MEMBERSHIP HONOR ROLL The Alabama Music Educators Association is proud to recognize those AMEA members having 25 or more years of continuous membership in NAfME. This year, each person attaining 25 years and those reaching increments of five years beyond that will be honored. The following music educators will be honored during the Friday morning General Session. Merilyn Jones - 60 years Debra Ellis - 30 years John Robert Hinton - 55 years Rhonda Farley - 30 years Stewart Hampton - 50 years Bryan Kreps - 30 years Rondall Mallory - 30 years Ronald Lett - 50 years Theo Vernon - 30 years William T. Robinson - 50 years Kim Bain - 25 years Thomas Smith - 50 years John Bradley - 25 years Thomas Brannan - 45 years Beth Davis - 25 years Freddie Meadows - 45 years Jennifer Fyock - 25 years Lester Harris - 25 years Arthur Means - 45 years Brian Lowe - 25 years Milton Welch - 45 years Gary McNutt - 25 years Frank Blanton - 40 years Karen Morgan - 25 years Dennis Carroll - 40 years David Pryor - 25 years James Duren - 40 years Michelle Reburn - 25 years Rebecca Rockhill - 40 years Jon Remley - 25 years Suzanne Winter - 40 years Paul Tallent - 25 years Virginia Carlisle - 35 years Natasha Tidmore - 25 years Paul Edmondson - 35 years Reggie Tolbert - 25 years Larry Hardin - 35 years Micheal Holmes - 35 years 21 Susan McCall - 35 years ala breve

Pat Stegall, AMEA Treasurer/Registrar “Wow, that was really Add the NAfME app to your fast!” This comment was smartphone. heard multiple times at the registration desk for An educational festival for the conference. We owe elementary, middle, and a big “thank you” to the high school students in helpers from NAfME band, choir, and orchestra that streamlined our registration check-in 2016 dates: process. Our future plans are to keep this process April 22-23, April 29-30, May 6-7 in place and improve the on-site registration process. We had a record attendance with 1,025 2017 dates: members participating. April 21-22, April 28-29, May 5-6 Our membership campaign is just about to wind Now, with the new NAfME Mobile up, so I should be able to share that information Membership app, you can access all with you in our next publication. Thanks to the of your pertinent NAfME or call:1-855-766-3008 volunteers who have made calls and contacts membership details and renew your with our potential members. I look forward to membership on the go (more seeing the final numbers. features coming soon.) You may want to add the NAfME app to your Download the app to get the smartphone. It has many features that are experience of NAfME in your accessible, including your membership card! This pocket and do your your part for alone will help make the registration process music education! easier for you. Another feature is for renewing your membership by credit card. If you do this, there is a box you can check that will allow NAfME to automatically renew your membership on the renewal date. I love that feature, and you will, too! PS JOB DESCRIPTION AMEA Assistant Executive Director GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIS: • Aide and assist the AMEA Governing Board in planning professional development programs for the association and assist the Executive Director in implementing those plans. • Serve as the AMEA liaison to the State Department of Education. • Assist the Executive Director on-site during the AMEA Conference. • Maintain the AMEA Constitution, Bylaws, and Executive Handbook. • Assume the duties of the Executive Director in the case of disability or absence of the Executive Director. PREREQUISITES: • Membership in the Alabama Music Educators Association and the National Association for Music Education. • Hold current Alabama residency. • Experience with Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Dropbox file sharing, and pdf file creation. • Willingness to learn Adobe Acrobat and the suite of Adobe software programs. • Ability to collect, organize, and compile digital files including those in audio, text, image, and video formats. • Reliable transportation to all governing board meetings and to meetings with the Executive Director of the AMEA. • Excellent writing and oral skills. • Ability to display a diplomatic demeanor in all communications with the public and AMEA members. • Quick and flexible learner. • Teaching experience is desirable. HIRING PROCESS - Candidates should submit an application along with a cover letter, resume', and list of three (3) references. Applications will be accepted until April 1, 2016. A committee appointed by the President will conduct an initial interview during May and a finalist will be selected with the approval of the AMEA Governing Board at its June meeting. Employment begins July 1, 2016. COMPENSATION - Salary shall be suggested by the Budget Committee with the approval of the Governing Board. Legitimate expenses of the office should be itemized and presented for reimbursement. The suggested salary for the first year is $3,000.00. Visit AMEA’s website for more information and on-line application. 22 February/March 2016

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Carl Davis- President, Alabama Vocal Association We just enjoyed a that is quite usable. There was nothing Be aware that the all-state schedule this year superb winter conference reconnecting with substandard and a majority of the literature is again quite different. All ensembles are on each other, sharing information, and is accessible by all. I encourage you to the campus of Samford University. By the attending sessions and concerts. We certainly contact JW Pepper anytime that you need time that you read this article your All-State seek your feedback concerning the move of literature as they provided the reading session information will be available on the AVA the concert venue for choral performances booklets at no cost to AVA. I got to attend website from our president-elect Ginny to the ballroom from the Performing Arts some quite effective sessions by our own Coleman. Center Auditorium. The move afforded us presenters. We were afforded sessions the opportunity to enjoy a two-hour concert targeting functional aspects of the choral I’ve asked our district chairmen to update block to which some of us affiliated with rehearsal— vocal health, theory, rehearsal their web pages on the AVA website. You ACDA are accustomed. I think that the pacing, sight-reading, and reasoning of why should expect all communications for all Honor Choir strained the capabilities of the we select the literature that we do. Again this AVA events to be disseminated via our room; however, we will not have to be year, my hopes were that your students website. If you are attending an SCPA in concerned with such a large ensemble next rehearsing this spring semester would directly another district you should be able to get all year. benefit from your attendance. information concerning the event you are attending from that district’s web page. Let I appreciated my interaction with Dr. Jeffrey I congratulate the directors who provided your district chairman know if you have Benson. I think over the past three years we performances at the conference. I want to difficulty accessing the information. have certainly gained collaboration with encourage you to submit for a performance. some of our very finest in the profession— Certainly consider recording your SCPA Lastly, I look forward to our website moving Dr. Chris Aspaas, Dr. Tucker Biddlecombe, selections and submitting for a concert to the newly hosted AMEA website. We and Dr. Jeffrey Benson. Dr. Benson, I performance. should transition over the spring and hope, has offered us an opened door to some summer to the new site. Registration for Fall future association—either at an All-State Being chosen for All-State Chorus is one of Workshop will be done just as you registered festival or honor choir. I thought his reading the highest honors a choral student in the for the AMEA conference. Pending some session addressed content for various levels state can receive. We auditioned more training and us discovering what is approximately 3,000 students in November available, hopefully all registrations will be with approximately one-third of those being done online this next school year—more chosen for one of our five All-State info to come at the All-State Festival ensembles. Those students will interact with concerning this. Please communicate with some of our finest vocal conductors. Go to your district chairman. the AVA website to read information concerning the all-state festival. See you at Samford. 2016 All-State Festival Schedule 1:30-3:30 PM MS Mixed, Reid Chapel (All Ensembles on SAMFORD CAMPUS) MS Treble, Cassese Band Hall 6:30 PM Call Time for Concert Wednesday, March 2, 2016 7:00 PM MS Concert, Wright Performance Center 11:00 AM Board Meeting, Wright Center Basement 2:45 PM Female OCS Competition, Brock Recital Hall Friday, March 4, 2016- HIGH SCHOOL 8:30-11:00 AM HS SATB, Reid Chapel 4:30 PM OCS/OA – Picture, Brock Recital Hall HS TTBB, Cooney Hall 305 5:00 PM Male OCS Competition, Brock Recital Hall HS SSA, Brock Recital Hall 11:00-1:00 PM LUNCH – All groups will eat at rehearsal space ex- OA Competition, Buchanan Hall 109 cept HS SATB, who will eat at Brock Thursday, March 3, 2016 School of Business (BSOB 400) 8:00-11:30 AM ASSC Rehearsal, Wright Performance Center 10:00-1:00 PM Registration, Wright Basement 1:00-1:45 PM General Assembly – ASSC Performance, 1:00-2:30 PM HS SATB Dress Rehearsal, Wright Performance Center Wright Performance Center HS SSA, Brock Recital Hall 2:00-5:30 PM HS SATB, Wright Performance Center HS TTBB, Cooney Hall 305 HS SSA, Brock Recital Hall 2:30-4:00 PM HS SATB, Brock Recital Hall HS TTBB, Cooney Hall 305 (3rd Floor Seminar Room) HS SSA Dress Rehearsal, Wright Performance Center MS Mixed, Brooks Hall Auditorium (Room 134) HS TTBB, Cooney Hall 305 MS Treble, Cassese Band Hall 4:00-5:30 PM HS SATB, Brock Recital Hall 5:30-7:30 PM Dinner Break – OFF CAMPUS HS SSA, Reid Chapel 7:30-9:30 PM Rehearsals, Same sites as first rehearsal HS TTBB Dress Rehearsal, Wright Performance Center 11:00 PM Curfew Saturday, March 5, 2016 Friday, March 4, 2016- MIDDLE SCHOOL 11:00 AM HS SATB Warm-Up, Wright Performance Center 8:30-10:00 AM MS Mixed Rehearsal, Cassese Band Hall HS SSA Warm-Up, Brock Recital Hall MS Treble Dress Rehearsal, Wright Performance Center 10:00-11:30 AM MS Mixed Dress Rehearsal, Wright Performance Center HS TTBB Warm-Up, Cassese Band Hall MS Treble Rehearsal, Cassese Band Hall 11:30 AM Call Time for HS Concert, Wright Performance Center 11:30-1:30 PM LUNCH All Performers Seated 12:00 PM HS Concert 24 February/March 2016

2016 Alabama Missouri for 40 years. Regarded as model countries, including the 2014 Southwest Division AVA All State Conductors administrator of graded choir programs for ACDA Junior High Honor Choir. He has presented children, James Fuller fostered music education and at six National Conventions of the American Choral Bret Peppo is beginning choral excellence in churches. As a continuing Directors Association and five National his ninth year as Director advocate for those values, Fuller organized Sacred Conferences of the National Association for Music of Choral Activities and Festivals in Hattiesburg, worked closely with Education. His 2015-16 schedule includes research, Music Department chair at Cardinal Daniel Dinardo and the Catholic Diocese presentations and/or teaching graduate courses in Diablo Valley College of Sioux City in executing music for important Canada, Geece, Spain, Thailand, and Turkey. He where he conducts the liturgies, and is now chorus master at Parkway will serve as keynote speaker and guest conductor Concert Chorale, Chamber Heights United Methodist Church in Hattiesburg, for the inaugural Symposium of Singing and Song Singers Masterworks Mississippi. (St. Johns, NF) in October 2015, and guest Chorale and the Vocal Jazz conductor of regional and All-State choirs in Ensembles. Prior to his Leslie J. Blackwell is the Alabama, Georgia, Kansas, and Missouri. Dr. Freer appointment at DVC, Peppo was the Director of Director of Choral is Academic Editor and Chair of the Editorial Choral Activities at Alderson-Broaddus College at Activities and Professor of Committees for Music Educators Journal and has the University of South Alabama and at Illinois Music and Music Education authored multiple book chapters and over 100 State University. He also held the positions as at Kennesaw State articles in most of the field’s leading national and director of the Old Gold Singers (show choir), at University where she has international journals. Publications include \"Getting the University of Iowa. His concert, show and jazz directed choral activities Started with Middle School Chorus\" (named choirs have toured extensively throughout the since 1998. Dr. Blackwell’s Outstanding Academic Title by Choice) and the country and have been selected to perform for the duties include conducting DVD series Success for Adolescent Singers. His most Mississippi and Illinois All-State Conferences. As a the KSU Men’s Ensemble recent publications include articles in the 2015-16 conductor, Mr. Peppo has conducted many high and KSU Chamber Singers volume years of the British Journal of Music Education, school and collegiate all-state festivals for both as well as teaching advanced choral conducting and Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, honor choir as well as jazz choirs and is a frequent literature along with supervision of student teachers. Research Studies in Music Education, Music Education adjudicator and clinician with many national music A native of Georgia, Blackwell received the Research, and the Journal of Historical Research in Music festivals and is busy as a judge from show choir and Associate of Arts degree from Gordon Junior Education. Dr. Freer’s research focus is on the vocal jazz competitions. Peppo is active with Phi Mu College (1982), the Bachelor of Music in Music sociological and pedagogical factors impacting the Alpha Sinfonia where he has served as faculty advisor Education from West Georgia College (1984), the singing of boys during and beyond the adolescent at Illinois State University, University of South Master of Music from Georgia State University voice change. Dr. Freer lives in Atlanta, GA with Alabama and Alderson-Broaddus College. He is also (1991), and the Doctor of Musical Arts degree from his husband, Kevin Sullivan and their two rescue active in the American Choral Directors Association the University of Kentucky (2002). Recognized for pitbulls, Luka and Zaira. and serves as R&S chair (2-Year Colleges) and her work with men’s voices, Dr. Blackwell served six coordinates the Tactus newsletter on the Western seasons as the Artistic Director of the Atlanta Gay Neil A. Johnson has Division Board. Bret Peppo earned a bachelors Men’s Chorus, conducted the 2013 Georgia All- degree in Vocal Music Education from Eastern State Men’s Chorus, and established the annual KSU directed music groups of Illinois University, a Masters of Conducting at Male Chorus Day at Kennesaw State University, Illinois State University and doctorate from the bringing upwards of 200 high school male students every age level from University of Iowa in Choral Conducting and to campus. Influential musicians with whom Dr. Pedagogy. Blackwell has worked are Robert Shaw, Ann elementary through Howard-Jones, Yoel Levi, Norma Raybon, John Haberlen, Rodney Eichenberger, David Maslanka, university and adult. He has Ola Gjeilo, Ethan Sperry, and Jefferson Johnson.In addition to her commitments at Kennesaw State over 40 years experience University, Dr. Blackwell is active as a clinician and adjudicator and holds memberships in MENC, from elementary through GMEA, and ACDA. She also serves on the Board of Directors for Georgia ACDA. Currently, Dr. college level (30 of those in Blackwell is the Artistic Director and Founding Gregory Fuller is a Director of the Kennesaw State University junior high) and community Community and Alumni Choir. Professor of Music and the choruses. He has taught Dr. Patrick K. Freer is Director of Choral Professor of Music and band, orchestra and chorus, Interim Director of the Activities at The University School of Music at and groups under his direction have been selected to Georgia State University of Southern Mississippi. where he holds Affiliate appear at state and district music conventions on Faculty status with the He conducts the Southern Institute of Women’s, several occasions and have attained \"best concert Gender, and Sexuality Chorale and the Hattiesburg Studies. His degrees are choir\" status in several competitions. Neil has served from Westminster Choir College and Teachers Choral Union, teaches College, Columbia University. He has guest as a clinician for regional and state elementary, junior conducted or presented in 36 states and 16 graduate conducting high, and high school choral workshops, new courses, and supervises materials reading clinics, and local and state choir candidates in the master’s and doctoral conducting festivals. He has directed all-state choirs and served program. In 2004 he launched the first Southern as an adjudicator for concert and jazz/show choirs Invitational Choral Conference, an event that now in over 20 states and 2 Canadian provinces and has hosts over sixty institutions each September. . been on the staff of show choir camps of America Gregory Fuller is becoming known as a champion for 35 years as clinician and teacher workshop of new extended works. He will conduct his sixth coordinator. Neil’s first choral arrangement premiere of a multi-movement work for chorus this was published in 1978 and he has since had over 70 spring when he debuts The Seven Last Words, by choral compositions published with Shawnee press, Richard Burchard for orchestra and chorus. Dr. Hal Leonard/Jensen Pub., Kimmel Pub., and Fuller has remained active as a conductor in Heritage Music Press. Most of his works are for 3 orchestral and wind settings. To date, he has and 4 part mixed choruses or men's chorus and have appeared with professional or university ensembles a junior high/early high school emphasis. on more than 80 occasions. His father and mentor, James Fuller, served churches in Alabama and ala abreve 25

Choral Reviews watch?v=81DckCL0CMU, from the CD A Dr. Diane Orlofsky Tender Light). Locus Iste SATB (some divisi), solo flute Filled with His Voice Paul Mealor (1975 - ) Publisher: Hinshaw Music Steve Danyew (1983 - ) Text: Ancient Latin text, contemporary Duration: approx. 5 ½ minutes English text by Peter Davidson Text: minister, poet and hymnwriter, Joseph Swain (1761-1796) Are you looking for a challenging Rutter SATB Divisi, unaccompanied; brief bass, piece that is also not performed often? tenor solos; soprano solo SATB, Piano, Alto Saxophone Look no further than Musica Dei Donum. The Latin text extols the virtues of music Publisher: Novello & Co. Publisher: (“Music, the gift of the supreme God, draws men, draws gods; Music makes savage souls Duration: approx. 6 minutes Duration: approx. 5-6 minutes gentle and uplifts sad minds. Music moves the very trees and wild beasts”). Locus Iste is another choral gem by Welsh Filled with His Voice is a piece that programs composer, Paul Mealor. Mealor first came to well for any occasion and with a group of The choirmaster at Clare College from 1975- the attention of an international audience any size or ability level. I actually first 1979, Rutter wrote this piece for that very when his work, Ubi Caritas, was performed became acquainted with Danyew while group and for his successor, Timothy at the royal wedding of Prince William and listening to one of his wind ensemble pieces, Brown. (You can hear the Choir of Clare Catherine Middleton. Locus Iste was The World Alive. I was so captivated by College, Cambridge (Timothy Brown, commissioned by the University of Danyew’s writing style that I subsequently Conductor) perform this delightful work Aberdeen (Scotland) to celebrate the 500th made contact with him and found out that here: anniversary of the consecration of the he writes for solo voice and for choirs as King’s College Chapel. well. 9OLOq8). This beautifully lush and serene work is Everything in this piece works—from the The piece begins with a melancholy flute centered around an ancient text (Locus iste a lyrical piano accompaniment to the weaving melody and eventually includes all voices. Deo factus est, inaestimabile sacramentum, of alto saxophone (as both melody and Mixed meter occurs throughout the piece irreprehensibilis est; translated “This place was accompaniment) to the choral interpretation (the opening 12 bars of flute solo utilizes made by God, a priceless sacrament, beyond of text by British minister and poet, Joseph 6/4, 4/4, 3/8, and 2/4) and the voices enter reproof ”). This text is part of the Gradual Swain. Danyew utilizes several call and on a 7/4 measure. Tonal shifts are of the Mass typically reserved for church response exchanges between SA and TB delightfully unexpected (listen to the “trahit edifice dedication services. Mealor throughout (almost like a conversational deos” repetition in measures 28-45 as an juxtaposes a lovely contemporary English dialogue), followed by full SATB choir. A example) and chromatic leaps are text (“O flawless hollow, O seamless robe, terrific teaching piece to use with your young everywhere (great ear training!), but be lantern of stone, unbroken”) by Peter choir or church choir (it will work their sense forewarned. The flute part is challenging Davison at the end of the piece (sung by of phrasing and unison singing!) or as a large and the unaccompanied voices need to be soprano soloist). combined group number. This piece adroit with the occasional use of features lovely programmatic writing with a polytonality. However, the piece is worth Mealor manipulates choral layers and tender sensitivity that your audience will be every bit of work that your choir will invest! suspended dissonances to move from the sure to enjoy. A hidden gem in the Rutter canon. simplicity and intimacy of SATB to full 8-12 part writing (all beautifully informed by the This piece was commissioned by the Bethel Dr. Diane Orlofsky is text). And you have to hear measures 39-56 College Concert Choir, Dr. William Eash, Professor of Music and to fully appreciate Mealor’s restraint and Conductor and a performance by this group Director of Choirs at other-worldly text painting. Due to the can be heard here: Troy University, where range demands of this piece, it is she oversees the choral recommended for advanced choirs. 1DfMu_o program and teaches undergraduate and Midi practice files for each voice part are Musica Dei Donum graduate classes in located at music education. She is John Rutter (1945 - ) the conductor of the mealorp-locus-iste/. Follow these YouTube Troy University Concert links to hear performances by the Chapel Text: According to Rutter’s editorial note, Chorale and the Choir of King’s College, Aberdeen this text of unknown authorship is “known Director of the Troy ( only from the musical setting of it by Lassus, University vocal jazz gP1K1c) first published in 1594 in a volume of that ensemble, frequency. composer’s Cantiones sacrae”. or Tenebrae ( 26 February/March 2016

AMEA 2016 28 February/March 2016

Awards & Honors Vicki Portis (center) AMEA Hall of Fame class of 2016, congratulated by Immediate Theresa Mckibben (center) AMEA Hall of Fame class of 2016, congratulated by Past President Sara Womack and Immediate Past President Sara Womack President Carl Hancock and President Carl Hancock Terrance Cobb (left) congratulates AMEA Outstanding Young Composer Finalists Caleb Roy Vaught (front), Harrison Hornsby (middle) and Chandler Ogles (right) Diane Orlofsky (center )2016 Lacey Powell Outstanding Music Educator, congratulated by Immediate Past President Sara Womack and President Carl Hancock Taylor Cash (center )2016Edward H. Cleino Outstanding Young Music Educator, congratulated by Immediate Past President Sara Womack and President Carl Hancock President-elect Susan Smith presents AMEA Membership Honor Roll President Carl Hancock the gavel plaque (see page 21 for names and years of service) at the President’s reception 29 ala breve

What is School Noteworthy Band All About? Pictured are Alabama band directors in attendance at the Pizitz Wikipedia defines school band as… a group Middle School performance during the 2015 Midwest Clinic in of student musicians who rehearse and perform instrumental music together. This is a Chicago. The Pizitz Band is directed by Kim Bain and Leah Seng. pretty good definition, if I say so myself. But band is much more than student musicians Jon Bubbett, Thompson High School (3rd from left) rehearsing and performing. They are a family presenting the clinic session, Tips, Tricks, and that comes together for a common purpose. Sometimes that is to rehearse or perform, but Techniques at the 2015 Midwest Clinic in Chicago. many times other activities occur during Pictured along with Jon are co-presenters Brandon school band (like social activities, parties, banquets, pep rallies, bus rides, lifelong Crawford, John Cisetti and Jim Cude. friendships and just good times). Band teaches us to work together for a common goal, giving The All-National Honor Ensembles it our all when we are tired, exhausted, and performed during the NAfME seemingly cannot go any further we dig down National Conference in Nashville, deep and find a way to push forward. October 25-28, 2015 I have been a band director for over 29 years Alabama students selected to the and have taught hundreds of students, All-National Ensembles: received many band awards, had students in all-state band, all-star bands, students in the Carrie Ciecierski, Dothan High School Macy’s Thanksgiving Parade performing for Ben Cooper, Austin High School millions, but never was I so proud of my students than on October 10, 2015 at the Hannah Love, Saraland High School Southern Showcase Marching Invitational Devan Payne, Austin High School when we received the Challenge Cup for Best Lian Remley, Shades Valley High School Overall Band in our Class. But it wasn’t the Challenge Cup that made me so proud of our 31 seniors on the field representing our band but it was the way they reacted by sending out their classmate and fellow band member for 7 years. The finest young man you would ever meet but with a disability of autism. The seniors chose not to walk with him to accept the trophy but instead sent him on his own way encouraging and clapping for him all the way to the fifty yard line center stage to accept the most valuable piece of hardware they had received all year at competition. Only the Valley band students and parents knew what was going on because none of the other thousands of spectators knew of their classmate’s disability. Only we knew of his disability which gave our senior band members the ability to show us all WHAT BAND IS REALLY ABOUT. Band is about life and showing love and appreciation to others no matter who they are, where they come from, what color their skin may be or if they may have a disability. I believe our children possess an ability to teach the adults life lessons also. Instead of we adults worrying about the future of our world maybe we need to handle the present because it looks like to me the youth has the future under control.-- Shannon Chandler, Band Director Valley High School ala breve

AMEA Industry/Institutional Membership AMEA would like to express appreciation to the following partners who have joined AMEA in our efforts to promote music education in Alabama. Please support these industry/institutional members who support you as music educators! Arts Music Shop Inc., 3030 E. Blvd., Montgomery, AL 36116 AWB Apparel, 206 Potomac Ct., Woodstock, GA 30188 Beau Vinci Violins, 116 N. Main Street, Alpharetta, GA 30009 Custom Fundraising Solutions, 225 Distribution Drive, Homewood, AL 35209 Eastman Music Company, 2158 Pamona Blvd., Pomona, CA 91768 Gadsden Music Company Inc., P.O. Box 132, Gadsden, AL 35902 Group Travel Network, Inc., 410 N. Dillard Street, Suite 104, Winter Haven, FL 34787 Huntingdon College Bands, 1500 E. Fairview Ave., Montgomery, AL 36106 John M. Long School of Music, School of Music, Troy, AL 36082 JW Pepper, 9053 Riverside Pkwy, Lithia Springs, GA 30122 Landmark Tour and Travel, 704 37th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35222 Marchmaster Inc., P.O. Box 73379, Newnan, GA 30271 Mouchette Enterprises, Inc., P.O. Box 394, Northport, AL 35476 Musical Destinations, PO Box 771060, Winter Garden, FL 34777 OrlandoFest, 7081 Grand National Drive, Suite 111, Orlando, FL 32819, 1706 Grand Ave., Nashville, TN 37212 Simply Sheets Fundrasing, LLC, 3065 Heatherbrook Trace, Canton, GA 30114 Southeastern Performance Apparel, 142 S. Woodburn Drive, Dothan, AL 36305 Southern Performances, P.O. Box 6852, Gulf Shores, AL 36547 Sunburst Indian River Citrus, 4960 Meadow Brook Rd., Birmingham, AL 35242 Super Holiday Tours, 116 Gatlin Ave., Orlando, FL 32806 Superior Travel and Tour, 1270 Coronado Terrace, Deltona, ,FL 32725 Thomas Tours, Inc., 2405 12th Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37204 UAH Department of Music, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 University of Alabama Bands, Box 870368, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 University of Alabama School of Music, Box 870368, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 University of North Alabama Dept. of Music, UNA Box 5040, Florence, AL 35632 University of South Alabama, LPAC 1072, 5751 USA Drive South, Mobile, AL 36688 32 February/March 2016

Sousa March Interpretation John R. Bourgeois The following are excerpts from a clinic given by Colonel John R. Bourgeois, Director of “The President’s Own’ United States Marine Band, during the 1989 Alabama All-State Band Festival. This article first appeared in the October 1989 Ala Breve. It is a pleasure to discuss the marches of John its new form. These changes served largely to William Gens, president of the society at that time, Philip Sousa. In recent years, the number of Sousa expand the original instrumentation to meet that reported about a speech given by Edwin Franko March performances has diminished and the of the full symphonic band but, surprisingly, rather Goldman to the Sousa Band members on this quality of those performances has dropped as well. major changes were made. The new parts were not subject. He wrote, “Dr. Goldman asked us to do Unfortunately, the performances of Sousa Marches simply doublings of existing lines but entirely new everything in our power to stop publishers from (and all marches, for that matter) have not received material. In some cases, the new parts were written, murdering Sousa Marches. It is a crime what they the degree of attention given to the other music on basically, in thirds as a harmony part to an existing are doing to make a sale. We should all refuse to the program. As a consequence, the music has part. In other cases, entirely new music was buy, play, or handle anything but those from the suffered and the result has been mediocre composed which appears nowhere in Sousa’s original publishers.” performances which may lead listeners to conclude original scores. that march music is mediocre. Knowing that such problems existed, we began by selecting editions of the marches which were A Sousa March, like any other piece of music, published within Sousa’s lifetime. We know that requires careful preparation and rehearsal. Without Sousa was aware of these editions and used them paying attention to characteristic devices found in with his band. All editions of Sousa which were the music, a Strauss Waltz would not be a Strauss republished in the early 1950’s obviously did not Waltz and the same is true for a Sousa March. have the benefit of Sousa’s scrutiny. With the Marine Band, Sousa marches are a staple John Phillip Sousa To verify the correct editions, we consulted the of our musical diet. Every Marine Band Sousa Band Encore Books, which are in the Sousa performance includes at least one Sousa march, To add to the problem, the original cornet parts collection in our library. These encore books were often, one of his concert works as well. were redistributed, totally changing the balances used at every performance by the Sousa Band and and eliminating the important first cornet part and, include the actual performance parts used by his In the mid-1970’s, the Marine Band completed a further, two trumpet parts were composed from musicians. Following a programmed work, Sousa major recording project consisting of eighteen out of thin air. would call out the march encores to the band and albums of Sousa’s Marches and Concert Music. they would be played from the parts in these encore The nine-volume series was entitled “The Heritage It may come as a surprise to many of you that the books. of John-Philip Sousa” and some of you may have arpeggiated trumpet figures which we often hear in encountered it in your school or university record the trio of “Stars and Stripes” are not original In addition to verifying the editions themselves, the libraries. Sousa and were never played by the Sousa band. encore books are also a valuable source of Unfortunately, the music simply indicates that it information about Sousa performance practice – a This year, we are embarking upon another Sousa was written by John Philip Sousa and no indication subject we will discuss later. Once the correct recording project which will initially cover ten is given that a change was ever made. Because no editions of the marches had been identified, we marches and five concert works. Without the full scores were published to these marches, the located all of the original manuscript scores which deadlines and pressures of an entire series facing changes and discrepancies with the original were known to exist. Copies of these manuscript us at once, we are re-examining the Sousa Marches versions became harder to find. scores would be used to verify notes, articulations, and are consulting every available source to try to and dynamics of the marches. record the most authentic interpretations of each Former members of the Sousa Band were aware piece. It has been a fascinating project and I wanted of this problem and discussed it during the 1952 The next challenge was to prepare the instrumental to share with you some of the insights which we meeting of the Sousa Band Fraternal Society. parts and to reconcile discrepancies within the have gained through this study. edition itself. Although Sousa did not approve the publication of the marches in his lifetime, his Our first challenge in recording these marches was publishers were not always precise and thorough in to insure that we were performing this music from giving exact notations, accents, and other critical the most authentic editions of each march. One of markings. This required checking each part to each the problems is that many Sousa Marches have march with the key parts – solo cornet and solo been republished in editions which have clarinet – and then checking the entire march significantly changed what Sousa wrote, with no against the original score. indication of those changes. The purpose of checking against the solo cornet For example, if you purchase the edition of “The and solo clarinet parts is that, in many cases, the Stars and Stripes Forever” which is currently most correct accents, articulations, and dynamics available from Theodore Presser, that edition will were indicated in these parts. The problem is that contain ten instrumental parts which Sousa did not these marking were not always carried consistently compose, nor did he ever perform them. throughout all the other parts. When Sousa conducted his own music, he could give elaborate When the original copyrights on a number of the verbal instructions on note lengths, accents, and more popular Sousa Marches expired, the interpretations and some of these discrepancies publishers apparently decided to expand the were less critical to him in his work with his instrumentation and to re-copyright the march in professional band. He thoroughly coached his ala breve 33

musicians in the style and interpretation he wanted knew exactly how Sousa wanted certain passages Band members. The question is this – how reliable and, soon, the marches were played correctly from played.” are those recordings? The answer is not easy to memory, despite the actual notations on the page. determine. While there are many interesting To document these performance changes, we features of the Sousa Band recordings, it is obvious In checking the ten marches we recorded, we found consulted three main sources: that there were concessions made to the recording hundreds of small and large discrepancies within process which may have been at variance with the the marches themselves. Articulations were 1) The writings of former Sousa solo cornetist actual performances of the Sousa Band. inconsistent, dynamics were missing or misplaced Frank Simon by several bars, accents were not carried Some of the changes were undoubtedly demands throughout all the parts, and on and on. In some 2) The Sousa Band Encore Books of the recording company. For instance, several of cases, instructions in the original manuscript scores 3) Recordings of the Sousa Band and others the marches are performed with a Da Capo and are did not make it into the published edition and these conducted by Sousa authorities like Frank Simon. played through the second strain on the repeat. also had to be incorporated into the parts. Sousa did not approve of this practice in his own Therefore, our first goal was to insure that we were Frank Simon served as solo cornetist and assistant performance but it seems very possible that, in this using the most authentic published edition and our conductor of the Sousa Band from 1914 to 1921. case, the recording company held the final control second goal was to clarify and make consistent all In the later years of his life, he devoted on these sessions. In other cases, there seems to be markings, indications, dynamics, and accents on the considerable time to sharing his insights into more emphasis on the melody parts, with additional music. This involved hours and hours of work but Sousa’s music by writing and by guest-conducting players on the melody in order to make it come out these are changed which could not have been made all over the nation. In 1966, Frank Simon more prominently on the recording. Due to the effectively without having gone through this step. participated in a series of interviews in which he quality and limitations of the recording, it is often discussed two dozen or so Sousa marches in great difficult to hear whether certain inner parts are Having reconciled problems and inconsistencies in detail, documenting the exact performance changes being performed at all. It would be understandable the published editions, the next step was to address as Sousa had done them. These interviews were if the limitations of the recording process required the area of Sousa performance practice. This is an transcribed and published in two booklets and changes for the purpose of recording but it area which has ceased to be a part of the corporate accompanying recordings which were produced certainly does not provide an accurate picture of knowledge of band conductors, particularly since under the auspices of the A.S.B.D.A. the exact performances of the Sousa Band. In so many prominent members of Sousa’s band are addition, certain accents and other effects could not no longer with us to remind us of these traditions. Simon’s information is the most complete written be accommodated without great distortion on the information available about the performance of the recording and were, therefore, left out. The first point is this – the published versions of Sousa marches and its authenticity can be verified Sousa’s Marches bear no resemblance to the way by other Sousa Band members. Of all the Sousa Band recordings, two recordings he actually performed them. The published which were conducted by Sousa, stand out. These “Quickstep” editions were designed for use by Perhaps the most famous exponent of the “Sousa perhaps provide the most complete picture of how bands in marching situations and are scored with Sound” was a bass drummer August Helmecke. He the Sousa Band might have sounded in a concert considerable doubling and extra support to make performed with the Sousa Band for a record 22 performance of a march. These recordings were the march sound good in an outdoor setting. This seasons and was considered by all who knew him to made on September 6, 1918, of John Philip Sousa was done for a reason, and also, to make the march be the ultimate authority on Sousa marches. conducting his marches “Solid Men to the Front” more accessible to the average school band which Helmecke participated in the 1951 Sousa clinic and “Sabre and Spurs.” might want to play in it. conducted by Frank Simon and commented: “Frank Simon conducted and his interpretations There are many interesting things about these When Sousa would play these marches, he would were like Mr. Sousa’s. Frank did an excellent job. recordings. First: tempo. Sousa Band members make considerable changes in order to add variety He really remembers the accents, despite being reported that he conducted his marches anywhere and contrast to the performance. This is well away from the band for a number of years. Because from 120 to 126 beats per minute. In his later years, documented in the writings of former Sousa Band I and only a few others retain this knowledge, I the tempos often got as fast as 132 beats per members. Following a 1951 clinic at the University strongly feel the urge to have everyone know minute. Other Sousa Band recordings ranged from of New Hampshire, given by these former them.” 126 to 138 beats per minute but this one is members of the Sousa Band – Frank Simon, different. Both of the Sousa recordings with him August Helmecke, and Same Harris – George There can be no stronger endorsement of Simon’s conducting range between 112 and 118 beats per Reynolds made the following observation: information on Sousa march performance and, minute, considerably slower than any of the other therefore, we consider it very reliable and valuable. recordings. “To quote Helmicke – ‘Sousa would simply jot down his themes, hand them over to the band The Sousa Band encore books are another Memories of the Sousa men aside, I feel the copyist, and then snap right into action on them. important source of information. Although most recordings speak for themselves and that this is the Consequently, when they came to be published, of Sousa’s information to his players were given tempo Sousa would have chosen for a concert nothing but the notes reached the page. The notes verbally and usually not written down, some performance of one of his marches. Now – since alone give the barest skeleton of what a Sousa marking were made in these encore books which many of his marches were performed as encores march can be.’ This means that either you play give insight into how Sousa played the marches. I on his concerts, perhaps he endorsed a faster under the baton of a Sousa Alumnus – of that you should point out that the information from the tempo for this purpose. We also know he are probably not observing the proper Sousa encore books totally supports the sometimes eliminated first endings in the first and performance techniques.” information which Frank Simon gave about the second strains when playing the marches as marches. encores. One possible explanation is that he wanted Another former Sousa member, Howard Bronson, to play as many Sousa Marches as he possibly could gave an address on Sousa marches at the 1951 Finally, there are recordings of the Sousa Band and and the faster tempos helped. With these two CBDNA Easter Division Meeting, Bronson said: recording conducted by Simon and others. The recordings ranging between 112 and 118 beats per “Sousa’s own compositions were played with Sousa Band made nearly 1200 recordings for the minute, and another recording of Sousa meticulous attention to the dynamics, shading and Victor Talking Machine company over the years. conducting “Stars and Stripes” clocked at 120, I can tone coloring. The printed scores did not carry the But, as many of you know, Sousa only conducted find no reason to perform these marches faster marking as actually played by the band. Each player on a half-dozen or so of those recordings. The rest than 120 beats per minute, and perhaps a shade were conducted by Arthur Pryor, Herbert L. Clarke, Walter Rogers, or other longtime Sousa 34 February/March 2016

slower. Many of the marches we recorded came in Goldman Band for many years. Regarding the use played as written. At the pick-ups to the second at 116 beats per minute, except for Sabre and Spurs of accents in the marches, Dr. Smith commented: strain, the cornets and trombones do not play, and which we recorded at around 112 in order to “The Sousa accents were placed logically, not the clarinet parts are taken down an octave if they emulate the Sousa recording. whimsically. The interpretation is found within the are written above the staff. The dynamic level music itself and has nothing to do with sentiment should be Mezzo Forte. For the second time Another factor for using the slower tempos is that or caprice. Sousa’s accents were so effective because through the second strain, the brass are back in, they stimulate a tempo which would actually have he conceived them. People fantasize that Gus clarinets back up to the upper octave, everyone been used for marching and provide for much created them but it is not true. Sousa originated the playing Forte to Fortissimo. more precision and clarity. It should also be noted accents in all of his marches.” At the trio, clarinets are again down an octave and that Sousa condoned no change in tempo once it the solo and first cornets do not play. The Simon was set, including the last time through the final Dr. Smith’s fine recordings of Sousa Marches with information has the cornets and trombones out strain. his Detroit Concert Band show the benefit of his altogether at the trio yet, in some cases, we have experience and of good taste. Because the Sousa elected to leave in the 2nd-3rd cornets playing very Second is rhythm – It is imperative that the rhythm Band recordings do not employ the accents as used softly and the trombones as well. This should be be as steady as possibly throughout the march. A in performance and because they have not always very soft. In some cases, the trombone part at the thoroughly consistent tempo will help in achieving been thoroughly documented elsewhere, the trio is different than the part in the last strain. If this goal. placement of accents is at the discretion of the the trombones do not play at the trio, the entire line conductor. The rule in every case is that the accents would not be played in the march. Keeping the Sousa Band recordings do demonstrate some must enhance the music and not detract from it. trombones in at the trio also adds nice texture. stylistic and imperative devices which compress Some of the Sousa recordings have the trombones certain rhythms and expand others – but the most Several of the later editions of Sousa marches as in softly so I believe this is a valid option. important thing is that these changes are published by Presser contain drum parts as edited accomplished within the framework of a consistent by Gus Helmecke. These editions are worthwhile At the “Break-Up Strain,” “The Dogfight,” or the beat. These slight hesitations and other mannerisms for the drum parts, but the other parts are better “Bridge Passage” (whatever you choose to call it), seem to pull shorter-valued notes toward the strong obtained from earlier editions. everyone is in at the dynamic marked. In some beats, giving a certain life and dance-like character cases, Simon instructs different changes but this is to the music. These effects are very difficult to Fifth – unique effects in the Sousa Marches. generally as printed. In the final strain – cornets explain, and nearly impossible to reproduce. When Many of the Sousa Marches have distinctive and and trombones are out the first time through, it comes to rhythm in a march, metronomic interesting features which add a great deal to the clarinets playing in the staff – everyone playing accuracy is not at all boring. concert performance of the work. These include Piano to Mezzo Forte. The last time through, regimental trumpet and drum parts (which can be everyone is “as written.” The third factor – dynamics. All dynamic changes played by a separate section from the band), horses should be exaggerated in order to make a dramatic hoofs, the use of orchestra bells or a ship’s bell, These are very general instructions which do not and audible change for the audience. Dynamics in bosun’s pipe, whistles, sirens, pistol shots, and apply categorically in every march but they do serve the Sousa marches are as important as in any other more. In addition, several of the Sousa marches as an outline of the general changes which were piece of music and the orchestration changes contain published harp parts which are quite employed. There is much research and writing to (which we will discuss later) make it possible to interesting and add a great deal to the texture of be done on the subject of Sousa and his music. achieve some wonderful effects. the march. The Sousa Band added a harpist in its Hopefully, this will one day result in critical editions later years and it is possible that the harpist played of Sousa’s works which are true and faithful If it is necessary to reduce the number of players along on the marches but we have chosen to use representations of the way “The March King” on each part to get the volume down, do so. The only those marches which contained printed harp himself would have wanted them performed. most important thing is to have a wide range of parts. dynamics and keep the tempo steady. The march Director Emeritus Colonel should not slow down when playing softly and not In performing the regimental trumpet and drum John R. Bourgeois, USMC speed up when playing the loud passages. Although parts, four trumpet players and two percussionists (Ret.), was 25th Director – this was a constant challenge even in making our with field drums were positioned off to the side of of \"The President's Own\" recordings with the Marine Band. the band. The sound of the field drums on this United States Marine regimental part provided an interesting contrast to Band. His acclaimed career Fourth – the accents. Correct and judicious use the sound of the concert snare used in the rest of spanned nine presidential of accents in Sousa marches makes them much the march. Orchestra bells were added at the trio administrations, from more exciting and interesting. Some of the accents to double the melody where a manuscript bell part Presidents Dwight D. are, in some cases, a matter of bringing out what is was found as part of the Sousa Encore Books. Eisenhower to Bill Clinton. already written in the parts and others are added to Using this effect at the trio is nice but should not be Bourgeois is a graduate of add variety. This is often difficult because the key overdone or used on every march. The point of all Loyola University in New Orleans. He joined the Marine accents as performed by Gus Helmecke were never this is that every interesting feature of each march Corps in 1956 and entered \"The President's Own\" as a written in the printed versions of the marches. should be brought out and used to its best effect. French hornist and arranger in 1958. Named Director Helmecke once asked Sousa why the accents were of the Marine Band in 1979, Bourgeois was promoted to not written in and Sousa would not commit Finally – orchestration changes and other colonel in June 1983. He retired from active duty July 11, himself to an answer. Helmecke decided that Sousa stylistic effects – in general, the note values in the 1996. As Director of \"The President's Own,\" Bourgeois refrained from writing in the accents because he marches should be played shorter than written in was Music Advisor to the White House. He selected the didn’t want any other band to play the marches the order to give a lighter texture to the sound. Sousa musical program and directed the band on its traditional way his band did. And in the era of competitions was insistent that his players put what he called place of honor at the U.S. Capitol for four Presidential between the bands, these “trade secrets” were very “daylight” between the notes. Frank Simon inaugurations, a Marine Band tradition dating to 1801. highly valued. commented “it used to burn ‘the Governor’ up He regularly conducted the Marine Band and the Marine when one of his players would fail to space his Chamber Orchestra at the White House, appearing there Leonard Smith, conductor of the Detroit Concert notes.” The orchestration changes are somewhat more frequently than any other musician in the nation. Band, knew many of the Sousa Band Members and different in each march but can be roughly outlined he also performed with Gus Helmecke in the as follows: The introduction and first strains are ala breve 35

AMEA Election 2016 Meet the Candidates... for President-Elect Lori F. Ardovino is Professor of Clarinet and Mr. Gregory L. Gumina earned a Bachelor Saxophone at the University of Montevallo. of Arts degree in Music from West Virginia Dr. Ardovino is an active performer in the University with a Minor in Business Birmingham area and performs occasionally Administration and a Master of Arts in Music with the Alabama and Tuscaloosa Symphony Education degree from the University of Orchestras and tenor saxophone with the Joe Alabama. He was a graduate assistant in the Giattina Big Band. She is an active woodwind University Bands Department and was the doubler and has played for numerous Arranger/Instructor for the percussion section performances and theater productions in the of the Million Dollar Band. He is currently Birmingham area. She is a clinician, adjudicator, and writes CD serving his 19th year as Assistant Band Director at Shades Valley High reviews for the Clarinet, official journal of the International Clarinet School, and his 21st year as a music educator in Alabama. His Association and for the Journal of the International Association for ensembles have performed at the 2001 NASPAAM International Women in Music. Convention, the 2006 Alabama Music Educators Association Conference, the 2011 Music for All Sandy Feldstein National Dr. Ardovino has been a guest recitalist at a number of colleges and Percussion Festival, the 2013 Southeastern United States Band Festival, universities and international and national festivals including the the 2013 Alabama Music Educators Association Conference, and more International Clarinetfest, The International Alliance for Women in than 10 Percussive Arts Society Days of Percussion throughout the Music Congress, NACWPI Conference, NACUSA Conference, Southeast. He conducts the Concert Band, Percussion Ensemble, and Southeastern Composers League, the North American Saxophone teaches AP Music Theory at Shades Valley in addition to being the Alliance Conference and the Alabama Music Educators Conference. Music Arranger and Marching Band Coordinator. Dr. Ardovino received the 2013-14 Alabama State Council for the Arts Artist Fellowship was chosen the University of Montevallo University Mr. Gumina has extensive experience as an adjudicator and clinician for Scholar for 2013. She has received the Creative and Scholarly Projects bands and percussion groups. He is also an active composer and Grant from the University of Montevallo in 2013 and 2014 and was the arranger with over 40 published compositions and arrangements that 2012 recipient of the Escape to Create artist residency in Seaside, FL. have been performed by middle school, high school, and collegiate level bands and ensembles across the country. Mr. Gumina’s She is an active composer and has had her works performed across compositions for both middle school band and percussion ensemble the United States, Japan, Italy and Canada. She is an Artist/Clinician have been premiered at the AMEA Conference on 4 occasions. with the Conn-Selmer Company and D’Addario Woodwinds. She was recently recommended to be on the roster for the Fulbright Specialist Mr. Gumina is the Director of Southwind Drum & Bugle Corps from by U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Mobile, Alabama, and since its return in 2014 the corps has doubled Affairs (ECA) and the Institute of International Education’s Council in size and expanded its summer touring schedule. Mr. Gumina has for International Exchange of Scholars served on the Arts Advisory Board and the Curriculum Writing Committee for the Jefferson County School System, and in 2010 Mr. Dr. Ardovino is a member of many professional organizations Gumina achieved National Board Certification. including the Music Teachers National Association,, Birmingham Music Teachers Association, National Association of Music Mr. Gumina is a member of AMEA, ABA, NAfME, NBA, PAS, and Educators, Alabama Music Educators Association, Alabama Pi Kappa Lambda National Music Honor Society. Greg resides in Bandmasters Association, International Clarinet Association, North Trussville with his wife Gina and their daughters Noelle and Giada, American Saxophone Alliance, Birmingham Art Music Alliance, Sigma and he is an avid HO scale model railroader in his spare time. Alpha Iota, International Alliance of Women in Music, National Association of Composers, USA, National Association of College On-line voting in the 2016 AMEA election will begin Wind and Percussion Instructors and Phi Kappa Phi Honor Society. April 1 and end April 30. A link to the election portal She is currently President-Elect for the National Association of Wind will be emailed to members and accessible on the and Percussion Instructors, Composition Chair, Alabama Music AMEA website during the month of April. Teachers Association and was President for the Higher Education Candidate bios and photos are on the website now. Division, Alabama Music Educators from 2011-2013 36 February/March 2016

for Recording Secretary Dr. Carla A. Gallahan is Assistant Director Felicia Sarubin holds a Bachelor of Music of the John M. Long School of Music and Education Degree from the University of Associate Professor of Music Education at Southern Mississippi. She taught privately at Troy University. As a member of the faculty the Acalutia School of Music in the early at Troy University, her responsibilities include 1990’s. She spent several summers as a guest teaching music education courses and serving conductor of the String Orchestras at the as Coordinator for Undergraduate Music University of Mobile Summer Music Camp. As Education Internship. She also serves as the a native Mobilian, she dedicated the past 26 Executive Director for the Southeastern years of her career to building and teaching United States Concert Band Clinic and Honor Orchestra and Guitar at Dunbar Creative and Bands held at Troy University. Performing Arts Magnet School in Mobile, Alabama. Dr. Gallahan received the Bachelor of Music Education Degree, As an instrumental member of the Arts Department, in the Mobile Master of Education in Music, and the Doctor of Philosophy in Music County Public School System, she worked on a plethora of Education from Auburn University. Her teaching background includes collaborative productions with the school’s feeder pattern programs. eighteen years experience as a band director in Alabama public schools. Some of the productions included The Power of the Arts, which ran for a few years in the mid 1990’s, and the long-standing Celebrate the Dr. Gallahan is the Recording Secretary for the Alabama Music Arts Production, which includes students from across Mobile County. Educators Association and former chairman of District VI of the Alabama Bandmasters Association. She was selected to Who’s Who Ms. Sarubin demonstrated far and beyond expectancy with her Among America’s Teachers and Outstanding Young Women of students’ performances as they consistently received numerous America, has been chosen as Auburn Junior High School Teacher of superior ratings at the Smoky Mountain Music Festival in Gatlinburg, the Year, Auburn City Schools Secondary Teacher of the Year, and has Tennessee, as well as, the Festivals of Music in Orlando, Florida. served as a clinician and adjudicator throughout the Southeast. Sarubin’s dedication to the Arts continues as a member of NAfME, Her professional affiliations include the National Association for where she serves as Recording Secretary and Southwest District Chair Music Educators, Alabama Music Educators Association, Alabama of the Alabama All-State Orchestra Festival of AOA since 1999. As a Bandmasters Association, and Phi Beta Mu member of the AOA, she worked tirelessly on a variety of pace setting projects. In addition, she served as a seating judge and sectional coach during the Alabama All-State Orchestra Festival. Outside of the realm of music, Sarubin is an avid outdoorswoman, where she enjoys hiking, biking, and kayaking. She is also the mom to a host of furry and exotic feathered friends. ala breve 37

Middle School Students’ Response to Live Brazilian Music Elisa Macedo Dekaney Editor’s Note: This research article appears as one of a series written especially for Ala Breve by experts in the field of music education. Abstract: This study examined middle school students’ perception of Brazilian music following a live performance. Twenty-four sixth graders enrolled in an urban school expressed in writing their overall impression of the concert. The responses yield six emerging themes: 1) the ensemble’s overall performance (professionalism, enthusiasm); 2) audience participation; 3) music elements (instruments, rhythms, singing); 4) Brazilian cultural characteristics (language, environment); 5) music familiarity; and 6) dancing. Results revealed that young students have the ability to discriminate when a performance is well prepared, sophisticated, and professional. They enjoyed the upbeat, fast, and loud aspects of Brazilian music and appreciated the information about Brazilian culture, geography, and language. They also enjoyed being included in the performance by clapping or singing. Musicians should not be afraid to add educational and extra-musical components to their performances and should work with classroom teachers to enhance the learning outcomes that these performances can generate. The human response to music has been the focus maximize the communication interactions of regularly at public schools presenting a varied of numerous investigations. Findings suggest that listeners and performers during school events? program of music, story telling, dance, and social music preference, across all ages, is affected by Shehan (1986) suggested that concerts at schools studies. The repertoire includes purely instrumental factors such as familiarity with the music stimulus, by professionals have been considered by some as music using traditional Brazilian drums in the styles age, musical training, cultural environments, socio- an effective tool for the strengthening of musical of Maracatu, Samba-Reggae, Samba, and Samba- economic status, and others (Demorest and ideas and performance techniques while providing Funk and a variety of songs in Portuguese Schultz, 2004; LeBlanc, 1984; Shehan, 1985). a venue for the development of adequate concert including folk melodies, popular music, and Additionally, early studies indicated that children etiquette. Sigursdon (1971), when evaluating indigenous music of Brazil. One of the songs was prefer popular and rock music to classical music student achievement as a result of a concert choreographed. Following the performance, (LeBlanc, 1981; Shehan, 1981), probably due to experience and instruction, reported that fifth twenty-four sixth graders, instructed by their familiarity. grade students showed significant improvement in regular classroom teacher, wrote ‘thank you’ notes identifying instruments after only a single concert to the ensemble’s directors. The notes were all Most of the research examining music preference experience. These students also demonstrated an typed, and varied in length from to two to five utilized a recorded stimulus. Some relied on self- increased interest in symphonic music as a result paragraphs and were written within one week of report techniques such as questionnaires, rank of concert exposure. Shehan (1986) suggested that the performance. orders, and Likert-type scales while others have “A live performance of music with brief employed behavioral observations such as operant commentary and demonstration of musical Results listening time, the Continuous Response Digital concepts and techniques may be an effective An analysis of the written responses identified six Interface (CRDI), and unobtrusive measures avenue of developing music listening skills within emerging themes with sub-themes: 1) the (Dekaney, Macedo, and Coggiola, 2010; Flowers, the school’s domain, although its impact on ensemble’s overall performance (professionalism, 1980; Frederickson and Coggiola, 2003; Madsen, conceptual learning and attitude has not been enthusiasm); 2) audience participation; 3) music Brittin & Capperella-Sheldon, 1993). Some objectively explored” (p. 52). Additionally, Shehan elements (instruments, rhythms, singing); 4) researchers have also collected data through (1986) proposed that live performances might be Brazilian cultural characteristics (language, physiological measurements such as respiration an effective tool in the understanding of a environment); 5) music familiarity; and 5) dancing. rates and skin conductance response (Egermann, previously unfamiliar music genre. Live music, she Sutherland, Grewe, Nagel, Kopiez, and contended, may transpose the music experience Overall Performance Altenmüller, 2011). Results suggest that music from an abstract to a more human activity. The most prevalent responses were about the preference is affected, across all ages, by factors While the majority of studies in music preference overall performance. Students described the such as familiarity with the music stimulus, age, use recorded music stimuli to investigate performance as educational, fun, and energetic: musical training, cultural environments, and socio- participants’ preference, the current study “The songs were good too and the drumming was economic status, among others. investigated adolescents’ expressed music spectacular. The way you explained the things you preference after a live performance of Brazilian were going to do next and the way you explained While recorded stimuli have been preferred, other music. This study aimed to answer the following the instruments was great” and “We also liked the studies have examined the complexities of research question: What musical and cultural beats and the music you played. We enjoyed it a lot performer and listener’s interaction during live characteristics made it possible for participants to and we were happy when you guys came.” Students music performance. Gabrielsson (1985) examined have a positive music experience during this live commented that “The performance was so the communication sequence between performers music performance? spectacular, fun, and interesting; it was hard to feel and listeners during live music performances and bored. I felt really involved” and “You guys made identified three levels. First, there is a cognitive Method me feel elated and vivacious.” Students appreciated level, a means through which performers A live performance of Brazilian music took place at the performance’s professional level: “Thank you communicate their ideas. Then, a behavioral an urban city school in the northeast region of the for performing a sophisticated performance. (motor) level by which the performer’s idea is United States. The school was a k-8 urban Usually performances [at our school] are lame, but transformed into sounds (the acoustical level or environment in an impoverished area of the city. your performance was off the chain.” Another sound structure) progressing to a perceptual All grades attended the performance. The student remarked, “The music that you played was (listening) level. Finally, the listener processes this performing ensemble was a non-auditioned group so good that I wish you could play every day, but I information at a cognitive level demonstrating that specializes in the performance of music from know that could never happen, so I hope you could understanding of the music, which is influenced by various regions and styles of Brazil. Although no play every year.” The performance was captivating many different factors. How do music educators audition is required, the ensemble performs and caught the student’s attention: “I loved the 38 February/March 2016

beat. That was the best performance I have ever originated from” and “I loved all your songs, and I a distance above” and “You acted sophisticated and seen and I hope you guys play at our school again.” loved the way you explained about your you acted like you knew exactly what you were Explaining the meaning of the songs and where instruments, it really help me understand a little bit doing.” Another student wrote, “I want to thank they belong in Brazilian culture was also important more.” you again because you are all skilled performers.” for the students: “The thing I really liked was how you explained what songs you were going to play Familiarity with Brazilian music Students noticed the leader’s professionalism and before you did play. I appreciate how you put your Students transferred knowledge from American to enthusiasm: “My favorite part was when that guy beat together.” Another student remarked, “I Brazilian music: “It was like I had listened to these [the master drummer] was dancing with the remember the first song you sang to us. It was songs for a long time. They kind of had a hip-hop tambourine. I think he was doing the cripwalk [sic], marvelous, delightful and incredible that I can not beat to them.” It seemed important to them to and he can really dance.” Another student added, describe it by words.” identify familiar instruments: “My favorite drum “My favorite band member is the guy on snare [the was the sneardrum [sic] because I know what it is and master drummer]. He plays very fast and looks like Audience Participation I also played it before.” he know [sic] what he is doing.” Taking time to Students expressed a certain level of enjoyment Performers’ Enthusiasm: stage presence and introduce the members of the group was also because they were invited to participate in the professional behavior perceived as a positive performance aspect because performance by clapping and asking questions: “I it fostered a more personal relationship: “You absolutely enjoyed listening to your wonderful Students in this study noticed the enthusiasm introduced yourselves and that really helped music, and clapping to the rhythm” and “I liked performers showed during the performance because if we had a question we would know how one of the band members got off the stage identifying this behavior with good stage presence whom to ask” and “I liked that you introduced and asked people to join in.” They asked questions and professionalism. For instance, one student yourselves.” “because we wanted to know more about the commented, “Everyone in your group played with music.” enthusiasm,” which “made me feel like getting up Singing in Portuguese and dance. Everyone came out energized and ready Participants in this study appreciated the time Music elements to make a jump off.” Students even pointed out performers dedicated to explaining the meaning of Students identified some very specific elements in their appreciation for the performance attire: “I the songs in Portuguese and were glad even when Brazilian music that pleased them, particularly in liked the way you dressed for the show. Black is my they did not fully understand the meaning of the their favorite pieces, the first and last. These pieces favorite color.” songs: “Even though I didn’t understand or featured only drums and were loud and fast: assimilate the language, you performed what you “Wonderful music. I really enjoyed the first song. The energy level of the performers positively were trying to say.” Another student expressed that It had a lot of beat to it. There was so much bass impacted students in the audience: “You all played “I really enjoyed the singing even though I don’t that the ground was shaking” and “I liked the first with enthusiasm and that was very admirable.” understand the language. After hearing you explain song because it woke me up right away.” Other Students also noticed that the performers exhibited and talk about the songs, I learned what the songs students added, “I liked the last song. I thought that confidence performing in front of them: “You meant and learned more about how the people and one was the best” and “The last piece was were so skilled and comfortable with the drums” the country of Brazil thinks and feels.” marvelous and impressive, it was my favorite one.” and “It looked like your group was elated to The Brazilian drums and rhythms elicited a very perform and also comfortable.” Other students Explaining the cultural context of the songs was positive response from the students: “Your added that “Another thing I enjoyed is the way you also important: “I liked that you explained your instruments have nice beats. The rhythms of the all came down off of the stage is looked cool from culture, languages, and the kind of songs that you songs were off the hook. It means it was cool. It was like a refreshing vacation after a long day of laboring in the hot sun [February is really cold in this region of the country]. You sure can describe the cool looking instruments of Brazil.” Although they could not recall the Portuguese names, they certainly remembered that the drums were big and loud: “Favorite instrument was the huge drum (even though I cannot remember the name of it). Thank you for giving us a new music” and “The music was loud, energetic and made me want to dance. The music was massively entertaining and you were so loud. I could feel the beat of the drums and instruments.” A few other remarks include “The music was very invigorating and woke me up” and “The music was entertaining to us and it was also massively loud and enjoyable. The first think that I liked about the music was that it was loud and it was refreshing, too.” Introducing the instruments during the performance was important: “Some things we enjoyed about your performance were that you explained your instruments to us and told us where they 40 February/March 2016

were playing.” Students also expressed appreciation have achieved its three levels in this performance untaught pieces of non-Western music genres. for the quality of the singing: “I really liked how (Gabrielsson, 1985). Performers interacted with Journal of Research in Music Education, 33, (3) 149-158. you were singing, it was really good” and “It was students in a professional yet considerate manner, Shehan, P. (1986). Music instruction for the live loud enough that everyone could hear and embraced students in the performance, and shared performance. Bulletin of the Council for Research in understand what you were saying and playing.” educational and musical facts about Brazil, its Music Education, 88, 51-57. Lastly, students demonstrated they could culture, and its music. In turn, students appreciated differentiate the characters of the songs: “The being included in the performance through Dr. Elisa Macedo songs that you sang were peaceful and serene. audience participation and learning about another Dekaney serves as the Some of the songs were rousing.” culture. chair of the music Findings for this study revealed that live music education program and Leaning about Brazilian culture performances at schools should be prepared at the is dually appointed by Students expressed enjoyment in learning about highest possible level for students of all ages. These the School of Brazilian culture: “It was educational because we performances should include audience Education and the had the chance to learn about a different culture participation and musicians should not be afraid to College of Visual and and country. I admire you because you have such a add educational components to their performances. Arts at Syracuse strong connection to South America.” Learning University to teach about culture also opened a door to appreciating References graduate and the music: “After hearing you speak about the Dekaney, E.M. & Macedo, E.C. (2005). Cultural undergraduate courses culture, I became really interested about the tolerance and music preference: The effect of in the areas of choral instruments, the culture, and the country” and “I music, research in music, and world music. In also enjoyed the new things and cultures that you interdisciplinary lessons on students’ 2014 she joined the prestigious core faculty for talked about. I liked hearing about Brazil, the aesthetic response. Psicologia: Teoria e the Renée Crown Honors Program. drums and other instruments, and the music.” And, Prática, 7 (2), 115-133. “Thank you for teaching us a little about Brazil, and Demorest, S. M. & Schultz, S. J. (2004). Children’s Need information their language! After the show I went and told my preference for authentic versus arranged versions about your NAfME brother about your delightful show.” Students also of entertained the idea of visiting Brazil in the future: world music recordings. Journal of Research in Music membership? “I liked how they talked about Brazil I would like to Education, 52 (4), 300-313. go to Brazil some day. I think Brazil is a great place Egermann, H., Sutherland, M.E., Grewe, O., Nagel, Contact NAfME to go visit or live at. They have great food and great F., Kopiez, R., & Altenmüller, E. (2011). Does Member Services at music. I would like to live there because it is music summer all year long.” listening in a social context alter 1-800-336-3768 experience? A psychological and or Dancing physiological perspective on emotion. The last emerging theme was how participants Musicae Scientiae, 15 (3), 307-323. MemberServices@ appreciated the addition of dance movements to Flowers, P.J. (1980). Relationship between two the performance: “Background with the dancers measures of music preference. Contributions to Music were [sic] great and awesome. I enjoyed the music, Education, 21, 46-63. singing, dancing, and the bears. The dancing was Fredrickson, W., & Coggiola, J. C. (2003). A Music Education rousing and great skilled dancers.” Other comparison of music major’s and nonmajors’ Orchestrating Success commented, “We really liked your dancing and perceptions singing” and “What I liked about the show was the of tension for two selections of jazz dancing.” Two other comments added that “you music. Journal of Research in Music were loud and energetic and you danced a lot” and Education, 51, (3), 259-270. “I liked the way your guys danced and played the Gabrielsson, A. (1985). Interplay between music beat.” analysis and synthesis in studies of music performance Discussion and music experience. Music Perception, 3 (1), 59-86. This study revealed that, although young, sixth- LeBlanc, A. (1981). Effects of style, tempo, and grade students have the ability to discern when a performing medium on children’s preference. performance is well prepared and presented in a Journal of Research in Music Education, 29, 143-156 professional manner. They also identified specific LeBlanc, A. (1984). Selecting a response mode in pleasing music characteristics while describing how music preference research. Contributions to Music the music elements in Brazilian music resonated Education, 11, 1-14. with them. They mentioned the Brazilian drums, Madsen, C. K., Brittin, R. V., & Capperella-Sheldon, rhythms, and loudness of the music as favorable D. A. (1993). An empirical investigation of the elements, findings that are consistent with previous studies in music preference that identified fast and aesthetic response to music. Journal of loud music as preferred among participants Research in Music Education, 41, 57-69. (LeBlanc, 1981) Sigurdson, G. A. (1971). The Effect of a Live Symphonic Concert Experience on Listening Skills and Students were able to transfer their previous knowledge of music instruments to the Brazilian Interest in Music. Available from ProQuest drums (Shehan, 1981) and may have enjoyed the Dissertations & Theses Global. performance because of issues of familiarity, (302499752). Retrieved from consistent with previous finding in music preference (Shehan, 1985). The communication 02499752?accountid=14214 levels between performers and audience seemed to Shehan, P. K. (1981). Student preferences for ethnic music styles. Contributions to Music Education, 9, 20-27. Shehan, P.K. (1985). Transfer of preference from ala breve 41

Healthy Singing and “Pop Music” by Kenneth H. Phillips, Ph.D Editor’s Note: This article appears as one of a series written especially for Ala Breve by experts in the field of music education. All students should be taught to sing with the vocal cords become shorter and thicker, and register is engaged. accuracy and confidence. Unfortunately, many the shape of the cords becomes more vocal music teachers continue to believe that rectangular. Thus, when air is exhaled and I was one of those boys whose voice changed singing is “caught and not taught.” Those who passes between the two cords, the shape of the slowly. My voice teachers in college never fall into this trap often do so because they were cords results in greater surface contact during introduced me to singing in a full TA register, not exposed in college methods classes to the the vibratory cycle. and my lower range was always weak. Then in basics of working with child and adolescent graduate school a voice teacher demonstrated singers. Researchii has shown, however, that A Choral Journal article by Duane Cottrellv relates the lower “wheelie” exercise, which I then (to children and adolescents respond positively to the importance of a well-developed chest voice my surprise) imitated. In a short time, as I vocal instruction that focuses on the active, as the foundation for good vocal technique. continued to strengthen the TA muscles using physiological basis for sound production, when Cottrell recommends the use of sustained-tone various vocalises, my lower vocal range extended coupled with the psychological processing of warm-ups to build vocal strength, richer tone, and strengthened. While the quality of my voice pitch. The focus of this article is on and the elimination of breathiness found remained tenor, my extended lower range (c understanding vocal registers and the proper way commonly among younger adolescent voices. below middle c and downward an octave) to teach vocal registration as it relates to healthy While child-voice specialists often warn against permitted me to sing solo literature with a lower singing in show choirs and Broadway musicals. the use of the chest voice by children, this range, and as a vocal teacher, to demonstrate for register does have its place when used properly boys how to make the transition into the full use Students today hear many vocal models via the and for the correct vocal range. Even mature of the TA register at around g below middle c. media that can be injurious to the voice. I once sopranos need to have a vocal foundation of How grateful I am that I had one voice teacher heard Andrea McArdel, the original Broadway solid chest-voice production. The problem who understood the need to engage the TA “Annie,” state in a TV interview that singing the comes when the chest voice register is taken too muscles in order to sing lower into the bass role of Annie day after day significantly strained high in the vocal range without modification. range. This practice also improved the quality her voice. McArdel said she was never given any This is a common occurrence among pop of my speaking voice and gave it a stronger vocal instruction during her Broadway singers who “belt.” projection. performances, and only years later did she understand how “belting” out those songs in The pitch to remember for use of the TA The typical problem of singing correctly using “chest” or modal register was harmful to her register is middle c. For unchanged children’s the TA register is not one of singing too low, but vocal mechanism. voices and mature females, a shift into this rather, singing too high. As mentioned register at middle c and downward to g below previously, the vocal cords make greater surface Keith Hatschekiii states that in 2011 three major middle c results in a warm, rich tone that does contact in the TA register because of the shape pop singers dropped out of circulation due to not sound strident (contraltos often can sing as of the cords (rectangular). As pitch frequencies poor vocal health. Perhaps the best known is low as c below middle c). However, singing rise, greater pressure is placed on the vocal cords, the British singer, Adele, who had to cancel higher in only this register, as most pop singers and when the singer continues to sing upward numerous tour engagements because of a polyp do, increases pressure on vocal cord contact and using only the TA register (e.g., Adele), the vocal on her vocal cords that required surgery. (A can lead to vocal edema (swelling), polyps, and strain can become so great as to cause polyps polyp is a small sack of blood on the surface of nodules. The rectangular shape of the vocal and eventually, nodules. Surgery is often needed a vocal cord that can interfere with vocal cords in this register allows for more contact of to correct such maladies, but with younger production, and if not attended to can lead to a the cords. voices, vocal rest can often rectify the problem. callous or nodule). Aerosmith’s Steven Tyler was reported to have the same condition, and Changed male voices make greater use of the A second major register of the voice, “upper” country singer Keith Urban also underwent chest voice from middle c and downward two or “falsetto,” is engaged by the cricothyroid (CT) surgery to remove a vocal polyp. These singers octaves. Sometimes boys whose voices change muscles, which are located at the base of the are known to use a heavier chest voice slowly have trouble getting into the TA register larynx just above the thyroid gland. When these production throughout the vocal range, which and have little strength at pitches an octave or CT muscles contract, the vocal cords elongate often gives the voice an “edge.” This “edge” more below middle c. This makes sense because and become thinner. Therefore, the contact area gives the sound greater vocal projection and their TA muscles are developing more slowly. of the vocal cords is lessened, and the possibility fullness; the “edge” in Adele’s voice is the perfect While these boys often become tenors, it of damaging the cords through vocal strain is example. However, chest voice used exclusively remains necessary to exercise their voices in the lessened. All singers need to engage the upper concert after concert often leads to vocal strain chest register if the lower range of c below vocal register in vocal exercises, even if changed and vocal cord hemorrhaging (i.e., polyp). middle c and downward is to stregthen. male voices rarely sing exclusively in the falsetto or male alto range. The chest voice is one of three commonly In order to help students “find” the chest/TA accepted vocal registers used in singing. voice sound, I use a lower “wheelie” exercise An upper “wheelie” exercise can aid in helping Cornelius Reidiv defines a vocal register as “a where the voice is pulsed five times in the lower students to find the upper vocal (CT) or “head group of like sounds whose origin can be traced voice using “yo-o-o-o-o” in imitation of a car voice” register. Using again the breath-pulsing to a special kind of mechanical (muscular) with a dead battery. Each phonated pulse is action, this exercise involves phonating an upper action.” In this case, the chest or lower voice is supported by the breath with a strong gentle lift “wheelie” on “yoo-oo-oo-oo-oo.” The sound produced by the muscular engagement of the of the abdominal support musculature. When should be open and free, and not choked as in a thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles located within the doing this exercise as a group, sampling falsetto sound. With children, imitating the vocal cords. When these TA muscles contract, individual voices helps to insure that the TA sound of a “Koo-Koo” bird, or an owl 42 February/March 2016

(“whoo”) can be helpful. I once had a teacher between middle c and an octave above. In summary, the safe-belting of pop music in tell me that she had success with a child finding However, someone like the pop singer, Adele, show choirs and Broadway musicals requires that the head voice by imitating the giggle of the will lose the edge of her tone because she will pressure on the vocal cords in the middle voice Pillsbury Doughboy. no longer be singing only in the TA register. By be lessened by a combination of TA and CT using a mixed or shared registration, her vocal register production. This is learned by using For children and mature females, the exclusive cords will make less contact, and in the end, she vocalises that exercise the voice from the top— shift into the upper CT register is at or around c will gain longer vocal life. down (CT register to mixed TA/CT register). above middle c, and upward an octave. If the While the quality of the sound might not, at first, singer continues to produce pitch in this range The same can be said for male pop singers who sound “edgy” enough, in time and with practice with some of the TA mechanism being used, the push hard on TA vocal production throughout the voice will grow stronger and project without top or soprano range will be limited, as in the their vocal range, causing maximum vocal cord being forced. We owe it to our students to teach case of second sopranos. contact even in the highest pitches. The mature them to sing all styles of music in ways that male begins to thin the vocal folds at pitch g result in good vocal health. Boys with changing voices and mature males also below middle c. As pitches rises, more and more need to exercise the CT register with the upper of the CT register engages until middle c when i Based on the author’s books: Directing the “wheelie” exercise. Strengthening the CT the passaggio register involves more and more Choral Music Program, 2nd ed. (New York: muscles is most important to developing the CT support. However, for younger male singers, Oxford University Press, 2016), and Teaching upper range of the male singer, and is the secret and even the majority of male choral singers, if Kids to Sing, 2nd ed. (Boston: Schirmer, Cengage to developing high school tenors. can be beneficial if the shift into the upper or Learning 2014). male-alto register begins at or around pitch e ii Kenneth H. Phillips and Sandra M. Doneski, The third or middle vocal register is a above middle c. “Research on Elementary and Secondary combination of both TA and CT mechanisms School Singing,” in MENC Handbook of (TA/CT). For children and mature females, this Phillips, Williams, and Edwinvi believe that Research on Music Learning, vol. 2: Applications, “mixed” registration is used between pitches students can learn to sing pop music through eds. Richard Colwell and Peter Webster (New middle c and the octave above. For males with “safe belting,” which involves bringing the top York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 176–232. changing voices and mature males, the “mixed” voice down and mixing it with the chest or lower iii Keith Hatschek, Vocal Health Basics—How to registration begins around middle c and the vocal register, thus producing vocal cords that Properly Care for Your Voice. Retrieved from: octave above to the male “high c.” For the are thinner and less able to make a lot of contact. http:/ mature male voice, this upper octave is known health-basics/. as the passaggio, or what the Italian school of bel The authors state: Good and healthy belting is a iv Cornelius Reid, A Dictionary of Vocal canto singing calls the passageway from the lower mix of TA and CT muscle activity combined Terminology: An Analysis. (New York: Joseph register to the upper register. From middle c with resonance coupling that does not overload Patelson Music House, 1983), p. 296. upward, more and more of the CT register is or overtax the instrument. This requires specific v Duane Cottrell, “Building Vocal Strength engaged while less and less of the TA register is breath management technique. Belting requires with Sustained Tone Warm-Ups” (Choral employed. This is a demanding technique and a vocal quality specific to popular culture, and Journal, 56/3, 2015), 73–79. one not easily mastered until the voice is settled that quality must be embraced if a teacher is vi Kenneth Phillips, Jenevora Williams, and and mature. With younger voices, even in high tohelp a child singer successfully negotiate belt Robert Edwin, “The Young Singer,” in The school, it is sometimes preferable to ask boys to and mix voice. Oxford Handbook of Music Education, vol. 1, eds. “break” between the TA and CT registers at or Gary McPherson and Graham Welch (New around pitch e above middle c. This eliminates High school music teacher, Roger Amesvii York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 602. the mixing of registers while the voice settles, concurs: “Every young singer, including my male vii Roger Ames, “Preparing for the High School and works well in ensemble singing. It also singers, learns how to bring the high register Musical,” in The School Choral Program: keeps the boys from vocal strain in the upper down into the chest voice and blend the two. Philosophy, Planning, Organizing, and Teaching, eds. register of the voice. This is harder than it sounds, but it is the only Michelle Holt and James Jordan (Chicago: way to provide some sort of Broadway-style GIA, 2008), 481. Children and mature female voices should never singing.” break between registers, and must develop a Dr. Ken Phillips is smooth transition upward from the TA to the There is no escaping the fact that pop music has Professor Emeritus, CT registers resulting in an overlapping or invaded the school music program, and in some The University of “mixed” register between middle c and an octave cases, dominates it. This being the case, vocal Iowa. An award- above (TA/CT). There should be an music teachers have an obligation to teach winning researcher in approximate sharing of registers at or around students how to sing in such a way that they do the area of child and pitch f# above middle c. The best way to not harm their voices. A clear understanding of adolescent vocal develop this middle register is from the top— the three vocal registers (TA, CT, TA/CT) and pedagogy, he is the down. Descending arpeggios on “loo” should how these are used separately and together is author of Teaching Kids begin in the upper (CT) register, and gain a necessary if students are to escape the position to Sing (Cengage), and fullness as pitch descends. If breath support is that many pop vocal “stars” come to with Directing the Choral maintained throughout the vocalise, the TA surgery or loss of voice. Foremost to healthy Music Program (OUP), muscles will automatically engage as the pitch singing is learning to mix or share the TA and both now in second editions. Dr. Phillips has descends. Below pitch f above middle c, more CT vocal registers correctly balanced with regard been recognized by NAfME as one of the and more of the TA mechanism should engage to vocal range. In the middle voice, the less nation’s most accomplished music educators until only the chest voice appears at pitch middle vocal cord contact the better. Engaging more (Teaching Music, October 2000). c and downward. of the CT mechanism always thins the cords, while more of the TA mechanism thickens It is imperative that children and mature female them. singers learn to sing in “mixed” registration ala breve 43

AMEADivision Events 2015 - 2016 Alabama Bandmasters Association AMEA In-Service Conference/All-State Jazz Band All-State Band Festival January 21-23, 2016 - Renaissance Montgomery Hotel at the Convention Center April 14-16, 2016 - Mobile Convention Center All-State Solo Festival Summer In-Service Conference April 13, 2016 - University of South Alabama June 22-23, 2016 - Hampton Inn and Suites, Orange Beach District I District Fall Meeting August 24, 2015 James Clemens HS District II All-State Band Auditions January 29-30, 2016 Sparkman HS District III District Honor Band February 12-13, 2016 Huntsville HS District IV State MPA I March 8-9, 2016 Austin HS State MPA II March 10-11, 2016 James Clemens HS District V Solo and Ensemble Festival April 2, 2016 Priceville HS District VI Solo and Ensemble Festival May 7, 2016 Liberty MS District VII District Fall Meeting August 25, 2015 Gadsden City HS District VIII All-State Band Auditions January 16, 2016 Albertville HS State MPA February 24-26, 2016 Gadsden City HS District Honor Band March 11-12, 2016 Albertville HS Solo and Ensemble Festival April 18, 2016 Southside HS Solo and Ensemble Festival May 2, 2016 Oxford HS District Fall Meeting August 15, 2015 Smith Lake All-State Band Auditions January 30, 2016 Muscle Shoals HS District Honor Band February 19-20, 2016 Wallace State Community College State MPA March 1-3, 2016/March 12, 2016 UNA/Muscle Shoals High School Solo and Ensemble Festival May 7, 2016 UNA District Fall Meeting September 21, 2015 TBA All-State Band Auditions January 30, 2016 TBA State MPA (Middle School) March 8-10, 2016 Hewitt-Trussville HS State MPA (High School) March 15-17, 2016 Homewood HS District Honor Band February 26-27, 2016 Homewood HS Solo and Ensemble Festival April 19, 2016 Homewood MS Solo and Ensemble Festival May 7, 2016 Bumpus MS District Spring Meeting May 23, 2016 TBA District Fall Meeting August 24, 2015 Private Residence, email for details All-State Band Auditions January 30, 2016 Tuscaloosa County HS District Honor Band February 19-20, 2016 University of West Alabama District Spring Meeting February 20, 2016 Private Residence State MPA February 25-26, 2016 University of Alabama School of Music Solo and Ensemble Festival March 15, 2016 Prattville JHS Solo and Ensemble Festival April 21, 2016 Tuscaloosa County HS All-State Band Unassigned Auditions January 30, 2016 St. James School All-State Band Auditions January 30, 2016 Opelika MS District Honor Band February 19-20, 2016 Auburn HS State MPA March 8, 2016 First Baptist Church Montgomery State MPA March 9-10, 2016 Opelika HS Solo and Ensemble Festival April 28, 2016 Auburn JHS District Fall Meeting August 24, 2015 Murphy HS All-State Band Auditions January 16, 2016 Davidson HS State MPA March 9-11, 2016 Baker HS Solo and Ensemble Festival April 30, 2016 Fairhope HS Solo and Ensemble Festival May 7, 2016 Faith Academy District Spring Meeting May 9, 2016 Daphne HS District Fall Meeting August 17, 2015 TBA All-State Band Auditions January 9, 2016 Troy Elementary School State MPA March 8- 11, 2016 Enterprise HS District Honor Band March 12-13, 2016 Enterprise HS District Spring Meeting March 13, 2016 Enterprise HS Solo and Ensemble Festival May 7, 2016 Troy Elementary School Solo and Ensemble Festival May 14, 2016 Excel HS 44 February/March 2016

Alabama Vocal Association Fall Workshop: September 11, 2015, Montgomery, 1st Baptist Church, Advance Registration deadline: September 4 Board meeting @ FBC: September 10 6:00 p.m. All-State Auditions All-Districts Event Date Area Location Registration Date Absolute Deadline/payment due All-Districts Friday, 11/13 October 2 October16 All-Districts Saturday, 11/14 Cullman St. Bernard Prep October 2 October 16 All-Districts Sunday, 11/15 October 2 October 16 All-Districts Monday, 11/16 Cullman St. Bernard Prep October 2 October 16 All-Districts Tuesday, 11/17 October 2 October 16 All-Districts Wednesday,11/18 Florence Florence HS October 2 October 16 All Districts Thursday, 11/19 October 2 October 16 Friday, 11/20 Gadsden Gadsden City HS October 2 October 16 Honor Choir Screening District I Gadsden Gadsden City HS District II District III Montgomery FBC District IV District V Montgomery FBC District VI District VII Mobile Spring Hill Baptist OCS/OA/ME Event Date Location Reg. Date Absolute deadline/payment due District I October 29 Austin High School October 1 October 15 District II October 27 Tuscaloosa County HS September 29 October 13 District III November 2 Gardendale HS October 5 October 19 District IV November 2 Alexandrea HS October 5 October 19 District V November 17 James Clemens HS October 20 November 3 District VI October 28 Montgomery Academy September 30 October 14 District VII October 29 UMS-Wright October 1 October 15 SCPA Event Date Location Reg. Date Absolute deadline/payment due District I November 5 Florence HS October 8 October 27 November 10 Tuscaloosa County HS October 13 October 27 District II October 19 Gardendale HS September 21 October 5 District III November 5 Alexandria HS October 8 October 22 District IV November 3 Randolph School October 6 October 20 District V November 4 Tallassee HS October 7 October 21 District VI November 9 U of South AL October 12 October 26 District VII Event Date Location Reg. Date Absolute deadline/payment due S/E February 23 1st Baptist/Decatur January 26 February 9 District I February 24 UNA January 26 February 9 District II March 30 -31 Moody Music Bldg March 2 March 16 District III March 21- 23 Gardendale-Mt. Vernon UMC February 22 March 2 District IV April 7 Gadsden City HS March 10 March 24 District V April 4 – 5 Columbia HS March 7 March 21 District VI March 18 1st Baptist Tallassee February 19 March 4 District VII March 15 U of South AL February 16 March 1 State Events Event Date Location Reg. Date Absolute deadline/payment due All-State Show Choir Auditions April 7 UNA March 10 March 24 All-State Show Choir Festival March 30 – 31 Moody Music Bldg (with SCPA) March 2 March 16 Honor Choir Festival April 9 Gardendale HS March 12 March 26 All-State Auditions February 25 Jacksonville State U January 28 February 11 All-State Festival February 8 – 9 Willowbrook Baptist January 11 January 25 March 18 1st Baptist Tallassee February 19 March 4 Fall - October 22 U of South AL September 17 October 1 Spring – March 15 U of South AL February 16 March 1 Event Date Location Registraton Due Absolute deadline/check due October 2, 2015 October 9, 2015 October 16, 17, 2015 Gardendale-Mt. Vernon UMC December 9, 2015 December 23, 2015 December 9, 2015 December 23, 2015 January 20 – 23, 2016 AMEA Montgomery October 2, 2015 October 16, 2015 January 20, 2016 February 3, 2016 January 21-22,2016 AMEA Montgomery November 13-20, 2015 Various locations throughout state March 2 – 5, 2016 Samford University Alabama Orchestra Association All-State Festival......................................................February 11-14, 2016 AOA Music Performance Assessment.......................April 22-23, 2016 ala breve 45

Which Version of Band Are You Teaching - 1.0, 3.0, 6.0? Jill M. Sullivan, Ph.D. Editor’s Note: This article appears as one of a series written especially for Ala Breve by experts in the field of music education. American school bands continue to be influenced limited types of festivals and assessments, and a Unfortunately, some of the by over 250 years of band tradition stemming from whole host of other positive and negative traditions drill-sergeant behaviors of the military, professional, and community bands. embedded in our school-band culture. Questioning the military still exist in There was a time in nineteenth-century America these traditions is a risky undertaking, but as a modern band classrooms when wind band literature was considered popular music-teacher educator, I strive for balance by which evoke teacher-centered music, and every town across the nation strived to encouraging learning about traditions while rehearsals instead of today’s have a band. A local band was a status symbol, and encouraging progressive change. In 2008, Randall more desirable student- town bands were used to attract permanent Allsup and Cathy Benedict deconstructed the band centered music education. residents. James Keene wrote, “Almost all towns tradition in their article, “The Problems with Band: had bands to perform entertainment.” Bands were An Inquiry into the Future of Instrumental Music formed by anyone who wanted to participate: Education.” They critiqued our embodied There were women’s bands, family bands, traditions, applying, for example, words like immigrant bands, school bands, school-military “directorship,“ implying that teacher expertise is a bands, stringed-and-fretted instrument bands, “highly prized commodity, ... and custom” never bagpipe bands, among others. Band historians call allowed to be called into question publically or the periods of approximately 1870–1920 The Golden allowed to be negotiated with student decisions or Age of Bands. So popular were the bands that in musical tastes. Allsup and Benedict questioned for 1921, the state of Iowa passed a band law that whom the band classroom is “highly passionate, would allow city taxes to be spent on local inventive and imaginative.” Who operates at the municipal bands. This law was copied in thirty- creative level—is it the students, or is it only the three other states. Band composer Karl L. King director? Allsup and Benedict pointed out that in even wrote a march in its honor called the “Iowa band rehearsals, “We don’t ask our students to Band Law March.” think or be vigilant.” They suggested that if the director/teacher is making all the musical decisions The end of the Golden Age coincided with military and students are simply waiting for your next bandsmen returning to the United States after command for ultimate-ensemble efficiency, then serving in World War I. Many of these men had you’re using an early twentieth-century factory served in Navy or Army bands and had been model for your educational space rather than trained by the Lieutenant John Phillip Sousa of the fostering a motivating, creative-collaborative- Navy or orchestra conductor Walter Damrosch of decision-making space for student-centered the New York Symphony Society. Sousa alone had educational experiences. trained nearly 1,500 Navy bandsmen at the Great Lakes Naval Training Station near Chicago, and At one point, Allsup and Benedict go as far to Damrosch trained bandleaders for the U.S. Army suggest that band directors in teacher-centered in Europe. classrooms are propagating oppressed-and- oppressor relationships through the use of fear By 1920, public secondary education was beginning tactics and tight control. Who has the control and to flourish as the Progressive Era came to influence power? How does that feel and look in your more democratic offerings in America’s high classroom? Are your students even allowed to schools. This situation offered perfect conditions speak in “your” rehearsals, let alone think for for the launch of high school music programs. themselves in “their” rehearsals? When are they Some of the original band teachers came from the being asked to be “mindful and critical” in the band ranks of military musicians. These bandsmen classroom? Is your band classroom really an brought the military traditions of marching bands educational, safe, creative space? Shouldn’t it be, and concert bands into the schools, and today we since we’re teaching in a school? Are we curricular- are grateful for their insight in securing a place for or extra-curricular minded? the ensembles in the school curriculum. Unfortunately, some of the drill-sergeant behaviors Although I had “success” receiving superior ratings of the military still exist in modern band at festival each year I taught middle school band in classrooms which evoke teacher-centered Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, I began doubting my rehearsals instead of today’s more desirable teaching ability when I heard one of my top student-centered music education. students proclaim in “my” class, “I love coming to band class because I don’t have to think.”i I With these long band traditions came a lot of immediately realized that I was simply training the baggage: standard instrumentation, gender best musical robots to follow my creative decision- stereotypes, military-like uniforms, accepted and making and they dutifully responded. I had ala breve 47

squelched all of their decision-making and realized book of the series Teaching Music through Performance on learning in band classrooms. Jason Caslor they were receiving a marginalized music education. in Band was created to facilitate band teachers in fostered group improvisation in the full ensemble They certainly weren’t asked to be creative; only more comprehensive musical instruction. These rehearsal, and Amy Spears asked all the top responsive to my baton and direction, and I was books encouraged a plethora of new musical ensemble students to use a different type of music doing most of the connecting to other subjects for outcomes for students and directors, and those in literacy to learn a band piece for performance. The them. I needed a new version of band teaching but our field are grateful for these books. students were given a Grade 2 piece, no music only where should I start? a part recording, and were asked to learn the part to Fast-forward to 2016, where we have new Core the piece by ear. Comments from the researcher, David Williams reminded us in his 2011 article, Arts Music Standards and Model Cornerstone ensemble teacher, and students included improved “The Elephant in the Room” that school large Assessments for most music classrooms.iii ensemble cohesion, performance responsiveness, ensemble participation continues to be on the Ensemble teachers are encouraged to include and and appreciating learning via a new musical literacy; decline. He uses an example with data from assess four artistic processes in their band their comments were truly inspiring. Seemingly Florida’s Department of Education, “16.45 percent classrooms: creating, performing, responding, and most involved appreciated their new way of of high school students were enrolled in music connecting. Students and band teachers are given thinking, learning, and collaborating. classes in 1985. The number dropped to 14.9 space to imagine how these music processes could percent by 1995 and 11.67 percent by 2005. If we unfold with their students. Additionally, in the So, in 2016, I challenge you to sincerely consider: were to project a 2015 figure based on these data, most recent issue of the Music Educators Journal, Which version of band are you teaching? The enrollment would fall to under 7 percent.”ii He Tobias, Campbell, and Greco suggest that following versions, 1.0–6.0, are hypothetical suggests we continue to use an outdated ensemble classrooms include and encourage examples of band teaching that I created as a way instructional model and that this old model may be project-based learning to “transform a music to start your thinking and discussions. Think about why so few students are enrolling. program by offering genuine student-centered how your teaching career has morphed through learning.” They explain that this idea of project different versions of teaching. I hope something in Band education does have a history of trying to learning comes from a “cognitive revolution . . . this article might spark a bit of change in your band foster educational change, but the field is slow to and the revitalized thinking about skills for the classroom this year: respond due to the embodied nature of our twenty-first century, standards that emphasize traditions. In 1965, the Comprehensive critical thinking, and inquiry-based learning.”iv Version 1.0–– Teacher-centered, military discipline Musicianship movement emerged after a and strict regulations aligned with tradition in symposium at Northwestern University in One such project many band teachers already rehearsals and participation. Evanston, Illinois. Ensemble teachers were asked utilize is solo and ensemble groups. Teachers could to expand their teaching to include more than augment this experience with student solo and Version 2.0––Teacher facilitates comprehensive learning the performance skills to execute literature; ensemble classroom days with your guidance for music making and learning where students learn they were called upon to expand their teaching to forming, being assessed, and the types of music more about the history, theory, and background of be “interdisciplinary” and “intradisciplinary”–– and accompaniment used. In her experimental the piece and composer. Students form ensembles making connections to language arts, history, social dissertation, Danelle Larson described high school and learn solos. studies, science, math, music theory, composition, students assigned to form chamber ensembles for music history, theoretical frameworks, and social fourteen weeks instead of being in band rehearsals. Version 3.0 ––Band teachers added some aspects justice issues. I remember loving hearing the stories She left the chamber music students alone to of the 1994 National Music Standards in their from my director about the composer’s intent of a rehearse, but guided the students with a few check classrooms, which included aspects of piece or the composer’s life history. I still sheets and a list of questions to help them assess comprehensive musicianship, but the classroom remember them today. However, I was never asked their work each day. She found that the chamber- centers primarily around the teacher disseminating to research and discover any of the informational music students’ motivation and attitudes toward knowledge. depth of the music, create my own interpretation band class improved over that of the students who of the music, or collaborate with my peers to make remained in the band class. Additionally, for the Version 4.0 ––Students lead warm-ups and get to our decisions about a section feature or soli. lowest-performing students in the chamber-music participate in some curricular and/or rehearsals groups, their attitudes improved more than other decision-making that aligns with the 1994 national In 1976, Robert Garofalo published his landmark students who had been assigned to chamber-music standards. book, Blueprint for Band, which was a play-by-play groups. This is one example of the prescription for deeply analyzing compositions aforementioned project-based learning where Version 5.0 ––As a teacher, you embrace the idea aimed at guiding teachers in their in-depth work students get to engage during ensemble class in of student-centered learning and encourage your prior to rehearsing. As a high school student, I collaborative music-making and creative decision- students to help make decisions within rehearsals, could have shared in that responsibility and would making. Think about how the use of technology and with administrative choice so they feel have enjoyed digging deeper into the piece with my could enhance chamber-ensemble groups by empowered and a part of a community of artistic peers. In 1994, MENC (now the National adding an instrument or students accompanying decision-makers. You ask deep meaningful Association for Music Education) published nine themselves. More projects could be incorporated questions and challenge their thinking.v You assign national music standards that were to be adopted into your teaching with a little creativity between homework that connects school music to their for all music classrooms. Many ensemble directors you and your students. It’s possible that their personal music They start learning to assess began reimagining how to include singing, attitudes and motivation could greatly improve. their musical preferences, their peers, and composition, and improvisation in their ensemble themselves. You assign projects for students to rehearsals, and perhaps even today many of us are Other researchers have tried innovative teaching discover information.vii still striving for these outcomes. In 1997, the first ideas for band and discovered their positive impact Version 6.0––You and your students structure 48 February/March 2016

Figure 1 Questions to ask yourself. Strive for a new version of band or ensemble teaching in a way that inspires you and your students. Ask yourself “Why?” or “Why not?” after each question. Are you making all of the musical decisions in rehearsals? Are you choosing all of the literature? Are you deciding all performance outcomes and public performances and venues? Are you controlling the instrumentation based on some archaic band tradition? Let the student who plays bass guitar or Quechua qina (a traditional Andean flute also known as the quena) into your ensemble. Are you creating all the assessments and doing all the evaluation? Is all of your music performed still traditional band music? Does this type of music keep a lot of students from wanting to join band? Are all of your concerts solely of your bands or do you partner with community groups of different mediums or styles of music? Are beginners allowed in your high school program? Do your students still sit in a traditional seating arrangement every rehearsal? Are students always seated by chair tests? Do you rotate their parts? How do you facilitate peer learning and assessments in band?33 Do you foster discussions for musical decision-making that involve everyone? Is your jazz ensemble only for certain instruments? Is improvisation only for jazz ensembles or combos?34 Are your uniforms like the military and gendered? Are all leadership positions open to both genders and all races? Do you fundraise for private lessons or benevolent outreach? Do your music teachers in your district look like the students in your ensembles? Do your ensembles engage in more than one artistic process aligned with the new national music standards:create, perform, respond, connect? Do you foster multiple music literacies: composing, improvising, playing by ear and reading music? Do you ask your students to listen in your ensemble rehearsals, and do you help them hear? We often make assumptions that they can hear what we ask them to listen for.35 What ways are you integrating technology to help your students be creative and expressive? your public performances around projects you’ve space to informally learn on their own; you and of band or ensemble teaching, think through the created with the students. Your rehearsal time is your students decided the project idea and the questions in Figure 1, perhaps do this exercise with spent facilitating learning with students working on administration of the project, then step away from a colleague and share your responses and challenge real-life music problem-solving: arranging a cover the students and see what they create. each other to grow into 21st Century ensemble song for a small ensemble of any instrumentation teachers.ix by ear, working with their musical preferences, and Providing the space for your students to discover working to perform it without music. You ask your and work together on solving real-life musical i Jill M. Sullivan, “A Century of students how to assess their project outcomes, and projects allows you to free yourself from the Women’s Bands in America,” Music Educators they decide and will evaluate their peers.viii oppression of thinking that teaching is only being Journal 95, no. 1 (2008): 33. in front-and-center and “in control” of the Let’s shake off the baggage of the past traditions classroom. Take a risk and use your ensemble ii James Keene, “The Rise of and start anew. Adopt a new version of your space differently this year at least for one project Instrumental Music,” in A History of Music teaching this year through experimenting with and see what kinds of truly creative outcomes the Education in the United States, 2d ed. (Centennial, student-centered engagement and discovery. It’s students will produce. Guide and challenge your Colorado: Glenbridge Publishing, Ltd., 2009): okay––really––to put the students in charge of students’ thinking about creative artistic processes 287. their learning. You might think or feel like you’re and for at least one unit or project, release yourself not “teaching” if you’re not in the front of the from training the behavioral technique of playing iii Sullivan, “A Century of Women’s room disseminating knowledge, but remember, and learn to ask deep thought-provoking questions. Bands in America,” 33–40. teaching isn’t telling. Let go of the control of their learning, and provide them a seemingly messy To begin the process of creating your new version ivRaoul Camus, “Band: American Wind ala breve 49

Band,” New Grove Encyclopedia of Music and xviii Robert Garofalo, Blueprint for Band. Assessment Techniques for Teachers,” Music Musicians, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University (Washington, DC: Meredith Music Publications, Educators Journal 81, no 5 (1995), 28–34; Larry Press, 2001), 635. 1976). Blocher, “The Assessment of Student Learning in Band,” in Teaching Music through Performance in v xix The School Music Program: A New Band, Vol. 1, Chapter 4, 27–30. us/history/169-iowa-band-law.html Vision, (Reston, VA: MENC, 1994); Kevin Tutt, “Using Questions to Teach the National xxix Robert A. Cutietta, “Coaching a vi Ibid. Standards in Rehearsal,” Music Educators Journal Pop/Rock Ensemble,” Music Educators Journal 77 93, no. 5 (2007): 38–43. no. 8, 40–45. viiJill M. Sullivan, “John Phillip Sousa and the Great Lakes Navy Music Program during xx Larry Blocker, Eugene Corporon, xxx Lucy Green, Music, Informal Learning World War I” (research presentation: Biennial Ray Cramer, Tim Lautzenheiser, Edward S. Lisk, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy. (London: conference of the IGEB: The International and Richard Miles. Teaching Music through Ashgate Publishing, 2008). Society for the Promotion of Wind Music, Performance in Band. (Chicago, IL: GIA Hammelburg, Germany, July 2014); James A. Publications, 1997). xxxi Randall Everett Allsup and Marsha Keene, A History of Music Education in the United Baxter, “Talking about Music: Better Questions? States 2d ed. (Centennial, CO: Glen Bridge xxi Better Discussions!” Publishing, Ltd., 2009), 323–325. classroom/standards; xxxii Caron L. Collins and James Wells, viii Steve Kelly, Teaching Music in American “21st-Century Ensembles—What We Imagine, Society: A Social and Cultural Understanding of Music xxii Evan S. Tobias, Mark Robin We Can Become!” Music Educators Journal (June Education. (New York: Routledge, 2009), 54. Campbell, and Phillip Greco, “Bringing 2014): 18–21. Curriculum to Life: Enacting Problem-based ix Keene, 325. Michael L. Mark and Learning in Music Programs,” Music Educators xxxiii Ed Asmus, “Music Assessment Charles L. Gary, A History of American Music Journal 102, no. 2: 39. Concepts: A Discussion of Assessment Concepts Education. (Reston: MENC, The National and Models for Student Assessment,” Music Association of Music Education, 1999), 271. xxiii Ibid., 40. Educators Journal; Mitchell Robinson, “Alternative Assessment Techniques for Teachers,” Music x Randall Everett Allsup and Cathy xxiv Danelle D. Larson, The Effects of Educators Journal; Larry Blocher, “The Assessment Benedict, “The Problems of Band: An Inquiry Chamber Music Experience on Music Performance of Student Learning in Band,” in Teaching Music into the Future of Instrumental Music Achievement, Motivation and Attitudes among High through Performance in Band. Education,“ Philosophy of Music Education Review School Band Students, Retrieved from ProQuest 16, no. 2 (2008): 156–173. Digital Dissertations. 2010. 3410633. xxxiv Caslor, Spontaneous Improvisation. xi Ibid., 157. xxv Jason Caslor, Spontaneous Improvisation xxxv Robert E. Dunn, “Teaching with Large, Public School Instrumental Ensembles, Lifelong, Intuitive Listening,” Arts Policy Review xii Ibid., 160, 164. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (2006), 107, no. 3: 33–38. 2010, 3407150; Maud Hickey, “Teaching xiii Ibid., 164. Ensembles to Compose and Improvise,” Music Jill Sullivan is an Educators Journal 83, no. 2: 17–21; Amy Spears, xiv Ibid. Constructivism in the Band Room: Facilitating High Associate Professor School Band Students’ Playing by Ear through Informal, xv A colleague in instrumental Student-led Practices, 2014, 3642858. of Instrumental Music education at Oklahoma City University, Dr. Michael A. Raiber always reminds band teachers, xxvi Randall Everett Allsup and Marsha Education at Arizona “Your students aren’t just human organ pipes!” Baxter, “Talking about Music: Better Questions? , Better Discussions!” Music Educators Journal 91, State University where no. 2 (2004): 29–33. xvi David A, “The Elephant in the she teaches undergraduate Room,” Music Educators Journal 98, no. 1: 51–57. xxvii Evan Tobias, “Crossfading Music Education: Connections between Secondary instrumental methods xviiPatricia O’Toole, Shaping Sound Students’ in- and out-of-school music Musicians: An Innovative Approach to Teaching experience,” International Journal of Music Education and graduate courses Comprehensive Musicianship through Performance. 33, no, 1: 39–47. (Chicago: GIA Publications, 2003), xi; Laura K. in instrumental Sindberg, Just Good Teaching: Comprehensive xxviii Tobias et al.; Ed Asmus, “Music Musicianship through Performance in Theory and Assessment Concepts: A Discussion of literature and Practice. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Assessment Concepts and Models for Student 2012); Assessment,” Music Educators Journal 86, no. 2, pedagogy, research methods, assessment and (1999), 19–24; Mitchell Robinson, “Alternative Musicianship. measurement, and psychology of music. Her research agenda includes history of bands and assessment practices. In 2011, she published the book Bands of Sisters: Women's Military Bands during WW II. She is completing her new book Women's Bands in America, which will be published by Rowman & Littlefield late this year. Prior to her fifteen-years at ASU, she served on the music faculties of the University of Oklahoma and Augustana College. She taught middle school band in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma. 50 February/March 2016

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